BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. inclining to purple.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. and is then known as carbuncle. The name is a corruption of alabandicus.512 Å at 100 K. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. of deep red color. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d.5 K. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. It is frequently cut with a convex face. also known incorrectly as almandite. Fe 3Al2Si3O12.: /ˈælməndɪn/). which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. or en cabochon. Almandine.

and are sometimes cut and polished. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. a name said to be taken from Syriam. in Tyrol. When the color inclines to a violet tint. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . in theNorthern Territory of Australia.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. some years ago. Almandine is widely distributed. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska.

030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .024 [1] .AD.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.7.25.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.05 (+. -..5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.790 (+/.

may also have faint lines at 423. and 573nm. 610 and 680-690nm [1] .Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. 460.

50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. For many years. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Naturally. Virginia. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Colorado. More recently. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. orthoclase. although it is easily fractured. where it occurs in granitic rocks. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Because of its bright green color when polished. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Colorado.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Russia. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. El Paso County. . Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia.

The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. brick-red.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. white. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. pale-yellow. It is common in granite and pegmatites. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. Amazon stone. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. . Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region.Colorado. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. or green. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. Microcline may be clear. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. however." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. viewed under a polarizing microscope. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. or amazonite. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline.

Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Similarly.F . and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. in the crystal. respectively. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. named for high concentrations of OH . Hydroxyapatite. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH.Cl)2. Cl or ions. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. also known as hydroxylapatite. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. sodium . in the mid-20th century.g. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e.F. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite.

Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. usually green.fluoride. blue to violet. yellow. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. massive.OH) Strunz classification 08. sodium monofluorophosphate). The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins.Cl. pink.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. prismatic crystals.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. less often colorless.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent.BN. brown. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. compact or granular . Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock.

008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.[1] Dispersion 0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave. −0.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.012.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.002–0. Other colors are weak to very weak.638 (+0.16–3. green stones – greenish yellow . blue and yellow to colorless.006)[1] Birefringence 0. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.634– stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.

which is stronger in long wave. light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.[1] .


Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. the entire shell is aragonite. also known as μ-CaCO3. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. one of the two common.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). An aragonite cave. [edit]Uses In aquaria. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. naturally occurring. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. It is formed by biological and physical processes. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). is situated in Slovakia.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Spain). an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. In some mollusks. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. The mineral vaterite. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. resulting in a different crystal shape. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. in others. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. In the USA. respectively. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. [citation Aragonite . aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite.

reniform.74 Å. green . globular. red. columnar.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. Z = 4 Identification Color White. Aude department. yellow.95 Å. c = 5. stalactitic. prismatic crystals. orange. coralloidal. acicular. internally banded . blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. pisolitic.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.96 Å. b = 7.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) .AB. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05.

686 Birefringence δ = 0.529 .685 . yellow.1.680 .95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.530 nβ = 1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.5-4 Luster Vitreous.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}. white or . imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.1.682 nγ = 1.1.

characteristics bluish. yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

Augite has two prominent cleavages.Al.Fe. [edit]Characteristics .Ti)(Si.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Al)2O6. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Na)(Mg.

labradorite. leucite. titanium. for example. With declining temperature.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. sanidine. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. meaning "brightness". brown or [2] black) luster. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. Augite . the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India.0 x 2. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. olivine. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood.4 x 3. which is from the Greekaugites. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. It is found near the Ken River. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. and sodium and other elements. but mostly of temperature.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4.

Augite . β = 106.699 Å.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. skeletal.Ti)(Si. brown.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. dendritic . Z=4 Identification Color Black. also acicular.272 Å.844 Å. in thin section. c = 5.97°. violet-brown.Na)(Mg.Fe.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Al.DA. greenish. b = 8.

680 .3.1.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. pale brown.19 . violet.1.1.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.684 . green. pale yellow-green. nβ = 1.706 .774 Birefringence δ = 0. greenish yellow.0. violet .Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}. nγ = 1.741.735. Y = pale brown. Z = pale green. grayish green. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.026 .


. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. and unknown white crystals. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. France. The mineral.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. From Tsumeb. Namibia. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. has been known since ancient times. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. With azurite. a carbonate." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon.

Azurite is destroyed by heat. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. carbonate and hydroxide. Characteristic of a carbonate. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. .77 to 3. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. the other being bright green malachite. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight.89. powdery copper(II) oxide. Azurite crystals are monoclinic.5 to 4. Azurite is soft. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. and are often stalactitic in form.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.

Ultramarine withstands heat. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. However. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. However. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. a term applied to many blue pigments. it gave a wide range of blues. and also as an ornamental stone. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. France. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. in the silver mines located there. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. and its basic content of copper carbonate. a similar but much more expensive pigment. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. such as saltwater aquariums. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . Heating destroys azurite easily. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry.

heat. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. dark. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. bright light. collectors should use a cool. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. General . Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. However. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China.

β = 92.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. twin planes {101}.35 Å. prismatic. fair on {100}. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.5 to 4 . c = 10.85 Å.BA.01 Å.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. Berlin blue. b = 5. very dark to pale blue.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. stalactitic.43°.

108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.773 (measured).758 nγ = 1. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak . 3.730 nβ = 1.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.838 Birefringence δ = 0.

syenite. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. and shale. In the case of Jamaica.basalt. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. the clay mineral kaolinite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. gneiss. . This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France.

Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. Brazil. followed by China. . will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves.[edit]Production trends In 2010. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. and Guinea. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. India. Increased aluminium recycling.

and is the main [1] source of barium. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. The baryte group consists of baryte. [edit]Names [2] and history . anglesite and anhydrite.Sr)SO4. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.BARITE Baryte. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. or barite. celestine.

such as washing. Most baryte is ground to a small. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. and blanc fixe. [2] [3] Spar. tabling. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . [2] Heavy associations and locations . [8] barytes. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. jigging. including barytine. but rather a material that meets that specification. tiff. heavy media separation. [8] schwerspath. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. Other names have been used for baryte. flotation. an addition to industrial products. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size.

Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. in hot spring deposits. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. hydrothermal. and with hematite ore. Scotland. Perthshire. It has also been identified in meteorites. . USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. among others. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. and evaporation.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones.

Muirshiel [2] Mine. Iran (250). Morocco (460). sound reduction in engine compartments. by weight. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. Morocco. Virginia. New Mexico. Greece. Connecticut. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100).000). Cumbria. the bit passes through various formations. India. The deeper the hole. and no more than 30%. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Peru. [edit]Paleothermometry . filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. North [2] Carolina. Turkey.Perthshire. As a well is drilled.2 or greater. friction products for automobiles and trucks. UK (Cornwall. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Canada. Liberia. Romania (Baia Sprie). and paint. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. Durham. blue.600). either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. It is mined in Arkansas. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. chemically inert. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. paper. India [12] (1. Derbyshire. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. China. Tennessee. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Connecticut. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics.Kentucky. each with different characteristics. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). Iran. United States (670). Nevada & Missouri. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. Chile. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. New York & Fort Wallace. De Kalb. by weight. Georgia. radiation-shielding cement. can be less than 6 μm diameter. Thailand. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining.

Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. . Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. away from continental sources of sediment. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean.

possible colors are green. [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. veḷiru ( ). red. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. blue. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. the Spanish word brillo.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". yellow. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". also meaning "shine".BERYL In geology. Old French: beryl. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. [edit]Deposits . The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. Pure beryl is colorless. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). and white. and [5] the English word brilliance. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India.

Germany. Austria. In Brazil. and Zambia. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Colombia. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. though the color returns with irradiation. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. and 2+ 3+ . it is New Hampshire's state mineral. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Madagascar. and weighing 380. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. near Powder River Pass. As of 1999. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. neutrons or even X-rays).S. Maine. Mozambique. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. In the United States. South Dakota and Utah. and Bahia. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Idaho. and limestone inColombia. as well as Brazil. Ireland and Russia. Espírito Santo. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais.000 kilogrammes. New Hampshire. InWyoming. Mainewith dimensions 5. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color.5 meters in diameter. U. Sweden (especially morganite). is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Madagascar. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. Connecticut. North Carolina.5 m by 1. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. such as that occurring in Brazil. South Africa. the United States. Colorado. Clear yellow beryl. beryl locations are in California. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays.

The mines of Colombia. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. In the US. India. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. Brazil. Coscuez. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. Pakistan. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. [15] [7][14] . Zambia. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. meaning "green". Malawi. Madagascar. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. as such. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Madagascar. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. It is named for the trapiche. and its dimensions were 48. Minas Gerais. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. Afghanistan and Russia. It weighed over 110 kg. which has been on the market since 1964.. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. North Carolina. Zimbabwe. such as Zambia.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. and Chivor. In 1998. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. Most emeralds are highly included. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. in 1910. marakata (म कन). Brazil. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter.

