BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

The name is a corruption of alabandicus. also known incorrectly as almandite. upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light.5 K. and is then known as carbuncle. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. of deep red color. It is frequently cut with a convex face. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. or en cabochon. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. inclining to purple. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.512 Å at 100 K.: /ˈælməndɪn/). it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands.

in theNorthern Territory of Australia. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . a name said to be taken from Syriam. Almandine is widely distributed. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. When the color inclines to a violet tint. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. and are sometimes cut and polished. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. in Tyrol. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. some years ago. the stone is often called Syriam garnet.

and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.790 (+/.024 [1] .25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4..25.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .7. -. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .AD.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.05 (+.

520. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . and 573nm. may also have faint lines at 423.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 460.

where it occurs in granitic rocks.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Russia. Colorado. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. orthoclase. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Colorado. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Because of its bright green color when polished. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. More recently. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. although it is easily fractured. For many years. Naturally. Virginia. El Paso County. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. .

is a beautiful green variety of microcline. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. or amazonite. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. white. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. brick-red. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. viewed under a polarizing microscope. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system.Colorado. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. pale-yellow. It is common in granite and pegmatites. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. . Amazon stone." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. however. or green. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Microcline may be clear. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far.

in the crystal. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.F. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. Hydroxyapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. in the mid-20th century. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e.g.F . fluorapatite and chlorapatite. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. Cl or ions. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. Similarly. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. named for high concentrations of OH . usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. respectively.Cl)2. sodium . also known as hydroxylapatite.

The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. compact or granular . blue to violet. massive.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. prismatic crystals. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock.BN. pink. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. sodium monofluorophosphate). usually green. brown. yellow.OH) Strunz classification 08.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. less often colorless.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent.Cl.fluoride. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.

634–1.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. green stones – greenish yellow .012.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave. blue and yellow to colorless. −0.006)[1] Birefringence 0.638 (+0.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.[1] Dispersion 0. Other colors are weak to very weak.16–3.002–0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.

[1] .which is stronger in long wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave. light purple in short wave.


Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. in others. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. also known as μ-CaCO3. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. In some mollusks. naturally occurring. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. [edit]Uses In aquaria. respectively. one of the two common. is situated in Slovakia. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). In the USA. the entire shell is aragonite. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. [citation Aragonite . and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. Spain). 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. The mineral vaterite. It is formed by biological and physical processes. resulting in a different crystal shape. An aragonite cave. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years.

internally banded . b = 7. stalactitic.74 Å. c = 5. red. globular. Aude department. Z = 4 Identification Color White.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) .dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. acicular. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal.AB. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. pisolitic.96 Å. orange. prismatic crystals. columnar.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. yellow.95 Å. coralloidal. reniform. green .

682 nγ = 1.1. white or .530 nβ = 1.685 .686 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.5-4 Luster Vitreous.1. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.1.680 .95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. yellow.529 . resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.

yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish.

Fe. Augite has two prominent cleavages.Al.Al)2O6.Ti)(Si. meeting at angles near 90 degrees. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. [edit]Characteristics .AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.Na)(Mg.

although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. Augite . labradorite. but augite can also contain significant aluminium.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. for example. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. brown or [2] black) luster. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. With declining temperature. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. olivine. but mostly of temperature. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. and sodium and other elements. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name.0 x 2. sanidine. meaning "brightness". which is from the Greekaugites.4 x 3. titanium. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. leucite. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. It is found near the Ken River. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks.

c = 5.97°. greenish. skeletal. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. Z=4 Identification Color Black. b = 8.Augite . dendritic .Ti)(Si.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. violet-brown.844 Å.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. β = 106.272 Å.Fe.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.699 Å.DA. in thin section. also acicular. brown.Na)(Mg.Al.

violet.1. nγ = 1.3.706 .Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.741.680 . greenish yellow.19 . Y = pale brown. Z = pale green. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.774 Birefringence δ = Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.735. grayish green. green. pale yellow-green. violet .1.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.684 . nβ = 1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.026 . pale brown.


From Tsumeb.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). . France. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. a carbonate. and unknown white crystals. Namibia. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. With azurite. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. The mineral. has been known since ancient times. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone.

and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. and are often stalactitic in form. Characteristic of a carbonate. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. the other being bright green malachite. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Azurite is soft. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. carbonate and hydroxide. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2.5 to 4. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. powdery copper(II) oxide. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. .89.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.77 to 3.

Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. and its basic content of copper carbonate. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. Ultramarine withstands heat. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. However. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. a similar but much more expensive pigment. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. and also as an ornamental stone. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. a term applied to many blue pigments. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. in the silver mines located there. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. it gave a wide range of blues. Heating destroys azurite easily. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. France.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. such as saltwater aquariums. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. However. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone.

heat. However. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. dark. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. collectors should use a cool. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. General . Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. bright light.

5 to 4 .35 Å. stalactitic. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.BA. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. fair on {100}.43°. c = 10. very dark to pale blue.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue.01 Å. Berlin blue.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. β = 92.85 Å. b = 5.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. prismatic. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. twin planes {101}.

773 (measured).838 Birefringence δ = 0. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak . 3.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.758 nγ = 1.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.730 nβ = 1.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. the clay mineral kaolinite. In the case of Jamaica. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. syenite.basalt. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). and small amounts of anataseTiO2. and shale. gneiss.

[edit]Production trends In 2010. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. . Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. and Guinea. India. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. Brazil. Increased aluminium recycling. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. followed by China.

Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. and is the main [1] source of barium. or barite. [edit]Names [2] and history . Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.Sr)SO4.BARITE Baryte. celestine. anglesite and anhydrite. The baryte group consists of baryte.

Other names have been used for baryte. and blanc fixe. tiff. [8] barytes. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. [2] [3] Spar. including barytine. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. heavy media separation. such as washing. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . tabling. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. [2] Heavy associations and locations . The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. but rather a material that meets that specification. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. an addition to industrial products. flotation. Most baryte is ground to a small. jigging. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. [8] schwerspath.

USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Perthshire. Scotland. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. and with hematite ore.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. and evaporation. among others. hydrothermal. in hot spring deposits. .

As a well is drilled. [edit]Paleothermometry . Canada. North [2] Carolina. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). can be less than 6 μm diameter. radiation-shielding cement. Tennessee. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. It is mined in Arkansas. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). Connecticut. De Kalb. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. and paint. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. friction products for automobiles and trucks. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. The deeper the hole.Kentucky. Morocco (460). the bit passes through various formations. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance.Perthshire. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Connecticut. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. sound reduction in engine compartments. China. chemically inert. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. Liberia. Peru. UK (Cornwall. United States (670). blue. each with different characteristics. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Morocco. paper. India [12] (1. Iran. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. Durham. Turkey. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Romania (Baia Sprie). Nevada & Missouri. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium).600). Muirshiel [2] Mine. New York & Fort Wallace. Greece. Iran (250). soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit.2 or greater. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Virginia. Derbyshire. by weight. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix.000). and no more than 30%. Chile. Thailand. New Mexico. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Cumbria. India. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Georgia. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). by weight.

pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. away from continental sources of sediment. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Since baryte has oxygen. . Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited.

and white. veḷiru ( ). [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. the Spanish word brillo. red.BERYL In geology. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). also meaning "shine". The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. [edit]Deposits . which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. blue. Old French: beryl. yellow. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. possible colors are green. and [5] the English word brilliance.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". theFrench word brille meaning "shine". Pure beryl is colorless.

Ireland and Russia. New Hampshire. such as that occurring in Brazil. and Bahia. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. U. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. though the color returns with irradiation. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. In the United States. InWyoming. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. and weighing 380. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Espírito Santo. Colombia. Connecticut. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Mozambique. Clear yellow beryl. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Maine. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. near Powder River Pass. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Germany.000 kilogrammes. In Brazil. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites.S. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Colorado.5 m by 1.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. and Zambia. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . Sweden (especially morganite). Madagascar. beryl locations are in California. the United States. Madagascar. As of 1999. North Carolina. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. neutrons or even X-rays). Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. and 2+ 3+ . Idaho. Mainewith dimensions 5. as well as Brazil. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Austria. and limestone inColombia. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. it is New Hampshire's state mineral.5 meters in diameter. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. South Dakota and Utah. South Africa.

colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. Afghanistan and Russia. Coscuez. It weighed over 110 kg. In the US. Zambia. Brazil. Brazil.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. in 1910. The mines of Colombia. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. and its dimensions were 48. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia.. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. as such. [15] [7][14] . and Chivor. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. It is named for the trapiche. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. In 1998. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). such as Zambia. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. Pakistan.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. marakata (म कन). Madagascar. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. North Carolina. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Zimbabwe. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. Most emeralds are highly included. Minas Gerais. Madagascar. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. which has been on the market since 1964. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. Malawi. meaning "green". a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. India.

