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TheUnknownLifeofJesusChrist

byNicolasNotovitch
[1890]

THEUNKNOWNLIFE
OF

JESUSCHRIST
BytheDiscovereroftheManuscript

NICOLASNOTOVITCH
Translatedby

J.H.CONNELLYandL.LANDSBERG
R.F.FENNOCOMPANY 16East17Street NEWYORK [1890]

TitlePage

Verso

p.v

CONTENTS.
Page

PREFACE 7 AJOURNEYINTHIBET 17 LADAK 94 AFESTIVALINAGONPA 117 THELIFEOFSAINTISSA 155 RESUM 219 EXPLANATORYNOTES 281

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PREFACE.
AftertheTurkishWar(18771878)ImadeaseriesoftravelsintheOrient.Fromthelittle remarkableBalkanpeninsula,IwentacrosstheCaucasustoCentralAsiaandPersia,and, finally,in1887,visitedIndia,anadmirablecountrywhichhadattractedmefrommy earliestchildhood.Mypurposeinthisjourneywastostudyandknow,athome,the peopleswhoinhabitIndiaandtheircustoms,thegrandandmysteriousarchology,and thecolossalandmajesticnatureoftheircountry.Wanderingaboutwithoutfixedplans, fromoneplacetoanother,Icameto
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mountainousAfghanistan,whenceIregainedIndiabywayofthepicturesquepassesof BolanandGuerna.Then,goinguptheIndustoRavalPindi,IranoverthePendjabthe landofthefiveriversvisitedtheGoldenTempleofAmritsathetomboftheKingof Pendjab,RandjidSingh,nearLahoreandturnedtowardKachmyr,"TheValleyof EternalBliss."ThenceIdirectedmyperegrinationsasmycuriosityimpelledme,untilI arrivedinLadak,whenceIintendedreturningtoRussiabywayofKarakoroumand ChineseTurkestan. Oneday,whilevisitingaBhuddistconventonmyroute,Ilearnedfromachieflama,that thereexistedinthearchivesofLhassa,veryancientmemoirsrelatingtothelifeofJesus Christandtheoccidentalnations,andthatcertaingreatmonasteries
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possessedoldcopiesandtranslationsofthosechronicles. AsitwaslittleprobablethatIshouldmakeanotherjourneyintothiscountry,Iresolved toputoffmyreturntoEuropeuntilalaterdate,and,costwhatitmight,eitherfindthose

copiesinthegreatconventsorgotoLhassaajourneywhichisfarfrombeingso dangerousanddifficultasisgenerallysupposed,involvingonlysuchperilsasIwas alreadyaccustomedto,andwhichwouldnotmakemehesitateatattemptingit. DuringmysojournatLeh,capitalofLadak,IvisitedthegreatconventHimis,situated nearthecity,thechieflamaofwhichinformedmethattheirmonasticlibrarycontained copiesofthemanuscriptsinquestion.InorderthatImightnotawakenthesuspicionsof theauthoritiesconcerning


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theobjectofmyvisittothecloister,andtoevadeobstacleswhichmightbeopposedto measaRussian,prosecutingfurthermyjourneyinThibet,Igaveoutuponmyreturnto LehthatIwoulddepartforIndia,andsoleftthecapitalofLadak.Anunfortunatefall, causingthebreakingofaleg,furnishedmewithanabsolutelyunexpectedpretextfor returningtothemonastery,whereIreceivedsurgicalattention.Itookadvantageofmy shortsojournamongthelamastoobtaintheconsentoftheirchiefthattheyshouldbring tome,fromtheirlibrary,themanuscriptsrelatingtoJesusChrist,and,assistedbymy interpreter,whotranslatedformetheThibetanlanguage,transferredcarefullytomy notebookwhatthelamareadtomc. NotdoubtingatalltheauthenticityofthisPreface,
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chronicle,editedwithgreatexactitudebytheBrahminic,andmoreespeciallythe BuddhistichistoriansofIndiaandNepaul,Idesired,uponmyreturntoEurope,topublish atranslationofit. Tothisend,Iaddressedmyselftoseveraluniversallyknownecclesiastics,askingthemto revisemynotesandtellmewhattheythoughtofthem. Mgr.Platon,thecelebratedmetropolitanofKiew,thoughtthatmydiscoverywasofgreat importance.Nevertheless,hesoughttodissuademefrompublishingthememoirs, believingthattheirpublicationcouldonlyhurtme."Why?"Thisthevenerableprelate refusedtotellmemoreexplicitly.Nevertheless,sinceourconversationtookplacein Russia,wherethecensorwould
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haveputhisvetouponsuchawork,Imadeupmymindtowait. Ayearlater,IfoundmyselfinRome.Ishowedmymanuscripttoacardinalverynearto theHolyFather,whoansweredmeliterallyinthesewords:"Whatgoodwillitdoto printthis?Nobodywillattachtoitanygreatimportanceandyouwillcreateanumberof enemies.But,youarestillveryyoung!Ifitisaquestionofmoneywhichconcernsyou,I

canaskforyouarewardforyournotes,asumwhichwillrepay yourexpendituresand recompenseyouforyourlossoftime."Ofcourse,Irefused. InParisIspokeofmyprojecttoCardinalRotelli,whoseacquaintanceIhadmadein Constantinople.He,too,wasopposedtohavingmyworkprinted,underthepretextthatit wouldbepremature."Thechurch,"


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headded,"suffersalreadytoomuchfromthenewcurrentofatheisticideas,andyouwill butgiveanewfoodtothecalumniatorsanddetractorsoftheevangelicaldoctrine.Itell youthisintheinterestofall theChristianchurches." ThenIwenttoseeM.JulesSimon.Hefoundmymatterveryinterestingandadvisedme toasktheopinionofM.Renan,astothebestwayofpublishingthesememoirs.Thenext dayIwasseatedinthecabinetofthegreatphilosopher.Atthecloseofourconversation, M.RenanproposedthatIshouldconfidetohimthememoirsinquestion,sothathemight maketotheAcademyareportuponthediscovery. Thisproposition,asmaybeeasilyunderstood,wasveryalluringandflatteringtomy amourpropre.I,however,tookawaywith
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methemanuscript,underthepretextoffurtherrevisingit.IforesawthatifIacceptedthe proposedcombination,Iwouldonlyhavethehonorofhavingfoundthechronicles,while theillustriousauthor ofthe"LifeofJesus"wouldhavethegloryofthepublicationand thecommentinguponit.Ithoughtmyselfsufficientlypreparedtopublishthetranslation ofthechronicles,accompanyingthemwithmynotes,and,therefore,didnotacceptthe verygraciousofferhemadetome.But,thatImightnotwoundthesusceptibilityofthe greatmaster,forwhomIfeltaprofoundrespect,Imadeupmymindtodelaypublication untilafterhisdeath,afatalitywhichcouldnotbefaroff,ifImightjudgefromthe apparentgeneralweaknessofM.Renan.AshorttimeafterM.Renan'sdeath,Iwroteto M.JulesSimonagainfor
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hisadvice.Heansweredme,thatitwasmyaffairtojudgeoftheopportunityformaking thememoirspublic. Ithereforeputmynotesinorderandnowpublishthem,reservingtherighttosubstantiate theauthenticityofthesechronicles.InmycommentariesIproffertheargumentswhich mustconvinceusofthesincerityandgoodfaithoftheBuddhistcompilers.Iwishtoadd thatbeforecriticisingmycommunication,thesocietiesof savanscan,withoutmuch expense,equipascientificexpeditionhavingforitsmissionthestudyofthose manuscriptsintheplacewhereIdiscoveredthem,andsomayeasilyverifytheirhistoric value.

NICOLASNOTOVITCH.

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THEUNKNOWNLIFEOFJESUS CHRIST.
AJOURNEYINTHIBET.
DuringmysojourninIndia,IoftenhadoccasiontoconversewiththeBuddhists,andthe accountstheygavemeofThibetexcitedmycuriositytosuchanextentthatIresolvedto makeajourneyintothatstillalmostunknowncountry.ForthispurposeIsetoutupona routecrossingKachmyr(Cashmere),whichIhadlongintendedtovisit.
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Onthe14thofOctober,1887,Ienteredarailwaycarcrowdedwithsoldiers,andwent from LahoretoRavalPindi,whereIarrivedthenextday,nearnoon.Afterrestingalittle andinspectingthecity,towhichthepermanentgarrisongivestheaspectofamilitary camp,Iprovidedmyselfwiththenecessariesforajourney,wherehorsestaketheplace oftherailwaycars.Assistedbymyservant,acoloredmanofPondichery,Ipackedallmy baggage,hiredatonga(atwowheeledvehiclewhichisdrawnbytwohorses),stowed myselfuponitsbackseat,andsetoutuponthepicturesqueroadleadingtoKachmyr,an excellenthighway,uponwhichwetravelledrapidly.Wehadtousenolittleskillin makingourwaythroughtheranksofamilitarycaravanitsbaggagecarriedupon camelswhichwaspartofadetachment
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returningfromacountrycampto thecity.Soonwearrivedattheendofthevalleyof Pendjab,andclimbingupawaywithinfinitewindings,enteredthepassesofthe Himalayas.Theascentbecamemoreandmoresteep.Behindusspread,likeabeautiful panorama,theregionwehadjusttraversed,whichseemedtosinkfartherandfarther awayfromus.Asthesun'slastglancesresteduponthetopsofthemountains,ourtonga camegailyoutfromthezigzagswhichtheeyecouldstilltracefardowntheforestclad slope,andhaltedatthelittlecityofMurwherethefamiliesoftheEnglishfunctionaries cometoseekshadeandrefreshment. Ordinarily,onecangoinatongafromMurtoSrinagarbutattheapproachofthewinter season,whenallEuropeansdesert
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Kachmyr,thetonga serviceissuspended.Iundertookmyjourney preciselyatthetimewhenthesummerlifebeginstowane,andtheEnglishmenwhomI metupontheroad,returningtoIndia,weremuchastonishedtoseeme,andmadevain effortstodivinethepurposeofmytraveltoKachmyr.


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Abandoningthetonga,Ihiredsaddlehorsesnotwithoutconsiderabledifficultyand eveninghadarrivedwhenwestartedtodescendfromMur,whichisatanaltitudeof 5,000feet.Thisstageofourjourneyhadnothingplayfulinit.Theroadwastornindeep rutsbythelaterains,darknesscameuponusandourhorsesratherguessedthansawtheir way.Whennighthadcompletelysetin,atempestuousrainsurprisedusintheopen country,and,owingtothethickfoliageof thecentennarianoakswhichstoodonthe


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sidesofourroad,wewereplungedinprofounddarkness.Thatwemightnotloseeach other,wehadtocontinueexchangingcallsfromtimetotime.Inthisimpenetrable obscuritywedivinedhugemassesofrockalmostaboveourheads,andwereconscious of,onourleft,aroaringtorrent,thewatersofwhichformedacascadewecouldnotsee. Duringtwohourswewadedinthemudandtheicyrainhadchilledmyverymarrow, whenweperceivedinthedistancealittlefire,thesightofwhichrevivedourenergies. Buthowdeceitfularelightsinthemountains!Youbelieveyouseethefireburningquite neartoyouandatonceitdisappears,toreappearagain,totheright,totheleft,above, belowyou,asifittookpleasureinplayingtricksupontheharassedtraveller.Allthetime theroadmakesathousandturns,
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andwindshereandthere,andthefirewhichisimmovableseemstobeincontinual motion,theobscuritypreventingyourealizingthatyouyourselfmodifyyourdirection everyinstant. Ihadquitegivenupallhopeofapproachingthismuchwishedforfire,whenitappeared again,andthistimesonearthatourhorsesstoppedbeforeit. IhaveheretoexpressmysincerethankstotheEnglishmenfortheforesightofwhich theygaveproofinbuildingbytheroadsidesthelittlebengalowsonestoryhousesfor theshelteroftravellers.Itistrue,onemustnotdemandcomfortinthiskindofhotelbut thisisamatterinwhichthetraveller,broken downbyfatigue,isnotexacting,andheis atthesummitofhappinesswhenhefindsathisdisposalacleananddryroom.
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TheHindus,nodoubt,didnotexpecttosecatravellerarriveatsolateanhourofthe nightandinthisseason,fortheyhadtakenawaythekeysofthebengalow,sowehadto forceanentrance.Ithrewmyselfuponabedpreparedforme,composedofapillowand blanketsaturatedwithwater,andalmostatoncefellasleep.Atdaybreak,aftertakingtea andsomeconserves,wetookupourmarchagain,nowbathedintheburningraysofthe

sun.Fromtimetotime,wepassedvillagesthefirstinasuperbnarrowpass,thenalong theroadmeanderinginthebosomofthemountain.Wedescendedeventuallytotheriver Djeloum(Jhelum),thewatersofwhichflowgracefully,amidtherocksby.whichits courseisobstructed,betweenrockywallswhosetopsinmanyplacesseemalmostto reachtheazureskiesoftheHimalayas,a


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heavenwhichhereshowsitselfremarkablypureandserene. TowardnoonwearrivedatthehamletcalledTonguesituatedonthebankoftheriver whichpresentsanuniquearrayofhutsthatgivetheeffectofboxes,theopeningsof whichformafaade.Herearesoldcomestiblesandallkindsofmerchandise.Theplace swarmswithHindus,whobearontheirforeheadsthevariouslycoloredmarksoftheir respectivecastes.Here,too,youseethebeautifulpeopleofKachmyr,dressedintheir longwhiteshirtsandsnowyturbans.Ihiredhere,atagoodprice,aHinducabriolet,from aKachmyrian.Thisvehicleissoconstructedthatinordertokeepone'sseatinit,one mustcrosshislegsintheTurkishfashion.Theseatissosmallthatitwillhold,atmost, onlytwopersons.Theabsence
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ofanysupportforthebackmakesthismodeoftransportationverydangerous nevertheless,Iacceptedthiskindofcirculartablemountedontwowheelsanddrawnbya horse,asIwasanxioustoreach,assoonaspossible,theendofmyjourney.Hardly, however,hadIgonefivehundredyardsonit,whenIseriouslyregrettedthehorseIhad forsaken,somuchfatiguehadItoendurekeepingmylegscrossedandmaintainingmy equilibrium.Unfortunately,itwasalreadytoolate. EveningwasfallingwhenIapproachedthevillageofHori.Exhaustedbyfatigueracked bytheincessantjoltingmylegsfeelingasifinvadedbymillionsofants,Ihadbeen completelyincapableofenjoyingthepicturesquelandscapespreadbeforeusaswe journeyedalongtheDjeloum,thebanksofwhich
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areborderedononesidebysteeprocksandontheotherbytheheavilywoodedslopesof mountains.InHoriIencounteredacaravanofpilgrimsreturningfromMecca. ThinkingIwasaphysicianandLearningmyhastetoreachLadak,theyinvitedmetojoin them,whichIpromisedthemIwouldatSrinagar. Ispentanillnight,sittingupinmybed,withalightedtorchinmyhand,withoutclosing myeyes,inconstantfearofthestingsandbitesofthescorpionsandcentipedeswhich swarminthebengalows.Iwassometimesashamedofthefearwithwhichthosevermin inspiredmenevertheless,Icouldnotfallasleepamongthem.Where,truly,inman,isthe

linethatseparatescouragefromcowardice?Iwillnotboastofmybravery,butIamnota coward,yettheinsurmountable
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fearwithwhichthosemalevolentlittlecreaturesthrilledme,drovesleepfrommy eyelids,inspiteofmyextremefatigue. Ourhorsescarriedusintoaflatvalley,encircledbyhighmountains.BathedasIwasin theraysofthesun,itdidnottakemelongtofallasleepinthesaddle.Asuddensenseof freshnesspenetratedandawokeme.Isawthatwehadalreadybegunclimbinga mountainpath,inthemidstofadenseforest,riftsinwhichoccasionallyopenedtoour admiringgazeravishingvistas,impetuoustorrentsdistantmountainscloudlessheavens alandscape,farbelow,ofwondrousbeauty.Allaboutuswerethesongsofnumberless brilliantlyplumagedbirds.Wecameoutoftheforesttowardnoon,descendedtoalittle hamleton thebankoftheriver,andafterrefreshingourselveswitha
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light,coldcollation,continuedourjourney.Beforestarting,Iwenttoabazaarandtried tobuythereaglassofwarmmilkfromaHindu,whowassittingcrouchedbeforealarge cauldronfullofboilingmilk.HowgreatwasmysurprisewhenheproposedtomethatI shouldtakeawaythewholecauldron,withitscontents,assuringmethatIhadpolluted themilkitcontained!"Ionlywantaglassofmilkandnotakettleofit,"Isaidtohim. "Accordingtoourlaws,"themerchantansweredme,"ifanyonenotbelongingtoour castehasfixedhiseyesforalongtimeupononeofourcookingutensils,wehaveto washthatarticlethoroughly,andthrowawaythefooditcontains.Youhavepollutedmy milkandnoonewilldrinkanymoreofit,fornotonlywereyounotcontented


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withfixingyoureyesuponit,butyouhaveevenpointedtoitwithyourfinger." Ihadindeedalongtimeexaminedhismerchandise,tomakesurethatitwasreallymilk, andhadpointedwithmyfinger,tothemerchant,fromwhichsideIwishedthemilk pouredout.Fullofrespectforthelawsandcustomsofforeignpeoples,Ipaid,without dispute,arupee,thepriceofallthemilk,whichwaspouredinthestreet,thoughIhad takenonlyoneglassofit.Thiswasalessonwhichtaughtme,fromnowon,nottofixmy eyesuponthefoodoftheHindus. Thereisnoreligiousbeliefmoremuddledbythenumbersofceremoniouslawsand commentariesprescribingitsobservancesthantheBrahminic. Whileeachoftheotherprincipalreligionshasbutoneinspiredbook,oneBible,one
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Gospel,oroneKoranbooksfromwhichtheHebrew,theChristianandthe MusselmandrawtheircreedstheBrahminicalHinduspossesssuchagreatnumberof tomesandcommentariesinfoliothatthewisestBrahminhashardlyhadthetimeto peruseonetenthofthem.LeavingasidethefourbooksoftheVedasthePuranaswhich arewritteninSanscritandcomposedofeighteenvolumescontaining400,000strophes treatingoflaw,rights,theogony,medicine,thecreationanddestructionoftheworld,etc. thevastShastras,whichdealwithmathematics,grammar,etc.theUpaVedas, Upanishads,UpoPuranaswhichareexplanatoryofthePuranasandanumberofother commentariesinseveralvolumestherestillremaintwelvevastbooks,containingthe lawsofManu,thegrandchildofBrahmabooksdealing
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notonlywithcivilandcriminallaw,butalsothecanonicalrulesruleswhichimpose uponthefaithfulsuchaconsiderablenumberofceremoniesthatoneissurprisedinto admirationoftheillimitablepatiencetheHindusshowinobservanceoftheprecepts inculcatedbySaintManu.Manuwasincontestablyagreatlegislatorandagreatthinker, buthehaswrittensomuchthatithashappenedtohimfrequentlytocontradicthimselfin thecourseofasinglepage.TheBrahminsdonottakethetroubletonoticethat,andthe poorHindus,whoselaborsupportstheBrahminiccaste,obeyservilelytheirclergy, whoseprescriptionsenjoinuponthemnevertotouchamanwhodoesnotbelongtotheir caste,andalsoabsolutelyprohibitastrangerfromfixinghisattentionuponanything belongingtoaHindu.Keepinghimselfto
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thestrictletterofthislaw,theHinduimaginesthathisfoodispollutedwhenitreceivesa littleprotractednoticefromthestranger. Andyet,Brahminismhasbeen,evenatthebeginningofitssecondbirth,apurely monotheisticreligion,recognizingonlyoneinfiniteandindivisibleGod.Asitcameto passinalltimesandinallreligions,theclergytookadvantageoftheprivilegedsituation whichplacesthemabovetheignorantmultitude,andearlymanufacturedvariousexterior formsofcultandcertainlaws,thinkingtheycouldbetter,inthisway,influenceand controlthemasses.Thingschangedsoon,sofarthattheprincipleofmonotheism,of whichtheVedashavegivensuchaclearconception,becameconfoundedwith,or,asit were,supplantedbyanabsurd
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andlimitlessseriesofgodsandgoddesses,halfgods,geniianddevils,whichwere representedbyidols,ofinfinitevarietybutallequallyhorriblelooking.Thepeople,once gloriousastheirreligionwasoncegreatandpure,nowslipbydegreesintocomplete idiocy.Hardlydoestheirdaysufficefortheaccomplishmentofalltheprescriptionsof theircanons.ItmustbesaidpositivelythattheHindusonlyexisttosupporttheir principalcaste,theBrahmins,whohavetakenintotheirhandsthetemporalpowerwhich oncewaspossessedbyindependentsovereignsofthepeople.WhilegoverningIndia,the

Englishmandoesnotinterferewiththisphaseofthepubliclife,andsotheBrahmins profitbymaintainingthepeople'shopeofabetterfuture. Thesunpassedbehindthesummitofa


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mountain,andthedarknessofnightinonemomentoverspreadthemagnificentlandscape weweretraversing.Soonthenarrow'valleyoftheDjeloumfellasleep.Ourroadwinding alongledgesofsteeprocks,wasinstantlyhiddenfromoursightmountainsandtrees wereconfoundedtogetherinonedarkmass,andthestarsglitteredinthecelestialvault. Wehadtodismountandfeelourwayalongthemountainside,forfearofbecomingthe preyoftheabysswhichyawnedatourfeet.Atalatehourofthenightwetraverseda bridgeandascendedasteepelevationleadingtothebengalowOuri,whichatthisheight seemstoenjoycompleteisolation.Thenextdaywetraversedacharmingregion,always goingalongtheriverataturnofwhichwesawtheruinsofaSikhfortress,thatseemed to


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remembersadlyitsgloriouspast.Inalittlevalley,nestledamidthemountains,wefound abengalowwhichseemedtowelcomeus.Initsproximitywereencampedacavalry regimentoftheMaharajahofKachmyr. WhentheofficerslearnedthatIwasaRussian,theyinvitedmetosharetheirrepast. ThereIhadthepleasureofmakingtheacquaintanceofCol.Brown,whowasthefirstto compileadictionaryoftheAfghanpouchtonlanguage. AsIwasanxioustoreach,assoonaspossible,thecityofSrinagar,I,withlittledelay, continuedmyjourneythroughthepicturesqueregionlyingatthefootofthemountains, afterhaving,foralongtime,followedthecourseoftheriver.here,beforeoureyes, wearyofthemonotonousdesolationoftheprecedinglandscapes,wasunfoldeda
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charmingviewofawellpeopledvalley,withmanytwostoryhousessurroundedby gardensandcultivatedfields.AlittlefartheronbeginsthecelebratedvalleyofKachmyr, situatedbehindarangeofhighrockswhichIcrossedtowardevening.Whatasuperb panoramarevealeditselfbeforemyeyes,whenIfoundmyselfatthelastrockwhich separatesthevalleyofKachmyrfromthemountainouscountryIhadtraversed.A ravishingtableautrulyenchantedmysight.Thisvalley,thelimitsofwhicharelostinthe horizon,andisthroughoutwellpopulated,isenshrinedamidthehighHimalayan mountains.Attherisingandthesettingofthesun,thezoneofeternalsnowsseemsa silverring,whichlikeagirdlesurroundsthisrichanddelightfulplateau,furrowedby numerousriversandtraversedbyexcellentroads.
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Gardens,hills,alake,theislandsinwhichareoccupiedbyconstructionsof pretentiousstyle,allthesecausethetravellertofeelasifhehadenteredanotherworld.It seemstohimasthoughhehadtogobutalittlefartheronandtheremustfindthe Paradiseofwhichhisgovernesshadtoldhimsoofteninhischildhood.


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Theveilofnightslowlycoveredthevalley,mergingmountains,gardensandlakeinone darkamplitude,piercedhereandtherebydistantfires,resemblingstars.Idescendedinto thevalley,directingmyselftowardtheDjeloum,whichhasbrokenitswaythrougha narrowgorgeinthemountains,touniteitselfwiththewatersoftheriverInd.According tothelegend,thevalleywasonceaninlandseaapassageopenedthroughtherocks environingit,anddrainedthewaters


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away,leavingnothingmoreof itsformercharacterthanthelake,theDjeloumandminor watercourses.Thebanksoftheriverarenowlinedwithboathouses,longandnarrow, whichtheproprietors,withtheirfamilies,inhabitthewholeyear. FromhereSrinagarcanbereachedinoneday'stravelonhorsebackbutwithaboatthe journeyrequiresadayandahalf.Ichosethelattermodeofconveyance,andhaving selectedaboatandbargainedwithitsproprietorforitshire,tookmyseatinthebow, uponacarpet,shelteredbyasortof penthouseroof.Theboatlefttheshoreatmidnight, bearingusrapidlytowardSrinagar.Atthesternofthebark,aHindupreparedmytea.I wenttosleep,happyinknowingmyvoyagewastobeaccomplished.Thehotcaressof thesun'srayspenetrating
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beneathmylittleroofawakenedme,andwhatIexperienceddelightedmebeyondall expression.Entirelygreenbanksthedistantoutlinesofmountaintopscoveredwith snowprettyvillageswhichfromtimetotimeshowedthemselvesatthemountain'sfoot thecrystallinesheetofwaterpureandpeculiarlyagreeableair,whichIbreathedwith exhilarationthemusicalcarolsofaninfinityofbirdsaskyofextraordinarypurity behindmetheplashofwaterstirredbytheroundendedpaddlewhichwaswieldedwith easebyasuperbwoman(withmarvellouseyesandacomplexionbrownedbythesun), whoworeanairofstatelyindifference:allthesethingstogetherseemedtoplungeme intoanecstasy,andIforgotentirelythereasonformypresenceontheriver.Inthat momentIhadnotevena
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desiretoreachtheendofmyvoyageandyet,howmanyprivationsremainedformeto undergo,anddangerstoencounter!Ifeltmyselfheresowellcontent! Theboatglidedrapidlyandthelandscapecontinuedtounfoldnewbeautiesbeforemy eyes,losingitselfinevernewcombinationswiththehorizon,whichmergedintothe mountainswewerepassing,tobecomeonewiththem.Thenanewpanoramawould

displayitself,seemingtoexpandandflowoutfromthesidesofthemountains,becoming moreandmoregrand....ThedaywasalmostspentandIwasnotyetwearyof contemplatingthismagnificentnature,theviewofwhichreawakenedthesouvenirsof childhoodandyouth.Howbeautifulwerethosedaysforevergone! ThemorenearlyoneapproachesSrinagar,


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themorenumerousbecomethevillagesemboweredintheverdure.Attheapproachof ourboat,someoftheirinhabitantscamerunningtoseeusthemenintheirturbans,the womenintheirsmallbonnets,bothalikedressedinwhitegownsreachingtotheground, thechildreninastateofnuditywhichremindedoneofthecostumesofourfirstparents. Whenenteringthecityoneseesarangeofbarksandfloatinghousesinwhichentire familiesreside.Thetopsof thefaroff,snowcoveredmountainswerecaressedbythelast raysofthesettingsun,whenweglidedbetweenthewoodenhousesofSrinagar,which closelylinebothbanksoftheriver.Lifeseemstoceasehereatsunsetthethousandsof manycoloredopen boats(dunga)andpalanquincoveredbarks(bangla)were
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fastenedalongthebeachmenandwomengatheredneartheriver,intheprimitive costumesofAdamandEve,goingthroughtheireveningablutionswithoutfeelingany embarrassmentorpruderybeforeeachother,sincetheyperformedareligiousrite,the importanceofwhichisgreaterforthemthanallhumanprejudices. Onthe20thofOctoberIawokeinaneatroom,fromwhichIhadagayviewuponthe riverthatwasnowinnundatedwiththeraysof thesunofKachmyr.Asitisnotmy purposetodescribeheremyexperiencesindetail,Irefrainfromenumeratingthelovely valleys,theparadiseoflakes,theenchantingislands,thosehistoricpalaces,mysterious pagodas,andcoquettishvillageswhich seemlostinvastgardensonallsidesofwhich risethemajestictopsofthegiantsofthe
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Himalaya,shroudedasfarastheeyecanseeineternalsnow.Ishallonly notethepreparationsImadeinviewofmyjourneytowardThibet.Ispentsixdaysat Srinagar,makinglongexcursionsintotheenchantingsurroundingsofthecity,examining thenumerousruinswhichtestifytotheancientprosperityofthisregion,andstudyingthe strangecustomsofthecountry.