The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. However. .C. In the past. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. The name originates from Goshen. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. golden beryl has very few flaws. D. Washington. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Unlike emerald. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Nowadays.

In December 1910. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. Utah.Maine. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. Morgan. Ti. V. Fe. 1989. Sc. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. at Pala. It was also known. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. However. "rose beryl". [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. Thomas [26][27] Range. pink. On October 7. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". goshenite can be colored yellow. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. such astourmaline and kunzite. with other gemstone minerals.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. The crystal. and Co impurities. its type locality." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. green. USA. California. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. Juab County. P. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. and color banding is common. also known as "pink beryl". Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. "pink emerald". It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). because of the . originally somewhat orange in hue. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color.

while he was prospecting for uranium. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. and Juab County. pseudobrookite and hematite.orthoclase. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Beaver County. spessartine. [28] of Fillmore. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. quartz. topaz.000 per carat for faceted stones.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite.Sierra County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Utah. Utah.05 . It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. New [1] Mexico. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges.CJ. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Utah. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains.

50 Color Green.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . colorless.21 Å. blue.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. yellow. c = 9.19 Å. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. columnar. radial. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.

0040–0.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.564–1.595 nε = 1.Specific gravity Average 2. but the stone itself does not) .76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.568–1.

oxygen. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. it refers to the dark mica series. aluminium.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. [4] discovering many unique properties.OH)2. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot.L. Biotite is a sheet silicate.F. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. in 1816. researched the optical properties of mica. who. Iron. Biotite was named by J. magnesium. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. silicon. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. More generally. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg.

The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. and a grey-white streak. and even yellow when weathered. and consists of flexible sheets. . It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. It has amonoclinic crystal system. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. fracture is uneven. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. It appears greenish to brown or black. or lamellae. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. which easily flake off. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. Norway. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. has a vitreous to pearly luster. Virginia and North Carolina. especially in pegmatite veins. in some instances side-by-side. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Ontario. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. It can be transparent to opaque. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. When biotite is found in large chunks. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. For instance.than phlogopite. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. as in New England.

yellow. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. blackish brown.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. greenish brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2. less common on the {001} .53 g Color Dark brown.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.

Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.03–0.7–3.675 Birefringence δ = 0.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).605–1.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.625 nβ = 1.605–1.1 Density 2.8–3.565–1.675 nγ = 1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.5–3.

is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. also known as peacock ore. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .

Kazakhstan. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.England. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. and elsewhere in Cornwall. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.Connecticut in the U. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). from the N’ouva mine. Karlovy Vary Region.5 x 4. the Mangula mine. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. Illogan. eastern Tirol. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps.3 x 3. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. S. Montana and at Bristol. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Morocco. Austria. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. Talate.Lomagundi district. Zimbabwe. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. .Mexico (size: 7.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. usually in small quantities. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. The world's largest known geode.The mineral is found worldwide. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. Celestine . Crystal Cave. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. Ohio. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. In carbonate marine sediments. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation.

866 Å. pink. pale green. black . pale blue.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.AD. pale brown. c = 6.352 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. b = 5.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07.359 Å. white.

pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . also fibrous.95 .622 nβ = 1. lamellar. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.632 Birefringence δ = 0.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. good on {210}.5 Luster Vitreous.619 .622 .1.624 nγ = 1.3.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 . earthy.1.

long UV=yellow. white blue. white blue .Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.

Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). digenite (Cu9S5). On exposure to air. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. covellite (CuS).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. . Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). Copper is shown in pink. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. hydroxides and sulfates. chalcocite (Cu2S). It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.

Pt. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. and Sb are reported. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Se. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper.3 x 4. . It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Ontario. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. from huge masses as at Timmins. Au. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. V. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Pb.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Ni. Cr. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types.8 x 6. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. and trace amounts of Ag. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. However. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. In. etc. the American cordillera and the Andes. Mn. molybdenite representing Mo.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Pd. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite.

In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Ouray County. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.CB. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Colorado. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral .

and sometimes botryoidal. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron. c = 10. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.1 – 4. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.423 Å.54 Color Brass yellow. commonly massive.289 Å.3 . Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.Unit cell a = 5.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. Pure copper is soft and malleable. both by itself and as part of pigments. a building material. and wood preservatives. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. In the Roman era. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. Characteristics . muscle and bone. and a constituent of various metal alloys. fungicides. needed] In sufficient concentration. Decorative art prominently features copper. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus).COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. later shortened to сuprum. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina).

above which it begins to heat excessively. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. galvanic corrosion will occur. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. At the macroscopic scale. and osmium (bluish).Physical A copper disc (99. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. such as grain boundaries. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. As with other metals. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. Copper. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. For this reason.

as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. Edinburgh. respectively.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. It does not react with water. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). such as the Statue of Liberty. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. bulk corrosion. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. this oxide layer stops the further.

US. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm).4×3.2 cm. they both have a spin of 3/2. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .8 minutes.7 hours.There are 29 isotopes of copper. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. decays both ways. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. which has [13] a half-life of 12. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. Cu. The other isotopes are radioactive. Native copper is a polycrystal.83 hours.2×3. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. [15] . 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. Cu and Cu are stable.

calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. it can scratch almost every other mineral. but can have different colors when impurities are present. and the mix is less abrasive. All other colors are called sapphire. "green sapphire" for a green specimen.0 Mohs). Transparent specimens are used as gems. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. e.0. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen.. with an average hardness near 8. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. In addition to its hardness.g. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. It is commonly used as anabrasive. It is a rock-forming mineral. titanium and chromium.02 g/cm . corundum is unusual for its density of 4. plastics.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. and wood.

Corundum from Brazil. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives.8 in × 1 in). . Russia. Sri Lanka and India. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. gneiss. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. silicon carbide. In 1847. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. New York. [4] Ontario.000 °C (3. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. In 1903. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. [4] USA.632 °F). Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.

Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.1 . Apart from ornamental uses. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.05 Dana classification 4.3.1. scratchresistant optics. rods.CB. bearings. scratch-resistant watch crystals. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). and other machined parts). Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. and laser components.

tabular. brown. violet. gray. orange. c = 12.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4.982 Å. prismatic. may be color zoned. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. blue to cornflower blue. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. translucent toopaque . green. pink to pigeon-blood-red. rhombohedral crystals.75 Å. yellow.

767–1.759–1. or hercynite .Specific gravity 3.hematite.772 nε = 1.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.95–4.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.

01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. brown or gray to colorless. black. translucent white. Less often blue. orange. pink.10a Identification Formula mass 12. violet. purple and red. green. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. . Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.CB.

53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.5–3.044 .Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.52±0.01 Density 3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

often as a result of diagenesis. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone.S. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. [edit]Properties .: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. or in old U. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. In 1791.

but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. dolomite is a double carbonate. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. although it is usually massive. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today.e. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. having a different structural arrangement. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. In the 1950s and 60s. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. It forms white. Unlike calcite.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. . [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. gray to pink. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria.g. i. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Arkansas. namely. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. where organic matter content is high. Crystal twinning is common.

The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. White Mountains.Dolomite. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". in a 1999 study. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. . California. textural and chemical characteristics. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. However.

it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. In horticulture.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role.2×4. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. zinc. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. and copper. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. a concrete aggregate. Cherokee County.4×7. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Dolomite . Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Kansas(size: 11. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use.

often with curved faces. 3 Unit cell a = 4. stalactitic. massive.AB.8012(1) Å.002 Å.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. granular. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. c = 16. Z = 3 Identification Color White.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. also columnar. Crystal system Trigonal .

Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.179–0.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. .84–2.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.500 Birefringence δ = 0.681 nε = 1. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.679–1. triboluminescent.

grey. Ca2Al2(Fe . the pleochroic colors being usually green. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. It displays strong pleochroism. yellow and brown. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. and the specific gravity. the color.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. brown or nearly black. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. the optical constants. The color is green." 3+ .

The perfectly transparent. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. but one of secondary origin. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. dark green. as magnificent. garnets. pyroxenes. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. Haddam inConnecticut. amphiboles. micas. and others) composing igneous rocks. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. calcite. and apatite.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. adularia. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. Arendal in Norway. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. . tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. withasbestos. here as large.

near Falun in Sweden. and others. and well-developed crystals are rare. sometimes a foot in length. after whom the species was named. yellowish-. syenite. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. being black or dark brown in color. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. and many different names applied. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. Dollaseite is less common. and opaque in the mass. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. andesite. Epidote . near Ivrea in Piedmont. at Finbo. Although not a common mineral. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. Piemontite occurs as small. and greenish-brown colors. gneiss. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. there is little or no cleavage. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. rhyolite. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. pitchy in lustre. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. reddish-black. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. granite. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. further.

