You are on page 1of 12

JK Journal of Management & Technology ISSN 09750924 Volume 1, Number 1 (2009), pp. 6576 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/jkjmt.

htm

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Teenagers
Vinod Kumar Bishnoi1 and Ruchi Sharma2 Reader, Haryana School of Business Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 1 E-mail: bishnoivk29@gmail.com, 2E-mail: ruchisharma254@gmail.com
Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Abstract This study aims to establish whether the residential background of consumers has a varying influence on their buying decisions due to the influence of TV advertising. The study was conducted on 866 teenagers of Haryana (431 male and 435 female) of which 440 were rural and 426 were urban. The data was analysed by applying counts, percentages, means and ANOVA. The study suggests that rural teenagers like television advertising more than their urban counterparts. TV advertising has enhanced their involvement in product selection and purchase, they prefer to buy TV advertised products and it is helpful in buying the new products. The urban teenagers do not buy TV advertised products if they do not require those brands. They also like the advertisements of the products that they are using and believe that products are as good as expected from TV advertisements. Male teenagers buying behaviour is more influenced by television advertisements than their female counterparts. Key Words: Teenagers, impact, television, advertising, rural

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

Introduction
Advertising is the non-personal communication of the information usually paid for and persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media (Datta, 2008). The advertiser intends to spread his ideas about the products and offerings among the prospects. Popularization of the products is thus, the basic aim of advertising (Ramaswami & Namakumari, 2004). The majority of the marketers use mass media for their marketing communications. The choice of media is dependent upon the nature of the message and the intended target audience (Etzel et al, 2008). Television advertising is the best selling and economical

66

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma

media ever invented. It has a potential advertising impact unmatched by any other media (Saxena, 2005). The advantage of television over the other mediums is that it is perceived as a combination of audio and video features; it provides products with instant validity and prominence and offers the greatest possibility for creative advertising (Kavitha, 2006). Over a longer period of time, the TV set has become a permanent fixture in all upper and middle class households, and it is not uncommon even in the poorer society of urban areas and rural households (Shah & DSouza, 2008). Reactions to TV advertisements seem to be stronger than the reaction to print advertisements (Corlis, 1999). The advertisers find it more effective to use television rather than print media to reach consumers, partly due to low literacy rate (Ciochetto, 2004). TV advertising not only change emotions but give substantial message exerting a far reaching influence on the daily lives of people (Kotwal et al, 2008). Advertisers through television can reach a whole spectrum of consumers. The children are exposed to an overwhelming amount of advertising (Cruz, 2004). A young child in the age group of 13-19 constitutes teenager. Almost every child and teenager in India is a regular viewer of television. They spend most of their free time in front of television, watching programmes and channels of their choice (Dubey & Patel, 2004). They watch nearly 20,000 TV commercials a year. The majority of children believe television advertisements to be informative and most children respond to them favourably (Cruz, 2004). They also exert a substantial influence on their parents consumer decision making and spending (Hawkins et al, 2001). The greater TV exposure is associated with more requests for the advertised products (Robertson & Rossiter, 1977). Parents in dual income families have more discretionary income and are busier and feeling guiltier and therefore are softer when it comes to teenagers requests (Sellers, 1989). Marketers, who take advantage of young peoples power to influence family purchase, choose commercials or television programmes that reach children or teenage youth together with their parents (Kraak & Pelletier, 1998). The teenagers have become a strong influencing group and even have the ability to influence the purchase decisions in the family from cakes to cars (Shashidhar & Adivi, 2006). India is a developing country and majority of the people are living in rural areas (Census, 2001). Rural consumers are fundamentally different from their urban counterparts socially, psychologically, physiologically and literally (Selvaraj, 2007). The total size of rural market is 123000 crore, which includes 65,000 crore FMCG and 5,000 crore durables, 45,000 crore agri inputs and 8,000 crore two and four wheelers market. The size of rural market is bigger than the urban for both FMCG and durables as it accounts 53 and 59 percent of the market share respectively (Kashyap & Raut, 2008). Hence, the buying behaviour of rural consumers has become a hot-topic for discussion because rural India, in recent days, is enthusiastically consuming everything from shampoo to motor cycles (Nagaraja, 2004). Having realized the varying effects of TV advertising not only on the purchasing pattern but also on the total lifestyle of teenagers, this paper is an endeavor to study the impact of TV advertisements on the buying behaviour of the male and female teenagers of different residential backgrounds i.e. rural and urban in the state of Haryana.