Unlike emerald. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. golden beryl has very few flaws. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. The name originates from Goshen. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. In the past. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. . Nowadays. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. D. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities.C.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Washington. However. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite.

also known as "pink beryl". California. originally somewhat orange in hue. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. such astourmaline and kunzite. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). On October 7." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. and Co impurities. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. Morgan. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. V. pink. The crystal.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. Juab County. at Pala. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. with other gemstone minerals. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. 1989. However. green. goshenite can be colored yellow. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. Fe.Maine. Ti. "pink emerald". because of the . [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. Sc. In December 1910. its type locality. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. Thomas [26][27] Range. It was also known. and color banding is common. P. "rose beryl". was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. Utah. USA.

Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Beaver County. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index.000 per carat for faceted stones.05 . spessartine. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. topaz. New [1] Mexico. [28] of Fillmore. and Juab County. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. Utah.orthoclase.Sierra County. while he was prospecting for uranium.CJ. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Utah. quartz. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. pseudobrookite and hematite. Utah. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite.

columnar.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. blue. yellow. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . radial. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7.19 Å.21 Å. colorless. c = 9. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.50 Color Green.

but the stone itself does not) .0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.0040–0.Specific gravity Average 2.564–1.595 nε = 1.568–1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.

Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich .F.L. oxygen. Biotite is a sheet silicate. in 1816. Iron.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. researched the optical properties of mica. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. aluminium. Biotite was named by J. silicon. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite.OH)2. More generally.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. who. magnesium. it refers to the dark mica series. [4] discovering many unique properties.

with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. It appears greenish to brown or black. and consists of flexible sheets. in some instances side-by-side. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. especially in pegmatite veins. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. which easily flake off. Norway. has a vitreous to pearly luster. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. Ontario. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. and a grey-white streak. fracture is uneven. It has amonoclinic crystal system. or lamellae. as in New England. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks.than phlogopite. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. and even yellow when weathered. . Virginia and North Carolina. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. It can be transparent to opaque. For instance. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. When biotite is found in large chunks. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists.

53 g Color Dark brown. blackish brown. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. yellow.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. less common on the {001} .Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2. greenish brown.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.

07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).5–3. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .605–1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.03–0. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.605–1.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.565–1.7–3.675 nγ = 1.625 nβ = 1.675 Birefringence δ = 0.1 Density 2.8–3.

[edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. also known as peacock ore.

Kazakhstan. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore.Lomagundi district. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. Illogan. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Zimbabwe. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge).Connecticut in the U. Talate. and elsewhere in Cornwall. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. S. Austria. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.3 x 3. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. the Mangula mine. eastern Tirol. . in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales.Mexico (size: 7. Karlovy Vary Region. from the N’ouva mine. Morocco.England.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte.5 x 4. Montana and at Bristol.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

The mineral is found worldwide. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. a celestine geode 35 feet (10.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. Celestine . Crystal Cave. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. The world's largest known geode. usually in small quantities. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. Ohio. In carbonate marine sediments. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie.

pale green. pink. c = 6.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. b = 5. black .359 Å.AD. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. pale blue.352 Å. white. pale brown.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.866 Å.

3.630 .3.1. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .619 .1.624 nγ = 1. earthy.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. lamellar.95 .1. also fibrous.632 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.622 .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.5 Luster Vitreous.622 nβ = 1. good on {210}.

Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue. white blue . long UV=yellow.

Copper is shown in pink. On exposure to air. digenite (Cu9S5). carbonates such as malachite and azurite. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. hydroxides and sulfates. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. covellite (CuS). It has the chemical composition CuFeS2.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. chalcocite (Cu2S).: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. . It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron.

The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. and trace amounts of Ag. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Ontario. V. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. from huge masses as at Timmins. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Pb. etc. Cr. the American cordillera and the Andes. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. However. Au. Pt. Se. Mn.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Ni. Pd. and Sb are reported. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. molybdenite representing Mo.8 x 6. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. . to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill.3 x 4. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. In. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals.

+ 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Colorado. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. Ouray County.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells.CB.

54 Color Brass yellow.1 – 4.Unit cell a = 5.3 . Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. c = 10. commonly massive.423 Å. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183. and sometimes botryoidal. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.289 Å.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. both by itself and as part of pigments. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. muscle and bone. Pure copper is soft and malleable. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. needed] In sufficient concentration. later shortened to сuprum. and a constituent of various metal alloys. In the Roman era. fungicides. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Characteristics . a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. a building material.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. Decorative art prominently features copper. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. and wood preservatives.

and osmium (bluish). hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. which are relatively weak for a soft metal.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. As with other metals. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. Copper. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. galvanic corrosion will occur. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. above which it begins to heat excessively. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form.Physical A copper disc (99. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. At the macroscopic scale. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. For this reason. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. such as grain boundaries. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow).

The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. bulk corrosion. respectively. It does not react with water. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. such as the Statue of Liberty. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. this oxide layer stops the further. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Edinburgh. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts.

Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .There are 29 isotopes of copper. Cu and Cu are stable.83 hours. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite.4×3. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. [15] . whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . US. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. Cu. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. which has [13] a half-life of 12.2×3. The other isotopes are radioactive.2 cm. decays both ways. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer.8 minutes. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging.7 hours. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Native copper is a polycrystal. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. they both have a spin of 3/2.

All other colors are called sapphire. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. e.02 g/cm . titanium and chromium.g. it can scratch almost every other mineral. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby".. Transparent specimens are used as gems. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. In addition to its hardness.0. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. with an average hardness near 8. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. and the mix is less abrasive. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. but can have different colors when impurities are present.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. plastics.0 Mohs). and wood. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. It is a rock-forming mineral. It is commonly used as anabrasive. corundum is unusual for its density of 4.

In 1847. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. gneiss. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. silicon carbide. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. [4] Ontario. New York.632 °F). . Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Sri Lanka and India. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives.8 in × 1 in). USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Russia. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill.Corundum from Brazil. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. [4] USA.000 °C (3. In 1903. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid.

Apart from ornamental uses. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).CB. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. and laser components. scratch-resistant watch crystals. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.1. bearings. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. rods. and other machined parts).Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.05 Dana classification 4. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.1 .3. scratchresistant optics.

tabular. green.75 Å. gray. translucent toopaque . brown. violet. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. yellow.982 Å. rhombohedral crystals. may be color zoned. prismatic. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. orange. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. blue to cornflower blue. pink to pigeon-blood-red. c = 12.

or hercynite .95–4.hematite.Specific gravity 3.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.772 nε = 1.767–1.759–1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.

brown or gray to colorless. orange.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. violet. green.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. pink. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. black. purple and red.CB. Less often blue. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.10a Identification Formula mass 12. translucent white. .

52±0.5–3.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.044 .01 Density 3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

geologic literature as magnesian limestone. often as a result of diagenesis. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. [edit]Properties . In 1791. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.S. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. or in old U. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work.

It forms white. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. . One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. Arkansas. In the 1950s and 60s. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. although it is usually massive. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today.g. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Unlike calcite. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. i. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins).e. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. where organic matter content is high. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. namely. Crystal twinning is common.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. dolomite is a double carbonate. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. having a different structural arrangement. gray to pink.

measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. White Mountains. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. in a 1999 study. textural and chemical characteristics. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. California.Dolomite. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. . Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. However. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation.

zinc. a concrete aggregate. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. and copper.2×4. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels.4×7. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. Dolomite . Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Cherokee County. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Kansas(size: 11. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. In horticulture. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source.

c = 16. massive. often with curved faces. granular. also columnar. Crystal system Trigonal .Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. Z = 3 Identification Color White. 3 Unit cell a = 4.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.8012(1) Å.AB. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. stalactitic.002 Å.

rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.679–1.179–0.681 nε = 1.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. triboluminescent.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.500 Birefringence δ = 0. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. .84–2.

crystallizing in the monoclinic system. the optical constants. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. brown or nearly black. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. The color is green. yellow and brown. the color. grey. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. the pleochroic colors being usually green. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry." 3+ . Ca2Al2(Fe . It displays strong pleochroism.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). and the specific gravity.

amphiboles. here as large. but one of secondary origin. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. pyroxenes. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. and apatite. The perfectly transparent. dark green. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. micas. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. Arendal in Norway. calcite. and others) composing igneous rocks. . garnets. adularia. withasbestos. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. Haddam inConnecticut. as magnificent.

Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. Dollaseite is less common. gneiss. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. Although not a common mineral. after whom the species was named. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. and many different names applied. and others. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. yellowish-. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. and greenish-brown colors. near Ivrea in Piedmont. further. sometimes a foot in length. at Finbo. granite. pitchy in lustre. rhyolite.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. reddish-black. andesite. syenite. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. there is little or no cleavage. being black or dark brown in color. and opaque in the mass. Piemontite occurs as small. Epidote . near Falun in Sweden. and well-developed crystals are rare. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808.

yellow-green. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. fibrous.3–3.6 .Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green.

797 Birefringence δ = 0.784 nγ = 1.019–0.725–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.734–1.751 nβ = 1.046 Pleochroism Strong .

[edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. While slowly cooling within the earth. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. Typically.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. . Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. of plagioclase.

Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. In gemology. such as porcelain. and as a constituent of scouring powder.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. It measured ~10×10×0. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. Russia. Germany. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. It is the state gem of Florida. Most moonstones are translucent and white. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . some ceramics. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality.

Greenish.63 Optical Biaxial (-).55–2.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Cleavages intersect at 90°. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Greyish yellow. White. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. 2V = 65–75 . Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral.

Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.522–1.524 nγ = 1.0050–0.518–1.520 nβ = Refractive index nα = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .522–1.525 Birefringence 0.

calcite and fluorite.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It is the most important lead ore mineral.

Illinois.1×3. Broken Hill. Bulgaria. antimony. . Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Smolyan Province.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. England. Iowa and Wisconsin. the former mining town of Galena. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Of the latter. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. the Madan. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Missouri. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. cadmium. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Rhodope Mountains.S. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. in a process similar to bioleaching. USA (size: 5. In addition zinc. and Cumberland. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Idaho. Saxony. The Mendips.2×2. In the United States. Cornwall. Somerset. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Derbyshire.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Utah and Montana.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia.

In modern wireless communication systems. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. U. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0.g. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. however. Isle of [5] Man. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. which were a potential source of disease. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). in Ancient Egypt. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. For example.K. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. which. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. which was known as a "cat's whisker". in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals.

tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. No.8.CD.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.1.10 Dana classification 2. 225 Twinning Contact. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].936 Å.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.5–2.75 . space group Fm3m.

Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.

lepidocrocite.akaganeite.5 range. and jarosite. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. The hardness is variable. the other being hematite. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals.5. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. among them goethite. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely.3. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. but generally in the 4 . [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. although specimens may show a [6] . [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. but limonite does not.7 to 4. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. Although originally defined as a single mineral. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish.

Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. reniform or stalactitic. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. and hematite was far easier to smelt. Before smelting. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. Nonetheless. and biotite. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. sometimes mammillary. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. to process limonite. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. [12] notably in Tanzania. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. in Africa.botryoidal. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. amphibole. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. Because of its amorphous nature. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. producing red ochres. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. Complex systems developed. burnt umbers and siennas. hematite and magnetite. pyroxene.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. Main article: Ochre#History . [10] California mining district. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets.

mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .5½ . Limonite General Category Amorphous.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs.

3 Density 2.7 .Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.4.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .9 .4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

S. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. malleable and ductile metal. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. usually with tellurium. It dissolves in mercury. as nuggets or grains in rocks. forming amalgam alloys. so named because it dissolves gold. Less commonly. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. giving rise to the term theacid test. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. soft. . in 1932. shiny. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. jewelry. with huge war debts. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. is insoluble in nitric acid. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). In Europe.GOLD Gold is a dense. which dissolves silver and base metals. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. which have been used in mining. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. in veins and in alluvial deposits. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. Chemically. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and.

ductility. . with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. and 10% in industry. includingelectric wiring. or a cube 20. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions.5 billion troy ounces or. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. in terms of volume. colored-glass production and gold leafing. 40% in [3] investments. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold.7 m on a side. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. about 8876 m . Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. and other fields. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. This is roughly equivalent to 5. electronics.A total of 171. Its highmalleability.

graphite is an electrical conductor. There are three principal types of natural graphite. a semimetal. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. flat. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. for its use in pencils.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. 2. It is. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. . just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. "to draw/write". Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. consequently. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Therefore. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. 3. the last stage of coalification.

respectively. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. micas and tourmaline. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. U. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. Graphite . production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt).S.110 thousand tonnes (kt).S. but U. Graphite is not mined in the United States.18 billion. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). in particular. calcite. Brazil (76 kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. China is the largest producer of graphite. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. India (130 kt).

c = 6.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.708 Å. six-sided foliatedmasses. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.CB. otherwise rough when not on cleavage . granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.461 Å.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2.

sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.09–2. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.

Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. rather. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. and in the early 19th century. In hand-sized samples. Finally. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. (Thus.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. "spear stone". it may also be granular or quite compact. "chalk" or "plaster". cleavable masses called selenite. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts.0–2. Selenite contains no significantselenium. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. When the crystal lattice is heated. in the form of selenite. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. referring to its crystalline projections. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Selenite may also occur in a silky. typically opaque. it is alabaster. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. Upon addition of water. In arid areas. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt.5 g/l at 25°C) and. It can be used as afertilizer. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. called alabaster. fibrous form. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. and transparent. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. As foranhydrite. [edit]Occurrence . As a mineral. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. in contrast to most other salts. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2.

Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. and sulfate solutions inveins. UK. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Blue Anchor. Commercial exploitation of the area. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Wyoming. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Gypsum is a common mineral. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. strongly opposed by area residents.000 years. Somerset.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. . Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Pure gypsum is white. However. Under reducing conditions. from volcanic vapors. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. as well as in hot springs. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.

tan.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. b = 15.CD.43°. may be yellow. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.202(14) Å.522(6) Å. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.679(5) Å. pink. brown. c = 6. blue. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. β = 118.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. reddish brown or gray .

inelastic.010 . pearly.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.523 nγ = 1.529–1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.521 nβ = 1.519–1.530 Birefringence δ = 0.522–1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. Mohs scalehardness 1. flat. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.31–2.

Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Maghemite is a hematite. or otherwise highly weathered soils. or red. Hematite is a mineral. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. one of several iron oxides. spring. brown to reddish brown. It is mined as the main ore of iron. also spelled as haematite. or other standing water. Hematite is harder than pure iron. Varieties includekidney ore. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). but much more brittle. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. . they all have a rust-red streak. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Hematite can also occur without water. While the forms of hematite vary. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. ancient. usually as the result of volcanic activity. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite).HEMATITE Hematite. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. however.

038(2) Å. Fe2O3.772(12) Å. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. dull to bright red . Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.CB. c = 13.

940 Birefringence δ = 0. micaceous or platy.220.150–3.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3.280 .5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6. earthy. nε = 2. columnar. granular. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. radiating fibrous. commonly in rosettes.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. reniform.870–2.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.4 and is typically an opaque green.9–3. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. brown or black color.Al)5(Al. and an iron-magnesium silicate.F)2. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.Na)2–3(Mg. greenish-brown.Fe. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. The general formula can be given as (Ca.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).Si)8O22(OH. but the name is used as a general or field term. a specific gravity of 2. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. to refer to a dark amphibole. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.

Fe. andschist. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . Orange County. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. Al)5 (Al. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. diorite. basalt. New York. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. from its locality in Edenville. andesite. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. is gray to white in color. gabbro. and named edenite. syenite. gneiss.

9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

a village near Jingdezhen. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. pinyin: Gaoling). earthy. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. yellow or light orange colors. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. Alternating layers are sometimes found. China. Jiangxi province.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. [edit]Chemistry [6] . it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. part of the group of industrial minerals. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. In many parts of the world. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). calaba. United States. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). It is a soft. In Africa. giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. It is a layered silicate mineral. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g).

Al2Si2O7. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. however. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. Si3Al4O12. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. H = H2O. S = SiO2. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. [edit]Occurrence . extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3).

as kaolin. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Kaolinite . Iran. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. United Kingdom. the Czech Republic and the United States. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. in Brazil. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. Bulgaria.5 million tonnes. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. [1] the People's Republic of China. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot.Korea. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. it is mined. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. France. India. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. Australia. Germany.

blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. thin plates or stacked.5°.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. sometimes red. β = 104.13 Å. γ = 89.8°. Z = 2 Identification Color White. c = 7.ED.25 Å. α = 90°. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. aggregated into compact.89 Å. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . b = 8.

nγ = 1.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.553–1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.559–1. nβ = 1.565.569–1.569.16–2. Calculated: 44° .570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.

Notable occurrences include Brazil. Tanco Mine. Ural Mountains.Si)3O10(F. Canada. United States. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. cassiterite. amblygonite. Lepidolite . Associated minerals [1] include quartz. It occurs in granite pegmatites. Russia.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. in some high-temperature quartz veins. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. California. andMadagascar. columbite. Bernic Lake. Manitoba. tourmaline. greisens and granites. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. topaz and beryl.spodumene. feldspar.

OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Si)3O10(F. yellowish.1 x 0. Brazil (size 2.011(5) Å c = 10.209(2) Å b = 9. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.Cm Unit cell a = 5. colorless .20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.Lepidolite.149(5) Å. Virgem da Lapa.EC.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. rose-red.4 x 2. β = 100:77(4)°. purple. white. violet-gray. Minas Gerais.

0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.548.0290–0. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.8–2.554– 1.58° measured . nγ=1. pale violet 2V angle 0° . Y = Z = pink.525–1.586 Birefringence 0.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.58.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1. nβ=1.551–1.

theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. called lodestone. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. and ulvospinel have been much studied. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide.e. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. will attract small pieces of iron. hematite. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite.. Commonly.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field.

magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization.085 °F). Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.397 Å. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.III) oxide. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. 1. In many igneous rocks.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.BB.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. Z=8 Identification Color Black. including banded iron formations.

fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.Crystal habit Octahedral. the spinel law.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.17–5.5–6.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid . parting on {Ill}. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.

Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. which features a huge malachite vase. a large malachite vase. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. and most often forms botryoidal. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. The pigment is moderately lightfast. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. This opaque. deep underground. It is also used for decorative purposes. "mallow-green stone". in fractures and spaces. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. . Middle French: melochite. or stalagmitic masses. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. "The Tazza". malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. fibrous.000 years. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. "mallow". and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. variant of καιάχε malāchē. Since then. verditer amongst other synthetic greens.

It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Tsumeb. Russia.BA. Israel. Namibia.10 Identification Formula mass 221.1 g/mol Color Bright green.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. . Lyon. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Mexico. Timna valley. and calcite. goethite. Broken Hill. Gabon. dark green. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. the source of the carbonate. Except for its vibrant green color. France. blackish green. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.Zambia. New South [7] Wales. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones.

5–4. silky if fibrous. Polysynthetic twinning also present. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.875 nγ = 1. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. stalactitic.909 Birefringence δ = 0. botryoidal.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.655 nβ = 1.254 .commonly banded in masses.

or (rarely) violet or red. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).25 parallel to the [001] face.OH)2. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic.76–3. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. greens. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. and can be transparent or translucent. The green. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. [4] . Its crystal system is monoclinic. India. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. browns. yellows. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. isinglass.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.

Minas Gerais.02. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. found in granites. etc.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .Muscovite with beryl (var.3×3. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. gneisses.kyanite. In pegmatites. morganite) from Paprok. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.15 Dana classification 71. and schists. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.9×4. pegmatites. feldspar.8×3.EC.02a.

5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.576 . pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. silky.199 Å.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Unit cell a = 5.552–1.106 Å. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). c = 20. Z = 4 Identification Color White. b = 9.027 Å.78°. grey. β = 95. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.

nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .587–1.035 – 0.615 nγ = 1.582–1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.

Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen.g. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg.. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). almost 1900 °C. as do other properties. Fo 70Fa30). The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). magnesium and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). it is also called peridot and chrysolite). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. silicon.Fe)2SiO4. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.

Gila Co. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. USA. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15.Green sand is actually olivine crystals.. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). . Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Arizona.

Such meteorites include chondrites. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. 2012).Fe)2Si2O6).[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. 12 GPa. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. andpallasites.feldspar.g. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. falling into infant stars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. First X-ray view of Martian soil . and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. because olivine is so abundant. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. and . or forsterite. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest".Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. October 17. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. moreover. the Moon. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. collections of debris from the early solar system. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. In contrast. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. from the Greek words for gold and stone). pyroxenes. in the dust of comet Wild 2. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. Mars. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. the French word for olivine).

meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. O2. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. silicon in pink. Olivine . M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O1. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. In an alternative view. while M1 exists on an inversion center. Oxygen is shown in red. O3 lies in a general position. and magnesium/iron in blue. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. O2 and O3 in figure 1). close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft.

5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

690 Birefringence δ = 0.27–3.650 nβ = 1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.670–1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670 nγ = 1.040 .650–1.630–1.

which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. marl and basalt. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. slate. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. Opal ranges from clear through white. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. For gemstone use. like basalt. red. green. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. Of these hues. sandstone. rhyolite. brown. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. [edit]Precious opal . It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. olive. a mineraloid form. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. rose. being most commonly found withlimonite. pink.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . blue. orange. not a mineral. yellow. whereas white and greens are the most common. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. gray. magenta. the reds against black are the most rare. and black.

Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. . packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size.

unlike triplet opals. which is often of lower quality. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. which is correctly termed play of color. Potch does not show a play of color. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing.Australian Opal Doublet. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. of which opal is the best known natural example. Contrarily. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. and are not classed as precious opal. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. basalt. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. or obsidian. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. In addition. . it has an internal structure.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. orange. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. wood opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. hyalite. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. orange-yellow or red. They do not usually show any play of color. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. which is brown or grey. or star . also called siliceous sinter. geyserite.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. menilite. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. resin opal.

effect. Queensland. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Queensland . 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. It weighs 17. It does not display pleochroism. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. However. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). Boulder Opal. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. when cut properly.

Idaho. crystal. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. weighing 160 carats. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). and marine creatures in South Australia. [citation needed] [12] A ." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Bonanza. white. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. and black opal. Opal Queen. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. crystal opal. Royal Peacock. Nevada. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. bones. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Another Australian town. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge.585 carats. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. from Kynuna in the north. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. known as the "Black Peacock. and lemon opal. fish. and a snake head have been found. is the main source of black opal. closely related to boulder opal. fire. and weighs 2. Miocene age opalised teeth.

brown. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. black.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. Guatemala. white. Honduras. red. Hungary.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. Indonesia. Brazil (inPedro II. yellow. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. green. Turkey. orange. Piauí ). in masses.7 by 0. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. [19] Slovakia. In late 2008. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] .

translucent.08.450 (+.Mohs scalehardness 5.020.[1] .43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.90)[1] Density 2. or yellow in long and short wave.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. but typically reads 1. May also phosphoresce.15 (+.37. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. -. green. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. may phosphoresce. transparent Specific gravity 2. -.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.42–1.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. may phosphoresce.

Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. bases. hydrofluoric acid .humic acid. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. methanol.

almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. sedimentary rock. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. "of fire" or "in fire". brazzle and Brazil. "fire". and as a replacement mineral in fossils. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. and metamorphic rock. In ancient Roman times. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. or iron pyrite. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. [edit]Uses . Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). By Georgius Agricola's time. In the Carlin–type gold deposits.37 wt% gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. as well as in coal beds. in turn from πύρ (pur). Despite being nicknamed fool's gold.

Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. La Rioja. Marcasite jewelry. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. Navajún. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. was popular in the Victorian era. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. Until the vacuum tube matured. By the 19th century. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.95 eV. that is. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. most notably the wheellock. iron(II) sulfate. often set in silver. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. it had become the [12] dominant method. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. . In the 15th century.

12.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.417 Å.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.EB. Rioja.05a Dana classification 2. 512 g. Z=4 . Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.1. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.

sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. globular and stalactitic. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. radiated.95–5. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. faces may be striated.5–3 to a magnetic globule . granular. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic.5 Luster Metallic. Often inter-grown.10 Fusibility 2.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. massive.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

after feldspar. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. space group P6221 and P6421. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. giving an overall formula SiO2. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. only one termination pyramid is present. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. distorted. respectively. Polish twardy ("hard")). The . or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. There are many different varieties of quartz. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system.

and has often been used for hardstone carvings. onyx. and jasper. without change in the way they are linked.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. such as the Lothair Crystal. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. are agate. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. or mixed rocks including quartz. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. Common colored varieties include citrine. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. and is rarely found naturally. sard. see Citrine (disambiguation). [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. Quartz goes by an array of different names. and others. For other uses. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). amethyst. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. carnelian. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. . Citrine has ferric impurities. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron.transformation between α. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. Natural citrines are rare. but they differ in hardness. smoky quartz. rose quartz. milky quartz. heliotrope.

Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. USA. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. Magaliesburg. in the massive material. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Brazil. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Maine. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. iron. . or manganese.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz.

[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . translucent version of quartz. Some can also be black.

or both. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. This does not always hold true. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. liquid.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. Otherwise more specific names are used. Rock crystal Clear. trapped during the crystal formation. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Agate Multi-colored. colorless Amethyst Purple. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. transparent . exhibiting chatoyancy. banded chalcedony. parallel and consistent in size. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture.

may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. transparent Rose quartz Pink. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. translucent to opaque.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown.