3–3. fibrous. yellow-green.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green.6 . greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.

797 Birefringence δ = 0.046 Pleochroism Strong .715–1.784 nγ = 1.725–1.734–1.751 nβ = 1.019–0.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. Typically. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. . the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). While slowly cooling within the earth. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. of plagioclase. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture.

in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Germany. some ceramics. and as a constituent of scouring powder. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. It is the state gem of Florida. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. In gemology. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. such as porcelain.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Russia.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. It measured ~10×10×0. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. Most moonstones are translucent and white. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks.

White. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Greyish yellow.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Cleavages intersect at 90°. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance.55–2.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Greenish. 2V = 65–75 . pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.

520 nβ = 1.525 Birefringence 0.522–1.524 nγ = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief . Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.0050–0.522– Refractive index nα = 1.518–1.

[edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It is the most important lead ore mineral. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite.

In addition zinc.1×3. Utah and Montana. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments.2×2. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Bulgaria. Idaho. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. Iowa and Wisconsin. England. in a process similar to bioleaching. Rhodope Mountains. Somerset. Illinois. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. the former mining town of Galena. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. The Mendips. Broken Hill. USA (size: 5. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. the Madan. . Cornwall.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Saxony. Derbyshire. In the United States. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Galena is the official state mineral of the U.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Of the latter. and Cumberland.S. Missouri. cadmium. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. antimony. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Smolyan Province. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri.

U. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. In modern wireless communication systems.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. however. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. For example. which were a potential source of disease. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. which was known as a "cat's whisker". Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). which. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. in Ancient Egypt. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. Isle of [5] Man.K.g.

parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.5–2. space group Fm3m. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].936 Å. No.8.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.75 .1. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.CD.10 Dana classification 2. 225 Twinning Contact. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.

2–7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

The hardness is variable.5 range. the other being hematite. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition.akaganeite. lepidocrocite.7 to 4. and jarosite. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. Although originally defined as a single mineral. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2.3. but generally in the 4 . Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. although specimens may show a [6] . in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. among them goethite. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. but limonite does not.5. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak.

and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. Complex systems developed. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. sometimes mammillary. [10] California mining district. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. and biotite. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. Because of its amorphous nature. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. hematite and magnetite. reniform or stalactitic. amphibole. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. and hematite was far easier to smelt. in Africa. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. burnt umbers and siennas. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. pyroxene. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. to process limonite. [12] notably in Tanzania.fibrous or microcrystalline structure.botryoidal. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. producing red ochres. Nonetheless. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. Main article: Ochre#History . but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. Before smelting. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules.

5½ . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.

9 .4.4.7 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.S. It dissolves in mercury. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. Less commonly. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. giving rise to the term theacid test. shiny. in veins and in alluvial deposits. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. . Chemically. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. which have been used in mining. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. usually with tellurium. soft. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. with huge war debts. jewelry. malleable and ductile metal. so named because it dissolves gold. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. In Europe. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. in 1932. is insoluble in nitric acid. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s.GOLD Gold is a dense. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. forming amalgam alloys. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. which dissolves silver and base metals. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). as nuggets or grains in rocks.

300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. colored-glass production and gold leafing. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. about 8876 m . Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. ductility. This is roughly equivalent to 5. 40% in [3] investments. Its highmalleability. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. and 10% in industry. and other fields. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. or a cube 20. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. in terms of volume.A total of 171. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. electronics. .5 billion troy ounces or.7 m on a side. includingelectric wiring. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin.

the last stage of coalification. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). and is probably hydrothermal in origin. "to draw/write". just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. 2. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. . consequently. a semimetal. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. for its use in pencils. flat. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). graphite is an electrical conductor. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. Therefore. There are three principal types of natural graphite. 3.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. It is. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope).: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates.

North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt).S. [7] totaling 73% of all global production.110 thousand tonnes (kt). respectively. Graphite .18 billion.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. China is the largest producer of graphite. Graphite is not mined in the United States. U. micas and tourmaline. India (130 kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).S. in particular. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. but U. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. calcite. Brazil (76 kt).

461 Å.CB. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2.708 Å. otherwise rough when not on cleavage . six-sided foliatedmasses. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. c = 6.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.

transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.09–2.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.

[8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. It can be used as afertilizer. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. (Thus. Selenite contains no significantselenium.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. When the crystal lattice is heated. Selenite may also occur in a silky. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. it may also be granular or quite compact. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. fibrous form. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. and in the early 19th century. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. it is alabaster. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. rather. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. in the form of selenite. cleavable masses called selenite. In arid areas. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. "chalk" or "plaster". referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. As a mineral. and transparent. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. referring to its crystalline projections. As foranhydrite. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. [edit]Occurrence . It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Upon addition of water.5 g/l at 25°C) and. called alabaster.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. "spear stone". resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. Finally. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum.0–2. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). In hand-sized samples. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. in contrast to most other salts. typically opaque.

and sulfate solutions inveins. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. strongly opposed by area residents. as well as in hot springs. . Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Pure gypsum is white. UK. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Blue Anchor. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.000 years. from volcanic vapors. Wyoming. Commercial exploitation of the area. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Under reducing conditions. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. Gypsum is a common mineral. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Somerset. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. However.

c = 6. brown. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.CD.522(6) Å.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. b = 15.43°.202(14) Å. tan. blue. may be yellow. β = 118. pink. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.679(5) Å. reddish brown or gray .40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.

519–1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.523 nγ = 1.521 nβ = 1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.31–2.530 Birefringence δ = 0. flat. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.010 .529–1. pearly. inelastic.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. Mohs scalehardness 1.522–1. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.

dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations.HEMATITE Hematite. one of several iron oxides. Hematite is harder than pure iron. It is mined as the main ore of iron. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Maghemite is a hematite. or other standing water. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Hematite can also occur without water. . also spelled as haematite. Varieties includekidney ore. but much more brittle. ancient. colored black to steel or silver-gray.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. While the forms of hematite vary. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). is responsible for the red color of many tropical. or red. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. or otherwise highly weathered soils. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. brown to reddish brown. usually as the result of volcanic activity. spring. Hematite is a mineral. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. however. they all have a rust-red streak. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite).

α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.CB. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray. dull to bright red .Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. Fe2O3.772(12) Å.038(2) Å. c = 13.

5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.940 Birefringence δ = 0. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.280 . oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.5–6. reniform. granular. nε = 2. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. earthy.220. micaceous or platy. columnar.150–3. commonly in rosettes.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3.870–2. radiating fibrous.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.

Pleochroism O = brownish red. E = yellowish red .

Si)8O22(OH. and an iron-magnesium silicate.Fe. to refer to a dark amphibole. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. The general formula can be given as (Ca. . but the name is used as a general or field term. a specific gravity of 2.Al)5(Al.4 and is typically an opaque green.9–3. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. brown or black color. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate.Na)2–3(Mg. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).F)2.

It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. andschist. syenite. Fe. Orange County. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. from its locality in Edenville. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. gneiss. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. is gray to white in color. basalt. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . and named edenite. New York. gabbro. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. andesite. diorite. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Al)5 (Al.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong .

it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. pinyin: Gaoling). Jiangxi province. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. Lighter concentrations yield white. In many parts of the world. yellow or light orange colors. earthy. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). It is a layered silicate mineral. [edit]Chemistry [6] . The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. giving it a distinct rust hue. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). In Africa. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. China. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). United States. part of the group of industrial minerals. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. It is a soft. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). calaba. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. a village near Jingdezhen. Alternating layers are sometimes found.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral.

with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. Al2Si2O7. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. [edit]Occurrence . the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. H = H2O. S = SiO2. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. however. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. Si3Al4O12. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2.

Bulgaria. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. Germany. India. [1] the People's Republic of China. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas.5 million tonnes. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. the Czech Republic and the United States. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. as kaolin. it is mined.Korea. France. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Australia. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. Iran. in Brazil. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. United Kingdom. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. Kaolinite .

05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.13 Å.25 Å. thin plates or stacked.8°. c = 7. β = 104. aggregated into compact.ED. α = 90°. sometimes red.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. γ = 89. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . b = 8.89 Å.5°. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. Z = 2 Identification Color White.