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour

67

Literature Review
Indian advertising is a billion dollar industry today, and at a growth rate of 40-50% per annum, one of the fastest growing industries in the country (Unnikrishnan & Bajpai, 1996). The television medium is the most attractive and important place to advertise. Most of the young people remain glued to the television and enjoy what they see. As a wide range of products and services are consumed or used by children, many companies tend to target them (Chandok, 2005). The National Readership Survey IV and V estimated that 77% of urban population and 30% of rural population has access to TV sets. The rural viewership is expected to go up to 45-48% by 2020. As the number of TV sets increases, the appetite for entertainment of Indian viewers has increased dramatically but there is fragmentation of viewership due to availability of variety of channel/programme options. These programmes reach to nearly 90% population of which 500 million Indians (nearly fifty percent of population) watch television regularly as per Statistics of Doordarshan and other researchers (Saxena, 2005). Saksena (1990) found that teenagers were influenced by TV advertisement and mostly purchased those brands and products which are advertised more on television. Advertisers target teenagers because of their high disposable income, their influence on parental purchases, their early establishment of loyalty to certain brands, and a conventional wisdom that they buy products on impulse (Fox 1996; Mc Neal, 1999). A teenager possessing greater financial resources would have more money to spend on discretionary items for her/himself and may also exert greater influence on family purchases (Beatty & Talpade, 1994). The girl teenagers are more attracted toward TV advertisements featuring celebrities, children or jingles (Dubey & Patel, 2004). While purchasing cosmetics, toiletries, stationary, gifts and cards, the girls give importance to informational input by the TV advertisements into their decision to buy. It was also found that girls had positive attitude towards TV commercials (Kotwal et al, 2008). The reason for higher response rate among females for products could be the higher number of advertisements is targeted at them (Dubey & Patel, 2004). In the recent past rural India has been witnessing a sea change particularly in the standard of living and life styles. With the population of over one billion, India is on the threshold of becoming one of the worlds foremost consumer markets. About a quarter of this huge mass of consumers is urbanized and about three-quarter are rural (Sehrawet & Kundu, 2007). Ramana Rao (1997) observed that the boom in rural areas is caused by factors such as increased discretionary income, rural development schemes, improved infrastructure, increased awareness, expanding private TV channel coverage and emphasis on rural market by companies. Thus, it can be said the marketers and advertisers who are having eyes on this market, must perceive opportunities to target rural consumers of India which is full of young generation (Selvaraj, 2007). Kaur and Kaur (2002) explored fashion awareness among rural and urban adolescents. They observed that television is the most important media of information regarding fashion awareness among rural and urban respondents.

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

68

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma

North and Kotze (2001) observed that parents can use television advertisements in various ways as a means of communicating and educating their children on consumer matters. According to Liebeck (1998) teenagers are now more knowledgeable. They are truly the internet generation, and get their news and information primarily from television. Atkin (1978) observed that children or adolescents are most influential when they are primary customers. There is a substantial variation in the amount of teenagers influence in purchase decision for products for their own use and for their family (Cotte & Wood, 2004). All the products used by a customer are not necessarily those of advertisements they liked. The key lies not only in the attractiveness of the advertisements, but also the interest of the target (Dubey & Patel, 2004). For advertisers, India could represent a golden opportunity for airing television advertisements (Fam & Waller, 2008).