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Kachmyr,aswellastheotherprovincesattachedtoit,Baltistan,Ladak,etc.,arevassals ofEngland.TheyformerlyformedpartofthepossessionsofRandjidSing,theLionof thePendjab.Athisdeath,theEnglishtroopsoccupiedLahore,thecapitalofthePendjab,

separatedKachmyrfromtherestoftheempireandcededit,undercolorofhereditary rightandforthesumof160,000,000
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francs,toGoulabSing,oneofthefamiliarsofthelatesovereign,conferringonhim besidesthetitleofMaharadja.Attheepochofmyjourney,theactualMaharadjawas PertabSing,thegrandchildofGoulab,whoseresidenceisJamoo,onthesouthernslope oftheHimalaya. Thecelebrated"happyvalley"ofKachmyr(eightyfivemileslongbytwentyfivemiles wide)enjoyedgloryandprosperityonlyundertheGrandMogul,whosecourtlovedto tasteherethesweetnessofcountrylife,inthestillexistentpavilionsonthelittleislandof thelake.MostoftheMaharadjasofHindustanusedformerlytospendherethesummer months,andtotakepartinthemagnificentfestivalsgivenbytheGrandMogulbuttimes havegreatlychangedsince,andthehappyvalleyistodaynomorethan
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abeggarretreat.Aquaticplantsandscumhavecoveredtheclearwatersofthelakethe wildjuniperhassmotheredallthevegetationoftheislandsthepalacesandpavilions retainonlythesouveniroftheirpastgrandeurearthandgrasscoverthebuildingswhich arenowfallinginruins.Thesurroundingmountainsandtheireternallywhitetopsseem tobeabsorbedinasullensadness,andtonourishthehopeofabettertimeforthe disclosureoftheirimmortalbeauties.Theoncespiritual,beautifulandcleanlyinhabitants havegrownanimalisticandstupidtheyhavebecomedirtyandlazyandthewhipnow governsthem,insteadofthesword. ThepeopleofKachmyrhavesooftenbeensubjecttoinvasionsandpillagesandhavehad somanymasters,thattheyhavenow
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becomeindifferenttoeverything.Theypasstheirtimenearthebanksoftherivers, gossipingabouttheirneighborsorareengagedinthepainstakingworkofmakingtheir celebratedshawlsorintheexecutionoffilagreegoldorsilverwork.TheKachmyr womenareofamelancholytemperament,andaninconceivablesadnessisspreadupon theirfeatures.Everywherereignsmiseryanduncleanness.Thebeautifulmenandsuperb womenofKachmyraredirtyandinrags.Thecostumeofthetwosexesconsists,winter andsummeralike,ofalongshirt,orgown,madeofthickmaterialandwithpuffed sleeves.Theywearthisshirtuntilitiscompletelywornout,andneverisitwashed,so thatthewhiteturbanofthemenlookslikedazzlingsnownear


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theirdirtyshirts,whicharecoveredalloverwithspittleandgreasestains.

Thetravellerfeelshimselfpermeatedwithsadnessatseeingthecontrastbetweentherich andopulentnaturesurroundingthem,andthispeopledressedinrags. Thecapitalofthecountry,Srinagar(CityoftheSun),or,tocallitbythenamewhichis giventoithereafterthecountry,Kachmyr,issituatedontheshoreoftheDjeloum,along whichitstretchesouttowardthesouthtoadistanceoffivekilometresandisnotmore thantwokilometresinbreadth. Itstwostoryhouses,inhabitedbyapopulationof100,000inhabitants,arebuiltofwood andborderbothriverbanks.Everybodylivesontheriver,theshoresofwhichareunited bytenbridges.TerracesleadfromthehousestotheDjeloum,where


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alldaylongpeopleperformtheirceremonialablutions,batheandwashtheir,culinary utensils,whichconsistofafewcopperpots.Partoftheinhabitantspracticethe MusselmanreligiontwothirdsareBrahminicandtherearebutfewBuddhiststobe foundamongthem. Itwastimetomakeotherpreparationsfortravel beforeplungingintotheunknown. Havingpurchaseddifferentkindsofconserves,wineandotherthingsindispensableona journeythroughacountrysolittlepeopledasisThibet,Ipackedallmybaggagein boxeshiredsixcarriersandaninterpreter,boughtahorseformyownuse,andfixedmy departureforthe27thofOctober.Tocheerupmyjourney,Itookfromagood Frenchman,M.Peicheau,thewinecultivatoroftheMaharadja,abigdog,Pamir,who had
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alreadytraversedtheroadwithmyfriends,Bonvallot,CapusandPepin,thewellknown explorers.AsIwishedtoshortenmyjourneybytwodays,Iorderedmycarrierstoleave atdawnfromtheothersideofthelake,whichIcrossedinaboat,andjoinedthemand myhorseatthefootofthemountainchainwhichseparatesthevalleyofSrinagarfrom theSindgorge. Ishallneverforgetthetortureswhichwehadtoundergoinclimbingalmostonallfours toamountaintop,threethousandfeethigh.Thecarrierswereoutofbreathevery momentIfearedtoseeonetumbledownthedeclivitywithhisburden,andIfeltpained atseeingmypoordog,Pamir,pantingandwithhistonguehangingout,maketwoor threestepsandfalltothegroundexhausted.Forgettingmyownfatigue,I
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caressedandencouragedthepooranimal,who,asifunderstandingme,gotuptomake anothertwoorthreestepsandfallanewtotheground.

Thenighthadcomewhenwereachedthecrestwethrewourselvesgreedilyuponthe snowtoquenchourthirstandafterashortrest,startedtodescendthroughaverythick pineforest,hasteningtogainthevillageofHaena,atthefootofthedefile,fearingthe attacksofbeastsofpreyinthedarkness. AlevelandgoodroadleadsfromSrinagartoHaena,goingstraightnorthward over Ganderbal,whereitturnsabruptlytotheeast,previouslykeepingclosetotheSind,and traversingacountrywithasuperbvegetation,asfarasKangan.Sixmilesfromthereit approachesthevillageofHaena,whereIrepairedbyamoredirectroute


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acrossapassthreethousandfeethigh,whichshortenedformebothtimeanddistance. Myfirststepintheunknownwasmarkedbyanincidentwhichmadeallofuspassan uglyquarterofanhour.ThedefileoftheSind,sixtymileslong,isespeciallynoteworthy fortheinhospitablehostsitcontains.Amongothersitaboundsinpanthers,tigers, leopards,blackbears,wolvesandjackals.Asthoughbyaspecialmisfortune,thesnow hadcoveredwithitswhitecarpettheheightsofthechain,compellingthoseformidable, carniverousbeaststodescendalittlelowerforshelterintheirdens.Wedescendedin silence,amidthedarkness,anarrowpaththatwoundthroughthecentennaryfirsand birches,andthecalmofthenightwasonlybrokenbythecracklingsoundofoursteps. Suddenly,quiteneartous,aterrible
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howlingawoketheechoesofthewoods.Oursmalltroopstopped."Apanther!" exclaimed,inalowandfrightenedvoice,myservant.Thesmallcaravanofadozenmen stoodmotionless,asthoughrivetedtothespot.Thenitoccurredtomethatatthemoment ofstartingonourascent,whenalreadyfeelingfatigued,Ihadentrustedmyrevolverto oneofthecarriers,andmyWinchesterrifletoanother.NowIfeltbitterregretforhaving partedwithmyarms,andaskedinalowvoicewherethemanwastowhomIhadgiven therifle.Thehowlsbecamemoreandmoreviolent,andfilledtheechoesofthewoods, whensuddenlyadullsoundwasheard,likethefallofsomebody.Aminutelaterwe heardthenoiseofastruggleandacryofagonywhichmingledwiththefierceroarsof thestarvedanimal.
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"Saab,takethegun,"Iheardsomeonenearby.Iseizedfeverishlytherifle,but,vain trouble,onecouldnotseetwostepsbeforeoneself.Anewcry,followedbyasmothered howling,indicatedtomevaguelytheplaceofthestruggle,towardwhichIcrawled, dividedbetweentheardentdesireto"killapanther"andahorriblefearofbeingeaten alive.Noonedaredtomoveonlyafterfiveminutesitoccurredtooneofthecarriersto lightamatch.Ithenrememberedthefearwhichfelineanimalsexhibitatthepresenceof fire,andorderedmymentogathertwoorthreehandfulsofbrush,whichIsetonfire.We thensaw,abouttenstepsfromus,oneofourcarriersstretchedoutontheground,with

hislimbsfrightfullylaceratedbytheclawsofahugepanther.Thebeaststilllayuponhim defiantly,holdinga
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pieceoffleshinitsmouth.Atitsside,gapedaboxofwinebrokenopenbyitsfallwhen thecarrierwastorndown.HardlydidImakeamovementtobringtherifletomy shoulder,whenthepantherraiseditself,andturnedtowarduswhiledroppingpartofits horriblemeal.Onemoment,itappearedabouttospringuponme,thenitsuddenly wheeled,andrendingtheairwithahowl,enoughtofreezeone'sblood,jumpedintothe midstofthethicketanddisappeared. Mycoolies,whomanodiousfearhadallthetimekeptprostratedontheground, recoveredlittlebylittlefromtheirfright.Keepinginreadinessafewpackagesofdry grassandmatches,wehastenedtoreachthevillageHaena,leavingbehindtheremains oftheunfortunateHindoo,whosefatewefearedsharing.
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Anhourlaterwehadlefttheforestandenteredtheplain.Iorderedmytenterectedunder averyleafyplanetree,andhadagreatfiremadebeforeit,withapileofwood,which wastheonlyprotectionwecouldemployagainsttheferociousbeastswhosehowls continuedtoreachusfromalldirections.Intheforestmydoghadpressedhimself againstme,withhistailbetweenhislegsbutonceunderthetent,hesuddenlyrecovered hiswatchfulness,andbarkedincessantlythewholenight,beingverycareful,however, nottostepoutside.Ispentaterriblenight,rifleinhand,listeningtotheconcertofthose diabolicalhowlings,theechoesofwhichseemedtoshakethedefile.Somepanthers approachedourbivouactoanswerthebarkingofPamir,butdarednotattackus. IhadleftSrinagarattheheadofeleven
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carriers,fourofwhomhadtocarrysomanyboxesofwine,fourothersboremytravelling effectsonemyweapons,anothervariousutensils,andfinallyalast,whowenterrandsor onreconnaissance.Hisnamewas"Chicari,"whichmeans"hewhoaccompaniesthe hunterandgatherstheprey."Idischargedhiminthemorningonaccountofhis cowardiceandhisprofoundignoranceofthecountry,andonlyretainedfourcarriers.It wasbutslowlythatIadvancedtowardthevillageofGounde. HowbeautifulisnatureintheSindpass,andhowmuchisitbelovedbythehunters! Besidesthegreatfallowdeer,youmeettherethehind,thestag,themountainsheepand animmensevarietyofbirds,amongwhichIwanttomentionaboveallthegolden pheasant,
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andothersofredorsnowwhiteplumage,verylargepartridgesandimmenseeagles.

ThevillagessituatedalongtheSinddonotshinebytheirdimensions.Theycontain,for thegreatestpart,notmorethantentotwentyhutsofanextremelymiserableappearance, Theirinhabitantsarecladinrags.Theircattlebelongstoaverysmallrace. IcrossedtheriveratSambal,andstoppeddearthevillageGounde,whereIprocured relayhorses.InsomevillagestheyrefusedtohirehorsestomeIthenthreatenedthem withmywhip,whichatonceinspiredrespectandobediencemymoneyaccomplished thesameenditinspiredaservileobediencenotwillingnesstoobeymyleastorders. StickandgoldarethetruesovereignsintheOrientwithoutthemtheVeryGrandMogul wouldnothavehadanypreponderance.


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Nightbegantodescend,andIwasinahurrytocrossthedefilewhichseparatesthe villagesGoganganandSonamarg.Theroadisinverybadcondition,andthemountains areinfestedbybeastsofpreywhichinthenightdescendintotheveryvillagestoseek theirprey.Thecountryisdelightfulandveryfertilenevertheless,butfewcolonists venturetosettlehere,onaccountoftheneighborhoodofthepanthers,whichcometothe dooryardstoseizedomesticanimals. Attheveryexitofthedefile,nearthevillageofTchokodar,orThajwas,thehalf obscurityprevailingonlypermittedmetodistinguishtwodarkmassescrossingtheroad. Theyweretwobigbearsfollowedbyayoungone.Iwasalonewithmyservant(the caravanhavingloiteredbehind),soIdid
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notliketoattackthemwithonlyoneriflebutthelongexcursionswhichIhadmadeon themountainhadstronglydevelopedinmethesenseofthehunter.Tojumpfrommy horse,shoot,and,withoutevenverifyingtheresult,changequicklythecartridge,wasthe affairofasecond.Onebearwasabouttojumponme,asecondshotmadeitrunaway anddisappear.Holdinginmyhandmyloadedgun,Iapproachedwithcircumspection, theoneatwhichIhadaimed,andfounditlayingonitsflank,dead,withthelittlecub besideit.Anothershotkilledthelittleone,afterwhichIwenttoworktotakeoffthetwo superbjetblackskins. Thisincidentmadeuslosetwohours,andnighthadcompletelysetinwhenIerectedmy tentnearTchokodar,whichIleftatsunrisetogainBaltal,byfollowingthecourse
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oftheSindriver.Atthisplacetheravishinglandscapeofthe"goldenprairie"terminates abruptlywithavillageofthesamename(Sona,gold,andMarg,prairie).Theabrupt acclivityofZodgiLa,whichwenextsurmounted,attainsanelevationof11,500feet,on theothersideofwhichthewholecountryassumesasevereandinhospitablecharacter. MyhuntingadventuresclosedbeforereachingBaltal.FromthereImetontheroadonly

wildgoats.Inordertohunt,Iwouldhavehadtoleavethegrandrouteandtopenetrate intotheheartofthemountainsfullofmysteries.Ihadneithertheinclinationnorthetime todoso,and,therefore,continuedquietlymyjourneytowardLadak.

HowviolentthecontrastIfeltwhenpassing
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fromthelaughingnatureandbeautifulpopulationofKachmyrtothearidandforbidding rocksandthebeardlessanduglyinhabitantsofLadak! ThecountryintowhichIpenetratedissituatedatanaltitudeof11,000to12,000feet. OnlyatKarghiltheleveldescendsto8,000feet. TheacclivityofZodgiLaisveryroughonecrustclimbupanalmostperpendicular rockywall.Incertainplacestheroadwindsalonguponrockledgesofonlyametrein width,belowwhichthesightdropsintounfathomableabysses.MaytheLordpreserve thetravellerfromafall!Atoneplace,thewayisuponlongbeamsintroducedintoholes madeintherock,likeabridge,andcoveredupwithearth.Brr!Atthethoughtthata littlestonemightgetloose
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androlldowntheslopeofthemountain,orthatatoostrongoscillationofthebeams couldprecipitatethewholestructureintotheabyss,andwithithimwhohadventured upontheperilouspath,onefeelslikefaintingmorethanonceduringthishazardous passage. Aftercrossingtheglacierswestoppedinavalleyandpreparedtospendthenightneara hut,adismalplacesurroundedbyeternaliceandsnow. FromBaltalthedistancesaredeterminedbymeansofdaks,i.e.,postalstationsformail service.Theyarelowhuts,aboutsevenkilometresdistantfromeachother.Amanis permanentlyestablishedineachofthesehuts.ThepostalservicebetweenKachmyrand Thibetisyetcarriedoninaveryprimitiveform.Thelettersareenclosedinaleatherbag,
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whichishandedtothecareofacarrier.Thelatterrunsrapidlyoverthesevenkilometres assignedtohim,carryingonhisbackabasketwhichholdsseveralofthesebags,which hedeliverstoanothercarrier,who,inhisturn,accomplisheshistaskinanidentical manner.Neitherrainnorsnowcanarrestthesecarriers.Inthiswaythemailserviceis carriedonbetweenKachmyrandThibet,andviceversaonceaweek.Foreachcoursethe lettercarrierispaidsixannas(twentycents)thesamewagesasispaidtothecarriersof

merchandise.ThissumIalsopaidtoeveryoneofmyservantsforcarryingatentimes heavierload. Itmakesone'sheartachetoseethepaleandtiredlookingfiguresofthesecarriersbut 'hatistobedone?Itisthecustomofthecountry.TheteaisbroughtfromChina


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byasimilarsystemoftransportation,whichisrapidandinexpensive. InthevillageofMontaiyan,IfoundagaintheYarkandiencaravanofpilgrims,whomI hadpromisedtoaccompanyontheirjourney.Theyrecognizedmefromadistance,and askedmetoexamineoneoftheirmen,whohadfallensick.Ifoundhimwrithinginthe agoniesofanintensefever.Shakingmyhandsasasignofdespair,Ipointedtothe heavensandgavethemtounderstandthathumanwillandsciencewerenowuseless,and thatGodalonecouldsavehim.ThesepeoplejourneyedbysmallstagesonlyI,therefore, leftthemandarrivedintheeveningatDrass,situatedat thebottomofavalleyneara riverofthesamename.NearDrass,alittlefortofancientconstruction,butfreshly painted,
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standsaloof,undertheguardofthreeSikhsoftheMaharadja'sarmy. AtDrass,mydomicilewastheposthouse,whichisastationandtheonlyoneofan uniquetelegraphlinefromSrinagartotheinterioroftheHimalayas.Fromthattimeon,I nomorehadmytentputupeachevening,butstoppedinthecaravansaraisplaceswhich, thoughmaderepulsivebytheirdirt,arekeptwarmbytheenormouspilesofwoodburned intheirfireplaces. FromDrasstoKarghilthelandscapeisunpleasingandmonotonous,ifoneexceptsthe marvellouseffectsoftherisingandsettingsunandthebeautifulmoonlight.Apartfrom thesetheroadiswearisomeandaboundingwithdangers.Karghilistheprincipalplaceof thedistrict,wherethegovernorofthecountryresides.Itssiteis
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quitepicturesque.Twowatercourses,theSouronandtheWakkha,rolltheirnoisyand turbulentwatersamongrocksandsunkensnagsofuprootedtrees,escapingfromtheir respectivedefilesintherocks,tojoininformingheretheriverSouron,uponthebanksof whichstandsKarghil.Alittlefort,garrisonedbytwoorthreeSikhs,showsitsoutlinesat thejunctionofthestreams.Providedwithahorse,Icontinuedmyjourneyatbreakof day,enteringnowtheprovinceofLadak,orLittleThibet.Itraversedarickettybridge, composedlikeallthebridgesofKachmyroftwolongbeams,theendsofwhichwere supporteduponthebanksandthefloormadeofalayeroffagotsandsticks,which impartedtothetraveller,atleasttheillusionofasuspensionbridge.SoonafterwardI climbedslowlyupona

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littleplateau,whichcrossesthewayatadistanceoftwokilometres,todescendintothe narrowvalleyofWakkha.HerethereareSeveralvillages,amongwhich,ontheleft shore,istheverypicturesqueonecalledPaskium. HeremyfeettrodBuddhistground.Theinhabitantsareofaverysimpleandmild disposition,seeminglyignorantof"quarrelling."Womenareveryrareamongthem. ThoseofthemwhomIencounteredweredistinguishedfromthewomenIhadhitherto seeninIndiaorKachmyr,bytheairofgaietyandprosperityapparentintheir countenances.Howcoulditbeotherwise,sinceeachwomaninthiscountryhas,onan average,threetofivehusbands,andpossessestheminthemostlegitimatewayinthe world.Polyandryflourisheshere.However
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largeafamilymaybe,thereisbutonewomaninit.ifthefamilydoesnotcontainalready morethantwohusbands,abachelormayshareitsadvantages,foraconsideration.The dayssacredtoeachoneofthosehusbandsaredeterminedinadvance,andallacquit themselvesoftheirrespectivedutiesandrespecteachothers'rights.Themengenerally seemfeeble,withbentbacks,anddonotlivetooldage.DuringmytravelsinLadak,I onlyencounteredonemansooldthathishairwaswhite. FromKarghiltothecentreofLadak,theroadhadamorecheerfulaspectthanthatIhad traversedbeforereachingKarghil,itsprospectbeingbrightenedbyanumberoflittle hamlets,buttreesandverdurewere,unfortunately,rare. TwentymilesfromKarghil,attheendof
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thedefileformedbytherapidcurrentoftheWakkha,isalittlevillagecalledChargol,in thecentreofwhichstandthreechapels,decoratedwithlivelycolors(thorthenes,togive themthenametheybearinThibet).Below,neartheriver,aremassesofrocks,inthe formoflongandlargewalls,uponwhicharethrown,inapparentdisorder,flatstonesof differentcolorsandsizes.Uponthesestonesareengravedallsortsofprayers,inOurd, SanscritandThibetan,andonecanevenfindamongtheminscriptionsinArabic characters.Withouttheknowledgeofmycarriers,Isucceededintakingawayafewof thesestones,whicharenowinthepalaceoftheTrocadero. Alongtheway,fromChargol,onefindsfrequentlyoblongmounds,artificial constructions.Aftersunrise,withfreshhorses,
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Iresumedmyjourneyandstoppednearthe"gonpa"(monastery)of Moulbek,whichseemsgluedontheflankofanisolatedrock.Belowisthehamletof Wakkha,andnotfarfromthereistobeseenanotherrock,ofverystrangeform,which


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seemstohavebeenplacedwhereitstandsbyhumanhands.Inonesideofitiscuta Buddhaseveralmetresinheight.Uponitareseveralcylinders,theturningofwhich servesforprayers.Theyareasortofwoodenbarrel,drapedwithyelloworwhitefabrics, andareattachedtoverticallyplantedstakes.Itrequiresonlytheleastwindtomakethem turn.Thepersonwhoputsuponeofthesecylindersnolongerfeelsitobligatoryupon himtosayhisprayers,forallthatdevoutbelieverscanaskofGodiswrittenuponthe cylinders.Seenfromadistancethiswhite


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paintedmonastery,standingsharplyoutfromthegraybackgroundoftherocks,withall thesewhirling,petticoatedwheels,produceastrangeeffectinthisdeadcountry.Ileftmy horsesin thehamletofWakkha,and,followedbymyservant,walkedtowardthe convent,whichisreachedbyanarrowstairwaycutintherock.Atthetop,Iwasreceived byaveryfatlama,withascanty,stragglingbeardunderhischinacommon characteristicoftheThibetanpeoplewhowasveryugly,butverycordial.Hiscostume consistedofayellowrobeandasortofbignightcap,withprojectingflapsabovethe earsofthesamecolor.Heheldinhishandacopperprayermachinewhich,fromtimeto time,heshookwithhislefthand,withoutatallpermittingthatexercisetointerferewith hisconversation.Itwashis
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eternalprayer,whichhethuscommunicatedtothewind,sothatbythiselementitshould bebornetoHeaven.Wetraversedasuiteoflowchambers,uponthewallsofwhichwere imagesofBuddha,ofallsizesandmadeofallkindsofmaterials,allalikecoveredbya thicklayerofdust.Finallywereachedanopenterrace,fromwhichtheeyes,takinginthe surroundingregion,resteduponaninhospitablecountry,strewnwithgrayishrocksand traversedbyonlyasingleroad,whichonbothsideslostitselfinthehorizon. Whenwewereseated,theybroughtusbeer,madewithhops,calledhere"Tchang"and brewedinthecloister.Ithasatendencytorapidlyproduceembonpoint uponthemonks, whichisregardedasasignoftheparticularfavorofHeaven.
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TheyspokeheretheThibetanlanguage.Theoriginofthislanguageisfullofobscurity. Onethingiscertain,thatakingofThibet,acontemporaryofMohammed,undertookthe creationofanuniversallanguageforallthedisciplesofBuddha.Tothisendhehad simplifiedtheSanscritgrammar,composedanalphabetcontaininganinfinitenumberof signs,andthuslaidthefoundationsofalanguagethepronunciationofwhichisoneofthe easiestandthewritingthemostcomplicated.Indeed,inordertorepresentasoundone mustemploynotlessthaneightcharacters.AllthemodernliteratureofThibetiswritten inthislanguage.ThepureThibetanisonlyspokeninLadakandOrientalThibet.Inall theotherpartsofthecountryareemployeddialectsformedbythemixtureofthismother languagewithdifferentidioms
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takenfromtheneighboringpeoplesofthevariousregionsroundabout.Intheordinary lifeoftheThibetan,thereexistsalwaystwolanguages,oneofwhichisabsolutely incomprehensibletothewomen,whiletheotherisspokenbytheentirenationbutonly intheconventscanbefoundtheThibetanlanguageinallitspurity andintegrity. ThelamasmuchpreferthevisitsofEuropeanstothoseofMusselmen,andwhenIasked theonewhoreceivedmewhythiswasso,heansweredme:"Musselmenhavenopointof contactatallwithourreligion.Onlycomparativelyrecently,intheirvictorious campaign,theyhaveconverted,byforce,partoftheBuddhiststoIslam.Itrequiresofus greateffortstobringbackthoseMusselmen,descendantsofBuddhists,
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intothepathofthetrueGod.AsregardstheEuropeans,itisquiteadifferentaffair.Not onlydotheyprofesstheessentialprinciplesofmonotheism,buttheyare,inasense, adorersofBuddha,withalmostthesameritesasthelamaswhoinhabitThibet.Theonly faultoftheChristiansisthatafterhavingadoptedthegreatdoctrinesofBuddha,they havecompletelyseparatedthemselvesfromhim,andhavecreatedforthemselvesa differentDalaiLama.OurDalaiLamaistheonlyonewhohasreceivedthedivinegiftof seeing,facetoface,themajestyofBuddha,andisempoweredtoserveasanintermediary betweenearthandheaven." "WhichDalaiLamaoftheChristiansdoyoureferto?"Iaskedhim"wehaveone,the SonofGod,towhomweaddressdirectlyourferventprayers,andtohimalonewe
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recurtointercedewithourOneandIndivisibleGod." "Itisnothimonwhomitisaquestion,Sahib,"hereplied."We,too,respecthim,whom wereverenceassonoftheOneandIndivisibleGod,butwedonotseeinhimtheOnly Son,buttheexcellentbeingwhowaschosenamongall.Buddha,indeed,hasincarnated himself,withhisdivinenature,inthepersonofthesacredIssa,who,withoutemploying fireoriron,hasgoneforthtopropagateourtrueandgreatreligionamongalltheworld. HimwhomImeantwasyourterrestrialDalaiLamahetowhomyouhavegiventhetitle of'FatheroftheChurch.'Thatisagreatsin.Mayhebebroughtback,withtheflock,who arenowinabadroad,"piouslyaddedthelama,givinganothertwirltohisprayer machine.
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IunderstoodnowthathealludedtothePope."YouhavetoldmethatasonofBuddha, Issa,theelectamongall,hadspreadyourreligionontheEarth.Whoishe?"Iasked. Atthisquestionthelama'seyesopenedwidehelookedatmewithastonishmentand pronouncedsomewordsIcouldnotcatch,murmuringinanunintelligibleway."Issa,"he finallyreplied,"isagreatprophet,oneofthefirstafterthetwentytwoBuddhas.Heis

greaterthananyoneofalltheDalaiLamas,forheconstitutespartofthespiritualityof ourLord.ItishewhohasinstructedyouhewhobroughtbackintothebosomofGodthe frivolousandwickedsoulshewhomadeyouworthyofthebeneficenceoftheCreator, whohasordainedthateachbeingshouldknowgoodandevil.Hisname


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andhisactshavebeenchronicledinoursacredwritings,andwhenreadinghowhisgreat lifepassedawayinthemidstofanerringpeople,weweepforthehorriblesinofthe heathenwhomurderedhim,aftersubjectinghimtotorture." Iwasstruckbythisrecitalofthelama.TheprophetIssahistorturesanddeathour ChristianDalaiLamatheBuddhistrecognizingChristianityallthesemademethink moreandmoreofJesusChrist.Iaskedmyinterpreternottoloseasinglewordofwhat thelamatoldme. "Wherecan thosewritingsbefound,andwhocompiledthem?"Iaskedthemonk. "TheprincipalscrollswhichwerewritteninIndiaandNepaul,atdifferentepochs,asthe eventshappenedareinLhassaseveralthousandsinnumber.In
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somegreatconventsaretobefoundcopies,whichthelamas,duringtheirsojournin Lhassa,havemade,atvarioustimes,andhavethengiventotheircloistersassouvenirsof theperiodtheyspentwiththeDalaiLama." "Butyou,yourselvesdoyounotpossesscopiesofthescrollsbearingupontheprophet Issa?" "Wehavenot.Ourconventisinsignificant,andsinceitsfoundationoursuccessivelamas havehadonlyafewhundredmanuscriptsintheirlibrary.Thegreatcloistershaveseveral thousandsofthembuttheyaresacredthingswhichwillnot,anywhere,beshownto you." Wespoketogetherafewminuteslonger,afterwhichIwenthome,allthewhilethinking ofthelama'sstatements.Issa,aprophetoftheBuddhists!But,howcouldthisbe?
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OfJewishorigin,helivedinPalestineandinEgyptandtheGospelsdo notcontainoneword,noteventheleastallusion,tothepartwhichBuddhismshould haveplayedintheeducationofJesus.