559–1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.569–1.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.565.569. Calculated: 44° . nγ = 1.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. nβ = 1.553–1.16–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.

columbite. cassiterite.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. greisens and granites. amblygonite. andMadagascar. Lepidolite . Tanco Mine. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. Russia. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. Manitoba. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. topaz and beryl. Bernic Lake. feldspar. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. United States. Ural Mountains. It occurs in granite pegmatites. Canada.spodumene. in some high-temperature quartz veins. tourmaline.Si)3O10(F. California. Notable occurrences include Brazil.

149(5) Å. Minas Gerais. purple. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink. rose-red. white.011(5) Å c = 10. yellowish.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. β = 100:77(4)°.Si)3O10(F. Brazil (size 2.EC. violet-gray.209(2) Å b = 9.Cm Unit cell a = 5. colorless .20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.Lepidolite.4 x 2.1 x 0. Virgem da Lapa.

scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.58.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1. pale violet 2V angle 0° .548. nγ=1.58° measured . nβ=1.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.551–1.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.525–1. Y = Z = pink.554– 1. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.586 Birefringence 0.8–2.0290–0.

. Commonly. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. and ulvospinel have been much studied. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. hematite. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. will attract small pieces of iron. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.e. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. called lodestone. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral.

conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. including banded iron formations. In many igneous rocks.085 °F). gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .397 Å. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma.BB. 1.III) oxide. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Z=8 Identification Color Black.

very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. the spinel law. parting on {Ill}.Crystal habit Octahedral. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .17–5.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.

Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. "The Tazza". "mallow". green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. Middle French: melochite. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. "mallow-green stone". [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. and most often forms botryoidal. fibrous. in fractures and spaces. a large malachite vase. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. This opaque. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation.000 years. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. Since then. variant of καιάχε malāchē. which features a huge malachite vase. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. deep underground. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. It is also used for decorative purposes. The pigment is moderately lightfast. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. or stalagmitic masses. . malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant.

Except for its vibrant green color. Timna valley. Broken Hill.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). goethite. and calcite. Namibia. Gabon. the source of the carbonate. Russia. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo.BA. blackish green.1 g/mol Color Bright green.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones.Zambia. Tsumeb. . and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. France. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Mexico. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. Lyon. Israel. dark green. New South [7] Wales.

dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.254 .6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. botryoidal. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.655 nβ = 1.875 nγ = 1.5–4. Polysynthetic twinning also present. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. silky if fibrous.commonly banded in masses. stalactitic.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.909 Birefringence δ = 0.

The green. browns. Its crystal system is monoclinic. India. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. greens. [4] . It can be colorless or tinted through grays.OH)2. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica.76–3. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic.25 parallel to the [001] face. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. or (rarely) violet or red. and can be transparent or translucent. yellows. isinglass.

a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Muscovite with beryl (var. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .02a.02.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. and schists.9×4. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. In pegmatites. feldspar. gneisses. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.kyanite. morganite) from Paprok. etc. found in granites.15 Dana classification 71. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.3×3.8×3. Minas Gerais. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. pegmatites.EC.

space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.106 Å. grey.199 Å. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). b = 9.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. Z = 4 Identification Color White.Unit cell a = 5.576 .027 Å.78°. silky. β = 95. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. c = 20.552–1.

035 – 0.587–1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.615 nγ = 1.582–1.nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .

The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers.g.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. Fo 70Fa30). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. silicon. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). magnesium and iron. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). [edit]Identification and paragenesis . almost 1900 °C.Fe)2SiO4. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). as do other properties.. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C).

though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. USA. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Arizona. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. Gila Co. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). . that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals..Green sand is actually olivine crystals.

That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. First X-ray view of Martian soil . Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume.g. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. in the dust of comet Wild 2. collections of debris from the early solar system. the Moon. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. andpallasites. falling into infant stars. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. from the Greek words for gold and stone). and . October 17. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. 12 GPa. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.Fe)2Si2O6). Such meteorites include chondrites. 2012). more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. pyroxenes. Mars. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. In contrast. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. the French word for olivine). because olivine is so abundant. moreover. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. or forsterite.feldspar.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth.

M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. O2 and O3 in figure 1). O1. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. In an alternative view. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. and magnesium/iron in blue. silicon in pink. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. O3 lies in a general position. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. O2. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. Oxygen is shown in red. Olivine . close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. while M1 exists on an inversion center.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous .

37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.27–3.630–1.040 .670 nγ = 1.650–1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.650 nβ = 1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.670–1.

rose. yellow. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. [edit]Precious opal . Of these hues. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. gray. blue. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. a mineraloid form. the reds against black are the most rare. brown. and black. slate. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. magenta. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. sandstone. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. not a mineral. olive. being most commonly found withlimonite. like basalt. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. pink. marl and basalt. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. green. whereas white and greens are the most common. For gemstone use. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. rhyolite. Opal ranges from clear through white. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. orange.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . red.

Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. .Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. which is often of lower quality. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. it has an internal structure. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. Contrarily. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing.Australian Opal Doublet. or obsidian. of which opal is the best known natural example. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. which is correctly termed play of color. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. basalt. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. In addition. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. and are not classed as precious opal. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. Potch does not show a play of color. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. unlike triplet opals. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. orange. wood opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). They do not usually show any play of color. which is brown or grey. geyserite. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. menilite. resin opal. or star . There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. hyalite. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. also called siliceous sinter. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. orange-yellow or red.

The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. Queensland . needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal.effect. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. when cut properly. It weighs 17. However. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). It does not display pleochroism. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. Queensland. Boulder Opal.

Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. [citation needed] [12] A . Nevada. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. white. Miocene age opalised teeth. Royal Peacock. Idaho. crystal opal. bones. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. and a snake head have been found. and lemon opal." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. fish. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. known as the "Black Peacock. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. weighing 160 carats. and weighs 2. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. crystal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. from Kynuna in the north. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. fire. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Lightning Ridge in New South Wales.585 carats. Bonanza. is the main source of black opal. and marine creatures in South Australia. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Another Australian town. Opal Queen. closely related to boulder opal. and black opal. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. Australia also has opalised fossil remains." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content.

in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. orange. [20] Opal An opal bracelet.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. Piauí ).7 by 0. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. Guatemala. Turkey. in masses. [19] Slovakia. Indonesia. brown. Hungary. black. red. white. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. In late 2008. yellow.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. Honduras. green. Brazil (inPedro II. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0.

often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. -.450 (+. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. green.15 (+. transparent Specific gravity 2.020.42–1. translucent. may phosphoresce.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.08. May also phosphoresce. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. -. but typically reads 1. or yellow in long and short wave.Mohs scalehardness 5.[1] .37.90)[1] Density 2. may phosphoresce.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.

Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. hydrofluoric acid . methanol.humic acid. bases. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.

brazzle and Brazil. as well as in coal beds. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). in turn from πύρ (pur). pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.37 wt% gold. sedimentary rock. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. [edit]Uses . "of fire" or "in fire". this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. "fire". and metamorphic rock. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. By Georgius Agricola's time. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. In ancient Roman times. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. or iron pyrite.

inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. By the 19th century. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Marcasite jewelry. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. most notably the wheellock. La Rioja. it had become the [12] dominant method. In the 15th century. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Navajún. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. that is.95 eV. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. iron(II) sulfate. was popular in the Victorian era. often set in silver. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. . Until the vacuum tube matured. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available.

Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.417 Å. Rioja. Z=4 .12.05a Dana classification 2.1.EB. 512 g. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.

radiated. granular.5 Luster Metallic. globular and stalactitic. Often inter-grown. faces may be striated.10 Fusibility 2. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6.95–5.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. massive. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven.5–3 to a magnetic globule . Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

space group P6221 and P6421.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. after feldspar. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. distorted. giving an overall formula SiO2. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. respectively. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. only one termination pyramid is present. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). The . space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. There are many different varieties of quartz. Polish twardy ("hard")). The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". several of which are semi-precious gemstones.

Quartz goes by an array of different names. .and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. but they differ in hardness. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. carnelian. Common colored varieties include citrine. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. without change in the way they are linked. such as the Lothair Crystal. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. are agate. see Citrine (disambiguation). sard. rose quartz. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. and others. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). Brazil is the leading producer of citrine." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. and jasper. and is rarely found naturally. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent.transformation between α. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. smoky quartz. Citrine has ferric impurities. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. Natural citrines are rare. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. or mixed rocks including quartz. For other uses. heliotrope. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. milky quartz. onyx. amethyst. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron.

The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. Maine. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. . [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Magaliesburg. Brazil. or manganese. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. in the massive material. iron. USA. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.

[edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz.