Objective of the Study


Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010 Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

This research is conducted with a view to study the impact of TV advertising on the buying behaviour of teenagers in India. To achieve this objective, the following hypotheses were framed:H01 There is no significant difference in the opinion of rural and urban teenagers regarding the influence of TV advertising on their buying behaviour. H02 There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female teenagers regarding the influence of TV advertising on their buying behaviour.

Research Methodology
The present study is focused on the school/college going teenagers of Haryana to know the influence of TV advertising on their buying behaviour. For this purpose, a multistage sampling method was adopted. The study comprised of four districts of Haryana which were selected at random from all the administrative divisions. The data for urban respondents was collected from these districts. Further, two villages from each district were selected in such a manner that one village lies near to the city and the other lies far away from the city and also having senior secondary school. The nearness was considered upto 20 kilometers from the district. While conducting the survey, due care was given to the respondents of different walks of life, i.e. different gender, area of residence, educational standards, economic backgrounds and age groups. It was decided to involve teenagers in the age group of 13-19 studying in, grade 7-9, 10-11 and 12 & above in the survey and were regular viewers of TV. A total of 1000 questionnaires (250 in each administrative division) were circulated among the respondents. Out of the collected questionnaires, a total of 866 questionnaires were considered fit for the analysis. Of these, 440 were from rural and 426 were from urban respondents. Further details are shown in Table 1 and 2.

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour Table 1: Characteristics of the sample. Residential Background Rural 221(51.2) 219(50.4) 135(44.8) 157(49.2) 148(60.2) 143(45.2) 178(57.2) 119(50.0) 285(90.2) 127(39.3) 28(12.3) 440(50.8)

69

Demographic Variables Gender

Categories Male Female 1315 1517 1719 79 1011 12&above <1,00,000 1,00,0003,00,000 >3,00,000

Age (in years)

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

Education (As per class) Annual Income of parents (Rs in lakhs) Total Figures in parentheses show percentages

Urban 210(48.8) 216(49.6) 166(55.2) 162(50.8) 98(39.8) 174(54.8) 133(42.8) 119(50.0) 31(9.8) 196(60.7) 199(87.7) 426(49.2)

Total 431(49.7) 435(50.3) 301(34.8) 319(36.8) 246(28.4) 317(36.6) 311(35.9) 238(27.5) 316(36.8) 323(37.0) 227(26.2) 866(100)

Table 2: Distribution of sample. Administrative Divisions Residential background AD1 AD2 AD3 AD4 119 113 107 101 Rural 112 112 102 100 Urban 231 225 209 201 Total AD1, Hisar Administrative division; AD2, Rohtak Administrative division; Ambala Administrative division; AD4, Gurgaon Administrative division. Total 440 426 866 AD3,

A comprehensive questionnaire was constructed covering 30 variables related to the impact of TV advertising. Besides general information about the respondents, different issues related to the impact of TV advertisements were addressed. Out of these only one issue related to buying behaviour was considered. Therefore, only 14 dependent variables (Table 3) related to this study out of the total 30 dependent variables were selected and analysed. All the responses on variables related to this study were obtained on 5-point scale (from point 5 for strongly agreeing with the statement to point 1 for strongly disagreeing). The one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been applied to analyse the dependent variables from the point of view of gender (Table 4) and area of residence (Table 5). The scale of variables was also put to reliability test and the obtained value of Cronbachs alpha was 0.759, which is considered satisfactory.

70

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma Table 3: Description of variables.

Variable no. V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10


Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

V11 V12 V13 V14

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

Description I like TV advertisements. I often want products seen in TV ads. No doubt, TV advertisement increases the frequency of purchase. I feel that exposure to TV ads has enhanced my involvement in purchasing. I mostly purchase products shown in TV ads. I feel TV ads make the purchase of the products easier. Due to TV ad exposure I have started experimenting new products. I engage in the process of buying TV advertised products. I feel my demand for products purchase is influenced by TV ads. I feel good when I watch the ads of the products I am already using. TV ads help me to find the best products. TV ads induce me to buy products for enjoyment even though I do not require them. Due to TV ad exposure, my family members collectively decide products to be purchased. Quality of product is as good as expected from TV ads.