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ImadeupmymindtovisitalltheconventsofThibet,inthehopeofgatheringfuller informationupontheprophetIssa,andperhapscopiesofthechroniclesbearinguponthis subject.

WetraversedtheNamykalaPass,at30,00ofeetofaltitude,whencewedescendedinto thevalleyoftheRiverSalinoumah.Turningsouthward,wegainedKarbou,leaving behindus,ontheoppositebank,numerousvillages,amongothers,Chagdoom,whichis atthetopofarock,anextremelyimposingsight.Itshousesarewhiteandhaveasort


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offestivelook,withtheirtwoandthreestories.This,bytheway,isacommonpeculiarity ofallthevillagesofLadak.TheeyeoftheEuropean,travellinginKachmyr,wouldsoon losesightofallarchitecturetowhichhehadbeenaccustomed.InLadak,onthecontrary, hewouldbeagreeablysurprisedatseeingthelittletwoandthreestoryhouses,reminders tohimofthoseinEuropeanprovinces.NearthecityofKarbou,upontwoperpendicular rocks,oneseestheruinsofalittletownorvillage.Atempestandanearthquakearesaid tohaveshaken downitswalls,thesolidityofwhichseemstohavebeenexceptional. ThenextdayItraversedtheFotuLaPass,atanaltitudeof13,500feet.Atitssummit standsalittlethaorthene(chapel).Thence,followingthedrybedofastream,I descended
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tothehamletofLamayure,thesuddenappearanceofwhichisasurprisetothetraveller. Aconvent,whichseemsgraftedonthesideoftherock,orheldthereinsomemiraculous way,dominatesthevillage.Stairsareunknowninthiscloister.Inordertopassfromone storyofittoanother,ropesareused.Communicationwiththeworldoutsideisthrougha labyrinthofpassagesintherock.Underthewindowsoftheconventwhichmakeone thinkofbirds'nestsonthefaceofacliffisalittleinn,theroomsofwhicharelittle inviting.HardlyhadIstretchedmyselfonthecarpetinoneofthem,whenthemonks, dressedintheiryellowrobes,filledtheapartment,botheredmewithquestionsasto whenceIcame,thepurposeofmycoming,whereIwasgoing,andsoon,finallyinviting metocomeandseethem.
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InspiteofmyfatigueIacceptedtheirinvitationandsetoutwiththem,toclimbupthe excavatedpassagesintherock,whichwereencumberedwithaninfinityofprayer cylindersandwheels,whichIcouldnotbuttouchandsetturningasIbrushedpastthem. Theyareplacedtherethattheymaybesoturned,savingtothepassersbythetimethey mightotherwiseloseinsayingtheirprayersasiftheiraffairsweresoabsorbing,and theirtimesoprecious,thattheycouldnotfindleisuretopray.ManypiousBuddhistsuse forthispurposeanapparatusarrangedtobeturnedbythecurrentofastream.Ihaveseen alongrowofcylinders,providedwiththeirprayerformulas,placedalongariverbank,in suchawaythatthewaterkeptthemconstantlyinmotion,thisingeniousdevicefreeing theproprietors
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fromanyfurtherobligationtosayprayersthemselves. Isatdownonabenchinthehall,wheresemiobscurityreigned.Thewallswere garnishedwithlittlestatuesofBuddha,booksandprayerwheels.Theloquaciouslamas beganexplainingtomethesignificanceofeachobject. "Andthosebooks?"Iaskedthem"they,nodoubt,havereferencetoreligion." "Yes,sir.Theseareafewreligiousvolumeswhichdealwiththeprimaryandprincipal ritesofthelifecommontoall.WepossessseveralpartsofthewordsofBuddha consecratedtotheGreatandIndivisibleDivineBeing,andtoallthatissuedfromhis hands." "Istherenot,amongthosebooks,someaccountoftheprophetIssa?"
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"No,sir,"answeredthemonk."Weonlypossessafewprincipaltreatisesrelatingtothe observanceofthereligiousrites.Asforthebiographiesofoursaints,theyarecollectedin Lhassa.Thereareevengreatcloisterswhichhavenothadthetimetoprocurethem. Beforecomingtothisgonpa,Iwasforseveralyearsinagreatconventontheotherside ofLadak,andhaveseentherethousandsofbooks,andscrollscopiedoutofvarious booksbythelamasofthemonastery." BysomefurtherinterrogationIlearnedthattheconventinquestionwasnearLeh,butmy persistentinquirieshadtheeffectofexcitingthesuspicionsofthelamas.Theyshowed methewayoutwithevidentpleasure,and,regainingmyroom,Ifellasleepafteralight lunchleavingorderswithmyHindutoinformhimselfinaskilfulway,
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fromsomeoftheyoungerlamasoftheconvent,aboutthemonasteryinwhichtheirchief hadlivedbeforecomingtoLamayure. Inthemorning,whenwesetforthonourjourney,theHindutoldmethathecouldget nothingfromthelamas,whowereveryreticent.Iwillnotstoptodescribethelifeofthe monksinthoseconvents,foritisthesameinallthecloistersofLadak.Ihaveseenthe celebratedmonasteryofLehofwhichIshallhavetospeaklateronandlearnedthere thestrangeexistencesthemonksandreligiouspeoplelead,whichiseverywherethe same.InLamayurecommencesadeclivitywhich,throughasteep,narrowandsombre gorge,extendstowardIndia. Withouthavingtheleastideaofthedangerswhichthedescentpresented,Isentmy
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carriersinadvanceandstartedonaroute,ratherpleasantattheoutset,whichpasses betweenthebrownclayhills,butsoonitproduceduponmethemostdepressingeffect,as thoughIwastraversingagloomysubterraneanpassage.Thentheroadcameoutonthe flankofthemountain,aboveaterribleabyss.Ifariderhadmetme,thecouldnot possiblyhavepassedeachother,thewaywassonarrow.Alldescriptionwouldfailto conveyasenseofthegrandeurandwildbeautyofthiscanon,thesummitofthewallsof whichseemedtoreachthesky.AtsomepointsitbecamesonarrowthatfrommysaddleI could,withmycane,touchtheoppositerock.Atotherplaces,deathmightbefancied lookingupexpectantly,fromtheabyss,atthetraveller.Itwastoolatetodismount.In enteringalonethisgorge,I
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hadnotthefaintestideathatIwouldhaveoccasiontoregretmyfoolishimprudence.I hadnotrealizeditscharacter.Itwassimplyanenormouscrevasse,rentbysomeTitanic throeofnature,sometremendousearthquake,whichhadsplitthegranitemountain.Inits bottomIcouldjustdistinguishahardlyperceptiblewhitethread,animpetuoustorrent, thedullroarofwhichfilledthedefilewithmysteriousandimpressivesounds.Far overheadextended,narrowandsinuously,ablueribbon,theonlyglimpseofthecelestial worldthatthefrowninggranitewallspermittedtobeseen.Itwasathrillingpleasure,this majesticviewofnature.Atthesametime,itsruggedseverity,thevastnessofits proportions,thedeathlysilenceonlyinvadedbytheominousmurmurfromthedepths beneath,alltogetherfilledmewith
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anunconquerabledepression.Ihadabouteightmilesinwhichtoexperiencethese sensations,atoncesweetandpainful.Then,turningtotheright,ourlittlecaravanreached asmallvalley,almostsurroundedbyprecipitousgraniterocks,whichmirrored themselvesintheIndus.OnthebankoftheriverstandsthelittlefortressKhalsi,a celebratedfortificationdatingfromtheepochoftheMusselmaninvasion,bywhichruns thewildroadfromKachmyrtoThibet. WecrossedtheIndusonanalmostsuspendedbridgewhichleddirectlytothedoorofthe fortress,thusimpossibleofevasion.Rapidlywetraversedthevalley,thenthevillageof Khalsi,forIwasanxioustospendthenightinthehamletofSnowely,whichisplaced uponterracesdescendingtotheIndus.ThetwofollowingdaysItravelled
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tranquillyandwithoutanydifficultiestoovercome,alongtheshoreoftheIndus,ina picturesquecountrywhichbroughtmetoLeh,thecapitalofLadak. WhiletraversingthelittlevalleyofSaspoula,atadistanceofseveralkilometresfromthe villageofthesamename,Ifound"thorthenes"andtwocloisters,aboveoneofwhich floatedtheFrenchflag.Lateron,IlearnedthataFrenchengineerhadpresentedtheflag tothemonks,whodisplayeditsimplyasadecorationoftheirbuilding.

IpassedthenightatSaspoulaandcertainlydidnotforgettovisitthecloisters,seeing thereforthetenthtimetheomnipresentdustcoveredimagesofBuddhatheflagsand bannersheapedinacorneruglymasksonthefloorbooksandpapyrusrollsheaped togetherwithoutorderorcare,and


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theinevitableabundanceofprayerwheels.Thelamasdemonstratedaparticularpleasure inexhibitingthesethings,doingitwiththeairofshopmendisplayingtheirgoods,with verylittlecareforthedegreeofinterestthetravellermaytakeinthem."Wemustshow everything,inthehopethatthesightaloneofthesesacredobjectswillforcethetraveller tobelieveinthedivinegrandeurofthehumansoul." RespectingtheprophetIssa,theygavemethesameaccountIalreadyhad,andIlearned, whatIhadknownbefore,thatthebookswhichcouldinstructmeabouthimwereat Lhassa,andthatonlythegreatmonasteriespossessedsomecopies.Ididnotthinkany moreofpassingKarakoroum,butonlyoffindingthehistoryoftheprophetIssa,which would,perhaps,bringtolighttheentirelife
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ofthebestofmen,andcompletetherathervagueinformationwhichtheGospelsafford usabouthim. NotfarfromLeh,andattheentranceofthevalleyofthesamename,ourroadpassed nearanisolatedrock,onthetopofwhichwereconstructedafortwithtwotowersand withoutgarrisonandalittleconventnamedPitak.Amountain,10,500feethigh, protectstheentrancetoThibet.Theretheroadmakesasuddenturntowardthenorth,in thedirectionofLeh,sixmilesfromPitakandathousandfeethigher.Immensegranite mountainstoweraboveLeh,toaheightof18,000or19,000feet,theircrestscovered witheternalsnow.Thecityitself,surroundedbyagirdleofstuntedaspentrees,rises uponsuccessiveterraces,whicharedominatedbyanoldfortandthepalacesof
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theancientsovereignsofLadak.TowardeveningImademyentranceintoLeh,and stoppedatabengalowconstructedespeciallyforEuropeans,whomtheroadfromIndia bringshereinthehuntingseason.

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LADAK
LadakformerlywaspartofGreatThibet,Thepowerfulinvadingforcesfromthenorth whichtraversedthecountrytoconquerKachmyr,andthewarsofwhichLadakwasthe

theatre,notonlyreducedittomisery,buteventuallysubtracteditfromthepolitical dominationofLhassa,andmadeitthepreyofoneconquerorafteranother.The Musselmen,whosizedKachmyrandLadakataremoteepoch,convertedbyforcethe poorinhabitantsofoldThibettothefaithofIslam.ThepoliticalexistenceofLadak endedwiththeannexationofthiscountrytoKachmyrbythesiks,which,however, permitted


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theLadakianstoreturntotheirancientbeliefs.Twothirdsoftheinhabitantstook advantageofthisopportunitytorebuildtheirgonpasandtakeuptheirpastlifeanew. OnlytheBaltistansremainedMusselmanschttesasecttowhichtheconquerorsofthe countryhadbelonged.They,however,haveonlyconservedavagueshadowofIslamism, thecharacterofwhichmanifestsitselfintheirceremonialsandinthepolygamywhich theypractice.Somelamasaffirmedtomethattheydidnotdespairofonedaybringing thembacktothefaithoftheirancestors. FromthereligiouspointofviewLadakisadependencyofLhassa,thecapitalofThibet andtheplaceofresidenceoftheDalaiLama.InLhassaarelocatedtheprincipal Khoutoukhtes,orSupremeLamas,
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andtheChogzots,oradministrators.Politically,itisundertheauthorityoftheMaharadja ofKachmyr,whoisrepresentedtherebyagovernor. TheinhabitantsofLadakbelongtotheChineseTouranianrace,andaredividedinto LadakiansandTchampas.Theformerleadasedentaryexistence,buildingvillagesof twostoryhousesalongthenarrowvalleys,arecleanlyintheirhabits,andcultivatorsof thesoil.Theyareexcessivelyuglythin,withstoopingfiguresandsmallheadssetdeep betweentheirshoulderstheircheekbonessalient,foreheadsnarrow,eyesblackand brilliant,asarethoseofalltheMongolracenosesflat,mouthslargeandthinlippedand fromtheirsmallchins,verythinlygarnishedbyafewhairs,deepwrinklesextendupward furrowingtheirhollow
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cheeks.Toallthis,addacloseshavenheadwithonlyalittlebristlingfringeofhair,and youwillhavethegeneraltype,notaloneofLadak,butofentireThibet. Thewomenarealsoofsmallstature,andhaveexceedinglyprominentcheekbones,but seemtobeofmuchmorerobustconstitution.Ahealthyredtingestheircheeksand sympatheticsmileslingerupontheirlips.Theyhavegooddispositions,joyous inclinations,andarefondoflaughing. Theseverityoftheclimateandrudenessofthecountry,donotpermittotheLadakians muchlatitudeinqualityandcolorsofcostume.Theyweargownsofsimplegraylinen

andcoarsedullhuedclothingoftheirownmanufacture.Thepantaloonsofthemenonly descendtotheirknees.Peopleingoodcircumstanceswear,inadditiontothe
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ordinarydress,the"choga,"asortofovercoatwhichisdrapedonthebackwhennot wrappedaroundthefigure.Inwintertheywearfurcaps,withbigearflips,andin summercovertheirheadswithasortofclothhood,thetopofwhichdanglesononeside, likeaPhrygiancap.Theirshoesaremadeoffeltandcoveredwithleather.Awhole arsenaloflittlethingshangsdownfromtheirbelts,amongwhichyouwillfindaneedle case,aknife,apenandinkstand,atobaccopouch,apipe,andadiminutivespecimenof theomnipresentprayercylinder. TheThibetanmenaregenerallysolazy,thatifabraidofhairhappenstobecomeloose,it isnottressedupagainforthreemonths,andwhenonceashirtisputonthebody,itisnot againtakenoffuntilitfallstopieces.Theirovercoatsarealwaysunclean,
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and,ontheback,onemaycontemplatealongoilystripeimprintedbythebraidofhair, whichiscarefullygreasedeveryday.Theywashthemselvesonceayear,buteventhen donotdosovoluntarily,butbecausecompelledbylaw.Theyemitsuchaterriblestench thatoneavoids,asmuchaspossible,beingnearthem. TheThibetanwomen,onthecontrary,areveryfondofcleanlinessandorder.Theywash themselvesdailyandasoftenasmaybeneedful.Shortandcleanchemiseshidetheir dazzlingwhitenecks.TheThibetanwomanthrowsonherroundshouldersaredjacket, theflapsofwhicharecoveredbytightpantaloonsofgreenorredcloth,madeinsucha mannerastopuffupandsoprotectthelegsagainstthecold.Shewearsembroideredred halfboots,trimmedandlined
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withfur.Alargeclothpetticoatwithnumerousfoldscompletesherhometoilet.Herhair isarrangedinthinbraids,towhich,bymeansofpins,alargepieceoffloatingclothis attached,whichremindsoneoftheheaddresssocommoninItaly.Underneaththissort ofveilaresuspendedavarietyofvariouscoloredpebbles,coinsandpiecesofmetal.The earsarecoveredbyflapsmadeofclothorfur.Afurredsheepskincoverstheback,poor womencontentingthemselveswithasimpleplainskinoftheanimal,whilewealthy ladieswearveritablecloaks,linedwithredclothandadornedwithgoldfringes. TheLadakwoman,whetherwalkinginthestreetsorvisitingherneighbors,always carriesuponherbackaconicalbasket,thesmallerendofwhichistowardtheground. Theyfillitwiththedungofhorsesorcows,
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whichconstitutethecombustibleofthecounttry.Everywomanhasmoneyofherown, andspendsitforjewelry.Generallyshepurchases,atasmallexpense,largepiecesof turquoise,whichareaddedtothebizarreornamentsofherheaddress.Ihaveseenpieces sowornwhichweighednearlyfivepounds.TheLadakwomanoccupiesasocialposition forwhichsheisenviedbyallwomenoftheOrient.Sheisfreeandrespected.Withthe exceptionofsomeruralwork,shepassesthegreatestpartofhertimeinvisiting.Itmust, however,beaddedthatwomen'sgossipishereaperfectlyunknownthing. ThesettledpopulationofLadakisengagedinagriculture,buttheyownsolittleland(the shareofeachmayamounttoabouteightacres)thattherevenuedrawnfromit


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isinsufficienttoprovidethemwiththebarestnecessitiesanddoesnotpermitthemtopay taxes.Manualoccupationsaregenerallydespised.Artisansandmusiciansformthe lowestclassofsociety.ThenamebywhichtheyaredesignatedisBem,andpeopleare verycarefulnottocontractanyalliancewiththem.Thehoursofleisureleftbyruralwork arespentinhuntingthewildsheepofThibet,theskinsofwhicharehighlyvaluedin India.Thepoorest, i.e.,thosewhohavenotthemeanstopurchasearmsforhunting,hire themselvesascoolies.Thisisalsoanoccupationofwomen,whoareverycapableof enduringarduoustoil.Theyarehealthierthantheirhusbands,whoselazinessgoessofar that,carelessofcoldorheat,theyarecapableofspendingawholenight
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intheopenaironabedofstonesratherthantakethetroubletogotobed. Polyandry(whichIshalltreatlatermorefully)causestheformationofverylarge families,who,incommon,cultivatetheirjointlypossessedlands,withtheassistanceof yaks,zosandzomos(oxenandcows).Amemberofafamilycannotdetachhimselffrom it,andwhenhedies,hissharerevertstothesurvivorsincommon. Theysowbutlittlewheatandthegrainisverysmall,owingtotheseverityoftheclimate. Theyalsoharvestbarley,whichtheypulverizebeforeselling.Whenworkinthefieldis ended,allmaleinhabitantsgotogatheronthemountainawildherbcalled"enoriota," andlargethornbushesor"dama,"whichareusedasfuel,sincecombustiblesarescarce inLadak.Youseethere
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neithertreesnorgardens,andonlyexceptionallythinclumpsofwillowsandpoplarsu growontheshoresoftherivers.Nearthevillagesarealsofoundsomeaspentreesbut, onaccountoftheunfertilityoftheground,arboricultureisunknownandgardeningis littlesuccessful. Theabsenceofwoodisespeciallynoticeableinthebuildings,whicharemadeofsun driedbricks,or,morefrequently,ofstonesofmediumsizewhichareagglomeratedwith

akindofmortarcomposedofclayandchoppedstraw.Thehousesofthesettled inhabitantsaretwostorieshigh,theirfrontswhitewashed,andtheirwindowsashes paintedwithlivelycolors.Theflatroofformsaterracewhichisdecoratedwithwild flowers,andhere,duringgoodweather,theinhabit,antsspendmuchoftheirtime contemplating


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nature,orturningtheirprayerwheels.Everydwellinghouseiscomposedofmany roomsamongthemalwaysoneofsuperiorsize,thewallsofwhicharedecoratedwith superbfurskins,andwhichisreservedforvisitors.Intheotherroomsarebedsandother furniture.Richpeoplepossess,moreover,aspecialroomfilledwithallkindsofidols,and setapartasaplaceofworship. Lifehereisveryregular.Theyeatanythingattainable,withoutmuchchoicetheprincipal nourishmentoftheLadakpeople,however,beingexceedinglysimple.Theirbreakfast consistsofapieceofryebread.Atdinner,theyserveonthetableabowlwithmealinto whichlukewarmwaterisstirredwithlittlerodsuntilthemixtureassumestheconsistency ofthickpaste.Fromthis,smallportionsarescoopedoutandeaten
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withmilk.Intheevening,breadandteaareserved.Meatisasuperfluousluxury.Only thehuntersintroducesomevarietyintheiralimentation,byeatingthemeatofwildsheep, eaglesorpheasants,whichareverycommoninthiscountry. Duringtheday,oneveryexcuseandopportunity,theydrink"tchang,"akindofpale, unfermentedbeer. IfithappensthataLadakian,mountedonapony(suchprivilegedpeopleareveryrare), goestoseekworkinthesurroundingcountry,heprovideshimselfwithasmallstockof mealwhendinnertimecomes,hedescendstoariverorspring,mixeswithwater,ina woodencupthathealwayshaswithhim,someofthemeal,swallowsthesimple refreshmentandwashesitdownwithwater.
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TheTchampas,ornomads,whoconstitutetheotherpartofLadak'spopulation,are rougher,andmuchpoorerthanthesettledpopulation.Theyare,forthemostpart, hunters,whocompletelyneglectagriculture.AlthoughtheyprofesstheBuddhistic religion,theyneverfrequentthecloistersunlessinwantofmeal,whichtheyobtainin exchangefortheirvenison.Theymostlycampintentsonthesummitsofthemountains, wherethecoldisverygreat.WhiletheproperlycalledLadakiansarepeaceable,very desirousoflearning,ofanincarnatedlaziness,andareneverknowntotelluntruththe Tchampas,onthecontrary,areveryirascible,extremelylively,greatliarsandprofessa greatdisdainfortheconvents.

AmongthemlivesthesmallpopulationofKhombas,wanderersfromthevicinityof
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Lhassa,wholeadthemiserableexistenceofatroupeofbegginggipsieson thehighways.Incapableofanyworkwhatever,speakingalanguagenotspokeninthe countrywheretheybegfortheirsubsistence,theyaretheobjectsofgeneralcontempt, andareonlytoleratedoutofpityfortheirdeplorablecondition,whenhungerdrivestheir mendicantbandstoseekalmsinthevillages.