The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. colorless Amethyst Purple. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. This does not always hold true. exhibiting chatoyancy. Agate Multi-colored. Otherwise more specific names are used. Rock crystal Clear. or both. banded chalcedony. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. liquid.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. parallel and consistent in size. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. trapped during the crystal formation. transparent .

Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . translucent to opaque. translucent.

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4. fine-grained to microcrystalline.01.DA. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .05 Dana classification 75. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.4053 Å. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. c = 5.9133 Å. drusy. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).03.

554 Birefringence +0.552–1. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.545 nε = 1.59–2. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) . may betriboluminescent.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2. variable 2.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.543–1.65.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.1.738 nβ = 1.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 .3.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.741 nγ = 1.751 Birefringence δ = 0.1.6. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .1.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.57 .724 .714 .711 .

and currency coins. utensils (hence the term silverware). silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. further research into clinical potential continues. to make ornaments. . white. lead. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. free form (native silver). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). both from the Indo-European root*arg. Latin: argentum. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. as an alloy with gold and other metals. and zinc refining. Today. high-value tableware.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. and is used as an investment. A soft. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. gold. jewelry. Its compounds are used in photographic film. lustrous transition metal.

. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. with a polished rock surface. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Canada. lazurite and tugtupite. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. nosean. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne.

Maine. and Litchfield. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Arkansas. particularly. relatively hard yet fragile mineral.ankerite and baryte. Smaller deposits are found in South . in Canada. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. near Golden. Ontario. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. Conversely. [1] Narsaq. contains sodalite. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. sodalite is named after its sodium content.A light. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. namelyleucite. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. Quebec. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. Other associated minerals include nepheline. [3] titanian andradite. yellow. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. British Columbia. sodalite may also be grey. calcite. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. green. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. The Ice River [5] complex. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. microcline. West Greenland. If left in a dark environment for some time. shortwave ultraviolet light. Occurring typically in massive form. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. in the USA. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. and Mont-SaintHilaire. aegirine. sanidine. cancrinite and natrolite. Well known for its blue color. fluorite. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. the violet will fade again. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. and Magnet Cove. albite.

Burma and Russia. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Portugal.876(6) Å. white veining common . Euhedral. violet. yellow.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland.FB. Romania. Italy. green. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.

483 .1. sodium .27-2.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV. with yellowishphosphorescence.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.Crystal habit Massive.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. mostly opaque. Magnesium. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .OH)2. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.

It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. kyanite. New Mexico. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. Keivy Mountains. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. In handsamples. called penetration twinning. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. Norway. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. Samples are also found in Taos. Virginia. biotite. It is the official state mineral of the U. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. .A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. as well as albite.S. It occurs with almandine garnet. micas. depth. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. Kola Peninsula. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape.

2. Northern Region. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.5 x 2.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. yellowish brown. rarely blue. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. c = 5.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7. β = 90.45°.Murmanskaja Oblast'. Russia. b = 16.86 Å. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .AF.6 Å.65 Å.

0. 3.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .736 .754 nγ = 1.3.686 calc. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.1.747 nβ = 1.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.762 Birefringence δ = 0. weak . Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.745 . meas.740 .009 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.74 . Y = pale yellow.


TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. It has a specific gravity of 2. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Its streak is white. [edit]Formation . and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail.8. Talc is not soluble in water. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). and is translucent to opaque. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale.5– 2. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. and the folia are non-elastic. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. a clear or dusty luster. although slightly flexible. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.

low-temperature minerals such as phengite. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. and fibrous. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. garnet. [edit]Occurrence . friable. amphibole. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. This is typically associated with high-pressure. olivine. pyroxene. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. and are known as whiteschist. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. Such rocks are typically white. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles.

Western Australia. Nepal and Bhutan. eastern Australia. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. the Guiana Shield. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. the western European Alps especially in Italy. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. layered ultramafic intrusion. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). from Brazil. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. formed upon a polydeformed. representing 8% of world production. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . India. Oman and the Middle East. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States.

09°. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). c = 5. b = 9. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . c = 18.291 Å.287 Å. γ = 90.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.95 Å.EC.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. α = 98. β = 119.290 Å. b = 9.68°.158 Å.90°.3°. Z = 2 or a = 5. β = 99.173 Å. brown. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.

594 nγ = 1.538 – 1.589 – 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.600 Birefringence δ = 0.58 to 2. long UV=yellow .550 nβ = 1.589 – 1.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

blue. pale gray. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. in Afghanistan. if natural) or pink-orange. Orange topaz. pink (rare). The American Golden Topaz. Brazil. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Imperial topaz is yellow. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. is the traditional November birthstone. Japan. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Flinders Island. colorless. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage .75 carats. It can also be made white. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. reddish-orange. Australia. also known as precious topaz. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. pink or violet colored. a more recent gem. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. gold. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. pale green. the symbol of [5] friendship. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Typically. Germany. Sri Lanka. pink (rare. yellow. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Norway. measured a massive 22. Czech Republic. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. Italy. Mexico. typical topaz is wine. or blue brown. Pakistan. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. sometimes even violet. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Nigeria and the United States.Sweden. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County.5 carats. gold.892.

[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz." However. both of which predate the Greek word. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. the ancient name of St. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. Minas Gerais. etymology. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. [edit]Biblical background. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. some scholars think it is related to . [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. a topaz. In the Middle Ages. [edit]History Nicols. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn).

pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). Z = 4 .AF. b = Assyrian word meaning "flashed". = yellow. [citation needed] More likely.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. c = 8. "fiery". Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. meaning "yellow burn" or.65 Å. metaphorically.4 Å.8 Å.

629 nβ = 1.638 .631 nγ = 1. compact.49–3.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).606–1. gray. yellow. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. blue.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. brown.616–1.609–1. green. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. orange. also columnar.

bluish. Y = yellow. Z = violet. short UV=golden yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. violet.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. long UV=cream . yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. reddish.

iron. lithium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. magnesium. Italy . or potassium. sodium.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems.

The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. . Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). The word tourmaline has two etymologies. In the 19th century the names common schorl. Austro-Hungarian Empire. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. In English. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. for the Drava river area. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. Carinthia. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. Up to about 1600. black tourmaline was found. This village had a nearby tin mine where. in addition to cassiterite. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". and "Schurl".Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). schörl. "Schörle". Beginning in the 18th century.Drava river area. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna.

Fe . B B = B. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. Czech Republic. Ti . Elba Island. Sweden. Elba Island. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Cr . In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. Italy. Fe .5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Cr . O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. San Piero in Campo. United States. Fe .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö.5Al1. vacancy Z = Mg. V T = Si. Mg.Campo nell'Elba. Al. where: [6] X = Ca. vacancy Y = Li. K. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Mn . sodium-. Al. Zn. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Province of [5] Livorno. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Tuscany. Italy. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. O W = OH. V . which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. California. with the simplified formula (Li. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Na. Italy. vacancy V = OH. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. F. Al.

California.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.5. San Diego Co.Al1.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . US. Cryo-Genie Mine. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1..

.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. Himalaya Mine. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. San Diego Co. US [edit]Physical properties . California.

in western Australia. yellow. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. During their 2+ growth. it is colorless. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . called hemimorphism. etc. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. currently. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. green. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. Heavily-included tourmalines. and does not. [edit]Geology . such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. but is now exhausted. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. and are often pyroelectric as well.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. red. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. impact the value. Rarely. or green on the outside and pink inside. pink. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. Usually. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. especially pink to red colored stones. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. no other common mineral has three sides. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems.

violet. Scattered grains (in granite). Crystal habit Parallel and elongated.B)6O18(OH. are generally restricted to schists and marble.K. but can range from brown.Na.[])(Al.Mg. . dravites.Li. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. Massive. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. or in a dual-colored pink and green. green.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.Al.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black.Fe. Acicular prisms. sometimes radiating. Fe.Cr.Mn)3(Al. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. pink.

040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. dark blue.5 Luster Vitreous. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. light blue .610–1. dark green.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.040.20 -. small conchoidal.06 (+.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.650 Birefringence -0. nε=1. typically about .82–3.020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.018 to -0. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. dark brown. dark red.06)[1] Density 2.635–1.675.

Dispersion .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .

but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. is a green variety of tremolite.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. Nephrite. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. [edit]Occurrence . The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc.

riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. grossular. Piumogna [1] Valley.DE. cummingtonite. French Pyrenees (size: 8. talc. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Associated minerals include calcite.diopside. Approximately 36.Ticino (Tessin). dolomite.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . forsterite. Switzerland. Leventina.2 x 6.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. wollastonite. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant.