Results and Discussions


As mentioned in the research methodology, the scale consisting of 30 dependent variables was analysed related to the impact of TV advertising. Out of these only one issue related to buying behaviour was considered. Therefore, only 14 variables relating to this study were selected and analysed. The results of ANOVA state that there is no significant difference in the views of male and female teenagers (P0.52) on the liking of TV advertisements. This is also evident from the minimal variations in the mean scores (i.e. male, x = 3.89 and female x =3.85). Further, the rural and urban consumers vary significantly (P0.03) on this issue (Table 5). Mean scores (Table 5) also reveal that the rural teenagers (x =3.93) like television advertisements more than their urban counterparts (x = 3.81). Teenagers of different gender groups (P0.17) (Table 4) and residential background (P0.77) (Table 5) do not vary in their views on the variable that they often want products seen in TV advertisements. This is also endorsed by the mean scores. The variable that the frequency of purchase increases due to TV advertisements has an insignificant influence on teenagers of different gender groups (P0.29) (Table 4). However, the impact of this variable differs significantly (P0.00) according to the residential background. Rural teenagers (x =3.62) are comparatively more influenced than the urban (x =3.33) respondents on this parameter.

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour

71

Table 4 Summary of ANOVA & Mean Scores for the Dependent Variables on the Basis of Gender. Gender Sr.no. Dependent Variables Male Female I like TV advertisements. 3.89 3.85 V1 I often want products seen in TV ads. 3.05 2.95 V2 No doubt, TV advertisement increases 3.44 3.51 V3 the frequency of purchase. I feel that exposure to TV ads has V4 enhanced my involvement in 3.57 3.34 purchasing. I mostly purchase products shown in 3.01 2.97 V5 TV ads. I feel TV ads make the purchase of the 3.94 3.75 V6 products easier. Due to TV ad exposure I have started V7 experimenting new products. 3.44 3.27 I engage in the process of buying TV 3.04 2.85 V8 advertised products. I feel my demand for products purchase 3.64 3.57 V9 is influenced by TV ads. I feel good when I watch the ads of the V10 products I am already using. 3.81 3.76 TV ads help me to find the best 3.75 3.60 V11 products. TV ads induce me to buy products for V12 enjoyment even though I do not require 2.70 2.61 them. Due to TV ad exposure, my family V13 members collectively decide products 3.15 3.07 to be purchased. Quality of product is as good as 2.97 2.81 V14 expected from TV ads. ** Significant at 1% level * Significant at 5% level

F-value 0.41 1.87 1.13

Sig. 0.52 0.17 0.29

9.41 0.34 7.92

0.00* * 0.56 0.01* * 0.02* 0.01* * 0.40

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

5.60 7.50 0.72

0.40 4.96

0.53 0.03*

1.26

0.26

0.97 3.32

0.32 0.07

The gender effect (P0.00) (Table 4) and residential background (P0.00) (Table 5) has a varying influence on teenagers in considering that exposure to TV advertisements has enhanced their involvement in purchasing. The male respondents (Table 4) (x =3.57) have higher acceptance to this variable in comparison to their female counterparts (x =3.34). Further, mean scores in table 5 shows that rural teenagers (x =3.58) have stronger acceptance on this parameter in comparison to the urban teenagers (x =3.33).