[paragraphcontinues]

Polyandry,whichisuniversallyprevalenthere,ofcourseinterestedmycuriosity.This institutionis,bytheway,nottheoutcomeofBuddha'sdoctrines.Polyandryexistedlong beforetheadventofBuddha.ItassumedconsiderableproportionsinIndia,whereit constitutedoneofthemosteffectivemeansforcheckingthegrowthofapopulation whichtendstoconstantincrease,an


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economicdangerwhichisevenyetcombattedbytheabominablecustomofkillingnew bornfemalechildren,whichcausesterribleravagesinthechildlifeofIndia.Theefforts madebytheEnglishintheirenactmentsagainstthesuppressionofthefuturemothers haveprovedfutileandfruitless.Manuhimselfestablishedpolyandryasalaw,and Buddhistpreachers,whohadrenouncedBrahminismandpreachedtheuseofopium, importedthiscustomintoCeylon,Thibet,Corea,andthecountryoftheMoguls.Fora longtimesuppressedinChina,polyandry,whichflourishesinThibetandCeylon,isalso metwithamongtheKalmonks,betweenTodasinSouthernIndia,andNairsonthecoast ofMalabar.Tracesofthisstrangeconstitutionofthefamilyarealsotobefound


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withtheTasmaniansandtheIrquoisIndiansinNorthAmerica. Polyandry,bytheway,hasevenflourishedinEurope,ifwemaybelieveCaesar,who,in hisDeBelloGallico,bookV.,page17,writes:"Uxoreshabentdeniduodeniqueinterse communes,etmaximefratrescumfratribusetparentescumliberis." Inviewofallthisitisimpossibletoholdanyreligionresponsiblefortheexistenceofthe institutionofpolyandry.InThibetitcanbeexplainedbymotivesofaneconomical naturethesmallquantityofarablelandfallingtotheshareofeachinhabitant.Inorderto supportthe1,500,000inhabitantsdistributedinThibet,uponasurfaceof1,200,000 squarekilometres,theBuddhistswereforcedtoadoptpolyandry.Moreover,eachfamily isboundtoenteroneofitsmembers
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inareligiousorder.Thefirstbornisconsecratedtoagonpa,whichisinevitablyfound uponanelevation,attheentranceofeveryvillage.Assoonasthechildattainstheageof eighteenyears,heisentrustedtothecaravanswhichpassLhassa,whereheremainsfrom eighttofifteenyearsasanovice,inoneofthegonpaswhicharenearthecity.Therehe learnstoreadandwrite,istaughtthereligiousritesandstudiesthesacredparchments writteninthePalilanguagewhichformerlyusedtobethelanguageofthecountryof Maguada,where,accordingtotradition,Buddhawasborn. Theoldestbrotherremaininginafamilychoosesawife,whobecomescommontohis brothers.Thechoiceofthebrideandthenuptialceremoniesaremostrudimentary.When awifeandherhusbandhavedecided
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uponthemarriageofason,thebrotherwhopossessestherightofchoice,paysavisittoa neighboringfamilyinwhichthereisamarriageabledaughter. Thefirstandsecondvisitsarespentinmoreorlessindifferentconversations,blended withfrequentlibationsoftchang,andonthethirdvisitonlydoestheyoungmandeclare hisintentiontotakeawife.Uponthisthegirlisformallyintroducedtohim.Sheis generallynotunknowntothewooer,as,inLadak,womenneverveiltheirfaces. Agirlcannotbemarriedwithoutherconsent.Whentheyoungmanisaccepted,hetakes hisbridetohishouse,andshebecomeshiswifeandalsothewifeofallhisbrothers.A familywhichhasanonlysonsendshimtoawomanwhohasnomorethantwoorthree husbands,andheoffershimselftoher
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asafourthhusband.Suchanofferisseldomdeclined,andtheyoungmansettlesinthe newfamily. Thenewlymarriedremainwiththeparentsofthehusbands,untiltheyoungwifebears herfirstchild.Thedayafterthatevent,thegrandparentsoftheinfantmakeoverthebulk oftheirfortunetothenewfamily,and,abandoningtheoldhometo them,seekother shelter. Sometimesmarriagesarecontractedbetweenyouthwhohavenotreachedamarriageable age,butinsuchevent,themarriedcouplearemadetoliveapart,untiltheyhaveattained andevenpassedtheagerequired.Anunmarriedgirl whobecomesenceinte,farfrom beingexposedtothescornofeveryone,isshownthehighestrespectforsheis demonstratedfruitful,andmen
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eagerlyseekherinmarriage.Awifehastheunquestionedrightofhavinganunlimited numberofhusbandsandlovers.Ifshelikesayoungman,shetakeshimhome,announces

thathehasbeenchosenbyherasa"jingtuh"(alover),andendowshimwithallthe personalrightsofahusband,whichsituationisacceptedbyhertemporarilysupplanted husbandswith acertainphilosophicpleasure,whichisthemorepronouncediftheirwife hasprovedsterileduringthethreefirstyearsofhermarriage. Theycertainlyhaveherenotevenavagueideaofjealousy.TheThibetan'sbloodistoo coldtoknowlove,which,forhim,wouldbealmostananachronismifindeedhewere notconsciousthatthesentimentoftheentirecommunitywouldbeagainsthim,asa flagrantviolatorofpopularusageandestablished


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rights,inrestrainingthefreedomofthewomen.Theselfishenjoymentoflovewouldbe, intheireyes,anunjustifiableluxury. Incaseofahusband'sabsence,hisplacemaybeofferedtoabachelororawidower.The latterarehereintheminority,sincethewifegenerallysurvivesherfeeblehusbands. SometimesaBuddhisttraveller,whomhisaffairsbringtothevillage,ischosenforthis office.Ahusbandwhotravels,orseeksforworkintheneighboringcountry,ateverystop takesadvantageofhiscoreligionists'hospitality,whoofferhimtheirownwives.The husbandsofasterilewomanexertthemselvestofindopportunitiesforhospitality,which mayhappilyeventuateinachangeinhercondition,thattheymaybemadehappyfathers.


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Thewifeenjoysthegeneralesteem,iseverofacheerfuldisposition,takespartin everythingthatisgoingon,goesandcomeswithoutanyrestriction,anywhereand everywhereshepleases,withtheexceptionoftheprincipalprayerroomofthe monastery,entranceintowhichisformallyprohibitedtoher. Childrenknowonlytheirmother,anddonotfeeltheleastaffectionfortheirfathers,for thesimplereasonthattheyhavesomany.Withoutapprovingpolyandry,Icouldnotwell blameThibetforthisinstitution,sincewithoutit,thepopulationwouldprodigiously increase.Famineandmiserywouldfalluponthewholenation,withallthesinister sequellofmurderandtheft,crimessofarabsolutelyunknowninthewholecountry.

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AFESTIVALINAGONPA.
Leh,thecapitalofLadak,isalittletownof5,000inhabitants,wholiveinwhite,two storyhouses,upontwoorthreestreets,principally.Initscentreisthesquareofthe bazaar,wherethemerchantsofIndia,China,Turkestan,KachmyrandThibet,cometo exchangetheirproductsfortheThibetangold.Herethenativesprovidethemselveswith clothsforthemselvesandtheirmonks,andvariousobjectsofrealnecessity.

Anolduninhabitedpalacerisesuponahillwhichdominatesthetown.Frontingthe centralsquareisavastbuilding,two
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storiesin height,theresidenceofthegovernorofLadak,theVizierSouradjbalavery amiableanduniversallypopularPendjaban,whohasreceivedinLondonthedegreeof DoctorofPhilosophy. Toentertainme,duringmysojourninLeh,thegovernorarranged,onthebazaarsquare, agameofpolothenationalsportoftheThibetans,whichtheEnglishhaveadoptedand introducedintoEurope.Intheevening,afterthegame,thepeopleexecuteddancesand playedgamesbeforethegovernor'sresidence.Largebonfiresilluminatedthescene, lightingupthethrongofinhabitants,whoformedagreatcircleabouttheperformers.The latter,inconsiderablenumbers,disguisedasanimals,devilsandsorcerers,jumpedand contortedthemselvesinrhythmicdancestimedtothemeasureof
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themonotonousandunpleasingmusicmadebytwolongtrumpetsandadrum. Theinfernalracketandshoutingofthecrowdweariedme.Theperformanceendedwith somegracefuldancesbyThibetanwomen,whospunupontheirheels,swayingtoand fro,and,inpassingbeforethespectatorsinthewindowsoftheresidence,greetedusby theclashingtogetherofthecopperandivorybraceletsontheircrossedwrists. Thenextday,atanearlyhour,IrepairedtothegreatHimisconvent,which,alittle distancefromLeh,iselevateduponthetopofagreatrock,onapicturesquesite, commandingthevalleyoftheIndies.Itisoneoftheprincipalmonasteriesofthecountry, andismaintainedbythegiftsofthepeopleandthesubsidiesitreceivesfrom Lhassa.On theroadleadingtoit,beyondthebridge
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crossingtheIndus,andinthevicinityofthevillagesliningtheway,onefindsheapsof stonesbearingengravedinscriptions,suchashavealreadybeendescribed,and thorthenes.Attheseplaces,ourguideswereverycarefultoturntotheright.Iwishedto turnmyhorsetotheleft,buttheLadakiansmadehimgobackandledhimbyhishalter totheright,explainingtomethatsuchwastheirestablishedusage.Ifounditimpossible tolearn theoriginorreasonofthiscustom. Abovethegonparisesabattlementedtower,visiblefromagreatdistance.Weclimbed, onfoot,tothelevelonwhichtheedificestandsandfoundourselvesconfrontedbya largedoor,paintedinbrilliantcolors,theportalofavasttwostorybuildingenclosinga courtpavedwithlittlepebbles.Totheright,inoneoftheanglesofthe
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court,isanotherhugepainteddoor,adornedwithbigcopperrings.Itistheentranceto theprincipaltemple,whichisdecoratedwithpaintingsoftheprincipalgods,andcontains agreatstatueofBuddhaandamultitudeofsacredstatuettes.Totheleft,upona verandah,wasplacedanimmenseprayercylinder.Allthelamasoftheconvent,with theirchief,stoodaboutit,when weenteredthecourt.Belowtheverandahwere musicians,holdinglongtrumpetsanddrums. Attherightofthecourtwereanumberofdoors,leadingtotheroomsofthelamasall decoratedwithsacredpaintingsandprovidedwithlittleprayerbarrelsfancifully surmountedbyblackandwhitetridents,fromthepointsofwhichfloatedribbonsbearing inscriptionsdoubtlessprayers.Inthecentreofthecourtwereraisedtwotallmasts,
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fromthetopsofwhichdangledtailsofyaks,andlongpaperstreamersfloated,covered withreligiousinscriptions.Allalongthewallswerenumerousprayerbarrels,adorned withribbons. Aprofoundsilencereignedamongthemanyspectatorspresent.Allawaitedanxiouslythe commencementofareligious"mystery,"which wasabouttobepresented.Wetookupa positionneartheverandah.Almostimmediately,themusiciansdrewfromtheirlong trumpetssoftandmonotonoustones,markingthetimebymeasuredbeatsuponanodd lookingdrum,broadandshallow,upreareduponastickplantedintheground.Atthefirst soundsofthestrangemusic,inwhichjoinedthevoicesofthelamasinamelancholy chant,thedoorsalongthewallopenedsimultaneously,givingentrance
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toabouttwentymaskedpersons,disguisedasanimals,birds,devilsandimaginary monsters.Ontheirbreaststheyborerepresentationsoffantasticdragons,demonsand skulls,embroideredwithChinesesilkofvariouscolors.Fromtheconicalhatstheywore, dependedtotheirbreastslongmulticoloredribbons,coveredwithinscriptions.Their maskswerewhitedeath'sheads.Slowlytheymarchedaboutthemasts,stretchingout theirarmsfromtimetotimeandflourishingwiththeirlefthandsspoonshapedobjects, thebowlportionsofwhichweresaidtobefragmentsofhumancrania,withribbons attached,havingaffixedtotheirendshumanhair,which,Iwasassured,hadbeentaken fromscalpedenemies.Theirpromenade,ingraduallynarrowingcirclesaboutthemasts, soonbecamemerelyaconfused
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jostlingofeachotherwhentherollingofthedrumgrewmoreaccentuated,the performersforaninstantstopped,thenstartedagain,swingingabovetheirheadsyellow sticks,ribbondecked,whichwiththeirrighthandstheybrandishedinmenacingattitudes. Aftermakingasalutetothechieflama,theyapproachedthedoorleadingtothetemple, whichatthisinstantopened,andfromitanotherbandcameforth,whoseheadswere

coveredbycoppermasks.Theirdresseswereofrichmaterials,embroideredinvarious brightcolors.inonehandeachofthemcarriedasmalltambourineandwiththeotherhe agitatedalittlebell.Fromtherimofeachtambourinedependedametallicball,soplaced thattheleastmovementofthehandbroughtitincontactwiththe


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resonanttympanum,whichcausedastrange,continuousundercurrentofpulsating sound.Thesenewperformerscircledseveraltimesaboutthecourt,markingthetimeof theirdancingstepsbymeasuredthumpingsofthetambourines.Atthecompletionofeach turn,theymadeadeafeningnoisewiththeirinstruments.Finally,theyrantothetemple doorandrangedthemselvesuponthestepsbeforeit. Foramoment,therewassilence.Thenwesawemergefromthetempleathirdbandof performers.Theirenormousmasksrepresenteddifferentdeities,andeachboreuponits forehead"thethirdeye."AttheirheadmarchedThloganPoudmaJungnas(literally"he whowasborninthelotusflower").Anotherrichlydressedmaskmarchedbesidehim, carryingayellowparasolcoveredwithsymbolic
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designs.Hissuitewascomposedofgods,inmagnificentcostumesDorjeTrolongand SangspaKourpo(i.e.,Brahmahimself),andothers.Thesemasks,asalamasittingnear meexplainedtous,representedsixclassesofbeingssubjecttothemetamorphosesthe gods,thedemigods,men,animals,spiritsanddemons. Oneachsideofthesepersonages,whoadvancedgravely,marchedothermasks, costumedinsilksofbrillianthuesandwearingontheirheadsgoldencrowns,fashioned withsixlotuslikeflowersoneach,surmountedbyatalldartinthecentre.Eachofthese maskscarriedadrum. Thesedisguisesmadethreeturnsaboutthemasts,tothesoundofanoisyandincoherent music,andthenseatedthemselvesontheground,aroundThloganPondmaJungnas,
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agodwiththreeeyes,whogravelyintroducedtwofingersintohismouthandemitteda shrillwhistle.Atthissignal,youngmendressedinwarriorcostumeswithribbondecked bellsdanglingabouttheirlegscamewithmeasuredstepsfromthetemple.Theirheads werecoveredbyenormousgreenmasks,fromwhichfloatedtriangularredflags,and they,too,carriedtambourines.Makingadiabolicaldin,theywhirledanddancedabout thegodsseatedontheground.Twobigfellowsaccompanyingthem,whoweredressedin tightclowncostumes,executedallkindsofgrotesquecontortionsandacrobaticfeats,by whichtheywonplauditsandshoutsoflaughterfromthespectators. Anothergroupofdisguisesofwhichtheprincipalfeatureswere redmitresandyellow
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pantaloonscameoutofthetemple,withbellsandtambourinesintheirhands,andseated themselvesoppositethegods,asrepresentativesofthehighestpowersnexttodivinity. Lastlythereentereduponthescenealotofredandbrownmasks,witha"thirdeye" paintedontheirbreasts.Withthosewhohadprecededthem,theyformedtwolonglines ofdancers,whotothethrummingoftheirmanytambourines,themeasuredmusicofthe trumpetsanddrums,andthejinglingofamyriadofbells,performedadance, approachingandrecedingfromeachother,whirlingincircles,formingbytwosina columnandbreakingfromthatformationtomakenewcombinations,pausing occasionallytomakereverentobeisancebeforethegods. Afteratimethisspectacularexcitementthenoisymonotonyofwhichbegantoweary
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mecalmeddownalittlegods,demigods,kings,menandspiritsgotup,andfollowedby alltheothermaskers,directedthemselvestowardthetempledoor,whenceissuedatonce, meetingthem,alotofmenadmirablydisguisedasskeletons.Allthosesortieswere calculatedandprearranged,andeveryoneofthemhaditsparticularsignificance.The cortgeofdancersgavewaytotheskeletons,whoadvancedwithmeasuredsteps,in silence,tothemasts,wheretheystoppedandmadeaconcertedclickingwithpiecesof woodhangingattheirsides,simulatingperfectlytherattlingofdrybonesandgnashingo fteeth.Twicetheywentinacirclearoundthemasts,marchingintimetolowtapsonthe drums,andthenjoinedinalugubriousreligiouschant.Havingoncemoremadethe concertedrattlingoftheirartificialbones
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andjaws,theyexecutedsomecontortionspainfultowitnessandtogetherstopped. Thentheyseizedupon animageoftheEnemyofManmadeofsomesortofbrittle pastewhichhadbeenplacedatthefootofoneofthemasts.Thistheybrokeinpieces andscattered,andtheoldestmenamongthespectators,risingfromtheirplaces,picked upthefragmentswhichtheyhandedtotheskeletonsanactionsupposedtosignifythat wouldsoonbereadytojointhebonycrewinthecemetery.

Thechieflama,approachingme,tenderedaninvitationtoaccompanyhimtothe principalterraceandpartakeofthefestal"tchang"whichIacceptedwithpleasure,for myheadwasdizzyfromthelongspectacle.


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Wecrossedthecourtandclimbedastaircaseobstructedwithprayerwheels,asusual passedtworoomswherethereweremanyimagesofgods,andcameoutupontheterrace, whereIseatedmyselfuponabenchoppositethevenerablelama,whoseeyessparkled withspirit.

Threelamasbroughtpitchersoftchang,whichtheypouredintosmallcoppercups,that wereofferedfirsttothechieflama,thentomeandmyservants. "Didyouenjoyourlittlefestival?"thelamaaskedme. "IfounditveryenjoyableandamstillimpressedbythespectacleIhavewitnessed.But, totellthetruth,IneversuspectedforamomentthatBuddhism,inthesereligious ceremonies,coulddisplaysuchavisible,nottosaynoisy,exteriorform."


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"Thereisnoreligion,theceremoniesofwhicharenotsurroundedwithmoretheatrical forms,"thelamaanswered."Thisisaritualisticphasewhichdoesnotbyanymeans violatethefundamentalprinciplesofBuddhism.Itisapracticalmeansformaintainingin theignorantmassobediencetoandlovefortheoneCreator,justasachildisbeguiledby toystodothewillofitsparents.TheignorantmassisthechildofTheFather." "Butwhatisthemeaning,"Isaidtohim,"ofallthosemasks,costumes,bells,dances, and,generally,ofthisentireperformance,whichseemstobeexecutedafteraprescribed programme?" "Wehavemanysimilarfestivalsintheyear,"answeredthelama,"andwearrange particularonestorepresent'mysteries,'susceptible
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ofpantomimicpresentation,inwhicheachactorisallowedconsiderablelatitudeof action,inthemovementsandjestshelikes,conforming,nevertheless,tothe circumstancesandtotheleadingidea.Ourmysteriesaresimplypantomimescalculated toshowthevenerationofferedtothegods,whichvenerationsustainsandcheersthesoul ofman,whoispronetoanxiouscontemplationofinevitabledeathandthelifetocome. Theactorsreceivethedressesfromthecloisterandtheyplayaccordingtogeneral indications,whichleavethemmuchlibertyofindividualaction.Thegeneraleffect producedis,nodoubt,verybeautiful,butitisamatterforthespectatorsthemselvesto divinethesignificationofoneoranotheraction.You,too,haverecoursesometimesto similardevices,which,however,donot
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intheleastviolatetheprincipleofmonotheism." "Pardonme,"Iremarked,"butthismultitudeofidolswithwhichyourgonpasabound,is aflagrantviolationofthatprinciple." "AsIhavetoldyou,"repliedthelamatomyinterruption,"manwillalwaysbein! childhood.Heseesandfeelsthegrandeurofnatureandunderstandseverythingpresented tohissenses,butheneitherseesnordivinestheGreatSoulwhichcreatedandanimates

allthings.Manhasalwayssoughtfortangiblethings.Itwasnotpossibleforhimto believelonginthatwhichescapedhismaterialsenses.Hehasrackedhisbraintoand meansforcontemplatingtheCreatorhasendeavoredtoenterintodirectrelationswith himwhohasdonehimsomuchgood,


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andalso,asheerroneouslybelieves,somuchevil.Forthisreasonhebegantoadore everyphaseofnaturefromwhichhereceivedbenefits.Weseeastrikingexampleofthis intheancientEgyptians,whoadoredanimals,trees,stones,thewindsandtherain.Other peoples,whoweremoresunkinignorance,seeingthattheresultsofthewindwerenot alwaysbeneficent,andthattheraindidnotinevitablybringgoodharvests,andthatthe animalswerenotwillinglysubservienttoman,begantoseekfordirectintermediaries betweenthemselvesandthegreatmysteriousandunfathomablepoweroftheCreator. Thereforetheymadeforthemselvesidols,whichtheyregardedasindifferenttothings concerningthem,buttowhoseinterpositionintheirbehalf,theymightalwaysrecur. Fromremotestantiquitytoourowndays,
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manwaseverinclinedonlytotangiblerealities. "WhileseekingaroutetoleadtheirfeettotheCreator,theAssyriansturnedtheireyes towardthestars,whichtheycontemplatedwithoutthepowerofattainingthem.The Guebershaveconservedthesamebelieftoourdays.Intheirnullityandspiritual blindness,menareincapableofconceivingtheinvisiblespiritualbondwhichunitesthem tothegreatDivinity,andthisexplainswhyItheyhavealwayssoughtforpalpablethings, whichwereinthedomainofthesenses,andIbydoingwhichtheyminimizedthedivine principle.Nevertheless,theyhavedaredtoattributetotheirvisibleandmanmadeimages adivineandeternalexistence.WecanseethesamefactinBrahminism,whereman, giventohisinclinationforexterior
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forms,hascreated,littlebylittle,andnotallatonce,anarmyofgodsanddemigods.The Israelitesmaybesaidtohavedemonstrated,inthemostflagrantway,theloveofmanfor everythingwhichisconcrete.Inspiteofaseriesofstrikingmiraclesaccomplishedbythe greatCreator,whoisthesameforallthepeoples,theJewishpeoplecouldnothelp makingagodofmetalintheveryminutewhentheirprophetMossaspoketothemofthe Creator!Buddhismhaspassedthroughthesamemodifications.Ourgreatreformer, SakyaMuni,inspiredbytheSupremeJudge,understoodtrulytheoneand]indivisible Brahma,andforbadehisdisciplesattemptingtomanufactureimagesinimaginary semblanceofhim.HehadopenlybrokenfromthepolytheisticBrahmins,andappreciated thepurity,onenessandimmortality
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ofBrahma.Thesuccessheachievedbyhisteachingsinmakingdisciplesamongthe people,broughtuponhintpersecutionbytheBrahmins,who,inthecreationofnewgods, hadfoundasourceofpersonalrevenue,andwho,contrarytothelawofGod,treatedthe peopleinadespoticmanner.Ourfirstsacredteachers,towhomwegivethenameof buddhaswhichmeans,learnedmenorsaintsbecausethegreatCreatorhasincarnated inthem,settledindifferentcountriesoftheglobe.Astheirteachingsattackedespecially thetyrannyoftheBrahminsandthemisusetheymadeoftheideaofGodofwhichthey indeedmadeaveritablebusinessalmostalltheBuddhisticconverts,theywhofollowed thedoctrinesofthosegreatteachers,wereamongthecommonpeopleofChinaandIndia. Amongthoseteachers,
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particularreverenceisfeltfortheBuddha,SakyaMuni,knowninChinaalsounderthe nameofF,wholivedthreethousandyearsago,andwhoseteachingsbroughtallChina backintothepathofthetrueGodandtheBuddha,Gautama,wholivedtwothousand fivehundredyearsago,andconvertedalmosthalftheHindustotheknowledgeofthe impersonal,indivisibleandonlyGod,besideswhomthereisnone. "Buddhismisdividedintomanysectswhich,bytheway,differonlyincertainreligious ceremonies,thebasisofthedoctrinebeingeverywherethesame.TheThibetan Buddhists,whoarecalled'lamaists,'separatedthemselvesfromtheFistsfifteen hundredyearsago.UntilthattimewehadformedpartoftheworshippersoftheBuddha, FSakyaMuni,whowasthefirsttocollectall
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thelawscompiledbythevariousbuddhasprecedinghim,whenthegreatschismtook placeinthebosomofBrahmanism.Lateron,aKhoutoukhteMongoltranslatedinto ChinesethebooksofthegreatBuddha,forwhichtheEmperorofChinarewardedhimby bestowinguponhimthetitleof'GoChi'PreceptoroftheKing!'Afterhisdeath,thistitle wasgiventotheDalaiLamaofThibet.Sincethatepoch,allthetitulariesofthisposition havebornethetitleofGoChi.OurreligioniscalledtheLamaiconefromtheword 'lama,'superior.Itadmitsoftwoclassesofmonks,theredandtheyellow.Theformer maymarry,andtheyrecognizetheauthorityoftheBantsine,whoresidesinTechow Loumba,andischiefoftheciviladministrationinThibet.We,theyellowlamas,have takenthevowofcelibacy,and
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ourdirectchiefistheDalaiLama.Thisisthedifferencewhichseparatesthetwo religiousorders,therespectiveritualsofwhichareidentical." "DoallperformmysteriessimilartothatwhichIhavejustwitnessed?" "Yeswithafewexceptions.Formerlythesefestivalswerecelebratedwithverysolemn pomp,butsincetheconquestofLadakourconventshavebeen,morethanonce,pillaged

andourwealthtakenaway.Nowwecontentourselveswithsimplegarmentsandbronze utensils,whileinThibetyousecbutgoldenrobesandgoldutensils." "InavisitwhichIrecentlymadetoagonpa,oneofthelamastoldmeofaprophet,or,as youcallhim,abuddha,bythenameofIssa.Couldyounottellmeanythingabouthim?" Iaskedmyinterlocutor,seizing


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thisfavorablemomenttostartthesubjectwhichinterestedmesogreatly. "ThenameIssaisverymuchrespectedamongtheBuddhists,"hereplied,"butheisonly knownbythechieflamas,whohavereadthescrollsrelatingtohislife.Therehave existedaninfinitenumberofbuddhaslikeIssa,andthe84,000scrollsexistingarefilled brimfullofdetailsconcerningeachoneofthem.Butveryfewpersonshavereadtheone hundredthpartofthosememoirs.Inconformitywithestablishedcustom,everydisciple orlamawhovisitsLhassamakesagiftofoneorseveralcopies,fromthescrollsthere,to theconventtowhichhebelongs.Ourgonpa,amongothers,possessesalreadyagreat number,whichIreadinmyleisurehours.Amongthemarethememoirsofthelifeand actsoftheBuddhaIssa,whopreached
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thesamedoctrineinIndiaandamongthesonsofIsrael,andwhowasputtodeathbythe Pagans,whosedescendants,lateron,adoptedthebeliefshespread,andthosebeliefsare yours. "ThegreatBuddha,thesouloftheUniverse,istheincarnationofBrahma.He,almost always,remainsimmobile,containinginhimselfallthings,beinginhimselftheoriginof allandhisbreathvivifyingtheworld.Hehasleftmantothecontrolofhisownforces, but,atcertainepochs,laysasidehisinactionandputsonahumanformthathemay,as theirteacherandguide,rescuehiscreaturesfromimpendingdestruction.Inthecourseof histerrestrialexistenceinthesimilitudeofman,Buddhacreatesanewworldinthehearts oferringmenthenheleavestheearth,tobecomeoncemorean
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invisiblebeingandresumehisconditionofperfectbliss.Threethousandyearsago, BuddhaincarnatedinthecelebratedPrinceSakyaMuni,reaffirmingandpropagatingthe doctrinestaughtbyhiminhistwentyprecedingincarnations.Twentyfivehundredyears ago,theGreatSouloftheWorldincarnatedanewin Gautama,layingthefoundationofa newworldinBurmah,Siamanddifferentislands.Soonafterward,Buddhismbeganto penetrateChina,throughtheperseveringeffortsofthesages,whodevotedthemselvesto thepropagationofthesacreddoctrine,andunderMingTi,oftheHonidynasty,nearly 2,050yearsago,theteachingsofSakyaMuniwereadoptedbythepeopleofthatcountry. SimultaneouslywiththeappearanceofBuddhisminChina,thesamedoctrinesbeganto spreadamongthe

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Israelites.Itisabout2,000yearsagothatthePerfectBeing,awakingonce moreforashorttimefromhisinaction,incarnatedinthenewbornchildofapoorfamily. Itwashiswillthatthislittlechildshouldenlightentheunhappyuponthelifeof theworld toconicandbringerringmenbackintothepathoftruthshowingtothem,byhisown example,thewaytheycouldbestreturntotheprimitivemoralityandpurityofourrace. Whenthissacredchildattainedacertainage,hewasbroughttoIndia,where,untilhe attainedtomanhood.hestudiedthelawsofthegreatBuddha,whodwellseternallyin heaven."