02 Å.84 Å. Z = 2 Identification Color White. also as fibrous.95°. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. gray.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . c = 5. or flattened crystals. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. lavender to pink. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. β = 104. light green.Unit cell a = 9. common parallel to {100}.27 Å. b = 18.99 – 3.

626 nγ = 1.625 .1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.Refractive index nα = 1.612 nβ = 1.613 . Long UV=range pink .1.1.599 .

mirabilite. water and hydroxide octahedra. by internal reflection. water. USA.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. and Kazakhstan. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. meyerhofferite. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. gyps [1] um and halite. probertite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. trona. Tarapacá Region in Chile. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. The chains are linked together by calcium. It is found principally in California and Nevada. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. sometimes known as TV rock. . glauberite. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. calcite. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. hydroboracite. borax.

when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. two of which are polarized. Ulexite decomposes in hot water.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. Ulexite . These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber.

678(1) Å.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.Ulexite from California(size: 6.EA. β = 109. Z =2 Identification .1°.12°. c = 6.9 x 5 x 3.05. α = 90.87Å.11.25 Dana classification 26.816(3) Å.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06. b = 12. γ = 105.25°.

95 – 1.496 nβ = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.504 – 1.491 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.5 Luster Vitreous.506 br/>nγ = 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.028 .519 – 1.

2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . greenish yellow. cream.

so called because the rock glitters). Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. etc.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. chlorite or other platyminerals. Depending on their composition. diorite gneisses. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. . It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. rotten or possibly worthless material. biotite gneiss. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. albite gneiss. they may also be called garnet gneiss.

Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros).German. Armenian marmar. [3][4] "crystalline rock". Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. Spanish mármol. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. silt. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone.g. most other European languages (e.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. most commonly calcite or dolomite. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. "to flash. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. iron oxides. Italian marmo. sand. Turkish mermer. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). meaning "marble-like. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. [5] gleam". Polish marmur. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Norwegian. sparkle. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Portuguese mármore. "shining stone". Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Dutch marmer. . however.


Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. or chlorite impart a silky. and chlorite. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. sericite mica. sericite.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. . Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions.

Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. rutile and magnetite. silica. Canada . Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. carbonate and clay. Although few fossils are normally present. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. iron oxide.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Other colors. therefore. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. and both usages are found in the literature. not around them. such as yellow and orange. are due to other mineral impurities. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). diagenetically altered. British Columbia. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite.

High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. [4] . South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. Monte Binga (2436 m). In the Scottish Highlands. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. silicon and silicon carbide. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Foinaven. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. industrial silica sand. In Canada. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. near Salt Lake City. as roofing tiles. several mountains (e. Central Texas. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. as flooring. and stair steps. In Wales. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. In the United Kingdom. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. the Wasatch Range in Utah. pale grey. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. southwestMinnesota. The highest mountain in Mozambique. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area).g. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. precambrian quartzite.


but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated.talc. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. such as garnet schist. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. chlorite. for example. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. glaucophane schist. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. etc. Usually. By definition. for example. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. A quartz-porphyry.clastic structure. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. Most schists are mica schists. If the whole district. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. The individual mineral grains in schist.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. In other . can be seen by the naked eye. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. and others. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. tourmaline schist. hornblende. however. the terms slate. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. graphite. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone.

and calc-schists. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. For example. as limestones. scapolite. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. A subgroup is the andalusite. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. chilled edges. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. for example. feldspar. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. contain silicate minerals such as mica. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. are alteredclaystones and shales. . but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. many metamorphic limestones. quartz and feldspar. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. with variable amounts of white and black mica. dolomites. while others are found only among igneous masses. diopside. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. Such rocks. zoisite and hornblende. The majority of mica-schists. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. schistose character. marbles. and the white mica-schists. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. tremolite. however.cases intrusive junctions. with crystalline dolomites. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. foliated. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). which have been derived from rhyolites. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). garnet. staurolite.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. apatite. Occasionally. covering roofs. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. It may mean a single roofing slate. for example. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. often framed in wood. traditionally a small piece of slate. tourmaline. or zirconas well as feldspar. often along with biotite. chlorite. and pyrite and. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. especially when seen. green or cyan. magnetite. or schist. less frequently. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. from which it may be formed. Slate is not to be confused with shale. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. foliated. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. Slate is frequently grey in color. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. from pale to dark. and may also be purple. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. . shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. en masse. the terms slate. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. leaving a light green spotted texture. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey.. However. or a writing slate. hematite. as in the purple slates of North Wales. kaolinite. graphite. For example. In the context of underground coal mining. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain.Slate Slate is a fine-grained.


biotite. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. apatite. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. of intermediate composition.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. zircon.g. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. 2. Characteristic of subduction zones. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. volcanic rock. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. During subduction. In a general sense. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. barium(Ba). active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. [5] sediment. Partial melting of crustal material. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. 3.e. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization.. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. zeolites. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. ilmenite. but most . anhydrous forms. Magnetite. leading to metamorphism. potassium (K). This removal can take place in a variety of ways. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. chlorite etc.

Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . Models of heat transfer. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. however. such as the Andes. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. In order to remain active. forming mafic cumulates. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. As this process continues. Basalt can. Without continued addition of mafic material. creating a layer of molten material at its base. Once there. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. If it underplates the crust. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. however. the composition is returned to andesite. these reservoirs cool. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. therefore.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. its intermediate phase. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. however. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. .


The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt.BASALT Basalt (pron. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. and even on the asteroid Vesta. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. On Earth.. the third largest moon of Jupiter. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface.. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. Hungary .g. (In comparison. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. By definition. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase.: /bəˈsɔːlt/.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. Sobolev et al. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Mars. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. /ˈbæsɒlt/. Venus. 2007). embedded in a finer-grained matrix.

US quarter for scale." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". libri XII. Arizona. an excellent thermal insulator. basanites "very hard stone. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool.g. .Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. as building blocks or in the groundwork). believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". misspelling of L. from βάζανος (basanos. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e.

the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. most large oceanic islands. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). is characteristically low in incompatible elements. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges.     . MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins.

Its hardness. microcline and olivine. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Scotland. magnetite. source localities include Leicestershire. and to provide a durable finished work. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. hornblende. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). Italy. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. apatite. however. Finland. Minnesota in theUSA. Basin and Range province. and Idahet in Egypt. the Isle of Guernsey.biotite. and/or pyroxene. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. occasionally with porphyry. It can also be black or bluish-grey. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. central Sweden. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. the Andes Mountains. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Romania. sphene. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Zircon. Sondrio. Northeastern Turkey. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. and frequently has a greenish cast. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. . the Darrans range of New Zealand. which is transitional togabbro.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz).DIORITE Diorite (pron. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. making it difficult to carve and work with. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. into which they may subtly merge.

etc.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. . as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. weaponry. Assyria and Sumer. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. London. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. inscribed upon a 2. Guernsey and Scotland. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. In later times. but mostly for fortress walls. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. Babylonia. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Paul's Cathedral. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. Although one can find diorite art from later periods.

Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. easternSierra Nevada. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. and ulvospinel. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. amphibole. Gabbros contain minor amounts. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. Gabbro is dense. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). The rocks areplutonic. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. plagioclase. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. ilmenite. Scotland. coarse-grained. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. Isle of Skye. Rock Creek Canyon. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. typically a few percent.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. California. the rock is then a norite. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase.

Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro.extra descriptiveness is desired. Massachusetts. platinum. US. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. gold. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. cobalt. although it may be porphyritic at times. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. silver. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. nickel. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. and copper sulfides. . although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. intruding into the rift flanks. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites.


75 3 g/cm . an unusual type of granite. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. The average density of granite is between 2. felsic. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. descriptive field term for light-colored. Melting temperature is 1215 . [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. mica. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). and feldspar.GRANITE Granite (pron.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. northern Chile . Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. By definition. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. This rock consists mainly of quartz. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. a grain. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa.65 and 2. Granites can be pink to gray in color. Granitoid is a general. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. hard and tough. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. near the town of Caldera.1260 °C.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai.

Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park.

less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. . Granite often occurs as relatively small. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.68% Fe2O3 — 1.69% CaO — 1. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods.12% Na2O — 3. where it forms a major part of continental crust. In some locations. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. it is called tonalite. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth.12% MnO — 0. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. sanidine.22% MgO — 0. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. although much of it is of Precambrian age. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.30% P2O5 — 0. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite.71% TiO2 — 0. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.82% FeO — 1.The Cheesewring. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.


The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. which is the parent material. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid... its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. Obsidian is hard and brittle.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Obsidian is mineral-like. in addition. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. [9][10][11] . it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. forming perlite. usually 70% or more. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. California .