72

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma

Table 5 : Summary of ANOVA & Mean Scores for the Dependent Variables on the Basis of Area of Residence. Area of Sr.no. Dependent Variables Residence Rural Urban I like TV advertisements. 3.93 3.81 V1 I often want products seen in TV ads. 2.99 3.01 V2 No doubt, TV advertisement 3.62 3.33 V3 increases the frequency of purchase. I feel that exposure to TV ads has 3.58 3.33 V4 enhanced my involvement in purchasing. I mostly purchase products shown 3.04 2.94 V5 in TV ads. I feel TV ads make the purchase of 3.95 3.73 V6 the products easier. Due to TV ad exposure I have started 3.54 3.16 V7 experimenting new products. I engage in the process of buying 3.03 2.85 V8 TV advertised products. I feel my demand for products 3.68 3.53 V9 purchase is influenced by TV ads. I feel good when I watch the ads of 3.93 3.64 V10 the products I am already using. TV ads help me to find the best 3.86 3.48 V11 products. TV ads induce me to buy products 2.46 2.86 V12 for enjoyment even though I do not require them. Due to TV ad exposure, my family 3.25 2.96 V13 members collectively decide products to be purchased. Quality of product is as good as 2.51 3.26 V14 expected from TV ads. ** Significant at 1% level * Significant at 5% level

F-value 4.57 0.09 15.90 11.00

Sig. 0.03* 0.77 0.00** 0.00**

1.64 11.12 28.25 6.03 4.30 16.51 29.61 23.61

0.20 0.00** 0.00** 0.01** 0.04* 0.00** 0.00** 0.00**

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

14.37

0.00**

83.51

0.00**

The gender effect (P0.56) (Table 4) and residential background (P0.20) (Table 5) effect do not influence the teenagers on the parameter that they mostly purchase products shown in TV advertisements. The insignificant variation in the mean scores of both independent variables also supports the results.

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour

73

Teenagers of different gender groups (P0.01) (Table 4) and residential background (P0.00) (Table 5) discriminate their views on the variable that TV advertisements make the purchase of the products easier. A perusal of mean scores in Table 4 shows that the male respondents (x =3.94) have higher positive response to this variable than their female counterparts (x =3.75). Further, Table 5 explains that rural teenagers (x =3.95) have comparatively stronger inclination on this statement than the urban (x =3.73) teenagers. The parameter that teenagers buy the new product they watch on TV advertisements has a varying impact on the teenagers of different gender groups (P0.02) and residential background (P0.00). Table 4 reveals that male teenagers (x =3.44) agree more on the statement than their female counterparts (x =3.27). The rural teenagers (x =3.54) provided more value to this parameter in comparison to the urban (x =3.16) teenagers (Table 5). The results of ANOVA states that the teenagers of different gender groups (P0.01) and area of residence (P0.01) have varying opinion on the issue that they engage in the process of buying TV advertised products. Table 4 discloses that the male respondents (x =3.04) have positive opinion about the statement whereas female (x =2.85) do not support this aspect. Further, Table 5 signifies that the rural teenagers (x =3.03) have favourable node on the statement whereas the urban teenagers do not agree (x =2.85) on this parameter. Table 4 highlights that the teenagers of different gender groups (P0.40) do not discriminate on the variable that their demand for the products purchased is influenced by TV advertisement. However, the residential background (P0.04) (Table 5) effect has significant impact on the parameter. The cell means of table 5 indicate that the rural teenagers (x =3.68) strongly agree on the parameter in comparison to the urban (x =3.53) respondents. Table 4 gauges that there is an insignificant variation (P0.53) between the views of male (x =3.81) and female (x =3.76) teenagers on the variable that they feel good when they watch the advertisements of the products they are already using. However, the residential background effect (P0.00) (Table 5) indicates that the rural and urban teenagers vary significantly on the parameter. The mean scores in table 5 show that the rural teenagers (x =3.93) have stronger acceptance on this parameter as compared to the urban teenagers (x =3.64). Teenagers of different gender groups (P0.03) and residential background (P0.00) differ significantly in their opinions on the statement that TV advertisements help them to find the best products. A perusal of mean scores in table 4 explains that female respondents (x =3.60) have lesser acceptance to this variable in comparison to their male counterparts (x =3.75). Further, table 5 reveals that rural teenagers (x =3.86) comparatively have stronger acceptance on this parameter than urban teenagers (x =3.48). The results of ANOVA indicate that there is no significant (P0.26) variation in the views of male and female teenagers on the aspect that TV advertisements induce them to buy products for enjoyment even though they do not require them. Both male (x =2.70) and female respondents (x =2.61) disagree on the parameter. Further, rural and urban consumers differ significantly (P0.00) on the parameter. Table 5 shows

Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

74

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma

that the rural teenagers (x =2.46) strongly oppose the statement as compared to the urban teenagers (x =2.85). Table 4 exhibits an insignificant (P0.32) difference between the male (x =3.15) and female (x =3.07) teenagers on the parameter that due to TV advertisements exposure, the family members collectively decide products to be purchased. Further, Table 5 depicts that rural and urban consumers differ significantly (P0.00) on the parameter. The rural teenagers (x =3.25) agree to the statement while urban (x =2.96) teenagers disagree on the parameter. The results of ANOVA indicate that there is discrimination (P0.07) (Table 4) in the views of male and female teenagers on the parameter that the quality of product is as good as expected from TV advertisements. Both male (x =2.97) and female respondents (x =2.81) disagree on the parameter. Further, the area of residence effect varies significantly (P0.00) on the parameter. Table 5 shows that the rural teenagers (x =2.51) disagree on the statement whereas the urban teenagers (x =3.26) accepts the parameter.
Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

Conclusion
The study suggests that rural teenagers like television advertising more than their urban counterparts. TV advertising has enhanced their involvement in product selection and purchase. They prefer to buy and experiment with the new products. Rural teenagers collectively decide with their family members, products to be purchased due to exposure to TV advertisements while it is not so with their urban counterparts. The urban teenagers do not agree to buy the advertised products if they do not require them. They like the advertisements of the products they are already using and believe that the quality of the product is as good as expected from TV advertisements. It can also be concluded that there is a considerable variation in the perception of both rural and urban teenagers on the issue that demand for product purchase is influenced by TV advertisements. Further, the study also revealed that the buying behaviour of male teenagers is more influenced by television advertisements than their female counterparts.

www.IndianJournals.com

Future research directions


This research is particularly focused on TV advertising impact on buying behaviour of teenagers related to different residential backgrounds (i.e., rural and urban) and gender groups (i.e., male and female). Further research is needed by inclusion of all popular mass-media and coverage of all major dimensions of buying behaviour. This study is conducted in the four administrative divisions of the state of Haryana in India. More comprehensive studies should be conducted at national or international levels by increasing the sample size.

The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour

75

References
[1] [2] Atkin Charles K. (1978) Observation of Parent-child Interaction in Supermarket Decision -Making, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 41-45. Beatty Sharon E. and Talpade Salil (1994) Adolescent Influence in Family Decision Making: A Replication with Extension, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 332-341. Chandok Anil (November, 2005) Impact of Advertisements on Childrens Buying Behaviour, Marketing Mastermind, pp. 41-46. Ciochetto, L. (2004), Advertising and Globlisation in India, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/ecmsas/panels/ecmsaspanel17to24/panelpdfs/File uploadmax10Mb,134388,en.pdf, accessed on 19.01.2007. Cotte, J. and Wood, S. L. (2004) Families and Innovative Consumer Behaviour: A Triadic Analysis of Sibling and Parental Influence, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No. 1. pp. 78-86. Cruz, A. E. (2004), The Junk Food Generation, http://www.consumersinternational.org/Shared_ASP_Files/UploadedFiles/728 E4ABF-3B36-4450-9A6D-D0A2A1B16F4B_JunkfoodfinalROAP.pdf, accessed on 30.10.2007. Datta Srinivasa (April, 2008) Advertisements Do They Match Consumer Preferences? Marketing Mastermind, pp.59-62 Dubey Jayashree and Patel Rajni P. (2004) Ads that Work with Youth, Indian Management, Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 68-74. Etzel Michael, Walker Bruce J., Stanton William and Pandit Ajay (2008), Marketing- Concepts and Cases, 13th Edition, Tata Macgraw, New Delhi. Fam Kim-Shyam and Waller David S. (2008) A Study of Liked/Disliked Television Commercials in India, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp.3-10. Fox, R.F. (1996), Harvesting Minds: How TV Commercials Control Kids, New Haven, CT: Praeger. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/census_data_2001 accessed on September 30, 2008. Hawkins, D., Best, r. and Coney, K. (2001), consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy, 8th Edition, Mc Graw Hills, Boston. Kaur, H. and Kaur, R. (2002) Fashion Awareness Among Rural and Urban Adolescents, Journal of Social Research, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 37-40. Kavitha G. (2006) A Study On The Effectiveness Of The Advertising Techniques Used In The Personal Care Segment Of Women Consumers, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 12-16. Kotwal Nidhi, Gupta Neelima and Devi Arjee (2008) Impact of T.V Advertisements on Buying Pattern of Adolescent Girls, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 51-55.