[paragraphcontinues]

"InwhatlanguagearewrittentheprincipalscrollsbearinguponthelifeofIssa?"Iasked, risingfrommyseat,forIsawthatmyinterestinginterlocutorevidencedfatigue,
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andhadjustgivenatwirltohisprayerwheel,asiftohinttheclosingoftheconversation. "TheoriginalscrollsbroughtfromIndiatoNepaul,andfromNepaultoThibet,relatingto thelifeofIssa,arewritteninthePalilanguageandareactuallyinLhassabutacopyin ourlanguageImeantheThibetanisinthisconvent." "HowisIssalookeduponinThibet?Hashethereputeofasaint?" "Thepeoplearenotevenawarethatheeverexisted.Onlytheprincipallamas,whoknow ofhimthroughhavingstudiedthescrollsinwhichhislifeisrelated,arefamiliarwithhis namebut,ashisdoctrinedoesnotconstituteacanonicalpartofBuddhism,andthe worshippersofIssadonotrecognizetheauthorityoftheDalaiLama,theprophet


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IssawithmanyotherslikehimisnotrecognizedinThibetasoneofthe principalsaints."
[paragraphcontinues]

"WouldyoucommitasininrecitingyourcopyofthelifeofIssatoastranger?"Iasked him. "ThatwhichbelongstoGod,"heansweredme,"belongsalsotoman.Ourdutyrequires ustocheerfullydevoteourselvestothepropagationofHisdoctrine.Only,Idonot,at present,knowwherethatmanuscriptis.Ifyouevervisitourgonpaagain,Ishalltake pleasureinshowingittoyou." Atthismomenttwomonksentered,andutteredtothechieflamaafewwords unintelligibletome. "Iamcalledtothesacrifices.Willyoukindlyexcuseme?"saidhetome,and,


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withasalute,turnedtothedooranddisappeared. Icoulddonobetterthanwithdrawandliedowninthechamberwhichwasassignedto me.andwhereIspentthenight.

IntheeveningofthenextdayIwasagaininLehthinkingofhowtogetbacktothe convent.TwodayslaterIsent,byamessenger,tothechieflama,aspresents,awatch,an alarmclock,andathermometer.AtthesametimeIsentthemessagethatbeforeleaving LadakIwouldprobablyreturntotheconvent,inthehopethathewouldpermitmetosee themanuscriptwhichhadbeenthesubjectofourconversation.Itwasnowmypurposeto gainKachmyrandreturnfromthere,sometimelater,


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toHimis.Butfatemadeadifferentdecisionforme. Inpassingamountain,onaheightofwhichisperchedthegonpaofPiatak,myhorse madeafalsestep,throwingmetothegroundsoviolentlythatmyrightlegwasbroken belowtheknee. Itwasimpossibletocontinuemyjourney,IwasnotinclinedtoreturntoLehandseeking thehospitalityofthegonpa,ofPiatakwasnot,fromtheappearanceofthecloister,an enticingprospect.MybestrecoursewouldbetoreturntoHimis,.thenonlyabouthalfa day'sjourneydistant,andIorderedmyservantstotransportmethere.Theybandagedmy brokenleganoperationwhichcausedmegreatpainandliftedmeintothesaddle.One carrierwalkedbymyside,supportingtheweightoftheinjured
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member,whileanotherledmyhorse.Atalatehouroftheeveningwereachedthedoor oftheconventofHimis. Wheninformedofmyaccident,thekindmonkscameouttoreceivemeand,witha wealthofextraordinaryprecautionsoftenderness,Iwascarriedinside,and,inoneof theirbestrooms,installeduponanimprovisedbed,consistingofamountainofsoft. fabrics,withthenaturallytobeexpectedprayercylinderbesideme.Allthiswasdone formeunderthepersonalsupervisionoftheirchieflama,who,withaffectionate sympathy,pressedthehandIgavehiminexpressionofmythanksforhiskindness. Inthemorning,Imyselfboundaroundtheinjuredlimblittleoblongpiecesofwood,held bycords,toserveassplints.ThenIremainedperfectlyquiescentandnaturewas
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notslowinherreparativework.WithintwodaysmyconditionwassofarimprovedthatI could,haditbeennecessary,haveleftthegonpaanddirectedmyselfslowlytowardIndia insearchofasurgeontocompletemycure. Whileaboykeptinmotiontheprayerbarrelnearmybed,thevenerablelamawhoruled theconvententertainedmewithmanyinterestingstories.Frequentlyhetookfromtheir boxthealarmclockandthewatch,thatImightillustratetohimtheprocessofwinding themandexplaintohimtheiruses.Atlength,yieldingtomyardentinsistence,he broughtmetwobigbooks,thelargeleavesofwhichwereofpaperyellowwithage,and fromthemreadtomethebiographyofIssa,whichIcarefullytranscribedinmytravelling notebookaccordingtothetranslation
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madebytheinterpreter.Thiscuriousdocumentiscompiledundertheformofisolated verses,which,asplaced,veryoftenhadnoapparentconnectionwith,orrelationtoeach other. Onthethirdday,myconditionwassofarimprovedastopermittheprosecutionofmy journey.Havingboundupmylegaswellaspossible,Ireturned,acrossKachmyr,to Indiaaslowjourney,oftwentydays,filledwithintolerablepain.Thanks,however,toa litter,whichaFrenchgentleman,M.Peicheau,hadkindlysenttome(mygratitudefor whichItakethisoccasiontoexpress),andtoanukaseoftheGrandVizierofthe MaharajahofKachmyr,orderingthelocalauthoritiestoprovidemewithcarriers,I reachedSrinagar,andleftalmostimmediately,
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beinganxioustogainIndiabeforethefirstsnowsfell. InMurIencounteredanotherFrenchman,CountAndrdeSaintPhall,whowasmaking ajourneyofrecreationacrossHindostan.Duringthewholecourse,whichwemade together,toBombay,theyoungcountdemonstratedatouchingsolicitudeforme,and sympathyfortheexcruciatingpainIsufferedfrommybrokenlegandthefeverinduced byitstorture.Icherishforhimsinceregratitude,andshallneverforgetthefriendlycare whichIreceiveduponmyarrivalinBombayfromtheMarquisdeMors,theVicomtede Breteul,M.Monod,oftheComptoirdEscompte,M.Mot,actingconsul,andallthe membersoftheverysympatheticFrenchcolonythere. DuringalongtimeIrevolvedinmymind
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thepurposeofpublishingthememoirsofthelifeofJesusChristfoundbymeinHimis, ofwhichIhavespoken,butotherinterestsabsorbedmyattentionanddelayedit.Only now,afterhavingpassedlongnightsofwakefulnessinthecoordinationofmynotesand

groupingtheversesconformablytothemarchoftherecital,impartingtothework,asa whole,acharacterofunity,Iresolvetoletthiscuriouschronicleseethelight.

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THELIFEOFSAINTISSA. "BESTOFTHESONSOFMEN." I.
1.Theearthtrembledandtheheavenswept,becauseofthegreatcrimecommittedinthe landofIsrael. 2.FortherewastorturedandmurderedthegreatandjustIssa,inwhomwasmanifestthe souloftheUniverse 3.Whichhadincarnatedinasimplemortal,tobenefitmenanddestroytheevilspiritin them 4.Toleadbacktopeace,loveandhappiness,man,degradedbyhissins,andrecallhimto theoneandindivisibleCreatorwhosemercyisinfinite.
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5.ThemerchantscomingfromIsraelhavegiventhefollowingaccountofwhathas occurred:

II.
1.ThepeopleofIsraelwhoinhabitafertilecountryproducingtwoharvestsayearand affordingpastureforlargeherdsofcattlebytheirsinsbroughtdownuponthemselves theangeroftheLord 2.Whoinflicteduponthemterriblechastisements,takingfromthemtheirland,their cattleandtheirwealth.Theywerecarriedawayintoslaverybytherichandmighty PharaohswhothenruledthelandofEgypt. 3.TheIsraeliteswere,bythePharaohs,treatedworsethanbeasts,condemnedtohard laborandputinironstheirbodieswerecoveredwithwoundsandsoresthey
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werenotpermittedtoliveunderaroof,andwerestarvedtodeath 4.Thattheymightbemaintainedinastateofcontinualterroranddeprivedofallhuman resemblance 5.Andinthisgreatcalamity,theIsraelites,rememberingtheirCelestialProtector, imploredhisforgivenessandmercy. 6.AtthatperiodreignedinEgyptanillustriousPharaoh,whowasrenownedforhismany victories,immenseriches,andthegiganticpalaceshehaderectedbythelaborofhis slaves. 7.ThisPharaohhadtwosons,theyoungerofwhom,namedMossa,hadacquiredmuch knowledgefromthesagesofIsrael. 8.AndMossawasbelovedbyallinEgypt,forhiskindnessofheartandthepityho showedtoallsufferers.
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9.WhenMossasawthattheIsraelites,inspiteoftheirmanysufferings,hadnotforsaken theirGod,andrefusedtoworshipthegodsofEgypt,createdbythehandsofman. 10.HealsoputhisfaithintheirinvisibleGod,whodidnotsufferthemtobetrayHim, despitetheirevergrowingweakness. 11.AndtheteachersamongIsraelanimatedMossainhiszeal,andprayedofhimthathe wouldintercedewithhisfather,Pharaoh,infavoroftheircoreligionists. 12.PrinceMossawentbeforehisfather,begginghimtolightentheburdenofthe unhappypeoplePharaoh,however,becameincensedwithrage,andorderedthatthey shouldbetormentedmorethanbefore. 13.AnditcametopassthatEgyptwasvisitedbyagreatcalamity.Theplaguedecimated youngandold,thehealthyandthe
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sickandPharaohbeheldinthistheresentmentofhisowngodsagainsthim. 14.ButPrinceMossasaidtohisfatherthatitwastheGodofhisslaveswhothus interposedonbehalfofhiswretchedpeople,andavengedthemupontheEgyptians. 15.Thereupon,PharaohcommandedMossa,hisson,togatheralltheIsraeliteslaves,and leadthemaway,andfound,atagreatdistancefromthecapital,anothercitywherehe shouldruleoverthem.

16.ThenMossamadeknowntotheHebrewslavesthathehadobtainedtheirfreedomin thenameofhisandtheirGod,theGodofIsraelandwiththemheleftthecityand departedfromthelandofEgypt. 17.Heledthembacktothelandwhich,becauseoftheirmanysins,hadbeentakenfrom them.Therehegavethemlawsand


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admonishedthemtoprayalwaystoGod,theindivisibleCreator,whosekindnessis infinite. 18.AfterPrinceMossa'sdeath,theIsraelitesobservedrigorouslyhislawsandGod rewardedthemfortheillstowhichtheyhadbeensubjectedinEgypt. 19.Theirkingdombecameoneofthemostpowerfulonearththeirkingsmade themselvesrenownedfortheirtreasures,andpeacereignedinIsrael.

III.
1.ThegloryofIsrael'swealthspreadoverthewholeearth,andthesurroundingnations becameenvious. 2.ButtheMostHighhimselfledthevictoriousarmsoftheHebrews,andthePagansdid notdaretoattackthem.
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3.Unfortunately,manispronetoerr,andthefidelityoftheIsraelitestotheirGodwas notoflongduration. 4.Littlebylittletheyforgotthefavorshehadbestoweduponthemrarelyinvokedhis name,andsoughtratherprotectionbythemagiciansandsorcerers. 5.Thekingsandthechiefsamongthepeoplesubstitutedtheirownlawsforthosegiven byMossathetempleofGodandtheobservancesoftheirancientfaithwereneglected thepeopleaddictedthemselvestosensualgratificationsandlosttheiroriginalpurity. 6.ManycenturieshadelapsedsincetheirexodusfromEgypt,whenGodbethought himselfofagaininflictingchastisementuponthem. 7.StrangersinvadedIsrael,devastated
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theland,destroyedthevillages,andcarriedtheirinhabitantsawayintocaptivity. 8.AtlastcamethePagansfromoverthesea,fromthelandofRomeles.Thesemade themselvesmastersoftheHebrews,andplacedoverthemtheirarmychiefs,who governedinthenameofCsar. 9.Theydefiledthetemples,forcedtheinhabitantstoceasetheworshipoftheindivisible God,andcompelledthemtosacrificetotheheathengods. 10.Theymadecommonsoldiersofthosewhohadbeenmenof rankthewomenbecame theirprey,andthecommonpeople,reducedtoslavery,werecarriedawaybythousands overthesea. 11.Thechildrenwereslain,andsoon,inthewholeland,therewasnaughtheardbut weepingandlamentation.
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12.Inthisextremedistress,theIsraelitesoncemorerememberedtheirgreatGod, imploredhismercyandprayedforhisforgiveness.OurFather,inhisinexhaustible clemency,heardtheirprayer.

IV.
1.AtthattimethemomenthadcomeforthecompassionateJudgetoreincarnateina humanform 2.AndtheeternalSpirit,restinginastateofcompleteinactionandsupremebliss, awakenedandseparatedfromtheeternalBeing,foranundeterminedperiod, 3.Sothat,inhumanform,HemightteachmantoidentifyhimselfwiththeDivinityand attaintoeternalfelicity
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4.Andtoshow,byHisexample,howmancanattainmoralpurityandfreehissoulfrom thedominationofthephysicalsenses,sothatitmayachievetheperfectionnecessaryfor ittoentertheKingdomofHeaven,whichisimmutableandwhereblisseternalreigns. 5.Soonafter,amarvellouschildwasborninthelandofIsrael.Godhimselfspoke, throughthemouthofthischild,ofthemiseriesofthebodyandthegrandeurofthesoul. 6,Theparentsoftheinfantwerepoorpeople,whobelongedtoafamilynotedforgreat pietywhoforgotthegreatnessoftheirancestorsincelebratingthenameoftheCreator andgivingthankstoHimforthetrialswhichHehadsentuponthem.

7.Torewardthemforadheringtothe
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pathoftruth,GodblessedthefirstbornofthisfamilychosehimforHiselect,andsent himtosustainthefallenandcomforttheafflicted. 8.Thedivinechild,towhomthenameIssawasgiven,commencedinhistenderyearsto talkoftheonlyandindivisibleGod,exhortingthestrayedsoulstorepentandpurify themselvesfromthesinsofwhichtheyhadbecomeguilty. 9.Peoplecamefromallpartstohearhim,andmarvelledatthediscourseswhichcame fromhisinfantilemouthandallIsraelagreedthattheSpiritoftheEternaldweltinthis child. 10.WhenIssawasthirteenyearsold,theageatwhichanIsraeliteisexpectedtomarry, 11.Themodesthouseofhisindustrious
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parentsbecameameetingplaceoftherichandillustrious,whowereanxioustohaveasa soninlawtheyoungIssa,whowasalreadycelebratedfortheedifyingdiscourseshe madeinthenameoftheAllPowerful. 12.ThenIssasecretlyabsentedhimselffromhisfather'shouseleftJerusalem,and,ina trainofmerchants,journeyedtowardtheSindh, 13.WiththeobjectofperfectinghimselfintheknowledgeofthewordofGodandthe studyofthelawsofthegreatBuddhas.

V.
1.Inhisfourteenthyear,youngIssa,theBlessedOne,camethissideoftheSindhand settledamongtheAryas,inthecountrybelovedbyGod.
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2.FamespreadthenameofthemarvellousyouthalongthenorthernSindh,andwhenhe camethroughthecountryofthefivestreamsandRadjipoutan,thedevoteesofthegod Djaneaskedhimtostayamongthem. 3.ButheleftthedeludedworshippersofDjaneandwenttoDjagguernat,inthecountry ofOrsis,wherereposethemortalremainsofVyassaKrishna,andwherethewhitepriests ofBrahmawelcomedhimjoyfully.

4.Theytaughthim toreadandtounderstandtheVedas,tocurephysicalillsbymeansof prayers,toteachandtoexpoundthesacredScriptures,todriveoutevildesiresfromman andmakehimagaininthelikenessofGod. 5.HespentsixyearsinDjagguernat,in


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Radjagriha,inBenares,andinotherholycities.Thecommonpeopleloved Issa,forhelivedinpeacewiththeVaisyasandtheSudras,towhomhetaughttheHoly Scriptures.


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6.ButtheBrahminsandtheKshatriyastoldhimthattheywereforbiddenbythegreat ParaBrahmatocomeneartothosewhowerecreatedfromhisbellyandhisfeet* 7.ThattheVaisyasmightonlyheartherecitaloftheVedas,andthisonlyonthefestal days,and 8.ThattheSudraswerenotonlyforbiddentoattendthereadingoftheVedas,butevento lookonthemfortheywerecondemnedtoperpetualservitude,asslavesoftheBrahmins, theKshatriyasandeventheVaisyas.


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9."Deathalonecanenfranchisethemfromtheirservitude,"hassaidParaBrahma. "Leavethem,therefore,andcometoadorewithusthegods,whomyouwillmakeangry ifyoudisobeythem." 10.ButIssa,disregardingtheirwords,remainedwiththeSudras,preachingagainstthe. BrahminsandtheKshatriyas. 11.Hedeclaimedstronglyagainstman'sarrogatingtohimselftheauthoritytodeprivehis fellowbeingsoftheirhumanandspiritualrights."Verily,"hesaid,"Godhasmadeno differencebetweenhischildren,whoareallalikedeartoHim." 12.IssadeniedthedivineinspirationoftheVedasandthePuranas,for,ashetaughthis followers,"Onelawhasbeengiventomantoguidehiminhisactions: 13."FeartheLord,thyGodbendthy
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kneesonlybeforeHimandbringtoHimonlytheofferingswhichcomefromthy earnings." 14.IssadeniedtheTrimurtiandtheincarnationofParaBrahmainVishnu,Siva,and othergods"for,"saidhe:

15."TheeternalJudge,theeternalSpirit,constitutestheonlyandindivisiblesoulofthe universe,anditisthissoulalonewhichcreates,containsandvivifiesall. 16."Healonehaswilledandcreated.Healonehasexistedfrometernity,andIIis existencewillbewithoutendthereisnoonelikeuntoHimeitherintheheavensoron theearth. 17."ThegreatCreatorhasdividedHispowerwithnootherbeingfarlesswithinanimate objects,asyouhavebeentaughtto


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believe,forHealoneisomnipotentandallsufficient. 18."Hewilled,andtheworldwas.Byonedivinethought,Hereunitedthewatersand separatedthemfromthedrylandoftheglobe.Heisthecauseofthemysteriouslifeof man,intowhomHehasbreathedpartofHisdivineBeing. 19."AndHehasputundersubjectiontoman,thelands,thewaters,thebeastsand everythingwhichHecreated,andwhichHehimselfpreservesinimmutableorder, allottingtoeachitsproperduration. 20."TheangerofGodwillsoonbreakforthuponmanforhehasforgottenhisCreator hehasfilledHistempleswithabominationsandheadoresamultitudeofcreatureswhich Godhassubordinatedtohim 21."Andtogainfavorwithimagesof
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stoneandmetal,hesacrificeshumanbeingsinwhomdwellspartoftheSpiritofthe Most High 22."Andhehumiliatesthosewhoworkinthesweatoftheirbrows,togainfavorinthe eyesoftheidlerwhosittethatasumptuoustable. 23."Thosewhodeprivetheirbrothersofdivinehappinesswillthemselvesbedeprivedof itandtheBrahminsandtheKshatriyasshallbecometheSudrasoftheSudras,with whomtheEternalwillstayforever. 24."InthedayofjudgmenttheSudrasandtheVaisyaswillbeforgivenforthatthey knewnotthelight,whileGodwillletloosehiswrathuponthosewhoarrogatedhis authority." 25.TheVaisyasandtheSudraswerefilledwithgreatadmiration,andaskedIssahow
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theyshouldpray,inordernottolosetheirholduponeternallife. 26."Praynottoidols,fortheycannothearyouhearkennottotheVedaswherethetruth isalteredbehumbleandhumiliatenotyourfellowman. 27."Helpthepoor,supporttheweak,doeviltononecovetnotthatwhichyehavenot andwhichbelongstoothers."

Footnotes
168:*TheVaisyasandSudrascastes.

VI.
1.Thewhitepriestsandthewarriors,* whohadlearnedofIssa'sdiscoursetotheSudras, resolveduponhisdeath,andsenttheirservantstofindtheyoungteacherandslayhim. 2.ButIssa,warnedbytheSudrasofhis
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danger,leftbynightDjagguernat,gainedthemountain,andsettledinthecountryofthe Gautamides,wherethegreatBuddhaSakyaMunicametotheworld,amongapeople whoworshippedtheonlyandsublimeBrahma. 3.WhenthejustIssahadacquiredthePalilanguage,heappliedhimselftothestudyof thesacredscrollsoftheSutras. 4.Aftersixyearsofstudy,Issa,whomtheBuddhahadelectedtospreadhisholy word, couldperfectlyexpoundthesacredscrolls. 5.HethenleftNepaulandtheHimalayamountains,descendedintothevalleyof RadjipoutananddirectedhisstepstowardtheWest,everywherepreachingtothepeople thesupremeperfectionattainablebyman 6.Andthegoodhemustdotohisfellowmen,
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whichisthesuremeansofspeedyunionwiththeeternalSpirit."Hewhohasrecovered hisprimitivepurity,"saidIssa,"shalldiewithhistransgressionsforgivenandhavethe righttocontemplatethemajestyofGod."

7.WhenthedivineIssatraversedtheterritoriesofthePagans,hetaughtthatthe adorationofvisiblegodswascontrarytonaturallaw. 8."Fortoman,"saidhe,"ithasnotbeengiventoseetheimageofGod,anditbehooves himnottomakeforhimselfamultitudeofdivinitiesintheimaginedlikenessofthe Eternal. 9."Moreover,itisagainsthumanconsciencetohavelessregardforthegreatnessof divinepurity,thanforanimalsorworksofstoneormetalmadebythehandsofman.


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10."TheeternalLawgiverisOnetherearenootherGodsthanHeHehaspartedthe worldwithnone,norhadHeanycounsellor. 11."Evenasafathershowskindnesstowardhischildren,sowillGodjudgemenafter death,inconformitywithHismercifullaws.Hewillneverhumiliatehischildbycasting hissoulforchastisementintothebodyofabeast. 12."Theheavenlylaws,"saidtheCreator,throughthemouthofIssa,"areopposedtothe immolationofhumansacrificestoastatueorananimalforI,theGod,havesacrificedto manalltheanimalsandallthattheworldcontains. 13."Everythinghasbeensacrificedtoman,whoisdirectlyandintimatelyunitedtome, hisFathertherefore,shallthemanbe
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severelyjudgedandpunished,bymylaw,whocausesthesacrificeofmychildren. 14."ManisnaughtbeforetheeternalJudgeastheanimalisbeforeman. 15."Therefore,Isayuntoyou,leaveyouridolsandperformnotceremonieswhich separateyoufromyourFatherandbindyoutothe priests,fromwhomheavenhasturned away. 16."ForitistheywhohaveledyouawayfromthetrueGod,andbysuperstitionsand crueltypervertedthespiritandmadeyoublindtotheknowledgeofthetruth."

Footnotes
173:*BrahminsandKshatriyas.

VII.
1.ThewordsofIssaspreadamongthePagans,throughwhosecountryhepassed,andthe inhabitantsabandonedtheiridols.
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2.Seeingwhich,thepriestsdemandedofhimwhothusglorifiedthenameofthetrue God,thatheshould,inthepresenceofthepeople,provethechargeshemadeagainst them,anddemonstratethevanityoftheiridols. 3.AndIssaansweredthem:"Ifyouridols,ortheanimalsyouworship,reallypossessthe supernaturalpowersyouclaim,letthemstrikemewithathunderboltbeforeyou!" 4."Whydostnotthouperformamiracle,"repliedthepriests,"andletthyGodconfound ours,ifHeisgreaterthanthey?" 5.ButIssasaid:"ThemiraclesofourGodhavebeenwroughtfromthefirstdaywhenthe universewascreatedandareperformedeverydayandeverymomentwhoso


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seesthemnotisdeprivedofoneofthemostbeautifulgiftsoflife. 6."Anditisnotoninanimateobjectsofstone,metalorwoodthatHewillletHisanger fall,butonthemenwhoworshipthem,andwho,therefore,fortheirsalvation,must destroytheidolstheyhavemade. 7."Evenasastoneandagrainofsand,whicharenaughtbeforeman,awaitpatiently theirusebyHim, 8."Inlikemanner,man,whoisnaughtbeforeGod,mustawaitinresignationHis pleasureforamanifestationofHisfavor. 9."Butwoetoyou!yeadversariesofmen,ifitisnotthefavoryouawait,butratherthe wrathoftheMostHighwoetoyou,ifyoudemandthatHeattestHispowerbya miracle! 10."ForitisnottheidolswhichHewill
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destroyinHiswrath,butthosebywhomtheywerecreatedtheirheartswillbetheprey ofaneternalfireandtheirfleshshallbegiventothebeastsofprey. 11."GodwilldriveawaythecontaminatedanimalsfromHisflocksbutwilltaketo Himselfthosewhostrayedbecausetheyknewnottheheavenlypartwithinthem."

12.WhenthePaganssawthatthepoweroftheirpriestswasnaught,theyputfaithinthe wordsofIssa.FearingtheangerofthetrueGod,theybroketheiridolstopiecesand causedtheirprieststofleefromamongthem. 13.IssafurthermoretaughtthePagansthattheyshouldnotendeavortoseetheeternal SpiritwiththeireyesbuttoperceiveHimwiththeirhearts,andmake


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themselvesworthyofHisfavorsbythepurityoftheirsouls. 14."Notonly,"hesaidtothem,"mustyerefrainfromofferinghumansacrifices,butye maynotlayonthealtaranycreaturetowhichlifehasbeen given,forallthingscreated areforman. 15."Withholdnotfromyourneighborhisjustdue,forthiswouldbelikestealingfrom himwhathehadearnedinthesweatofhisbrow. 16."Deceivenone,thatyemaynotyourselvesbedeceivedseektojustifyyourselves beforethelastjudgment,forthenitwillbetoolate. 17."Benotgiventodebauchery,foritisaviolationofthelawofGod. 18."Thatyoumayattaintosupremeblissyemustnotonlypurifyyourselves,but
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mustalsoguideothersinto thepaththatwillenablethemtoregaintheirprimitive innocence."

VIII.
1.ThecountriesroundaboutwerefilledwiththerenownofIssa'spreachings,andwhen hecameuntoPersia,thepriestsgrewafraidandforbadethepeoplehearinghim 2.Nevertheless,thevillagesreceivedhimwithjoy,andthepeoplehearkenedintentlyto hiswords,which,beingseenbythepriests,causedthemtoorderthatheshouldbe arrestedandbroughtbeforetheirHighPriest,whoaskedhim: 3."OfwhatnewGoddostthouspeak?Knowestthounot,unfortunatemanthatthouart! thatSaintZoroasteristheonlyJust
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One,towhomalonewasvouchsafedthehonorofreceivingrevelations fromtheMostHigh
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4."BywhosecommandtheangelscompiledHisWordinlawsforthegovernanceofHis people,whichweregiventoZoroasterinParadise? 5."Who,then,artthou,whodarestutterblasphemiesagainstourGodandsowdoubtin theheartsofbelievers?" 6.AndIssasaidtothem:"IpreachnonewGod,but ourcelestialFather,whohasexisted beforethebeginningandwillexistuntilaftertheend. 7."OfHimIhavespokentothepeople,whoevenasinnocentchildrenareincapableof comprehendingGodbytheirownintelligence,orfathomingthesublimity ofthedivine Spirit
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8."But,asthenewbornchildinthenightrecognizesthemother'sbreast,soyourpeople, heldinthedarknessoferrorbyyourperniciousdoctrinesandreligiousceremonies,have recognizedinstinctivelytheirFather,intheFatherwhoseprophetIam. 9."TheeternalBeingsaystoyourpeople,bymymouth,'Yeshallnotadorethesun,forit isbutapartoftheuniversewhichIhavecreatedforman 10."ItrisestowarmyouduringyourworkitsetstoaccordtoyoutherestthatIhave ordained. 11."Tomeonlyyeoweallthatyepossess,allthatsurroundsyouandthatisaboveand belowyou.'" 12."But,"saidthepriests,"howcouldthepeopleliveaccordingtoyourrulesiftheyhad noteachers?"
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13.WhereuponIssaanswered:"Solongastheyhadnopriests,theyweregovernedbythe naturallawandconservedthesimplicityoftheirsouls 14."TheirsoulswereinGodandtocommunewiththeFathertheyhadnottohave recoursetotheintermediationofidols,oranimals,orfire,astaughtbyyou. 15."Yepretendthatmanmustadorethesun,andtheGeniiofGoodandEvil.ButIsay untoyouthatyourdoctrineispernicious.Thesundoesnotactspontaneously,butbythe willoftheinvisibleCreator,whohasgiven toitbeing."