Iceland. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. El Salvador.S. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Washington. In some stones. New [13] [14] Mexico. Peru. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. New Zealand. Very few samples are nearly colorless.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian).Greece. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). white. states including Arizona. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. the inclusion of small. Canada. Japan. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Mexico. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. It can be found in Argentina. Guatemala.Utah. Chile. as well as Pennsylvania. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. . and deposits can be found in many other western U. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Colorado. Oregon and Idaho. Pantelleria. Armenia. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Italy. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Scotland and the United States. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. states of Virginia. Texas. Azerbaijan.S. Kenya.


A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. in essence a granite.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Similarly. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. macroscale graphic texture is known. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Theory Theory . Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Therefore. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. exsolution lamellae. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. For this reason. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz.5 cm in size. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. pyroxene and other minerals are known. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. feldspar and mica. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust.

with bulk chemical and textural change. to liberate the right constituents and water. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. . The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. for example greisens. California. in a few cases. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. and are usually granitic in character. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. eastern Sierra Nevada. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. being altogether "granitic" in character. Rock Creek Canyon. often with mica and usually with quartz. granite-associated mineralisation styles. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Beyond that. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber.

Geochemically. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. tourmaline. thorium. Tantalum. orientation. . et cetera. tantalite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. uranium. aluminium. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. tourmaline. accessory minerals and timing. say. fluorite. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. lepidolite. Bismuth. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. however. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. Queensland. apatite and corundum. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. orange and brown almandine garnet. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. among others. Hence. Often. commonly almandine or spessartine. columbite. tourmaline. Australia). topaz. tantalite. cesium. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite.Garnet. In most cases. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. such as aquamarine. Occasionally. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. boron. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. beryllium. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. potassium and lithium. zinnwaldite and so forth. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. niobium. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result.

Similarly. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. Within the metamorphic belts. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. . [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. transitional with some greisens. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. However. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. "granitic" or "metasomatic". Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions.

It is typically light colored. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. Pumice is created when super-heated.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. .PUMICE Pumice pron. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. compressed with fiamme on right. which may or may not contain crystals. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. uncompressed with pumice on left. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened).

g. 1984 and 2006. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. with tree trunks floating among them. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. rhyolitic. ranging from white. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. .S. In [4] fact. phonolite.. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. Pumice is commonly pale in color. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. dacitic. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. it sinks rapidly. and initially floats on water. to green-brown or black.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. many samples float in water. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. blue or grey. It is commonly. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. but basaltic and other compositions are known. In 1979. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. pantellerite. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. trachyte). cream. When larger amounts of gas are present. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. andesite. After the explosion of Krakatoa.

"Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. cosmetic exfoliants. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. during flow. plaster-like concrete. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. in the case of pumiceous lavas. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive.There are two main forms of vesicles. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. pencil erasers. especially in polishes. smooth. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. When used as an additive for cement. It is also used as an abrasive. .

where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. the eruptions were at the St. and lithophysal structures. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. volcanic (extrusive) rock. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. and consequently. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. . Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). below:pumice.nodular.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. spherulitic. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. also called obsidian.


is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. black or purplish red). and may contain phenocrysts. Vesicles are usually small. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. and sinks in water. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. instead they open into one another with little distortion. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. another vesicular volcanic rock. Auckland in New Zealand. Quincan. and bursting. coalescence. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. . Australia. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. creating bubbles in the molten rock. a unique form of Scoria. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. but in contrast to pumice. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. An old name for scoria is cinder.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. blocks and bombs). An example is Mount Wellington. skōria. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). rust. typically near its surface. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. bubble growth. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. and hence is denser.

has high surface area and strength for its weight. and to carve some moai from. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. It is somewhat porous. . and often has striking colours. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills.

its higher relative density of 1. which is used mainly in power generation. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. and smokeless flame. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. as opposed to lignite. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. Ukraine. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. [5] Vietnam. blue. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. other producers are Russia. North Korea.1% and 98%. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. mineral-matter-free basis. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons.4. China accounts for the lion’s share of production.3– 1. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). Australia and the US. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. and lustre. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. In America.S. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. the UK. which is softer). "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. It has the highest carbon content." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. and black diamond. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. "coal-like. is known as culm. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . hard coal. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). which is used as a pigment. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). coal) is a hard. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. blind coal (in Scotland). Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. the fewest impurities.

mined near Saundersfoot. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. Structurally. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. on the as-received basis (i. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. circa 1935 . In southwest Wales. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. and Western Pennsylvania. For example. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia.MJ/kg). [7] It was In the United States. The thermal conductivity is also higher.. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. coking coal and domestic house coals. In [6] June 2008.e. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. Since the 1980s. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. By 1795. New Mexico. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. Pennsylvania. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality.

Group of breaker boys. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. Of that.S. In the early 20th century United States. the Delaware. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. making it ideal for this purpose. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. placed in descending order. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Many large public buildings. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. From that first mine.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Current U. on an open grate in a fireplace. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. In spring 1808. Pennsylvania. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. such as schools. Pennsylvania. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. about 1. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal).Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808.

Commercial mining has now ceased. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. "poor". Formerly. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.Anthracite". the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Similarly. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". or less. Switzerland and parts of Germany. [10] . but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. both in America and South Wales. anthracite was largely used.

rock fragments may also be a significant component. most commonly granitic rocks. Apart from the mineral content. due to the depositional processes that form it. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. . Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. although bedding is frequently visible. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. Fossils are rare in arkose. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. and some mica is often present. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock.


good ventilation and vigilant site management. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. Within the coal mining industry. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. the rest is composed of water. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. These distinctive sequences. mineral-matter-free basis. which have not been driven off from the macerals. air. dull-banded". Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. and exinite. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. bright-banded" or "bright. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. which are classified according to either "dull. . and sulphur. hydrogen. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown.

impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. The word is a loan from Italian. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. tectonic breccia. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. A conglomerate.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. poorly sorted. lithified colluvium. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. by their relative movements. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. avalanches. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. typically in a karst landscape. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. In the field. These are.079 in) in size. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. igneous breccia. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. . Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Technically. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. by contrast. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. in essence.

Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. Lavas. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. . especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. This occurs when the thick. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks.g.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. When particularly intense. and these form volcanic breccias. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. Broken. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. also called pillow breccias. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. both of lava and pyroclastic type. granites and kimberlite pipes. as they slide past each other.

Nevada. Impact breccia.Pahranagat Range. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia.g. in the rim. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. impact glass. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. and attrition quickly o . near Blessington in Ireland. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. In addition. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. steam and boiling water. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. and are usually found at impact craters. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. shocked minerals. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. a type of impactite. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. iridium and osmium anomalies). Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth.

Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). Washington. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Pend Oreille mine. . silver and gold. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. at much greater depths. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. Pend Oreille County. in particular CO2. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. In the mesothermal regime.rounds angular breccia fragments. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. as the formational event is brief. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. As a result. On their journey. If boiling occurs. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues.


its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. (3. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. brown. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. [edit]Terminology: "chert". Where it occurs in chalk or marl. It also occurs in thin beds. but most often manifests as gray. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Buffalo. limestone. it is usually called flint. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. New York. "chalcedony" and "flint" . when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Oklahoma. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). chalk. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas.CHERT Chert (pron.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. hard chert.

"chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). .chert being lower quality than flint. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. Everett. Among petrologists. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . Strictly speaking. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. The term does not include quartzite. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz.

A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. which consist of angular clasts. .CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. South Dakota. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm).

the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict .000 ft. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . and are known as basal conglomerates. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . Alaska. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. In this setting.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. approximate depth 10.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. conglomerates are normally very well sorted.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .

Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. Tillites. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. The matrix is generally fine-grained. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. in Australia's Northern Territory. matrix-supported conglomerates. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Another spectacular example of conglomerate.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. are typically poorly-sorted. forming structures such aseskers. in rapidly eroding (e. These form the basis of a number of . [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. desert) environments.g. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. near Barcelona.

which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile.large oil fields. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. e. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. as different sectors of the fault moved. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.g. .

and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. close packing. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. fracturing. swift tidal channels. in the form of seashells or coral. . or other invertebrates. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. As a result. often including some phosphate. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. and barrier bars. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. trilobites. brachiopods. abraded. and sorting of the shells.COQUINA Coquina (pron. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. which compose them. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. abrasion. shallow submarine raised banks.

the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. When first quarried. Because of coquina's softness. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Saint Augustine. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. but still comparatively soft. cannon balls would sink into. rather than shatter or puncture. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. The stone makes a very good material for forts. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. form. In order to be used as a building material. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. The scale bar is 10 mm. coquina is extremely soft.Close-up of coquina from Florida. . However.