05 Dana classification 75. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. fine-grained to microcrystalline.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. drusy.03.4053 Å. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).01.9133 Å. c = 5. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .DA.

009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.554 Birefringence +0.59–2.545 nε = 1. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.543–1. variable 2.552–1. may betriboluminescent. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .65.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

751 Birefringence δ = 0.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.724 .5 .1.714 .013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .3.57 .1.711 .738 nβ = 1.741 nγ = Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.

high-value tableware. gold. both from the Indo-European root*arg. white. Today. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. to make ornaments. free form (native silver). . Latin: argentum. jewelry. A soft. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. utensils (hence the term silverware). lustrous transition metal. and is used as an investment. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Its compounds are used in photographic film. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. and currency coins. further research into clinical potential continues. as an alloy with gold and other metals. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect).for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. and zinc refining. lead.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal.

. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. crystals are usually transparent to translucent.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. with a polished rock surface. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. Canada. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. nosean. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. lazurite and tugtupite.

Ontario. albite. particularly. fluorite. Maine. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. microcline. in the USA. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. The Ice River [5] complex. green. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. [1] Narsaq. in Canada. shortwave ultraviolet light. Arkansas. sodalite is named after its sodium content. calcite. contains sodalite. and Mont-SaintHilaire. near Golden. West Greenland. If left in a dark environment for some time. Occurring typically in massive form. sodalite may also be grey. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. British Columbia. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. Quebec.A light. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Well known for its blue color. the violet will fade again. [3] titanian andradite. Smaller deposits are found in South .ankerite and baryte. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. cancrinite and natrolite. and Litchfield. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. yellow. sanidine. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. namelyleucite. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. Other associated minerals include nepheline. aegirine. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. Conversely. and Magnet Cove. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments.

violet. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue.FB. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Euhedral. white veining common . Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9.876(6) Å. Burma and Russia. Portugal. yellow. Italy. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Romania. green.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8.

5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Massive.1. with yellowishphosphorescence. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. sodium .483 .33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.27-2. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

Magnesium.OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. mostly opaque. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .

called penetration twinning. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. Keivy Mountains. In handsamples. Kola Peninsula. . [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. It is the official state mineral of the U. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. New Mexico. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. micas. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. biotite. Virginia. It occurs with almandine garnet. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. as well as albite. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. kyanite. Samples are also found in Taos.S. Norway. depth. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz.

pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. β = 90. 2. b = 16.45°. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .Murmanskaja Oblast'.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. c = 5.86 Å.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. Russia.5 x 2. Northern Region. yellowish brown. rarely blue.AF. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.6 Å.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.65 Å.

Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .740 .015 Pleochroism X = colorless.7.747 nβ = 1.0.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.754 nγ = 1. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.1.009 .745 . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.3.74 . 3.762 Birefringence δ = 0. weak . Y = pale yellow.1.83 meas. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.736 .1.686 calc.


It has a perfect basal cleavage.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form.5– 2. Talc is not soluble in water. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. and is translucent to opaque. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. Its streak is white. [edit]Formation . a clear or dusty luster. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It has a specific gravity of 2. In loose form. and the folia are non-elastic. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. although slightly flexible.8. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.

its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. [edit]Occurrence . and fibrous. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. low-temperature minerals such as phengite.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. pyroxene. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. friable. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. olivine. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. and are known as whiteschist. amphibole. Such rocks are typically white. This is typically associated with high-pressure. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. garnet.

and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. layered ultramafic intrusion. Western Australia. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral .000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. representing 8% of world production. Oman and the Middle East. the Guiana Shield. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. India. formed upon a polydeformed. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. from Brazil. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. the western European Alps especially in Italy. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. Nepal and Bhutan. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. eastern Australia. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock).

c = 5.173 Å. β = 119. b = 9.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.68°. β = 99.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). b = 9. c = 18. γ = 90. brown. Z = 2 or a = 5.95 Å.3°.EC. α = 98.287 Å.09°. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .158 Å.90°.290 Å. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.291 Å. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.

83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.589 – 1.538 – 1.589 – 1.550 nβ = 1. long UV=yellow .594 nγ = 1.58 to 2.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.600 Birefringence δ = 0.

and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.OH)2.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.

gold. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow.Sweden. pink (rare). [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . Germany. reddish-orange. the symbol of [5] friendship. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. or blue brown. blue. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. colorless. Brazil. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.75 carats. sometimes even violet. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Czech Republic. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift.892. if natural) or pink-orange. in Afghanistan. measured a massive 22. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. The American Golden Topaz. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. Pakistan. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. gold. Norway. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. yellow. Orange topaz.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. also known as precious topaz. Australia. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. is the traditional November birthstone. pale green. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. Italy. It can also be made white. Flinders Island. typical topaz is wine. pale gray. Japan. a more recent gem.5 carats. pink or violet colored. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Nigeria and the United States. Typically. Mexico. Sri Lanka. pink (rare. Imperial topaz is yellow.

[edit]History Nicols. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. Minas Gerais. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). In the Middle Ages. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. both of which predate the Greek word. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. [edit]Biblical background.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. some scholars think it is related to . the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone." However. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. etymology. a topaz. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. the ancient name of St.

meaning "yellow burn" or. metaphorically.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.OH)2 Strunz classification 9.4 Å. "fiery". Z = 4 .AF. [citation needed] More likely. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. c = 8.65 Å.an Assyrian word meaning "flashed". = yellow. b = 8.8 Å. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn).

blue.629 nβ = 1. gray.49–3. green.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.609–1. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. yellow.606–1. brown.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). also columnar.631 nγ = 1. orange. compact.616–1.638 . pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.

yellow. short UV=golden yellow. bluish. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent.Birefringence δ = 0. reddish. long UV=cream . Y = yellow.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. Z = violet. violet.

[edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. Italy .TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. or potassium. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. lithium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. magnesium. iron. sodium.

The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). Austro-Hungarian Empire. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Beginning in the 18th century. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. in addition to cassiterite. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. This village had a nearby tin mine where. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". black tourmaline was found. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. schörl.Drava river area. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). In the 19th century the names common schorl. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). "Schörle". Up to about 1600. In English.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. for the Drava river area. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. . and "Schurl". Carinthia. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg.

Cr . Ti . O W = OH. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Na. Mn . Italy. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. with the simplified formula (Li. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. Sweden. Al. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. California. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Czech Republic. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Fe . San Piero in Campo. K. Mg. F. Cr . Italy. vacancy Z = Mg. V T = Si. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Elba Island. Fe .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. Elba Island.5Al1. United States. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1.Campo nell'Elba. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. Province of [5] Livorno. sodium-. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Al. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. Al. B B = B. where: [6] X = Ca. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. vacancy V = OH. Zn. Tuscany. Italy. Fe . vacancy Y = Li.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). V . In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite.

Cryo-Genie Mine. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. US.Al1.. San Diego Co.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F .Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. California.5.

Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. Himalaya Mine. San Diego Co.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. US [edit]Physical properties .. California.

Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. [edit]Geology . yellow. green. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. Usually. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. During their 2+ growth. impact the value. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. but is now exhausted.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. etc. especially pink to red colored stones. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. and are often pyroelectric as well. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. pink. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. and does not. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. or green on the outside and pink inside. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. currently. Rarely. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. it is colorless. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. in western Australia. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. Heavily-included tourmalines. called hemimorphism. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. red. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. no other common mineral has three sides. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem.

sometimes radiating. pink. Fe.Al. Scattered grains (in granite). Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Cr. Massive. but can range from brown. .B)6O18(OH.Na. green.Li.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. are generally restricted to schists and marble. Acicular prisms.Fe. violet.[])(Al. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated.K. dravites. or in a dual-colored pink and green.Mg. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black.Mn)3(Al. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.

sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.018 to -0. dark blue.06)[1] Density 2.635–1.06 (+.610–1.675. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.650 Birefringence -0. light blue . dark green. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. dark red. dark brown.020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.5 Luster Vitreous.040. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7. nε=1.20 -.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. typically about . small conchoidal.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.82–3.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.

017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.

It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. is a green variety of tremolite. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. [edit]Occurrence . Nephrite.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite.

10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic .diopside. Piumogna [1] Valley.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Leventina. dolomite. talc. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. grossular. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. forsterite. Approximately 36.Tremolite from the Aure Valley.DE.Ticino (Tessin). cummingtonite. Associated minerals include calcite. French Pyrenees (size: 8. wollastonite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.2 x 6. Switzerland.