16."Who,then,hascausedthatthisstarlightstheday,warmsmanathisworkand vivifiestheseedssownintheground?" 17."TheeternalSpiritisthesoulofeverythinganimate,andyoucommitagreat


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sinindividingHimintotheSpiritofEvilandtheSpiritofGood,forthereisnoGod otherthantheGodofGood. 18."AndHe,liketothefatherofafamily,doesonlygoodtoHischildren,towhomHe forgivestheirtransgressionsiftheyrepentofthem. 19."AndtheSpiritofEvil dwellsuponearth,intheheartsofthosewhoturnthechildren ofGodawayfromtherightpath. 20."Therefore,IsayuntoyouFearthedayofjudgment,forGodwillinflictaterrible chastisementuponallthosewhohaveledHischildrenastrayandbeguiledthemwith superstitionsanderrors 21."Uponthosewhohaveblindedthemwhosawwhohavebroughtcontagiontothe wellwhohavetaughttheworshipof
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thosethingswhichGodmadetobesubjecttoman,ortoaidhiminhisworks. 22."YourdoctrineisthefruitofyourerrorinseekingtobringneartoyoutheGodof Truth,bycreatingforyourselvesfalsegods." 23.WhentheMagiheardthesewords,theyfearedtothemselvesdohimharm,butat night,whenthewholecityslept,theybroughthimoutsidethewallsandlefthimonthe highway,inthehopethathewouldnotfailtobecomethepreyofwildbeasts. 24.But,protectedbytheLordourGod,SaintIssacontinuedonhisway,without accident.

IX.
1.IssawhomtheCreatorhadselectedtorecalltotheworshipofthetrueGod,men
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sunkinsinwastwentynineyearsoldwhenhearrivedinthelandofIsrael.

2.SincethedeparturetherefromofIssa,thePaganshadcausedtheIsraelitestoendure moreatrocioussufferingsthanbefore,andtheywerefilledwithdespair. 3.ManyamongthemhadbeguntoneglectthelawsoftheirGodandthoseofMossa,in thehopeofwinningthefavoroftheirbrutalconquerors. 4.ButIssa,notwithstandingtheirunhappycondition,exhortedhiscountrymennotto despair,becausethedayoftheirredemptionfromtheyokeofsinwasnear,andhe himself,byhisexample,confirmedtheirfaithintheGodoftheirfathers. 5."Children,yieldnotyourselvestodespair,"saidthecelestialFathertothem,through themouthofIssa,"forIhaveheard


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yourlamentations,andyourcrieshavereachedmycars. 6."Weepnot,oh,mybelovedsons!foryourgriefshavetouchedtheheartofyourFather andHehasforgivenyou,asHeforgaveyourancestors. 7."Forsakenotyourfamiliestoplungeintodebaucherystainnotthenobilityofyour soulsadorenotidolswhichcannotbutremaindeaftoyoursupplications. 8."Fillmytemplewithyourhopeandyourpatience,anddonotadjurethereligionof yourforefathers,forIhaveguidedthemandbestoweduponthemofmybeneficence. 9."Liftupthosewhoarefallenfeedthehungryandhelpthesick,thatyemaybe altogetherpureandjustinthedayofthelastjudgmentwhichIprepareforyou." 10.TheIsraelitescameinmultitudesto
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listentoIssa'swordsandtheyaskedhimwheretheyshouldthanktheirHeavenlyFather, sincetheirenemieshaddemolishedtheirtemplesandrobbedthemoftheirsacredvessels. 11.IssatoldthemthatGodcarednotfortempleserectedbyhumanhands,butthathuman heartswerethetruetemplesofGod. 12."Enterintoyourtemple,intoyourheartilluminateitwithgoodthoughts,with patienceandtheunshakeablefaithwhichyouowetoyourFather. 13."Andyoursacredvessels!theyareyourhandsandyoureyes.Looktodothatwhich isagreeabletoGod,forindoinggoodtoyourfellowmen,youperformaceremonythat embellishesthetemplewhereinabidethHimwhohascreatedyou.


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14."ForGodhascreatedyouinHisownimage,innocent,withpuresouls,andhearts' filledwithkindnessandnotmadefortheplanningofevil,buttobethesanctuariesof loveandjustice. 15."Therefore,Isayuntoyou,soilnotyourheartswithevil,forinthemtheEternal Beingabides. 16."Whenyedoworksofdevotionandlove,letthembewithfullhearts,andseethatthe motivesofyouractionsbenothopesofgainorselfinterest 17.Foractions,soimpelled,willnotbringyounearertosalvation,butleadtoastateof moraldegradationwhereintheft,lyingandmurderpassforgenerousdeeds."

X.
1.Issawentfromonecitytoanother,
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strengtheningbythewordofGodthecourageoftheIsraelites,whowerebearto succumbingundertheirweightofwoe,andthousandsofthepeoplefollowedhimtohear histeachings. 2.Butthechiefsofthecitieswereafraidofhimandtheyinformedtheprincipal governor,residinginJerusalem,thatamancalledIssahadarrivedinthecountry,whoby hissermonshadarrayedthepeopleagainsttheauthorities,andthatmultitudes,listening assiduouslytohim,neglectedtheirlaborand,theyadded,hesaidthatinashorttime theywouldbefreeoftheirinvaderrulers. 3.ThenPilate,theGovernorofJerusalem,gaveordersthattheyshouldlayholdofthe preacherIssaandbringhimbeforethejudges.Inorder,however,nottoexcitethe
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angerofthepopulace,Pilatedirectedthatheshouldbejudgedbythepriestsandscribes, theHebrewelders,intheirtemple. 4.Meanwhile,Issa,continuinghispreachings,arrivedatJerusalem,andthepeople,who alreadyknewhisfame,havinglearnedofhiscoming,wentouttomeethim. 5.Theygreetedhimrespectfullyandopenedtohimthedoorsoftheirtemple,tohear fromhismouthwhathehadsaidinothercitiesofIsrael.

6.AndIssasaidtothem:"Thehumanraceperishes,becauseofthelackoffaithforthe darknessandthetempesthavecausedtheflocktogoastrayandtheyhavelosttheir shepherds. 7."Butthetempestsdonotrageforeverandthedarknesswillnothidethelighteternally soontheskywillbecomeserene,


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thecelestiallightwillagainoverspreadtheearth,andthestrayedflockwillreunite aroundtheirshepherd. 8."Wandernotinthedarkness,seekingtheway,lestyefallintotheditchbutgather together,sustainoneanother,putyourfaithinyourGodandwaitforthefirstglimmerof lighttoreappear. 9."Hewhosustainshisneighbor,sustainshimselfandhewhoprotectshisfamily, protectsallhispeopleandhiscountry. 10."For,beassuredthatthedayisnearwhenyouwillbedeliveredfromthedarkness youwillbereunitedintoonefamilyandyourenemywilltremblewithfear,hewhois ignorantofthefavorofthegreatGod." 11.Thepriestsandtheelderswhoheardhim,filledwithadmirationforhislanguage,
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askedhimifitwastruethathehadsoughttoraisethepeopleagainsttheauthoritiesof thecountry,ashadbeenreportedtothegovernorPilate. 12."Canoneraiseagainstestrayedmen,towhomdarknesshashiddentheirroadand theirdoor?"answeredIssa."Ihavebutforewarnedtheunhappy,asIdohereinthis temple,thattheyshouldnolongeradvanceonthedarkroad,foranabyssopensbefore theirfeet. 13."Thepowerof thisearthisnotoflongdurationandissubjecttonumberlesschanges. Itwouldbeofnoavailforamantoriseinrevolutionagainstit,foronephaseofital wayssucceedsanother,anditisthusthatitwillgoonuntiltheextinctionofhumanlife. 14."Butdoyounotseethatthepowerful,
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andtherich,sowamongthechildrenofIsraelaspiritofrebellionagainsttheeternal powerofHeaven?"

15.Thentheeldersaskedhim:"Whoartthou,andfromwhatcountryhastthoucometo us?Wehavenotformerlyheardtheespokenofanddonotevenknowthyname!" 16."IamanIsraelite,"answeredIssa"andonthedayofmybirthhaveseenthewallsof Jerusalem,andhaveheardthesobsofmybrothersreducedtoslavery,andthe lamentationsofmysisterscarriedawaybythePagans 17."AndmysoulwasafflictedwhenIsawthatmybrethrenhadforgottenthetrueGod. WhenachildIleftmyfather'shousetogoandsettleamongotherpeople. 18."But,havinghearditsaidthatmybrethrensufferedevengreatermiseriesnow,


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Ihavecomebacktothelandofmyfathers,torecallmybrethrentothe faithoftheirancestors,whichteachesuspatienceuponearthinordertoattaintheperfect andsupremeblissabove."


[paragraphcontinues]

19.Then thewiseoldmenputtohimagainthisquestion:"Wearetoldthatthou disownestthelawsofMossa,andthatthouteachestthepeopletoforsakethetempleof God?" 20.WhereuponIssa:"OnedoesnotdemolishthatwhichhasbeengivenbyourHeavenly Father,andwhichhasbeendestroyedbysinners.Ihavebutenjoinedthepeopletopurify theheartofallstains,foritistheveritabletempleofGod. 21."AsregardsthelawsofMossa,Ihaveendeavoredtoreestablishthemintheheartsof menandIsayuntoyouthatyeignore


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theirtruemeaning,foritisnotvengeancebutpardonwhichtheyteach.Theirsensehas beenperverted."

XI.
1.WhenthepriestsandtheeldersheardIssa,theydecidedamongthemselvesnottogive judgmentagainsthim,forhehaddonenoharmtoanyone,and,presentingthemselves beforePilatewhowasmadeGovernorofJerusalembythePagankingofthecountryof Romelestheyspaketohimthus: 2."Wehaveseenthemanwhomthouchargestwithincitingourpeopletorevoltwe haveheardhisdiscoursesandknowthatheisourcountryman 3."Butthechiefsofthecitieshavemadetoyoufalsereports,forheisajustman,who

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teachesthepeoplethewordofGod.Afterinterrogatinghim,wehaveallowedhimtogo in peace." 4.Thegovernorthereuponbecameveryangry,andsenthisdisguisedspiestokeepwatch uponIssaandreporttotheauthoritiestheleastwordheaddressedtothepeople. 5.Inthemeantime,theholyIssacontinuedtovisittheneighboringcitiesandpreachthe truewayoftheLord,enjoiningtheHebrewspatienceandpromisingthemspeedy deliverance. 6.Andallthetimegreatnumbersofthepeoplefollowedhimwhereverhewent,and manydidnotleavehimatall,butattachedthemselvestohimandservedhim. 7.AndIssasaid:"Putnotyourfaithinmiraclesperformedbythehandsofmen,forHe whorulesnatureisalonecapableofdoing
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supernaturalthings,whilemanisimpotenttoarrestthewrathofthewindsorcausethe raintofall. 8."Onemiracle,however,iswithinthepowerofmantoaccomplish.Itis,whenhisheart isfilledwithsincerefaith,heresolvestorootoutfromhismindallevilpromptingsand desires,andwhen,inordertoattainthisend,heceasestowalkthepathof iniquity. 9."AllthethingsdonewithoutGodareonlygrosserrors,illusionsandseductions, servingbuttoshowhowmuchtheheartofthedoerisfullofpresumption,falsehoodand impurity. 10."Putnotyourfaithinoracles.Godaloneknowsthefuture.Hewhohasrecourseto thedivinerssoilsthetempleofhisheartandshowshislackoffaithinhisCreator.
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11."Beliefinthedivinersandtheirmiraclesdestroystheinnatesimplicityofmanandhis childlikepurity.Aninfernalpowertakesholdofhimwhosoerrs,andforceshimto commitvarioussinsandgivehimselftotheworshipofidols. 12."ButtheLordourGod,towhomnonecanbeequalled,isoneomnipotent,omniscient andomnipresentHealonepossessesallwisdomandalllight. 13."ToHimyemustaddressyourselves,tobecomfortedinyourafflictions,aidedin yourworks,healedinyoursicknessandwhosoasksofHim,shallnotaskinvain.

14."ThesecretsofnatureareinthehandsofGod,forthewholeworld,beforeitwas mademanifest,existedinthebosomofthedivinethought,andhasbecomematerialand visiblebythewilloftheMostHigh.


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15."Whenyepraytohim,becomeagainlikelittlechildren,foryeknowneitherthepast, northepresent,northefuture,andGodistheLordofTime."

XII.
1."Justman,"saidtohimthedisguisedspiesoftheGovernorofJerusalem,"tellusifwe mustcontinuetodothewillofCsar,orexpectourneardeliverance?" 2.AndIssa,whorecognizedthequestionersastheapostate spiessenttofollowhim, repliedtothem:"IhavenottoldyouthatyouwouldbedeliveredfromCsaritisthe soulsunkinerrorwhichwillgainitsdeliverance. 3."Therecannotbeafamilywithoutahead,andtherecannotbeorderinapeople
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withoutaCsar,whomyeshouldimplicitlyobey,ashewillbeheldtoanswerforhis actsbeforetheSupremeTribunal." 4."DoesCsarpossessadivineright?"thespiesaskedhimagain"andishethebestof mortals?" 5."Thereisnoone'thebest'amonghumanbeingsbuttherearemanybad,whoevenas thesickneedphysiciansrequirethecareofthosechosenforthatmission,inwhichmust beusedthemeansgivenbythesacredlawofourHeavenlyFather 6."MercyandjusticearethehighprerogativesofCsar,andhisnamewillbeillustrious ifheexercisesthem. 7."Buthewhoactsotherwise,whotranscendsthelimitsofpowerhehasoverthose underhisrule,andevengoessofarastoputtheirlivesindanger,offendsthegreatJudge
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andderogatesfromhisowndignityintheeyesofmen." 8.Uponthis,anoldwomanwhohadapproachedthegroup,tobetterhearIssa,was pushedasidebyoneofthedisguisedmen,whoplacedhimselfbeforeher.

9.ThensaidIssa:"Itisnotgoodforasontopushawayhismother,thathemayoccupy theplacewhichbelongstoher.Whosodothnotrespecthismotherthemostsacred beingafterhisGodisunworthyofthenameofson. 10."HearkentowhatIsaytoyou:Respectwomanforinherweseethemotherofthe universe,andallthetruthofdivinecreationistocomethroughher. 12."Sheisthefountofeverythinggoodandbeautiful,assheisalsothegermoflifeand death.Uponhermandependsinallhis


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existence,forsheishismoralandnaturalsupportinhislabors. 12."Inpainandsufferingshebringsyouforthinthesweatofherbrowshewatchesover yourgrowth,anduntilherdeathyoucausehergreatestanxieties.Blessherandadoreher, forsheisyouronlyfriendandsupportonearth. 13."Respectherdefendher.Insodoingyouwillgainforyourselfherloveyouwill findfavorbeforeGod,andforhersakemanysinswillberemittedtoyou. 14."Loveyourwivesandrespectthem,fortheywillbethemothersoftomorrowand later thegrandmothersofawholenation. "Besubmissivetothewifeherloveennoblesman,softenshishardenedheart,
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tamesthewildbeastinhimandchangesittoalamb. 16."WifeandmotherarethepricelesstreasureswhichGodhasgiventoyou.Theyare themostbeautifulornamentsoftheuniverse,andfromthemwillbebornallwhowill inhabittheworld. 17."EvenastheLordofHostsseparatedthelightfromthedarkness,andthedryland fromthewaters,sodoeswomanpossessthedivinegiftof callingforthoutofman'sevil natureallthegoodthatisinhim. 18."ThereforeIsayuntoyou,afterGod,towomanmustbelongyourbestthoughts,for sheisthedivinetemplewhereyouwillmosteasilyobtainperfecthappiness. 19."Drawfromthistempleyourmoralforce.Thereyouwillforgetyoursorrows
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andyourfailures,andrecoverthelovenecessarytoaidyourfellowmen.

20."Sufferhernottobehumiliated,forbyhumiliatingheryouhumiliateyourselves,and losethesentimentoflove,withoutwhichnothingcanexisthereonearth. 21."Protectyourwife,thatshemayprotectyouyouandallyourhousehold.Allthat youdoforyourmothers,yourwives,forawidow,orforanyotherwomanindistress, youwilldoforyourGod."

XIII.
1.ThusSaintIssataughtthepeopleofIsraelforthreeyears,ineverycityandevery village,onthehighwaysandinthefields,andallhesaidcametopass. 2.Allthistimethedisguisedspiesofthe
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governorPilateobservedhimclosely,butheardnothingtosustaintheaccusations formerlymadeagainstIssabythechiefsofthecities. 3.ButSaintIssa'sgrowingpopularitydidnotallowPilatetorest.HefearedthatIssa wouldbeinstrumentalinbringingaboutarevolutionculminatinginhiselevationtothe sovereignty,and,therefore,orderedthespiestomakechargesagainsthim. 4.Thensoldiersweresenttoarresthim,andtheycasthimintoasubterraneandungeon, wherehewassubjectedtoallkindsoftortures,tocompelhimtoaccusehimself,sothat hemightbeputtodeath. 5.TheSaint,thinkingonlyoftheperfectblissofhisbrethren,enduredallthosetorments withresignationtothewilloftheCreator.
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6,TheservantsofPilatecontinuedtotorturehim,andhewasreducedtoastateof extremeweaknessbutGodwaswithhimanddidnotpermithimtodieattheirhands. 7.WhentheprincipalpriestsandwiseelderslearnedofthesufferingswhichtheirSaint endured,theywenttoPilate,begginghimtoliberateIssa,so thathemightattendthe greatfestivalwhichwasnearathand. 8.Butthisthegovernorrefused.ThentheyaskedhimthatIssashouldbebroughtbefore theelders'council,sothathemightbecondemned,oracquitted,beforethefestival,and tothisPilateagreed. 9.Onthefollowingdaythegovernorassembledtheprincipalchiefs,priests,eldersand judges,forthepurposeofjudgingIssa.

10.TheSaintwasbroughtfromhisprison.Theymadehimsitbeforethegovernor,
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betweentworobbers,whoweretobejudgedatthesametimewithIssa,soastoshowthe peoplehewasnottheonlyonetobecondemned. 11.AndPilate,addressinghimselftoIssa,said,"Isittrue,Oh!Manthatthouincitestthe populaceagainsttheauthorities,withthepurpose ofthyselfbecomingKingofIsrael?" 12.Issareplied,"Onedoesnotbecomekingbyone'sownpurposethereto.Theyhave toldyouanuntruthwhenyouwereinformedthatIwasincitingthepeopletorevolution.I haveonlypreachedoftheKingofHeaven,anditwasHimwhomItoldthepeopleto worship. 13."ForthesonsofIsraelhavelosttheiroriginalinnocenceandunlesstheyreturnto worshipthetrueGodtheywillbesacrificedandtheirtemplewillfallinruins.
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14."TheworldlypowerupholdsorderinthelandItoldthemnottoforgetthis.Isaidto them,'Liveinconformitywithyoursituationandrefrainfromdisturbingpublicorder' and,atthesametime,Iexhortedthemtorememberthatdisorderreignedintheirown heartsandspirits 15."Therefore,theKingofHeavenhaspunishedthem,andhasdestroyedtheir nationalityandtakenfromthemtheirnationalkings,'but,'Iadded,'ifyouwillbe resignedtoyourfate,asarewardtheKingdomofHeavenwillbeyours." 16.Atthismomentthewitnesseswereintroducedoneofwhomdeposedthus:"Thou hastsaidtothepeoplethatincomparisonwiththepowerofthekingwhowouldsoon liberatetheIsraelitesfromthe
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yokeoftheheathen,theworldlyauthoritiesamountedtonothing." 17."Blessingsuponthee!"saidIssa."Forthouhastspokenthetruth!TheKingofHeaven isgreaterandmorepowerfulthanthelawsofmanandHiskingdomsurpassesthe kingdomsofthisearth. 18."Andthetimeisnotfaroff,whenIsrael,obedienttothewillofGod,willthrowoff itsyokeofsinforithasbeenwrittenthataforerunnerwouldappeartoannouncethe deliveranceofthepeople,andthathewouldreunitetheminonefamily."

19.Thereuponthegovernorsaidtothejudges:"Haveyouheardthis?TheIsraeliteIssa acknowledgesthecrimeofwhichheisaccused.Judgehim,then,accordingtoyourlaws andpassuponhimcondemnationtodeath."


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20."Wecannotcondemnhim,"repliedthepriestsandtheancients."Asthouhastheard, hespokeoftheKingofHeaven,andhehaspreachednothingwhichconstitutes insubordinationagainstthelaw." 21.Thereuponthegovernorcalledawitnesswhohadbeenbribedbyhismaster,Pilate,to betrayIssa,andthismansaidtoIssa:"Isitnottruethatthouhastrepresentedthyselfasa KingofIsrael,whenthoudidstsaythatHewhoreignsinHeavensenttheetoprepareHis people?" 22.ButIssablessedthemanandanswered:"Thouwiltfindmercy,forwhatthouhast saiddidnotcomeoutfromthineownheart."Then,turningtothegovernorhesaid:"Why dostthoulowerthydignityandteachthyinferiorstotellfalsehood,when,
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withoutdoingso,itisinthypowertocondemnaninnocentman?" 23.WhenPilateheardhiswords,hebecamegreatlyenragedandorderedthatIssabe condemnedtodeath,andthatthetworobbersshouldbedeclaredguiltless. 24.Thejudges,afterconsultingamongthemselves,saidtoPilate:"Wecannotconsentto takethisgreatsinuponus,tocondemnaninnocentmanandliberatemalefactors.It wouldbeagainstourlaws. 25."Actthyself,then,asthouseestfit."Thereuponthepriestsandelderswalkedout,and washedtheirhandsinasacredvessel,andsaid:"Weareinnocentofthebloodofthis righteousman."

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XIV.
I.Byorderofthegovernor,thesoldiersseizedIssaandthetworobbers,andledthemto theplaceofexecution,wheretheywerenaileduponthecrosseserectedforthem. 2.AlldaylongthebodiesofIssaandthetworobbershunguponthecrosses,bleeding, guardedbythesoldiers.Thepeoplestoodallaroundandtherelativesoftheexecuted prayedandwept.

3.Whenthesunwentdown,Issa'storturesended.Helostconsciousnessandhissoul disengageditselffromthebody,toreunitewithGod. 4.ThusendedtheterrestrialexistenceofthereflectionoftheeternalSpiritunderthe


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formofamanwhohadsavedhardenedsinnersandcomfortedtheafflicted. 5.Meanwhile,Pilatewasafraidforwhathehaddone,andorderedthebodyoftheSaint tobegiventohisrelatives,whoputitinatombneartotheplaceofexecution.Great numbersofpersonscametovisitthetomb,andtheairwasfilledwiththeirwailingsand lamentations. 6.Threedayslater,thegovernorsenthissoldierstoremoveIssa'sbodyandburyitin someotherplace,forhefearedarebellionamongthepeople. 7.Thenextday,whenthepeoplecametothetomb,theyfounditopenandempty,the bodyofIssabeinggone.Thereupon,therumorspreadthattheSupremeJudgehadsent HisangelsfromHeaven,toremovethe
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mortalremainsofthesaintinwhompartofthedivineSpirithadlivedonearth. 8.WhenPilatelearnedofthisrumor,hegrewangryandprohibited,underpenaltyof death,thenamingofIssa,orprayingforhimtotheLord. 9.Butthepeople,nevertheless,continuedtoweepoverIssa'sdeathandtoglorifytheir masterwherefore,manywerecarriedintocaptivity,subjectedtotortureandputtodeath. 10.AndthedisciplesofSaintIssadepartedfromthelandofIsraelandwentinall directions,totheheathen,preachingthattheyshouldabandontheirgrosserrors,thinkof thesalvationoftheirsoulsandearntheperfectblisswhichawaitshumanbeingsinthe immaterialworld,fullofglory,wherethe


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greatCreatorabidesinallhisimmaculateandperfectmajesty. 11.Theheathen,theirkings,andtheirwarriors,listenedtothepreachers,abandonedtheir erroneousbeliefsandforsooktheirpriestsandtheiridols,tocelebratethepraisesofthe mostwiseCreatoroftheUniverse,theKingofKings,whoseheartisfilledwithinfinite mercy

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RESUM.
InreadingtheaccountofthelifeofIssa(JesusChrist),oneisstruck,ontheonehandby theresemblanceofcertainprincipalpassagestoaccountsintheOldandNew Testamentsand,ontheother,bythenotlessremarkablecontradictionswhich occasionallyoccurbetweentheBuddhisticversionandHebraicandChristianrecords. Toexplainthis,itisnecessarytoremembertheepochswhenthefactswereconsignedto writing. Wehavebeentaught,fromourchildhood,thatthePentateuchwaswrittenbyMoses himself,butthecarefulresearchesofmodern
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scholarshavedemonstratedconclusively,thatatthetimeofMoses,andevenmuchlater, thereexistedinthecountrybathedbytheMediterranean,nootherwritingthanthe hieroglyphicsinEgyptandthecuniforminscriptions,foundnowadaysintheexcavations ofBabylon.Weknow,however,thatthealphabetandparchmentwereknowninChina andIndialongbeforeMoses. Letmeciteafewproofsofthisstatement.Welearnfromthesacredbooksof"the religionofthewise"thatthealphabetwasinventedinChinain2800byFousi,whowas thefirstemperorofChinatoembracethisreligion,theritualandexteriorformsofwhich hehimselfarranged.Tao,thefourthoftheChineseemperors,whoissaidtohave belongedtothisfaith,publishedmoralandcivillaws,and,in2228,compiledapenal
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code.Thefifthemperor,Soune,proclaimedintheyearofhisaccessiontothethronethat "thereligionofthewise"shouldthenceforthbetherecognizedreligionoftheState,and, in2282,compilednewpenallaws.Hislaws,modifiedbytheEmperorVouvange, founderofthedynastyoftheTcheouin1122,arethoseinexistencetoday,andknown underthenameof"Changements." WealsoknowthatthedoctrineoftheBuddhaF,whosetruenamewasSakyaMuni, waswrittenuponparchment.FismbegantospreadinChinaabout260yearsbefore JesusChrist.In206,anemperoroftheTsinedynasty,whowasanxioustolearn Buddhism,senttoIndiaforaBuddhistbythenameofSilifan,andtheEmperorMingTi, oftheHagnedynasty,sent,ayearbeforeChrist'sbirth,toIndiaforthesacredbooks
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writtenbytheBuddhaSakyaMunithefounderoftheBuddhisticdoctrine,wholived about1200beforeChrist.