69 mm. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. Initially. cat litter. it was thought that limestone had been found. the peasant and goods waggoner. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. anti-block in plastic films.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D.236 pixels/ μm.. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . It is used as a filtration aid. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. and athermal insulator. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. Peter Kasten. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. TheCelle engineer.: /ˌdaɪ. mechanical insecticide.E.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. porous support for chemical catalysts. is a naturally occurring. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. recognized its ability to filter. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. a stabilizing component of dynamite. absorbent for liquids. activator in blood clotting studies.5 to 2% iron oxide. matting agent for coatings. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. soft. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. similar to pumice powder. This powder has an abrasive feel. which could be used as fertilizer. Wilhelm Berkefeld. a type of hard-shelled algae. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. diatomite.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms.13 by 0.

these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca.  ca.from diatomaceous earth. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. . used successfully. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory.

Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Washington and California. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. but are of low quality. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. France. In Colorado and in Clark. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Oregon.Virginia. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. such as this one for swimming pools . Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Nevada (USA). Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County.

because it is composed of microscopically small.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. It is also used to filter water. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. [7] taste. especially for swimming pools. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. In order to be effective as an insecticide. based on Fick's law of diffusion. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. efficacy is very low. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. It can also filter syrups. However. with questionable efficacy. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. but this method may take weeks to work. foodgrade— see below). or nutritional properties. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. coffin-like. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i.e. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. as well as in some facial scrubs.e.. hollow particles. since slugs inhabit humid environments. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. sugar. and honey without removing or altering their color. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. causing them to [9] dehydrate. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. It has a high porosity. such as beer and wine. and other liquids.. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. for this purpose. due to its physico-sorptive properties. . This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form.

particularly as bonsai soil. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. including water. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. Like perlite. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. Fungicide. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. as [20] well as an insecticide. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. As with other silicates. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans.S. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water.vermiculite. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. . pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce.

and expanded clay. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. For instance. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. which is used as an indigestible marker. and as an insecticide. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%).  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). has a very fine particle size. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. the largest single . Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. while draining fast and freely. and has a high silica content (>60%). Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. Libya. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. which has been widely used for the same purpose. as feed supplement. It is produced uncalcinated. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. it retains water and nutrients.

atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. generating dust by abrasion. . where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes.

It is. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. but it can still develop solution features over time. In old U. however. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. used in some geological publications. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. . Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification.S.S. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded.G.

[edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. the United States. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal.e. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . When reacted with quaternary amine. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. often referred to as brown coal. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.. Germany. Australia averages 8. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. Poland. India. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. Russia. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. it is mined in Greece. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). ca. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.5 million BTU/ton). on the as-received basis (i.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Serbia. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.4 MJ/kg (6. mineral-matter-free basis.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%.

[edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals.than for comparable black-coal plants. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). . The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. particularly in combination with strip mining. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. [4] Victoria. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station.

as aggregate for the base of roads. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. and as a chemical feedstock. Virginia. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. USA . which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek.

including the water temperature. Limestone may be crystalline. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. and extraclasts. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. This produces speleothems. Travertine is a banded. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Crystals of calcite. etc. most limestone is composed of grains. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. . Below about 3. building upon past generations. flint.e. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Because of impurities. When conditions are right for precipitation. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. many limestones exhibit different colors. jasper. and dissolved ionconcentrations. such as clay. especially onweathered surfaces. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together.000 meters. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. is found near waterfalls. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. organic remains. or it can fill fractures. the Folk and the Dunham.travertine. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Classification Two major classification schemes. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. clastic. and around hot or cold springs. particularly where there are waterfalls. or massive.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. diatoms. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. intraclasts. such as stalagmites and stalactites. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Tufa. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. quartz. i. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. sand. limestone recrystallizes into marble. pH. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. and varying amounts of clay.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. depending on several factors. depending on the method of formation. radiolarians). peloids. iron oxide and other materials. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. granular. Romania. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony.

Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. not the grains in the sample. and therefore self-supporting. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Robert J. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. caves and gorges. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. These include limestone pavements. The Folk system uses two-part names. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. cenotes. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Based on composition. pot holes. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Unlike the Folk scheme. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. especially in acid. Such erosion landscapes are known . [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. and cement (sparite). there are three main components: allochems (grains). the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. matrix (mostly micrite). Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock.

Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). extend for more than a hundred kilometers. On the island of Malta. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. and relatively expensive as a building material. It is most common in the tropics. [9] Michigan. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. theVerdon Gorge in France. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Ontario. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Many landmarks across the world. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. the only building material available. . 2003). Sweden. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Examples include the Burren in Co. However. for a long time. The Florida Keys. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. making it impractical for tall buildings. islands off the south coast of karsts. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). Clare. Unique habitats are found on alvars. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. Notch Peak in Utah. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. Ireland. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. So many buildings in Kingston. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). This process is known as bioerosion. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. England. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. While draining. especially in Europe and North America. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Egypt. typically clays. it is a very heavy material. Sweden. are made of limestone.

one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Kansas . Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.The Great Pyramid of Giza.

It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Indiana. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. It is added to toothpaste. uses limestone. cement and mortar. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. limestone extracts iron from its ore. most notably the Bloomington area. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Used in blast furnaces. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. since it is hard. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. called Indiana limestone. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). paper. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Purified. paint. [11] . It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. durable. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. in some circumstances. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. but only in thin plates for covering. such as for poultry (when ground up). making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. rather than solid blocks. Glass making. In the United States. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Train stations. plastics. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. tiles. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide).

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. most [1] sandstone is red. brown. white and black. [edit]Uses 17. Fine-grained aquifers. red.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. In the western United States and incentral Australia. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. pink. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. gray. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). yellow. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. . Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Like sand.France. but the most common colours are tan. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. sandstone may be any colour. such as sandstones.

Germany. around 1770.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. in Freiburg. .

making it easy to carve. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. cathedrals. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. . and continues to be used. homes. It is relatively soft. These are sandstone beverage coasters.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. and other buildings.

Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0.g. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. Scale bar is 1. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. rocks with greater grain sizes. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. gritstone. some that have been used in the past. like chalk and coal.079 inches). They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. . Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. or chemical. including siltstones and shales. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material.002–0.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. and silica. Because of the hardness of individual grains. e. clays. are typically called argillaceous sediments. However.0 mm. yet are easy to work. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. have been found less resistant. Utah. for sharpening blades and other implements. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. [3] like gypsum and jasper).

once it has accumulated. and composition and. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone..Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. or sea) or from air (as in a desert).. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. in finer detail. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. i. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.sorting. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. in more general detail. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Finally. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. in a desert or erg). Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). either from water (as in a stream. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. include its grain size. lake. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. over other construction. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). First.g. which. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments .e. Arizona. Typically. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.

Alluvial fans 3. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Glacial outwash 4. Lakes 5.  . Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. channel sands) 2. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. such as hardness and chemical stability. Tidal flats 4. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Rivers (levees. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. point bars. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Deltas 2.1. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks.

Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. or other dense. pyroxene. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Although.garnet. upper picture is plane-polarized light. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. olivine. Common heavy minerals include zircon. this represents a complete solid solution.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. rutile (hence ZTR).25 millimeter. metamorphic. magnetite. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. tourmaline. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. and corundum. or sedimentary rock. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). called lithic fragments or clasts. One is to call the . These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. scale box at left-center is 0. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone.

limonite.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement.sandstone an arenite. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. anhydrite. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. and very rarely is in other sandstones. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. barite. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials.  . Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. feldspars. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. such as calcite. and the other is to call it a wacke. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. [6] gypsum. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. clay minerals. and zeolite minerals. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together.


greens). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. called fissility. sodium. Red. especially quartz and calcite. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Mudstones. calcium. montmorillonite and illite. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. the terms slate. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. iron . in dia.browns and limonite [1] yellow). shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century.reds). Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. magnesium. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. iron hydroxide (goethite . often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. biotite and illite . on the other hand. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Sand grain = 2 mm. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica.

The enriched values are of controversial origin.and water. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. black shales were deposited in anoxic.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. calcite. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. 'Black shales' are dark. uranium. and zinc. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. . vanadium. reducing environments. These released elements form authigenic quartz. quiet water. in relatively deep. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation.chert. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. hematite and albite. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. However. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. such as in stagnant water columns. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. in river deltas. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. ankerite.Cumberland Plateau. dolomite.

Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. "Flintstone of Princestone". in keeping with the Stone Age puns. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. or various carbonate minerals. then schist and finally to gneiss. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. 1961. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. which originally aired on November 3. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. The Flintstones. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". fissile. metamorphic rockknown as slate. apatite. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. .Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils.

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