[3] [4]

[5]
Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

[6]

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

[7] [8] [9] [10]

[11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

[16]

76 [17]

Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma Kraak Vivica and Pelletier David L. (1998) How Marketers Reach Young Consumers: Implications for Nutrition Education and Health Promotion Campaigns, Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 31-41. Kshyap, P. and Raut, S. (2008), The Rural Marketing Book, Biztantra, New Delhi. Liebeck, L. (1998), The customer connection: children under 13, Discount Store News, No.26 October, www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/e meraldfulltextarticle/pdf/3210080206_ref.html, accessed on 04.12.2006. McNeal, J. (1999), The Kids Market: Myths and Realities, Ithica, NY: Paramount Market Publishers. Nagaraja, B. (2004) Consumer Behaviour in Rural Areas: A Micro-level Study on Buying Behaviour of Rural consumers in Kavali Mandal, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 30-36. North, E. J. and Kotze, T. (2001) Parents and television advertisement as Consumer Socialisation Agents for Adolescents: An Exploratory Study, Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Science, Vol. 29, No. ISSN 0378-5254, pp. 91-98. Ramaswami, V.S. and Namakumari, S. (2004), Marketing Management, 3rd Edition, MACMILLAN, India. Ramana Rao, P.V. (1997) Rural market problems and prospective, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, pp. 17-19. Raven John, Hoehn Thomas, Lancefield David and Robinson Bill (2004), Economic Analysis of the TV Advertising Market, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/tvadvmarket.pdf, accessed on 30.09.2007. Robertson Thomas and Rossiter John (1977) Childrens Responsiveness to Commercials, Journal of Communication, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 101-106. Sashidhar, A. S. and Adivi, S. (September, 2006) Advertising to Kids Is It Justified? Advertising Express, pp. 12-16. Saksena, G. (1990) Advertising Through T.V., Social Implications, Journal of Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.44-49. Saxena, R. (2005). Marketing Management. New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw. Sellers Patricia (8 May, 1989) The ABCs of Marketing to Kids, Fortune, pp.114-120. Selvaraj A (2007) Rural Consumers Behaviour Regarding Non Durable Goods: A Study in Erode District of Tamil Nadu, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37, No. 12, pp. 35-42. Shah, K. and DSouza, A. (2008), Advertising Promotion, An IMC Perspection New Delhi. Tata Mc Graw Hill Companies. Sehrawet, M. and Kundu, S. C. (2007) Buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers in India: the impact of packaging, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 31, No. ISSN 1470-6423, pp. 630-638. Unnikrishnan, N. and Bajpai, S. (1996), The Impact of Television Advertising on Children, http://www.wacc.org.uk/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=309, accessed on 30.09.2007.

[18] [19]

[20] [21]

[22]
Downloaded From IP - 115.248.73.67 on dated 29-Nov-2010

[23] [24] [25]

Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale

www.IndianJournals.com

[26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

[32] [33]

[34]