ThedoctrineoftheBuddhaGauthamaorGothama,wholived600yearsbeforeJesus Christ,waswritteninthePalilanguageuponparchment.Atthatepoch thereexisted alreadyinIndiaabout84,000Buddhisticmanuscripts,thecompilationofwhichrequired aconsiderablenumberofyears. AtthetimewhentheChineseandtheHinduspossessedalreadyaveryrichwritten literature,thelessfortunateormoreignorantpeopleswhohadnoalphabet,transmitted theirhistoriesfrommouthtomouth,andfromgenerationtogeneration.Owingtothe unreliabilityofhumanmemory,historicalfacts,embellishedbyOrientalimagination, soondegeneratedintofabulouslegends,
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which,inthecourseoftime,werecollected,andbytheunknowncompilersentitled"The FiveBooksofMoses."AstheselegendsascribetotheHebrewlegislatorextraordinary divinepowerswhichenabledhimtoperformmiraclesinthepresenceofPharaoh,the claimthathewasanIsraelitemayaswellhavebeenlegendaryratherthanhistorical. TheHinduchroniclers,onthecontrary,owingtotheirknowledgeofanalphabet,were enabledtocommitcarefullytowriting,notmerelegends,buttherecitalsofrecently occurredfactswithintheirownknowledge,ortheaccountsbroughttothembymerchants whocamefromforeigncountries. Itmustberemembered,inthisconnection,thatinantiquityasinourowndaysthe wholepubliclifeoftheOrientwasconcentrated
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inthebazaars.Therethenewsofforeigneventswasbroughtbythemerchantcaravans andsoughtbythedervishes,whofound,intheirrecitalsinthetemplesandpublicplaces, ameansofsubsistence.Whenthemerchantsreturnedhomefromajourney,they generallyrelatedfullyduringthefirstdaysaftertheirarrival,alltheyhadseenorheard abroad.SuchhavebeenthecustomsoftheOrient,fromtimeimmemorial,andaretoday. ThecommerceofIndiawithEgyptand,later,withEurope,wascarriedonbywayof Jerusalem,where,asfarbackasthetimeofKingSolomon,theHinducaravansbrought preciousmetalsandothermaterialsfortheconstructionofthetemple.FromEurope, merchandisewasbroughttoJerusalembysea,andthereunloadedinaport,whichis


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nowoccupiedbythecityofJaffa.Thechroniclesinquestionwerecompiledbefore, duringandafterthetimeofJesusChrist. DuringhissojourninIndia,inthequalityofasimplestudentcometolearnthe BrahminicalandBuddhisticlaws,nospecialattentionwhateverwaspaidtohislife. When,however,alittlelater,thefirstaccountsoftheeventsinIsraelreachedIndia,the

chroniclers,aftercommittingtowritingthatwhichtheyweretoldabouttheprophet, Issa,viz.,thathehadforhisfollowingawholepeople,wearyoftheyokeoftheir masters,andthathewascrucifiedbyorderofPilate,rememberedthatthissameIssahad onlyrecentlysojournedintheirmidst,andthat,anIsraelitebybirth,hehadcometo studyamongthem,afterwhichhehadreturnedtohiscountry.Theyconceiveda


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livelyinterestforthemanwhohadgrownsorapidlyundertheireyes,andbeganto investigatehisbirth,hispastandallthedetailsconcerninghisexistence. Thetwomanuscripts,fromwhichthelamaoftheconventHimisreadtomeallthathada bearinguponJesus,arecompilationsfromdiverscopieswrittenintheThibetanlanguage, translationsofscrollsbelongingtothelibraryofLhassaandbrought,abouttwohundred yearsafterChrist,fromIndia,NepaulandMaghada,toaconventonMountMarbour, nearthecityofLhassa,nowtheresidenceoftheDalaiLama. ThesescrollswerewritteninPali,whichcertainlamasstudyevennow,soastobeable totranslateitintotheThibetan. ThechroniclerswereBuddhistsbelongingtothesectoftheBuddhaGothama.
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ThedetailsconcerningJesus,giveninthechronicles,aredisconnectedandmingledwith accountsofothercontemporaneouseventstowhichtheybearnorelation. Themanuscriptsrelatetous,firstofall,accordingtotheaccountsgivenbymerchants arrivingfromJudeainthesameyearwhenthedeathofJesusoccurredthatajustmanby thenameofIssa,anIsraelite,inspiteofhisbeingacquittedtwicebythejudgesasbeinga manofGod,wasneverthelessputtodeathbytheorderofthePagangovernor,Pilate, whofearedthathemighttakeadvantageofhisgreatpopularitytoreestablishthe kingdomofIsraelandexpelfromthecountryitsconquerors. ThenfollowratherincoherentcommunicationsregardingthepreachingsofJesusamong theGuebersandotherheathens.
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Theyseemtohavebeenwrittenduringthefirstyearsfollowingthedeath ofJesus,inwhosecareeralivelyandgrowinginterestisshown.
[paragraphcontinues]

Oneoftheseaccounts,communicatedbymerchant,referstotheoriginofJesusandhis familyanothertellsoftheexpulsionofhispartisansandthepersecutionstheyhadto suffer.

Onlyattheendofthesecondvolumeisfoundthefirstcategoricalaffirmationofthe chronicler.HesaystherethatIssawasamanblessedbyGodandthebestofallthatit washeinwhomthegreatBrahmahadelectedtoincarnatewhen,ataperiodfixedby destiny,hisspiritwasrequiredto,foratime,separatefromtheSupremeBeing. AftertellingthatIssadescendedfrompoorIsraeliteparents,thechroniclermakes


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alittledigression,forthepurposeofexplaining,accordingtoancientaccounts,whowere thosesonsofIsrael. IhavearrangedallthefragmentsconcerningthelifeofIssainchronologicalorderand havetakenpainstoimpressuponthemthecharacterofunity,inwhichtheywere absolutelylacking. Ileaveittothesavans,thephilosophersandthetheologianstosearchintothecausesfor thecontradictionswhichmaybefoundbetweenthe"LifeofIssa"whichIlaybeforethe publicandtheaccountsoftheGospels.ButItrustthateverybodywillagreewithmein assumingthattheversionwhichIpresenttothepublic,onecompiledthreeorfouryears afterthedeathofJesus,fromtheaccountsofeyewitnessesandcontemporaries,has muchmoreprobabilityofbeingin
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conformitywithtruththantheaccountsoftheGospels,thecompositionofwhichwas effectedatdifferentepochsandatperiodsmuchposteriortotheoccurrenceoftheevents. BeforespeakingofthelifeofJesus,ImustsayafewwordsonthehistoryofMoses, who,accordingtothesofarmostaccreditedlegend,wasanIsraelite.Inthisrespectthe legendiscontradictedbytheBuddhists.WelearnfromtheoutsetthatMoseswasan Egyptianprince,thesonofaPharaoh,andthatheonlywastaughtbylearnedIsraelites.I believethatifthisimportantpointiscarefullyexamined,itmustbeadmittedthatthe Buddhistauthormayberight. ItisnotmyintenttoargueagainsttheBiblicallegendconcerningtheoriginofMoses, butIthinkeveryonereadingitmustsharemy
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convictionthatMosescouldnothavebeenasimpleIsraelite.Hiseducationwasrather thatofaking'sson,anditisdifficulttobelievethatachildintroducedbychanceintothe palaceshouldhavebeenmadeanequalwiththesonofthesovereign.Therigorwith whichtheEgyptianstreatedtheirslavesbynomeansatteststhemildnessoftheir character.Afoundlingcertainlywouldnothavebeenmadethecompanionofthesonsof aPharaoh,butwouldbeplacedamonghisservants.Addtothisthecastespiritsostrictly

observedinancientEgypt,amostsalientpoint,whichiscertainlycalculatedtoraise doubtsastothetruthoftheScripturalstory. AnditisdifficulttosupposethatMoseshadnotreceivedacompleteeducation.How otherwisecouldhisgreatlegislative


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work,hisbroadviews,hishighadministrativequalitiesbesatisfactorilyexplained? Andnowcomesanotherquestion:Whyshouldhe,aprince,haveattachedhimselftothe Israelites?Theanswerseemstomeverysimple.Itisknownthatinancient,aswellasin moderntimes,discussionswereoftenraisedastowhichoftwobrothersshouldsucceed tothefather'sthrone.Whynotadmitthishypothesis,viz.,thatMossa,orMoses,having anelderbrotherwhoseexistenceforbadehimtothinkofoccupyingthethroneofEgypt, contemplatedfoundingadistinctkingdom. Itmightverywellbethat,inviewofthisend,hetriedtoattachhimselftotheIsraelites, whosefirmnessoffaithaswellasphysicalstrengthhehadoccasiontoadmire.Weknow, indeed,thattheIsraelitesofEgypt
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hadnoresemblancewhatevertotheirdescendantsasregardsphysicalconstitution.The graniteblockswhichwerehandledbytheminbuildingthepalacesandpyramidsarestill inplacetotestifytothisfact.InthesamewayIexplaintomyselfthehistoryofthe miracleswhichheissaidtohaveperformedbeforePharaoh. AlthoughtherearenodefiniteargumentsfordenyingthemiracleswhichMosesmight haveperformedinthenameofGodbeforePharaoh,Ithinkitisnotdifficulttorealize thattheBuddhisticstatementsoundsmoreprobablethantheScripturalgloss.The pestilence,thesmallpoxorthecholeramust,indeed,havecausedenormousravages amongthedensepopulationofEgypt,atanepochwhenthereexistedyetbutvery rudimentaryideasabouthygieneandwhere,
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consequently,suchdiseasesmusthaverapidlyassumedfrightfulvirulence. InviewofPharaoh'sfrightatthedisasterswhichbefellEgypt,Moses'keenwitmight wellhavesuggestedtohimtoexplainthestrangeandterrifyingoccurrences,tohisfather, bytheinterventionoftheGodofIsraelinbehalfofhischosenpeople. MoseswashereaffordedanexcellentopportunitytodelivertheIsraelitesfromtheir slaveryandhavethempassunderhisowndomination.

InobediencetoPharaoh'swillaccordingtotheBuddhisticversionMosesledthe Israelitesoutsidethewallsofthecitybut,insteadofbuildinganewcitywithinreachof thecapital,ashewasordered,heleftwiththemtheEgyptianterritory.Pharaoh's indignationonlearningofthisinfringementof


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hiscommandsbyMoses,caneasilybeimagined.Andsohegavetheordertohissoldiers topursuethefugitives.Thegeographicaldispositionoftheregionsuggestsatoncethat Mosesduringhisflightmusthavemovedbythesideofthemountainsandentered ArabiabythewayovertheIsthmuswhichisnowcutbytheSuezCanal. Pharaoh,onthecontrary,pursued,withhistroops,astraightlinetotheRedSeathen,in ordertoovertaketheIsraelites,whohadalreadygainedtheoppositeshore,hesoughtto takeadvantageoftheebboftheseaintheGulf,whichisformedbythecoastandthe Isthmus,andcausedhissoldierstowadethroughtheford.Butthelengthofthepassage provedmuchgreaterthanhehadexpectedsothatthefloodtidesetin


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whentheEgyptianhostwashalfwayacross,and,ofthearmythusoverwhelmedbythe returningwaves,noneescapeddeath. Thisfact,sosimpleinitself,hasinthecourseofthecenturiesbeentransformedbythe Israelitesintoareligiouslegend,theyseeinginitadivineinterventionintheirbehalfand apunishmentwhichtheirGodinflictedontheirpersecutors.Thereis,moreover,reason tobelievethatMoseshimselfsawtheoccurrenceinthislight.This,however,isathesis whichIshalltrytodevelopinaforthcomingwork. TheBuddhisticchroniclethendescribesthegrandeurandthedownfallofthekingdomof Israel,anditsconquestbytheforeignnationswhoreducedtheinhabitantstoslavery. ThecalamitieswhichbefelltheIsraelites,
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andtheafflictionsthatthenceforthembitteredtheirdayswere,accordingtothe chronicler,morethansufficientreasonsthatGod,pityinghispeopleanddesirousof comingtotheiraid,shoulddescendonearthinthepersonofaprophet,inordertolead thembacktothepathofrighteousness. ThusthestateofthingsinthatepochjustifiedthebeliefthatthecomingofJesuswas signalized,imminent,necessary. ThisexplainswhytheBuddhistictraditionscouldmaintain thattheeternalSpirit separatedfromtheeternalBeingandincarnatedinthechildofapiousandonce illustriousfamily,

DoubtlesstheBuddhists,incommonwiththeEvangelists,meanttoconveybythisthat thechildbelongedtotheroyalhouseofDavidbutthetextintheGospels,according
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towhich"thechildwasbornfromtheHolySpirit,"admitsoftwointerpretations,while accordingtoBuddha'sdoctrine,whichismoreinconformitywiththelawsofnature,the spirithasbutincarnatedin achildalreadyborn,whomGodblessedandchoseforthe accomplishmentofHismissiononearth. ThebirthofJesusisfollowedbyalonggapinthetraditionsoftheEvangelists,who eitherfromignoranceorneglect,failtotellusanythingdefiniteabouthischildhood, youthoreducation.TheycommencethehistoryofJesuswithhisfirstsermon,i.e.,atthe epoch,whenthirtyyearsofage,hereturnstohiscountry. AlltheEvangeliststellusconcerningtheinfancyofJesusismarkedbythelackof precision:"Andthechildgrew,andwaxed
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stronginspirit,filledwithwisdomandthegraceofGodwasuponhim,"saysoneofthe sacredauthors(Luke2,40),andanother:"Andthechildgrew,andwaxedstronginspirit, andwasinthedesertstillthedayofhissheavinguntoIsrael."(Luke1,80.) AstheEvangelistscompiledtheirwritingsalongtimeafterthedeathofJesus,itis presumablethattheycommittedtowritingonlythoseaccountsoftheprincipaleventsin thelifeofJesuswhichhappenedtocometotheirknowledge. TheBuddhists,onthecontrary,whocompiledtheirchroniclessoonafterthePassion occurred,andwereabletocollectthesurestinformationabouteverythingthatinterested them,giveusacompleteandverydetaileddescriptionofthelifeofJesus. Inthoseunhappytimes,whenthestruggle
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forexistenceseemstohavedestroyedallthoughtofGod,thepeopleofIsraelsufferedthe doubleoppressionoftheambitiousHerodandthedespoticandavariciousRomans.Then, asnow,theHebrewsputalltheirhopesinProvidence,whomtheyexpected,wouldsend themaninspiredman,whoshoulddeliverthemfromalltheirphysicalandmoral afflictions.Thetimepassed,however,andnoonetooktheinitiativeinarevoltagainst thetyrannyoftherulers. Inthateraofhopeanddespair,thepeopleofIsraelcompletelyforgotthattherelived amongthemapoorIsraelitewhowasadirectdescendantfromtheirKingDavid.This poormanmarriedayounggirlwhogavebirthtoamiraculouschild.

TheHebrews,truetotheirtraditionsofdevotionandrespectfortheraceoftheir
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kings,uponlearningofthiseventwentingreatnumberstocongratulatethehappyfather andsecthechild.ItisevidentthatHerodwasinformedofthisoccurrence.Hefearedthat thisinfant,oncegrowntomanhood,mightavailhimselfofhisprospectivepopularityto reconquerthethroneofhisancestors.Hesentouthismentoseizethechild,whichthe Israelitesendeavoredtohidefromthewrathof theking,whothenorderedthe abominablemassacreofthechildren,hopingthatJesuswouldperishinthisvasthuman hecatomb.ButJoseph'sfamilyhadwarningoftheimpendingdanger,andtookrefugein Egypt. Ashorttimeafterward,theyreturnedtotheirnativecountry.Thechildhadgrownduring thosejourneyings,inwhichhislifewasmorethanonceexposedtodanger.
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Formerly,asnow,theOrientalIsraelitescommencedtheinstructionof theirchildrenattheageoffiveorsixyears.Compelledtoconstantlyhidehimfromthe murderousKingHerod,theparentsofJesuscouldnotallowtheirsontogoout,andhe, nodoubt,spentallhistimeinstudyingthesacredScriptures,sothathisknowledgewas sufficientlybeyondwhatwouldnaturallyhavebeenexpectedofaboyofhisageto greatlyastonishtheeldersofIsrael.Hehadinhisthirteenthyearattainedanagewhen, accordingtoJewishlaw,theboybecomesanadult,hastherighttomarry,andincurs obligationsforthedischargeofthereligiousdutiesofaman.


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Thereexistsstill,inourtimes,amongtheIsraelites,anancientreligiouscustomthatfixes themajorityofayouthattheaccomplished
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thirteenthyear.Fromthisepochtheyouthbecomesamemberofthecongregationand enjoysalltherightsofanadult.Hence,hismarriageatthisageisregardedashaving legalforce,andisevenrequiredinthetropicalcountries.InEurope,however,owingto theinfluenceoflocallawsandtonature,whichdoesnotcontributeheresopowerfullyas inwarmclimatestothephysicaldevelopment,thiscustomisnomoreinforceandhas lostallitsformerimportance. TheroyallineageofJesus,hisrareintelligenceandhislearning,causedhimtobelooked uponasanexcellentmatch,andthewealthiestandmostrespectedHebrewswouldfain havehadhimforasoninlaw,justasevennowadaystheIsraelitesareverydesirousof thehonorofmarryingtheirdaughterstothesonsofRabbisorscholars.
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Butthemeditativeyouth,whosemindwasfaraboveanythingcorporeal, andpossessedbythethirstforknowledge,stealthilylefthishomeandjoinedthe caravansgoingtoIndia.


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ItstandstoreasonthatJesusChristshouldhavethought,primarily,ofgoingtoIndia, first,becauseatthatepochEgyptformedpartoftheRomanpossessionssecondly,and principally,becauseaveryactivecommercialexchangewithIndiahadmadecommon reportinJudeaofthemajesticcharacterandunsurpassedrichnessoftheartsandsciences inthismarvellouscountry,towhichevennowtheaspirationsofallcivilizedpeoplesare directed. HeretheEvangelistsoncemorelosethethreadoftheterrestriallifeofJesus.Lukesays he"wasinthedesertstillthedayofhisshewinguntoIsrael"(Luke1,80),which


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clearlydemonstratesthatnobodyknewwheretheholyyouthwasuntilhissuddenre appearancesixteenyearslater. ArrivedinIndia,thislandofmarvels,Jesusbegantofrequentthetemplesofthe Djainites. Thereexistsuntiltoday,onthepeninsulaofHindustan,asectariancultunderthename ofDjainism.ItformsakindofconnectinglinkbetweenBuddhismandBrahminism,and preachesthedestructionofallotherbeliefs,which,itdeclares,arecorrodedbyfalsehood. ItdatesfromtheseventhcenturybeforeJesusChristanditsnameisderivedfromthe word"djain"(conqueror),whichwasassumedbyitsfoundersasexpressiveofits destinedtriumph,overitsrivals. Insympatheticadmirationforthespiritoftheyoungman,theDjainitesaskedhimto
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staywiththembutJesusleftthemtosettleinDjagguernat,wherehedevotedhimselfto thestudyoftreatisesonreligion,philosophy,etc.Djagguernatisoneofthechiefsacred citiesofBrahmins,and,atthetimeofChrist,wasofgreatreligiousimportance. Accordingtotradition,theashesoftheillustriousBrahmin,Krishna,wholivedin1580 B.C.,arepreservedthere,inthehollowofatree,nearamagnificenttemple,towhich thousandsmakepilgrimageeveryyear.KrishnacollectedandputinordertheVedas, whichhedividedintofourbooksRicht,Jagour,SamanandArtafanincommemoration ofwhichgreatworkhereceivedthenameofVyasa(hewhocollectedanddividedthe Vedas),andhealsocompiledtheVedantaandeighteenPuranas,whichcontain400,000 stanzas.
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InDjagguernatisalsofoundaverypreciouslibraryofSanscritbooksandreligious manuscripts. JesusspenttheresixyearsinstudyingthelanguageofthecountryandtheSanscrit,which enabledhimtoabsorbthereligiousdoctrines,philosophy,medicineandmathematics.He foundmuchtoblameinBrahminicallawsandusages,andpubliclyjoinedissuewiththe Brahmins,whoinvainendeavoredtoconvincehimofthesacredcharacteroftheir establishedcustoms.Jesus,amongotherthings,deemeditextremelyunjustthatthe laborershouldbeoppressedanddespised,andthatheshouldnotonlyberobbedofhope offuturehappiness,butalsobedeniedtherighttohearthereligiousservices.He, therefore,beganpreachingtotheSudras,thelowestcasteofslaves,telling
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themthat,accordingtotheirownlaws,GodistheFatherofallmenthatallwhichexists, existsonlythroughHimthat,beforeHim,allmenareequal,andthattheBrahminshad obscuredthegreatprincipleofmonotheismbymisinterpretingBrahma'sownwords,and layingexcessivestressuponobservanceoftheexteriorceremonialsofthecult. Herearethewordsinwhich,accordingtothedoctrineoftheBrahmins,GodHimself speakstotheangels:''Ihavebeenfrometernity,andshallcontinuetobeeternally.Iam thefirstcauseofeverythingthatexistsintheEastandintheWest,intheNorthandinthe South,aboveandbelow,inheavenandinhell.Iamolderthanallthings.IamtheSpirit andtheCreationoftheuniverseandalsoitsCreator.IamallpowerfulIamtheGodof theGods,theKingofthe
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KingsIamParaBrahma,thegreatsouloftheuniverse."

AftertheworldappearedbythewillofParaBrahma,Godcreatedhumanbeings,whom hedividedintofourclasses,accordingtotheircolors:white(Brahmins),red(Kshatriyas), yellow(Vaisyas),andblack(Sudras).Brahmadrewthefirstfromhisownmouth,and gavethemfortheirappanagethegovernmentoftheworld,thecareofteachingmenthe laws,ofcuringandjudgingthem.ThereforedotheBrahminsoccupyonlytheofficesof priestsandpreachers,areexpoundersoftheVedas,andmustpracticecelibacy. ThesecondcasteofKshatriyasissuedfromthehandofBrahma.Hemadeofthem warriors,entrustingthemwiththecareofdefendingsociety.Allthekings,princes,


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captains,governorsandmilitarymenbelongtothiscaste,whichlivesonthebestterms withtheBrahmins,sincetheycannotsubsistwithouteachother,andthepeaceofthe countrydependsontheallianceofthelightsandthesword,ofBrahma'stempleandthe royalthrone.

TheVaisyas,whoconstitutethethirdcaste,issuedfromBrahma'sbelly.Theyare destinedtocultivatetheground,raisecattle,carryoncommerceandpracticeallkindsof tradesinordertofeedtheBrahminsandtheKshatriyas.Onlyonholidaysarethey authorizedtoenterthetempleandlistentotherecitalof theVedasatallothertimesthey mustattendtotheirbusiness. Thelowestcaste,thatoftheblackones,orSudras,issuedfromthefeetofBrahmatobe thehumbleservantsandslavesofthe


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threeprecedingcastes.TheyareinterdictedfromattendingthereadingoftheVedasat anytimetheirtouchcontaminatesaBrahmin,Kshatriya,orevenaVaisyawhoconiesin contactwiththem.Theyarewretchedcreatures,deprivedofallhumanrightstheycannot evenlookatthemembersoftheothercastes, nordefendthemselves,nor,whensick, receivetheattendanceofaphysician.DeathalonecandelivertheSudrafromalifeof servitudeandeventhen,freedomcanonlybeattainedundertheconditionthat,during hiswholelife,heshallhaveserveddiligentlyandwithoutcomplaintsomememberofthe privilegedclasses.ThenonlyitispromisedthatthesouloftheSudrashall,afterdeath,be raisedtoasuperiorcaste. IfaSudrahasbeenlackinginobediencetoamemberoftheprivilegedclasses,orhas
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inanywaybroughttheirdisfavoruponhim.self,hesinkstotherankofapariah,whois banishedfromallcitiesandvillagesandistheobjectofgeneralcontempt,asanabject beingwhocanonlyperformthelowestkindofwork. Thesamepunishmentmayalsofalluponmembersofanothercastethese,however,may, throughrepentance,fastingandothertrials,rehabilitatethemselvesintheirformercaste whiletheunfortunateSudra,onceexpelledfromhis,haslostitforever. Fromwhathasbeensaidabove,itiseasytoexplainwhytheVaisyasandSudraswere animatedwithadorationforJesus,who,inspiteofthethreatsoftheBrahminsand Kshatriyas,neverforsookthosepoorpeople.InhissermonsJesusnotonlycensuredthe systembywhichmanwasrobbedofhis
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righttobeconsideredasahumanbeing,whileanapeorapieceofmarbleormetalwas paiddivineworship,butheattackedtheverylifeofBrahminism,itssystemofgods,its doctrineandits"trimurti"(trinity),theangularstoneofthisreligion. ParaBrahmaisrepresentedwiththreefacesonasinglehead.Thisisthe"trimurti" (trinity),composedofBrahma(creator),Vishnu(conservator),andSiva(destroyer).

Hereistheoriginofthetrimurti: Inthebeginning,ParaBrahmacreatedthewatersandthrewintothemtheseedof procreation,whichtransformeditselfintoabrilliantegg,whereinBrahma'simagewas reflected.MillionsofyearshadpassedwhenBrahmasplittheeggintwohalves,of whichtheupperonebecametheheaven,thelower


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one,theearth.ThenBrahmadescendedtotheearthundertheshapeofachild, establishedhimselfuponalotusflower,absorbedhimselfinhisowncontemplationand puttohimselfthequestion:"WhowillattendtotheconservationofwhatIhavecreated?" "I,"cametheanswerfromhismouthundertheappearanceofaflame.AndBrahmagave tothiswordthename,"Vishnu,"thatistosay,"hewhopreserves."ThenBrahmadivided hisbeingintotwohalves,theonemale,theotherfemale,theactiveandthepassive principles,theunionofwhichproducedSiva,"thedestroyer." ThesearetheattributesofthetrimurtiBrahma,creativeprincipleVishnu,preservative wisdomSiva,destructivewrathofjustice.Brahmaisthesubstancefromwhich everythingwasmadeVishnu,spacewherein
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everythinglivesandSiva,timethatannihilatesallthings. BrahmaisthefacewhichvivifiesallVishnu,thewaterwhichsustainstheforcesofthe creaturesSiva,thefirewhichbreaksthebondthatunitesallobjects.Brahmaisthepast Vishnu,thepresentSiva,thefuture.Eachpartofthetrimurtipossesses,moreover,a wife.ThewifeofBrahmaisSarasvati,goddessofwisdomthatofVishnu,Lakshmi, goddessofvirtue,andSiva'sspouseisKali,goddessofdeath,theuniversaldestroyer. Ofthislastunionwereborn,Ganesa,theelephantheadedgodofwisdom,andIndra,the godofthefirmament,bothchiefsofinferiordivinities,thenumberofwhich,ifallthe objectsofadoration oftheHindus
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beincluded,amountstothreehundredmillions. Vishnuhas.descendedeighttimesupontheearth,incarnatinginafishinordertosave theVedasfromthedeluge,inatortoise,adwarf,awildboar,alion,inRama,aking's son,inKrishnaandinBuddha.Hewillcomeaninthtimeundertheformofarider mountedonawhitehorseinordertodestroydeathandsin. Jesusdeniedtheexistenceofallthesehierarchicabsurditiesofgods,whichdarkenthe greatprincipleofmonotheism.