99 – 3. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. β = 104.Unit cell a = 9.02 Å. c = 5. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . or flattened crystals. gray. b = 18.27 Å.95°.84 Å. also as fibrous. Z = 2 Identification Color White. light green. lavender to pink. common parallel to {100}. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic.

1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.626 nγ = 1.1.Refractive index nα = 1.599 . Long UV=range pink .625 .1.612 nβ = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.613 .

sometimes known as TV rock. calcite. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. by internal reflection. The chains are linked together by calcium. borax. meyerhofferite. mirabilite. trona. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. and Kazakhstan. gyps [1] um and halite. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. hydroboracite. USA. . probertite. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. Tarapacá Region in Chile. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. water and hydroxide octahedra. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. It is found principally in California and Nevada. glauberite. water. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide).

An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. Ulexite . The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). Ulexite decomposes in hot water. two of which are polarized. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection.

c = 6.12°.678(1) Å.9 x 5 x 3.25 Dana classification 26.EA.87Å.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. Z =2 Identification .05. α = 90. b = 12.Ulexite from California(size: 6.11. β = 109.1°.816(3) Å.25°. γ = 105.

028 .506 br/>nγ = 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.504 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.95 – 1.496 nβ = 1.519 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.5 Luster Vitreous.491 – 1.

cream.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. greenish yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .

albite gneiss. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. Depending on their composition. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. they may also be called garnet gneiss. biotite gneiss. so called because the rock glitters). Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. chlorite or other platyminerals. rotten or possibly worthless material. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. etc. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. . diorite gneisses. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions.

The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. Norwegian. Portuguese mármore. Turkish mermer. "to flash. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. silt. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. Spanish mármol. .German. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. most other European languages (e. Dutch marmer.g. Armenian marmar. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Danish and Swedish ma rmor. [5] gleam". [3][4] "crystalline rock".MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. sand. meaning "marble-like. however. Polish marmur. most commonly calcite or dolomite. "shining stone". Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Italian marmo. iron oxides. sparkle.


sericite mica.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Minute crystals of graphite. . Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. and chlorite. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). or chlorite impart a silky. sericite. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions.

Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. rutile and magnetite. not around them. therefore. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. Canada . Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. are due to other mineral impurities. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. and both usages are found in the literature. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. British Columbia. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. Although few fossils are normally present. diagenetically altered. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). carbonate and clay. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. iron oxide. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. such as yellow and orange. Other colors.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. silica. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented.

Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. pale grey. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. Central Texas. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. several mountains (e. and stair steps. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. [4] . Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. Monte Binga (2436 m).g. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. The highest mountain in Mozambique. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. In the Scottish Highlands. near Salt Lake City. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. industrial silica sand. precambrian quartzite. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. as flooring. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). In Wales. the Wasatch Range in Utah. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. In the United Kingdom. southwestMinnesota.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. In Canada. Foinaven. silicon and silicon carbide. as roofing tiles.


Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. etc. and others. The individual mineral grains in schist. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. Most schists are mica schists. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. however. the terms slate. A quartz-porphyry. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. hornblende. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". glaucophane schist. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone.clastic structure. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. such as garnet schist. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. Usually. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. tourmaline schist. graphite. In other . By definition. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. for example. chlorite. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. can be seen by the naked eye. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks.talc. If the whole district. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. for example.

while others are found only among igneous masses. staurolite. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. are alteredclaystones and shales. tremolite. garnet. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). feldspar. for example. zoisite and hornblende. quartz and feldspar. with variable amounts of white and black mica. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. diopside. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. contain silicate minerals such as mica. The majority of mica-schists. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. foliated. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. schistose character. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. marbles. Such rocks. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. which have been derived from rhyolites. A subgroup is the andalusite. chilled edges. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). and calc-schists. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). as limestones.cases intrusive junctions. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. For example. dolomites. . many metamorphic limestones. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. scapolite. however. and the white mica-schists. with crystalline dolomites. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. The last appeal is often to the chemistry.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


less frequently. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. from pale to dark. for example. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use.. and may also be purple. kaolinite. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. For example. leaving a light green spotted texture. green or cyan. or zirconas well as feldspar. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. from which it may be formed. and pyrite and. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. or a writing slate. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. en masse. often framed in wood. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. However. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. . or schist. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. Occasionally. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. chlorite. foliated. Slate is frequently grey in color.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. apatite. often along with biotite. hematite. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. the terms slate. It may mean a single roofing slate. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. as in the purple slates of North Wales. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. In the context of underground coal mining. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. traditionally a small piece of slate. graphite. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. Slate is not to be confused with shale. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. magnetite. covering roofs. tourmaline. especially when seen.


Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. anhydrous forms. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. apatite. Magnetite.e. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. but most .g. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. 3. leading to metamorphism. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. of intermediate composition. chlorite etc. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. This removal can take place in a variety of ways.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. volcanic rock.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. ilmenite. Partial melting of crustal material. During subduction. barium(Ba). Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Characteristic of subduction zones. zircon. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral.. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. In a general sense. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. [5] sediment. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. potassium (K). zeolites. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. 2. biotite.

the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. As this process continues. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. Basalt can. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. its intermediate phase. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. however. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Without continued addition of mafic material. Models of heat transfer. . such as the Andes. creating a layer of molten material at its base. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. forming mafic cumulates. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. however. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. therefore. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. In order to remain active. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. If it underplates the crust.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. these reservoirs cool. the composition is returned to andesite. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. Once there. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . however.


It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. and has also formed on Earth's Moon.g. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. (In comparison. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. Mars. Venus. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro...: /bəˈsɔːlt/. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Sobolev et al. the third largest moon of Jupiter. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. Hungary . The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. By definition. embedded in a finer-grained matrix.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. /ˈbæsɒlt/.BASALT Basalt (pron. On Earth. and even on the asteroid Vesta. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. 2007). containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase.

US quarter for scale.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. Arizona. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). as building blocks or in the groundwork). The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone".g. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. an excellent thermal insulator. misspelling of L. basanites "very hard stone. libri XII. . Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. from βάζανος (basanos. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes.

the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges.     . MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). is characteristically low in incompatible elements. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. most large oceanic islands.

ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. magnetite. central Sweden.DIORITE Diorite (pron. however. and frequently has a greenish cast. Scotland. occasionally with porphyry. source localities include Leicestershire. Romania. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. apatite. the Andes Mountains. Sondrio. the Isle of Guernsey. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. Finland. Northeastern Turkey. and/or pyroxene. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. and Idahet in Egypt. Basin and Range province. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. the Darrans range of New Zealand. into which they may subtly merge. Italy. and to provide a durable finished work. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. It can also be black or bluish-grey. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Minnesota in theUSA. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. . [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. hornblende. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. sphene. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). microcline and olivine.biotite. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. which is transitional togabbro. Zircon. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. Its hardness. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. making it difficult to carve and work with.

It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Assyria and Sumer.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. etc. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. In later times. Paul's Cathedral. . diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. London. inscribed upon a 2. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. but mostly for fortress walls. weaponry. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. Guernsey and Scotland.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Babylonia.

GABBRO Gabbro (pron. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. ilmenite. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). amphibole. coarse-grained. California. the rock is then a norite. Gabbros contain minor amounts. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. typically a few percent. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. and ulvospinel. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). The rocks areplutonic. Isle of Skye. Rock Creek Canyon. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Gabbro is dense. Scotland. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. plagioclase. easternSierra Nevada. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater.

Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. platinum. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. silver. US. although it may be porphyritic at times. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. Massachusetts. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. gold. . intruding into the rift flanks. cobalt. and copper sulfides. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. nickel.extra descriptiveness is desired. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals.


hard and tough. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. Melting temperature is 1215 . and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. felsic. and feldspar. This rock consists mainly of quartz. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.65 and 2. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. near the town of Caldera. a grain.GRANITE Granite (pron. Granitoid is a general. an unusual type of granite. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume.75 3 g/cm . Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. Granites can be pink to gray in color.1260 °C. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. descriptive field term for light-colored. mica. northern Chile . Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The average density of granite is between 2. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). By definition.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India.

Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. valley of the Merced River Roche Rock. Cornwall .

42% (alumina) K2O — 4.68% Fe2O3 — 1. it is called tonalite. where it forms a major part of continental crust. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. sanidine.71% TiO2 — 0. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.22% MgO — 0.12% Na2O — 3. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. Granite often occurs as relatively small.69% CaO — 1. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.12% MnO — 0. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.30% P2O5 — 0. .82% FeO — 1. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. In some locations. although much of it is of Precambrian age. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.The Cheesewring. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.


OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. usually 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. in addition. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Obsidian is hard and brittle. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. [9][10][11] . among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. which is the parent material. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia.. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian.. California . forming perlite. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is mineral-like.

radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). white. Oregon and Idaho. Pantelleria. Canada. Colorado. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Italy. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Kenya. as well as Pennsylvania. New [13] [14] Mexico.S. El Salvador. . Occurrence Glass Mountain. Guatemala. Scotland and the United States. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. It can be found in Argentina. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. states of Virginia. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Peru. and deposits can be found in many other western U. Very few samples are nearly colorless. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Iceland.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. In some stones. Azerbaijan. Armenia.Greece. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. New Zealand.Utah. states including Arizona. Chile. Washington. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Japan. Mexico. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. Texas. the inclusion of small. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia.S. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian).


Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. exsolution lamellae. feldspar and mica. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. in essence a granite. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. Therefore. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Similarly. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. Theory Theory . pyroxene and other minerals are known. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages.5 cm in size. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. For this reason.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. macroscale graphic texture is known.

Beyond that. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. to liberate the right constituents and water. eastern Sierra Nevada. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. granite-associated mineralisation styles. . Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. and are usually granitic in character. with bulk chemical and textural change. often with mica and usually with quartz. in a few cases. for example greisens. Rock Creek Canyon. being altogether "granitic" in character. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite.

tourmaline. tourmaline. Tantalum. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. tourmaline. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. tantalite. fluorite. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. commonly almandine or spessartine. Queensland. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. cesium. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". among others. Occasionally. orientation. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Bismuth. niobium. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. columbite. aluminium. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. Hence. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. boron. et cetera. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. orange and brown almandine garnet. Australia). These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. however. The primary source for caesium is pollucite.Garnet. Often. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. say. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. uranium. thorium. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. Geochemically. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. lepidolite. such as aquamarine. tantalite. potassium and lithium. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. In most cases. zinnwaldite and so forth. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. topaz. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. beryllium. accessory minerals and timing. apatite and corundum. .

. Within the metamorphic belts. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. transitional with some greisens. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Similarly. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. However. "granitic" or "metasomatic". Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense.

The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. uncompressed with pumice on left. . causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened).PUMICE Pumice pron. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. compressed with fiamme on right. It is typically light colored. Pumice is created when super-heated. which may or may not contain crystals. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.

trachyte).A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. andesite. It is commonly.g. and initially floats on water. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. After the explosion of Krakatoa. blue or grey. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. 1984 and 2006. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. phonolite. dacitic. In 1979. ranging from white. it sinks rapidly. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. Pumice is commonly pale in color. with tree trunks floating among them. In [4] fact. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. pantellerite. rhyolitic. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. When larger amounts of gas are present. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. to green-brown or black. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. many samples float in water. but basaltic and other compositions are known. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite.. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji.S. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. . cream.

smooth. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. cosmetic exfoliants. When used as an additive for cement. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. It is also used as an abrasive. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. during flow. in the case of pumiceous lavas.There are two main forms of vesicles. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. . Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. plaster-like concrete. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. especially in polishes. pencil erasers.

below:pumice. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. and lithophysal structures. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. the eruptions were at the St. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. . also called obsidian. volcanic (extrusive) rock. and consequently. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. spherulitic. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz.nodular.


dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). and basaltic or andesitic in composition. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. and bursting. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . . [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. Quincan. Vesicles are usually small. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. and may contain phenocrysts. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. rust. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. skōria. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. blocks and bombs). dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. another vesicular volcanic rock. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. coalescence. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. a unique form of Scoria. instead they open into one another with little distortion. bubble growth. An old name for scoria is cinder. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. typically near its surface. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. but in contrast to pumice. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. black or purplish red). and hence is denser. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Auckland in New Zealand.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. and sinks in water. creating bubbles in the molten rock. An example is Mount Wellington. Australia.

Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and to carve some moai from. and often has striking colours.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. . Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. has high surface area and strength for its weight. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. It is somewhat porous.

crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). and black diamond.3– 1. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. North Korea. other producers are Russia. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. Ukraine.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. which is softer). culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. the fewest impurities. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. which is used mainly in power generation. hard coal. its higher relative density of 1. blue. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). In America. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. and lustre. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Australia and the US. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. as opposed to lignite. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. [5] Vietnam. It has the highest carbon content. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. coal) is a hard. mineral-matter-free basis.S. is known as culm. which also include bituminous coal and lignite.4. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. blind coal (in Scotland). and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. which is used as a pigment. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. the UK.1% and 98%. and smokeless flame. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. "coal-like. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 .

the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings.MJ/kg). Since the 1980s. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. The thermal conductivity is also higher. Pennsylvania. on the as-received basis (i. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. [7] It was In the United States. circa 1935 . In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. coking coal and domestic house coals. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. In [6] June 2008. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. Structurally. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. New Mexico. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former.. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. mined near Saundersfoot. In southwest Wales.e. and Western Pennsylvania. For example. By 1795. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality.

about 1. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. In the early 20th century United States. such as schools. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. In spring 1808. Group of breaker boys. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Pennsylvania.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Of that. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. Many large public buildings. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Current U. on an open grate in a fireplace. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of .Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. Pennsylvania. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. making it ideal for this purpose. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite.S. From that first mine. the Delaware. placed in descending order.

Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". both in America and South Wales. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. anthracite was largely used.Anthracite". [10] .consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Similarly. Commercial mining has now ceased. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . or less. Formerly. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Switzerland and parts of Germany. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. "poor". Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France.

The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. most commonly granitic rocks. Fossils are rare in arkose. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. and some mica is often present.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. due to the depositional processes that form it. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Apart from the mineral content. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. . Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). and thus the potential precursor of arkose. although bedding is frequently visible. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar.


mineral-matter-free basis. and exinite. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. good ventilation and vigilant site management. and sulphur. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. the rest is composed of water. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. which have not been driven off from the macerals. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. dull-banded". . hydrogen. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). Within the coal mining industry. bright-banded" or "bright. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³).BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. which are classified according to either "dull. These distinctive sequences. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. air. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material.

[edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. In the field. A breccia may have a variety of different origins.079 in) in size. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. in essence. by their relative movements. avalanches. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. by contrast. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. . turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. A conglomerate. These are. lithified colluvium.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. The word is a loan from Italian. tectonic breccia. Technically. poorly sorted. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. typically in a karst landscape. igneous breccia. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface.

both of lava and pyroclastic type. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. Broken. When particularly intense. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. This occurs when the thick. and these form volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. also called pillow breccias. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. granites and kimberlite pipes. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. as they slide past each other. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. . especially rhyolite and dacite flows. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater.g. Lavas. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit.

impact glass. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. a type of impactite. near Blessington in Ireland. Nevada. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. shocked minerals. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Impact breccia.Pahranagat Range. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides.g. steam and boiling water. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. and attrition quickly o . In addition. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. in the rim. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. iridium and osmium anomalies). Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. and are usually found at impact craters. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault.

Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. In the mesothermal regime. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. As a result. . Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Pend Oreille County. in particular CO2. Pend Oreille mine. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. If boiling occurs.rounds angular breccia fragments. Washington. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. On their journey.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. at much greater depths. silver and gold. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. as the formational event is brief. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure.


it is usually called flint. but most often manifests as gray. [edit]Terminology: "chert". and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. It also occurs in thin beds. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. Oklahoma. chalk. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. (3. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). hard chert. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. "chalcedony" and "flint" . brown. limestone. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. Buffalo.CHERT Chert (pron. New York.

In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Strictly speaking. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Among petrologists. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. . The term does not include quartzite. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. Everett. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure.chert being lower quality than flint.

South Dakota. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm).CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. . which consist of angular clasts. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm).

clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . Alaska. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity.000 ft.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . approximate depth 10. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. and are known as basal conglomerates. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. In this setting. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags.

Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). The matrix is generally fine-grained. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. in Australia's Northern Territory. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. desert) environments. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate.g. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. are typically poorly-sorted. These form the basis of a number of . [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. matrix-supported conglomerates. forming structures such aseskers. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. in rapidly eroding (e. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Tillites. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. near Barcelona.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic.

which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. e. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. .g.large oil fields. as different sectors of the fault moved.

abrasion. and barrier bars. or other invertebrates. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. brachiopods. close packing. in the form of seashells or coral.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. shallow submarine raised banks. trilobites. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. which compose them. fracturing.COQUINA Coquina (pron. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. As a result. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. swift tidal channels. and sorting of the shells. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. often including some phosphate. . abraded. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing.

which causes the stone to harden into a usable. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. The scale bar is 10 mm. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. coquina is extremely soft. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. However. In order to be used as a building material. form. rather than shatter or puncture. . When first quarried. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. The stone makes a very good material for forts. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Saint Augustine. cannon balls would sink into. but still comparatively soft. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. Because of coquina's softness.Close-up of coquina from Florida.


mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. similar to pumice powder. It is used as a filtration aid. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. cat litter. This powder has an abrasive feel. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. it was thought that limestone had been found. a stabilizing component of dynamite. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. diatomite. mechanical insecticide. and athermal insulator. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. soft. is a naturally occurring.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. absorbent for liquids. a type of hard-shelled algae.236 pixels/ μm. TheCelle engineer. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. the peasant and goods waggoner.: /ˌdaɪ.13 by 0. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany.5 to 2% iron oxide. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. matting agent for coatings. Peter Kasten. or kieselgur/kieselguhr.69 mm. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms.. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. anti-block in plastic films. porous support for chemical catalysts. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. activator in blood clotting studies. which could be used as fertilizer. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. Initially. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6.E. recognized its ability to filter. Wilhelm Berkefeld.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron.

these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. . another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. used successfully.  ca. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca.from diatomaceous earth. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth.