WhentheBrahminssawthatJesus,who,insteadofbecomingoneoftheirparty,asthey hadhoped,turnedouttobetheiradversary,andthatthepeoplebegantoembracehis doctrine,theyresolvedtokillhimbuthisservants,whoweregreatlyattached


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tohim,forewarnedhimofthethreateningdanger,andhetookrefugeinthemountainsof Nepaul.Atthisepoch,Buddhismhadtakendeeprootinthiscountry.Itwasakindof schism,remarkablebyitsmoralprinciplesandideasonthenatureofthedivinity ideaswhichbroughtmenclosertonatureandtooneanother. SakyaMuni,thefounderofthissect,wasbornfifteenhundredyearsbeforeJesusChrist, atKapila,thecapitalofhisfather'skingdom,nearNepaul,intheHimalayas.Hebelonged totheraceoftheGotamides,andtotheancientfamilyoftheSakyas.Fromhisinfancyhe evincedalivelyinterestinreligion,and,contrarytohisfather'swishes,leavinghispalace withallitsluxury,beganatoncetopreachagainsttheBrahmins,forthepurificationof theirdoctrines.
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HediedatKouinagara,surroundedbymanyfaithfuldisciples.Hisbody wasburned,andhisashes,dividedintoseveralparts,weredistributedbetweenthecities, which,onaccountofhisnewdoctrine,hadrenouncedBrahminism.


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AccordingtotheBuddhisticdoctrine,theCreatorreposesnormallyinastateofperfect inaction,whichisdisturbedbynothingandwhichheonlyleavesatcertaindestiny determinedepochs,inordertocreateterrestrialbuddhas.TothisendtheSpirit disengagesitselffromthesovereignCreator,incarnatesinabuddhaandstaysforsome timeontheearth,where'hecreatesBodhisattvas(masters),* whosemissionitisto preachthe


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divinewordandtofoundnewchurchesofbelieverstowhomtheywillgivelaws,andfor whomtheywillinstituteanewreligiousorderaccordingtothetraditionsofBuddhism. Aterrestrialbuddhais,inacertainway,areflectionofthesovereigncreativeBuddha, withwhomheunitesaftertheterminationofhisterrestrialexistence.Inlikemannerdo theBodhisattvas,asarewardfortheirlaborsandtheprivationstheyundergo,receive eternalblissandenjoyarestwhichnothingcandisturb. JesussojournedsixyearsamongtheBuddhists,wherehefoundtheprincipleof monotheismstillpure.Arrivedattheageoftwentysixyears,herememberedhis fatherland,whichwasthenoppressedbyaforeignyoke.Onhiswayhomeward,he preached
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againstidolworship,humansacrifice,andothererrorsoffaith,admonishingthepeople torecognizeandadoreGod,theFatherofallbeings,towhomallarealikedear,the masteraswellastheslavefortheyallarehischildren,towhomhehasgiventhis beautifuluniverseforacommonheritage.ThesermonsofJesusoftenmadeaprofound impressionuponthepeoplesamongwhomhecame,andhewasexposedtoallsortsof dangersprovokedbytheclergy,butwassavedbytheveryidolatorswho,onlythe precedingday,hadofferedtheirchildrenassacrificestotheiridols. WhilepassingthroughPersia,Jesusalmostcausedarevolutionamongtheadorersof Zoroaster'sdoctrine.Nevertheless,thepriestsrefrainedfromkillinghim,outoffearof thepeoples'vengeance.They
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resortedtoartifice,andledhimoutoftownatnight,withthehopethathemightbe devouredbywildbeasts.Jesusescapedthisperilandarrivedsafeandsoundinthe countryofIsrael. ItmustberemarkedherethattheOrientals,amidsttheirsometimessopicturesque misery,andintheoceanofdepravationinwhichtheyslumber,alwayshave,underthe influenceoftheirpriestsandteachers,apronouncedinclinationforlearningand understandeasilygoodcommonsenseexplications.Ithappenedtomemorethanonce that,byusingsimplewordsoftruth,Iappealedtotheconscienceofathieforsome otherwiseintractableperson.Thesepeople,movedbyasentimentofinnatehonesty, whichtheclergyforpersonalreasonsoftheirown,triedby
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allmeanstostiflesoonbecameagainveryhonestandhadonlycontemptforthosewho hadabusedtheirconfidence. Bythevirtueofamerewordoftruth,thewholeofIndia,withits300,000,000of idols, couldbemadeavastChristiancountrybut....thisbeautifulprojectwould,nodoubt, beantagonizedbycertainChristianswho,similartothosepriestsofwhomIhavespoken before,speculateupontheignoranceofthepeopletomakethemselvesrich. AccordingtoSt.Luke,Jesuswasaboutthirtyyearsofagewhenhebeganpreachingto theIsraelites.AccordingtotheBuddhisticchroniclers,Jesus'steachingsinJudeabegan inhistwentyninthyear.AllhissermonswhicharenotmentionedbytheEvangelists,but havebeenpreservedbytheBuddhists,areremarkable
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fortheircharacterofdivinegrandeur.Thefameofthenewprophetspreadrapidlyinthe country,andJerusalemawaitedwithimpatiencehisarrival.Whenhecameneartheholy city,itsinhabitantswentouttomeethim,andledhimintriumphtothetempleallof whichisinagreementwithChristiantradition.Thechiefsandelderswhoheardhimwere

filledwithadmirationforhissermons,andwerehappytoseethebeneficentimpression whichhiswordsexerciseduponthepopulace.AlltheseremarkablesermonsofJesusare fullofsublimesentiments. Pilate,thegovernorofthecountry,however,didnotlookuponthematterinthesame light.EageragentsnotifiedhimthatJesusannouncedthenearcomingofanewkingdom, thereestablishmentofthethrone


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ofIsrael,andthathesufferedhimselftohecalledtheSonofGod,senttobringback courageinIsrael,forhe,theKingofJudea,wouldsoonascendthethroneofhis ancestors. IdonotpurposeattributingtoJesustherleofarevolutionary,butitseemstomevery probablethatJesuswroughtupthepeoplewithaviewtoreestablishthethronetowhich hehadajustclaim.Divinelyinspired,and,atthesametime,convincedofthelegitimacy ofhispretentions,Jesuspreachedthespiritualunionofthepeopleinorderthatapolitical unionmightresult. Pilate,whofeltalarmedovertheserumors,calledtogetherthepriestsandtheeldersof thepeopleandorderedthemtointerdictJesusfrompreachinginpublic,andevento condemnhiminthetempleunderthechargeofapostasy.Thiswasthebestmeansfor
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Pilatetoridhimselfofadangerousman,whoseroyaloriginheknewand whosepopularitywasconstantlyincreasing.
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ItmustbesaidinthisconnectionthattheIsraelites,farfrompersecutingJesus, recognizedinhimthedescendantoftheillustriousdynastyofDavid,andmadehimthe objectoftheirsecrethopes,afactwhichisevidentfromtheveryGospelswhichtellthat Jesuspreachedfreelyinthetemple,inthepresenceoftheelders,whocouldhave interdictedhimnotonlytheentrancetothetemple,butalsohispreachings. UpontheorderofPilatetheSanhedrimmetandcitedJesustoappearbeforeitstribunal. Astheresultoftheinquiry,themembersoftheSanhedriminformedPilatethathis suspicionswerewithoutanyfoundationwhateverthatJesuspreachedareligious,


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andnotapolitical,propagandathathewasexpoundingtheDivineword,andthathe claimedtohavecomenottooverthrow,buttoreestablishthelawsofMoses.The Buddhisticrecorddoesbutconfirmthissympathy,whichunquestionablyexistedbetween theyoungpreacher,Jesus,andtheeldersofthepeopleofIsraelhencetheiranswer:"We donotjudgeajustone."

Pilatefeltnotatallassured,andcontinuedseekinganoccasiontohaleJesusbeforeanew tribunal,asregularastheformer.Tothisendhecausedhimtobefollowedbyspies,and finallyorderedhisarrest. IfwemaybelievetheEvangelists,itwasthePhariseeswhosoughtthelifeofJesus,while theBuddhisticrecordmostpositivelydeclaresthatPilatealonecanbeheldresponsible forhisexecution.Thisversionis


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evidentlymuchmoreprobablethantheaccountoftheEvangelists.Theconquerorsof Judeacouldnotlongtoleratethepresenceofamanwhoannouncedtothepeoplea speedydeliverancefromtheiryoke.ThepopularityofJesushavingcommencedto disturbPilate'smind,itistobesupposedthathesentaftertheyoungpreacherspies,with theordertotakenoteofallhiswordsandacts.Moreover,theservantsoftheRoman governor,astrue"agentsprovocateurs,"endeavoredbymeansofartfulquestionsputto Jesus, todrawfromhimsomeimprudentwordsundercolorofwhichPilatemight proceedagainsthim.IfthepreachingsofJesushadbeenoffensivetotheHebrewpriests andscribes,alltheyneededtodowassimplytocommandthepeoplenottohearand followhim,andtoforbidhimentrance
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intothetemple.ButtheEvangeliststellusthatJesusenjoyedgreatpopularityamongthe Israelitesandfulllibertyinthetemples,wherePhariseesandscribesdiscussedwithhim. Inordertofindavalidexcuseforcondemninghim,Pilatehadhimtorturedsoastoextort fromhimaconfessionofhightreason. But,contrarytotherulethattheinnocent,overcomebytheirpain,willconfessanything toescapetheunendurableagoniesinflicteduponthem,Jesusmadenoadmissionofguilt. Pilate,seeingthattheusualtortureswerepowerlesstoaccomplishthedesiredresult, commandedtheexecutionersto.proceedtothelastextremeoftheirdiaboliccruelties, meaningtocompassthedeathofJesusbythecompleteexhaustionofhis


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forces.Jesus,however,fortifyinghisendurancebythepowerofhiswillandzealforhis righteouscausewhichwasalsothatofhispeopleandofGodwasunconquerablebyall therefinementsofcrueltyinflicteduponhimbyhisexecutioners. Theinflictionof"thequestion"uponJesusevokedmuchfeelingamongtheelders,and theyresolvedtointerfereinhisbehalfformallydemandingofPilatethatheshouldbe liberatedbeforethePassover.

WhentheirrequestwasdeniedbyPilatetheyresolvedtopetitionthatJesusshouldbe broughttotrialbeforetheSanhedrim,bywhomtheydidnotdoubthisacquittalwhich wasardentlydesiredbythepeoplewouldbeordained. Intheeyesofthepriests,Jesuswasasaint,belongingtothefamily ofDavidand


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hisunjustdetention,orwhatwasstillmoretobedreadedhiscondemnation,would havesaddenedthecelebrationofthegreatnationalfestivaloftheIsraelites. TheythereforeprayedPilatethatthetrialofJesusshouldtakeplacebeforethePassover, andtothisheacceded.Butheorderedthattwothievesshouldbetriedatthesametime withJesus,thinkingto,inthisway,minimizeintheeyesofthepeople,theimportanceof thefactthatthelifeofaninnocentmanwasbeingputinjeopardybeforethetribunal and,bynotallowingJesustobecondemnedalone,blindthepopulacetotheunjustpre arrangementofhiscondemnation. TheaccusationagainstJesuswasfoundeduponthedepositionsofthebribedwitnesses. Duringthetrial,Pilateavailedhimselfof
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perversionsofJesus'wordsconcerningtheheavenlykingdom,tosustainthecharges madeagainsthim.Hecounted,itseems,upontheeffectproducedbytheanswersof Jesus,aswellasuponhisownauthority,toinfluencethemembersofthetribunalagainst examiningtoominutelythedetailsofthecase,andtoprocurefromthemthesentenceof deathforwhichheintimatedhisdesire. Uponhearingtheperfectlynaturalanswerofthejudges,thatthemeaningofthewordsof Jesuswasdiametricallyopposedtotheaccusation,andthattherewasnothinginthemto warranthiscondemnation,Pilateemployedhisfinalresourceforprejudicingthetrial, viz.,thedepositionofapurchasedtraitorousinformer.Thismiserablewretchwhowas, nodoubt,JudasaccusedJesus
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formally,ofhavingincitedthepeopletorebellion. Thenfollowedasceneofunsurpassedsublimity.WhenJudasgavehistestimony,Jesus, turningtowardhim,andgivinghimhisblessing,says:"Thouwiltfindmercy,forwhat thouhastsaiddidnotcomeoutfromthineownheart!"Then,addressinghimselftothe governor:"Whydostthoulowerthydignity,andteachthyinferiorstotellfalsehood, whenwithoutdoingsoitisinthypowertocondemnaninnocentman?"

Wordstouchingassublime!JesusChristheremanifestsallthegrandeurofhissoulby pardoninghisbetrayer,andhereproachesPilatewithhavingresortedtosuchmeans, unworthyofhisdignity,toattainhisend. Thiskeenreproachenragedthegovernor,


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andcausedhimtocompletelyforgethisposition,andtheprudentpolicywithwhichhe hadmeanttoevadepersonalresponsibilityforthecrimehecontemplated.Henow imperiouslydemandedtheconvictionofJesus,and,asthoughheintendedtomakea displayofhispower,tooverawethejudges,orderedtheacquittalofthetwothieves. Thejudges,seeingtheinjusticeofPilate'sdemand,thattheyshouldacquitthe malefactorsandcondemntheinnocentJesus,refusedtocommitthisdoublecrimeagainst theirconsciencesandtheirlaws.Butastheycouldnotcopewithonewhopossessedthe authorityoffinaljudgment,andsawthathewasfirmlydecidedtoridhimself,by whatevermeans,ofamanwhohadfallenunderthesuspicionsoftheRomanauthorities, theylefthimtohimselfpronouncetheverdict
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forwhichhewassoanxious.Inorder,however,thatthepeoplemightnotsuspectthem ofsharingtheresponsibilityforsuchunjustjudgment,whichwouldnotreadilyhavebeen forgiven,they,inleavingthecourt,performedtheceremonyofwashingtheirhands, symbolizingtheaffirmationthattheywerecleanofthebloodoftheinnocentJesus,the belovedofthepeople. Abouttenyearsago,IreadinaGermanjournal,theFremdenblatt,anarticleonJudas, whereintheauthorendeavoredtodemonstratethattheinformerhadbeenthebestfriend ofJesus.Accordingtohim,itwasoutofloveforhismasterthatJudasbetrayedhim,for heputblindfaithinthewordsoftheSaviour,whosaidthathiskingdomwouldarrive afterhisexecution.Butafterseeinghimonthecross,andhavingwaitedinvain
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fortheresurrectionofJesus,whichheexpectedtoimmediatelytakeplace,Judas,not abletobearthepainbywhichhisheartwastorn,committedsuicidebyhanginghimself. Itwouldbeprofitlesstodwelluponthisingeniousproductofafertileimagination. TotakeupagaintheaccountsoftheGospelsandtheBuddhisticchronicle,itisvery possiblethatthebribedinformerwasreally Judas,althoughtheBuddhisticversionis silentonthispoint.Astothepangsofconsciencewhicharesaidtohaveimpelledthe informertosuicide,ImustsaythatIgivenocredencetothem.Amancapableof committingsovileandcowardlyanactionasthatofmakinganinfamouslyfalse accusationagainsthisfriend,andthis,notoutofaspiritofjealousy,orforrevenge,but togainahandfulofshekels!suchamanis,fromthe

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psychicpointofview,ofverylittleworth.Heignoreshonestyandconscience,andpangs ofremorseareunknowntohim. Itispresumablethatthegovernortreatedhimasissometimesdoneinourdays,whenit isdeemeddesirabletoeffectuallyconcealstatesecretsknowntomenofhiskindand presumablyunsafeintheirkeeping.Judasprobablywassimplyhanged,byPilate'sorder, topreventthepossibilityofhissomedayrevealingthattheplotofwhichJesuswasa victimhadbeeninspiredbytheauthorities. Onthedayoftheexecution,anumerousdetachmentofRoman soldierswasplaced aroundthecrosstoguardagainstanyattemptbythepopulaceforthedeliveryofhimwho wastheobjectoftheirveneration
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[paragraphcontinues]

InthisoccurrencePilategaveproofofhisextraordinaryfirmnessand

resolution. Butthough,owingtotheprecautionstakenbythegovernor,theanticipatedrevoltdidnot occur,hecouldnotpreventthepeople,aftertheexecution,mourningtheruinoftheir hopes,whichweredestroyed,togetherwiththelastscionoftheraceofDavid.Allthe peoplewenttoworshipatJesus'grave.Althoughwehavenopreciseinformation concerningtheoccurrencesofthefirstfewdaysfollowingthePassion,wecould,by someprobableconjectures,reconstructthesceneswhichmusthavetakenplace. ItstandstoreasonthattheRomanCsar'scleverlieutenant,whenhesawthatChrist's gravebecamethecentreofuniversallamentationsandthesubjectofnationalgrief,and


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fearedthatthememoryoftherighteousvictimmightexcitethediscontentofthepeople andraisethewholecountryagainsttheforeigners'rule,shouldhaveemployedany effectivemeansfortheremovalofthisrallyingpoint,themortalremainsofJesus.Pilate beganbyhavingthebodyburied.Forthreedaysthesoldierswhowerestationedonguard atthegrave,wereexposedtoallkindsofinsultsandinjuriesonthepartofthepeople who,defyingthedanger,cameinmultitudestomournthegreatmartyr.ThenPilate orderedhissoldierstoremovethebodyatnight,andtoburyitclandestinelyinsome otherplace,leavingthefirstgraveopen.andtheguardwithdrawnfromit,sothatthe peoplecouldseethatJesushaddisappeared.ButPilatemissedhisendforwhen,onthe following
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morning,theHebrewsdidnotfindthecorpseoftheirmasterinthesepulchre,the superstitiousandmiracleacceptingamongthemthoughtthathehadbeenresurrected.

Howdidthislegendtakeroot?Wecannotsay.Possiblyitexistedforalongtimeina latentstateand,atthebeginning,spreadonlyamongthecommonpeopleperhapsthe ecclesiasticauthoritiesoftheHebrewslookedwithindulgenceuponthisinnocentbelief, whichgavetotheoppressedashadowofrevengeontheiroppressors.Howeveritbe,the daywhenthelegendoftheresurrectionfinallybecameknowntoall,therewasnooneto befoundstrongenoughtodemonstratetheimpossibilityofsuchanoccurrence. Concerningthisresurrection,itmustberemarkedthat,accordingtotheBuddhists.,


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thesoulofthejustIssawasunitedwiththeeternalBeing,whiletheEvangelistsinsist upontheascensionofthebody.Itseemstome,however,thattheEvangelistsandthe Apostleshavedoneverywelltogivethedescriptionoftheresurrectionwhichtheyhave agreedupon,foriftheyhadnotdoneso, i.e.,ifthemiraclehadbeengivenalessmaterial character,theirpreachingwouldnothavehad,intheeyesofthenationstowhomitwas presented,thatdivineauthority,thatavowedlysupernaturalcharacter,whichhasclothed Christianity,untilourtime,astheonlyreligioncapableofelevatingthehumanracetoa stateofsublimeenthusiasm,suppressingitssavageinstincts,andbringingitnearertothe grandandsimplenaturewhichGodhasbestowed,theysay,uponthatfeebledwarfcalled man.

Footnotes
258:*Sanscrit:"Hewhoseessence(sattva)hasbecomeintelligence(bhodi),"thosewho needbutonemoreincarnationtobecomeperfectbuddhas,i.e.,tobeentitledtoNirvna.

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EXPLANATORYNOTES.
ChapterIII. 3,4,5,7. Thehistoriesofallpeoplesshowthatwhenanationhasreachedtheapogeeofitsmilitary gloryanditswealth,itbeginsatoncetosinkmoreorlessrapidlyonthedeclivityof moraldegenerationanddecay.TheIsraeliteshaving,amongthefirst,experiencedthis lawoftheevolutionofnations,theneighboringpeoplesprofitedbythedecadenceofthe theneffeminateanddebaucheddescendantsofJacob,todespoilthem. 8.

ThecountryofRomeles,i.e.,thefatherlandofRomulusinourdays,Rome. 11,12. ItmustbeadmittedthattheIsraelites,inspiteoftheirincontestablewitandintelligence, seemtohaveonlyhadregardforthepresent.LikeallotherOrientalpeoples,theyonlyin their


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misfortunesrememberedthefaultsoftheirpast,whichtheyeachtimehadtoexpiateby centuriesofslavery. ChapterIV. 6. Asitiseasytodivine,thisversereferstoJoseph,whowasalinealdescendantfromKing David.Sidebysidewiththissomewhatvagueindicationmaybeplacedthefollowing passagesfromtheGospels: "TheangeloftheLordappeareduntohiminadream,saying,Joseph,thousonof David,fearnottotakeuntotheeMarythywife"...(Matt.i,20.) "Andthemultitudesthatwentbefore,andthatfollowed,cried,saying,Hosannatothe sonofDavid"(Matt.xxi,9). "ToavirginespousedtoamanwhosenamewasJoseph,ofthehouseofDavid".. (Lukei,27.) "AndtheLordGodshallgiveuntohimthethroneofhisfatherDavid"...(Lukei,32.) "AndJesushimselfbegantobeaboutthirtyyearsofage,being(aswassupposed)the
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sonofJoseph,whichwasthesonofHeli,...whichwasthesonofNathan,whichwas theson ofDavid"(Lukeiii,233i). 7. BoththeOldandtheNewTestamentsteachthatGodpromisedDavidtherehabilitation ofhisthroneandtheelevationtoitofoneofhisdescendants. 8,9.

"Andthechildgrew,andwaxedstronginspirit,filledwith wisdom:andthegraceof Godwasuponhim," "Anditcametopass,thatafterthreedaystheyfoundhiminthetemple,sittinginthe midstofthedoctors,bothhearingthem,andaskingthemquestions." "Andallthatheardhimwereastonishedathisunderstandingandanswers." "Andhesaiduntothem,Howisitthatyesoughtme?wistyenotthatImustbeabout myFather'sbusiness?" "AndJesusincreasedinwisdomandstature,andinfavorwithGodandman"(Lukeii, 40,46,47,49,52).
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ChapterV. 1. "Sind,"aSanscritword,whichhasbeenmodifiedbythePersiansintoInd."Arya,"the namegiveninantiquitytotheinhabitantsofIndiasignifiedfirst"manwhocultivatesthe ground"or"cultivator."Ancientlyithadapurelyethnographical significationthis appellationassumedlateronareligioussense,notablythatof"manwhobelieves." 2. Lukesays(i,80):"Andthechildgrew,andwaxedstronginspirit,andwasinthedeserts tillthedayofhissheavinguntoIsrael."TheEvangelistssaythatJesuswasinthedesert, theBuddhistsexplainthisversionoftheGospelsbyindicatingwhereJesuswasduring hisabsencefromJudea.AccordingtothemhecrossedtheSind,anamewhich,properly spoken,signifies"theriver"(Indus).Inconnectionwiththisworditisnotamisstonote thatmanySanscritwordsinpassingintothePersianlanguageunderwentthesame transformationbychangingthe"s"into"h"perexample:
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Sapta(inSanscrit),signifyingsevenhafta (inPersian) Sam(Sanscrit),signifyingequalham(Persian) Mas(Sanscrit),meaningmouthmah(Persian) Sur(Sanscrit),meaningsunhur (Persian) Das(Sanscrit),meaningtenDah(Persian) Lococitatoandthosewho believedinthegodDjain. Thereexists,evenyet, onthepeninsulaofHindustan,acultunderthenameofDjainism, whichforms,asitwere,alinkofunionbetweenBuddhismandBrahminism,andits

devoteesteachthedestructionofallotherbeliefs,whichtheydeclarecontaminatedwith falsehood.Itdatesasfarbackastheseventhcentury,B.c.ItsnameisderivedfromDjain (conqueror),whichitassumedasthesymbolofitstriumphoveritsrivals. 4. EachoftheeighteenPuranasisdividedintofiveparts,which,besidesthecanonicallaws, theritesandthecommentariesuponthecreation,destructionandresurrectionofthe universe.dealwiththeogony,medicine,andeventhetradesandprofessions.


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ChapterVI. 12. OwingtotheinterventionoftheBritish,thehumansacrifices,whichwereprincipally offeredtoKali,thegoddessofdeath,havenowentirelyceased.ThegoddessKaliis representederect,withonefootuponthedeadbodyofaman,whoseheadsheholdsin oneofherinnumerablehands,whilewiththeotherhandshebrandishesabloodydagger. Hereyesandmouth,whicharewideopen,expresspassionandcruelty. ChapterVIII. 3,4. Zoroasterlived550yearsbeforeJesus.Hefoundedthedoctrineofthestrugglebetween lightanddarkness,adoctrinewhichisfullyexpoundedintheZendAvesta(Wordof God),whichiswrittenintheZendlanguage,and,accordingtotradition,wasgivento himbyanangelfromParadise. AccordingtoZoroasterwemustworshipMithra(thesun),fromwhomdescendOrmuzd, thegodofgood,andAhriman,thegodofevil.TheworldwillendwhenOrmuzdhas triumphed
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overhisrival,Ahriman,whowillthenreturntohisoriginalsource,Mithra. ChapterX. 16. AccordingtotheEvangelists,JesuswasborninBethlehem,whichtheBuddhisticversion confirms,foronlyfromBethlehem,situatedatadistanceofaboutsevenkilometresfrom Jerusalem,couldthewallsofthislattercitybeseen.

ChapterXI. 15. ThedoctrinetheRedemptoris,almostinitsentirety,containedintheGospels.Astothe transformationofmenintochildren,itisespeciallyknownfromtheconversationthat tookplacebetweenJesusandNicodemus. ChapterXII. 1. "Tellustherefore,Whatthinkestthou?IsitlawfultogivetributeuntoCsar,ornot?" (Matt.xxii,17.) 3. "Thensaithheuntothem,RenderthereforeuntoCsarthethingswhichareCsar's and
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untoGodthethingsthatareGod's.(Matt.xxii,21et.al.) ChapterXIV 3. AccordingtotheBuddhisticbelief,theterrestrialbuddhasafterdeath,loseconsciousness oftheirindependentexistenceandunitewiththeeternalSpirit. 10,11. Here,nodoubt,referenceismadetotheactivityoftheApostlesamongtheneighboring peoplesanactivitywhichcouldnothavepassedunnoticedatthatepoch,becauseofthe greatresultswhichfollowedthepreachingofthenewreligiousdoctrineofloveamong nationswhosereligionswerebaseduponthecrueltyoftheirgods. Withoutpermittingmyselfindulgenceingreatdissertations,ortoominuteanalysisupon eachverse,Ihavethoughtitusefultoaccompanymyworkwiththesefewlittle explanatorynotes,leavingittothereadertotakeliketroublewiththerest.

FINIS.