Virginia. Nevada (USA). The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. In Colorado and in Clark. but are of low quality. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Washington and California. Denmark and the Czech Republic. France. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Oregon. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. such as this one for swimming pools . Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media.

hollow particles. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i.. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. It is also used to filter water. especially for swimming pools. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper.. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. and honey without removing or altering their color. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. In order to be effective as an insecticide. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. causing them to [9] dehydrate. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. It can also filter syrups. as well as in some facial scrubs. since slugs inhabit humid environments. such as beer and wine. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. foodgrade— see below). coffin-like. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency.e. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. for this purpose. It has a high porosity. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. because it is composed of microscopically small. with questionable efficacy. efficacy is very low. or nutritional properties.e. However. sugar. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. [7] taste. due to its physico-sorptive properties. . but this method may take weeks to work. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. based on Fick's law of diffusion. and other liquids.

Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.S. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Like perlite. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. as [20] well as an insecticide. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. particularly as bonsai soil. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. As with other silicates. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl.vermiculite. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. Fungicide. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. . It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. including water.

Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. has a very fine particle size. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). it retains water and nutrients. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version.and expanded clay. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. For instance. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. as feed supplement. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). and has a high silica content (>60%). It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. Libya. which is used as an indigestible marker. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. and as an insecticide. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. It is produced uncalcinated. the largest single . which has been widely used for the same purpose. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. while draining fast and freely.

atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. . where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.

The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence.S.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. used in some geological publications. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded.G. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite.S. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. In old U. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. however. It is. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. . but it can still develop solution features over time.

such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. Russia. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.4 MJ/kg (6.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. often referred to as brown coal. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. India.e. Serbia. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. ca. mineral-matter-free basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. the United States. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota.5 million BTU/ton). ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. When reacted with quaternary amine. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . Poland. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). it is mined in Greece. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. on the as-received basis (i.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. Australia averages 8. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms.. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Germany.

[4] Victoria. particularly in combination with strip mining. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. . [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres).than for comparable black-coal plants. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification.

The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. as aggregate for the base of roads. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. and as a chemical feedstock.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. USA . Virginia. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material.

Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. i. etc. depending on the method of formation. peloids. and dissolved ionconcentrations. iron oxide and other materials. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. . a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Travertine is a banded. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. pH. clastic. such as clay. building upon past generations. quartz. such as stalagmites and stalactites. or it can fill fractures. radiolarians). especially onweathered surfaces. When conditions are right for precipitation. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. diatoms. Like most other sedimentary rocks. is found near waterfalls. and varying amounts of clay. particularly where there are waterfalls. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. intraclasts. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. limestone recrystallizes into marble. Classification Two major classification schemes. Romania. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. Tufa. Limestone may be crystalline. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Because of impurities. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). depending on several factors.travertine. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all.e. including the water temperature. This produces speleothems. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules.000 meters. Below about 3. flint. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Crystals of calcite. and extraclasts. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. many limestones exhibit different colors. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). or massive. granular. jasper. organic remains. the Folk and the Dunham. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. most limestone is composed of grains. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. sand. and around hot or cold springs.

Unlike the Folk scheme. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. pot holes. and therefore self-supporting. The Folk system uses two-part names. caves and gorges. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. there are three main components: allochems (grains). the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Based on composition. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. cenotes. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. and cement (sparite). These include limestone pavements. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. especially in acid. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. matrix (mostly micrite). Robert J. not the grains in the sample. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Such erosion landscapes are known .

the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Unique habitats are found on alvars. theVerdon Gorge in France. Sweden. it is a very heavy material. On the island of Malta. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. especially in Europe and North America. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. . Notch Peak in Utah. However. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). the only building material available. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. are made of limestone. 2003). and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Many landmarks across the world. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Egypt. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. [9] Michigan. and relatively expensive as a building material. Ireland. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). extend for more than a hundred kilometers. While draining. Examples include the Burren in Co. So many buildings in Kingston. Sweden. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Ontario. The Florida Keys. Clare. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. making it impractical for tall buildings. England. It is most common in the tropics. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. This process is known as bioerosion. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. for a long karsts. islands off the south coast of Florida. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. typically clays.

its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza.

Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. Used in blast furnaces. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). In the United States. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. most notably the Bloomington area. Glass making. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. in some circumstances. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. durable. called Indiana limestone. tiles. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. since it is hard. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. such as for poultry (when ground up). Train stations. cement and mortar. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. paint. plastics. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. It is added to toothpaste. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. uses limestone. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. but only in thin plates for covering. rather than solid blocks. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. limestone extracts iron from its ore. [11] . and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Purified. Indiana. paper.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

but the most common colours are tan. brown. . making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. pink.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. most [1] sandstone is red. sandstone may be any colour. gray. [edit]Uses 17. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. white and black. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Fine-grained aquifers. In the western United States and incentral Australia. Like sand.France. such as sandstones.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. red. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. yellow.

.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. around 1770. in Freiburg.Germany.

It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. . Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. cathedrals. making it easy to carve. and continues to be used. These are sandstone beverage coasters.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. homes. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. and other buildings. It is relatively soft.

Scale bar is 1. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. Because of the hardness of individual grains. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. have been found less resistant. like chalk and coal. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park.0 mm. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0.g. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. including siltstones and shales. yet are easy to work. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. gritstone. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material.079 inches). including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. [3] like gypsum and jasper). some that have been used in the past. rocks with greater grain sizes. for sharpening blades and other implements.002–0. Utah. e. and silica. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. or chemical.. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. . Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. However. are typically called argillaceous sediments. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. clays.

e. and composition and. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Finally. lake. in more general detail.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand).sorting. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. First. once it has accumulated. in a desert or erg). ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate.. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone.g. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. i. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. include its grain size. in finer detail. which. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Arizona. Typically. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. either from water (as in a stream. over other construction.. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.

 .1. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. such as hardness and chemical stability. Alluvial fans 3. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Lakes 5. point bars. Glacial outwash 4. Tidal flats 4. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. channel sands) 2. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Deltas 2. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Rivers (levees. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled.

this represents a complete solid solution. scale box at left-center is 0. or sedimentary rock. or other dense. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. magnetite.garnet. tourmaline. One is to call the . The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. upper picture is plane-polarized light. and corundum. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. Although. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. called lithic fragments or clasts. metamorphic. pyroxene.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material.25 millimeter. Common heavy minerals include zircon. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. rutile (hence ZTR). olivine. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite).  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. bottom picture is cross-polarized light.

and very rarely is in other sandstones.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. and zeolite minerals. feldspars.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. limonite. anhydrite. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. and the other is to call it a wacke. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones.  . Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. [6] gypsum. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. clay minerals. such as calcite. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement.sandstone an arenite. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. barite. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow.


06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. iron hydroxide (goethite . The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. on the other hand. magnesium. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. Sand grain = 2 mm. Mudstones. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment.browns and limonite [1] yellow). called fissility. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. calcium. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. Red. in dia.greens). sodium. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. especially quartz and calcite. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. montmorillonite and illite. biotite and illite . shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. the terms slate. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. iron .reds).SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones.

Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. reducing environments. These released elements form authigenic quartz. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. black shales were deposited in anoxic. However. in river deltas. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. hematite and albite. . Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. vanadium. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone.and water. 'Black shales' are dark. The enriched values are of controversial origin. calcite.Cumberland Plateau. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. such as in stagnant water columns. and zinc. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. quiet water. dolomite. in relatively deep. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple.chert. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. ankerite. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. uranium.

which originally aired on November 3. metamorphic rockknown as slate. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". 1961. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. then schist and finally to gneiss. "Flintstone of Princestone". The Flintstones. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. fissile. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. apatite. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. . or various carbonate minerals. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils.

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