BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

It is frequently cut with a convex face. upper mantle and transition zone. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. inclining to purple. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. of deep red color. and is then known as carbuncle. or en cabochon.512 Å at 100 K. also known incorrectly as almandite. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group.: /ˈælməndɪn/). Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. Almandine.5 K. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.

Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . in Tyrol. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). a name said to be taken from Syriam. Almandine is widely distributed. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. some years ago. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. and are sometimes cut and polished. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. When the color inclines to a violet tint.

AD.. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive. -.790 (+/.05 (+.7.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .024 [1] .25.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.

Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. and 573nm. 460. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . may also have faint lines at 423.

It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. For many years. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. orthoclase. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. . Naturally. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. although it is easily fractured. El Paso County. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Because of its bright green color when polished. Colorado. Colorado. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Virginia. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Russia. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak.

or green. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. It is common in granite and pegmatites. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. Amazon stone. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far.Colorado. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. . Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. viewed under a polarizing microscope." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Microcline may be clear. or amazonite. white. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. pale-yellow.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. brick-red. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. however. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar.

Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. Hydroxyapatite. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. named for high concentrations of OH . Cl or ions.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. sodium .F. in the crystal. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries.g. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. Similarly.F . is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral.Cl)2. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. in the mid-20th century. also known as hydroxylapatite. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. respectively.

Cl. usually green. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. yellow. compact or granular . The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock.OH) Strunz classification 08.BN. sodium monofluorophosphate). Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. massive. pink.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. blue to violet.fluoride.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. prismatic crystals.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. less often colorless. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. brown.

blue stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.006)[1] Birefringence 0. green stones – greenish yellow .013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.16–3.638 (+0.[1] Dispersion 0. blue and yellow to colorless. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. Other colors are weak to very weak.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.012.002–0.634–1. −0.

which is stronger in long wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave. light purple in short wave.[1] .


Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. naturally occurring. one of the two common. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. also known as μ-CaCO3. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. is situated in Slovakia. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. [citation Aragonite . Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. in others. In the USA. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. In some mollusks. The mineral vaterite.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. It is formed by biological and physical processes. respectively. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. the entire shell is aragonite. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. [edit]Uses In aquaria. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Spain). aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). resulting in a different crystal shape. An aragonite cave. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines.

green .dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. orange. Z = 4 Identification Color White. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. yellow. stalactitic.74 Å. acicular. b = 7. internally banded . reniform. prismatic crystals.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . c = 5. globular. columnar.95 Å. pisolitic. Aude department. red.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine.AB. coralloidal. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05.96 Å.

95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.1.680 .Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}. yellow.1.686 Birefringence δ = 0.5-4 Luster Vitreous. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.530 nβ = 1.685 .1.529 .156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.682 nγ = 1. white or .

yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish. phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

Na)(Mg.Al.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. [edit]Characteristics . The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Ti)(Si.Al)2O6. Augite has two prominent cleavages. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Fe.

Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. With declining temperature. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. and sodium and other elements. Augite . titanium.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. brown or [2] black) luster. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. leucite. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. for example. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. labradorite. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. meaning "brightness". gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. It is found near the Ken River. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792.0 x 2. which is from the Greekaugites. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. sanidine.4 x 3. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. but mostly of temperature. olivine. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure.

skeletal. b = 8. greenish. β = 106.Al. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. dendritic . brown. also acicular.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. c = 5. Z=4 Identification Color Black.DA.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.699 Å.Ti)(Si.844 Å.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Fe. violet-brown.Augite . in thin section.272 Å.Na)(Mg.97°.

violet .735.0.1.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. pale yellow-green. nγ = 1.706 .684 .3. nβ = 1. greenish yellow. Y = pale brown. violet.1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.19 .774 Birefringence δ = 0. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Z = pale green.026 . green.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.1.680 . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.741. grayish green. pale brown.


a carbonate." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. . lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). The mineral.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. Namibia. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. and unknown white crystals. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. From Tsumeb. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. With azurite. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. France. has been known since ancient times. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon.

Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. and are often stalactitic in form. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals.5 to 4. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. powdery copper(II) oxide. Characteristic of a carbonate.77 to 3. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. the other being bright green malachite. carbonate and hydroxide. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite.89. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. . specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. Azurite is soft.

However. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). and its basic content of copper carbonate. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. such as saltwater aquariums. Heating destroys azurite easily. a term applied to many blue pigments. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. France. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. it gave a wide range of blues.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. in the silver mines located there. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. Ultramarine withstands heat. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). and also as an ornamental stone. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. a similar but much more expensive pigment. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. However. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame .

collectors should use a cool. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. dark. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. heat. General . sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. However. bright light. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite.

{102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. twin planes {101}. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. prismatic.35 Å.BA. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. b = 5.01 Å. stalactitic.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. very dark to pale blue.43°. β = 92. c = 10.85 Å.5 to 4 . fair on {100}. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. Berlin blue.

108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.730 nβ = 1. 3. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.838 Birefringence δ = 0.758 nγ = 1.773 (measured).78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

In the case of Jamaica. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. and shale. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). boehmite γ-AlO(OH). The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America.basalt. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. . and diaspore α-AlO(OH). gneiss. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. syenite. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. the clay mineral kaolinite. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites.

Brazil. Increased aluminium recycling. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. India.[edit]Production trends In 2010. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. followed by China. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. and Guinea. .

anglesite and anhydrite. celestine.Sr)SO4. or barite. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. The baryte group consists of baryte. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.BARITE Baryte. and is the main [1] source of barium. [edit]Names [2] and history .

which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. [2] [3] Spar.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. jigging. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. such as washing. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. Most baryte is ground to a small. [8] schwerspath. [8] barytes. Other names have been used for baryte. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. an addition to industrial products. [2] Heavy associations and locations . tabling. heavy media separation. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). The American [2][7] spelling is barite. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. but rather a material that meets that specification. including barytine. tiff. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. flotation. and blanc fixe. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte.

among others. Perthshire. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. . in hot spring deposits. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. and evaporation. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. hydrothermal. Scotland. and with hematite ore.

data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. India. Thailand. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. paper. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance.Kentucky.000). by weight. and paint. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. India [12] (1. each with different characteristics. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ).Perthshire. Chile. Liberia. New Mexico. can be less than 6 μm diameter. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. North [2] Carolina. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). brown or gray depending on the ore body. Derbyshire. It is mined in Arkansas. blue. Nevada & Missouri. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). sound reduction in engine compartments. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. Durham.2 or greater. Morocco (460). De Kalb. Greece. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. Romania (Baia Sprie). UK (Cornwall. Cumbria. and no more than 30%. As a well is drilled. Connecticut. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Canada. Virginia. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. China. Tennessee. Peru. New York & Fort Wallace. The deeper the hole. Turkey. Morocco.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Iran. Connecticut. Georgia. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. chemically inert. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing.600). Iran (250). [edit]Paleothermometry . radiation-shielding cement. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. United States (670). Muirshiel [2] Mine. by weight. the bit passes through various formations. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics.

away from continental sources of sediment. . Since baryte has oxygen. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.

the Spanish word brillo. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. veḷiru ( ). which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. Terminated crystals are relatively rare.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. also meaning "shine". The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. red. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". but it is frequently tinted by impurities. Pure beryl is colorless. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). possible colors are green.BERYL In geology. Old French: beryl. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. blue. [edit]Deposits . [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. and [5] the English word brilliance. yellow. and white. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.

including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. though the color returns with irradiation. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Idaho. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. near Powder River Pass. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl.5 meters in diameter. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Sweden (especially morganite). The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . the United States. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. North Carolina. Madagascar. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. Colorado. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. Clear yellow beryl. New Hampshire. Mozambique. U.S. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. and 2+ 3+ . such as that occurring in Brazil.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. Maine. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . beryl locations are in California. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. Ireland and Russia. Espírito Santo. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. Connecticut. Madagascar. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. 18 meters [6] long and 3. South Africa. As of 1999. InWyoming.000 kilogrammes. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. Germany. and Bahia. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. and Zambia. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. neutrons or even X-rays). as well as Brazil.5 m by 1. and weighing 380. South Dakota and Utah. Colombia. Mainewith dimensions 5. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. In the United States. In Brazil. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. Austria. and limestone inColombia. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt.

its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. India. marakata (म कन). In the US. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. which has been on the market since 1964. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Most emeralds are highly included. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. and its dimensions were 48. Afghanistan and Russia. Zimbabwe. Coscuez.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. [15] [7][14] . so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. as such. Minas Gerais. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. such as Zambia. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. Pakistan. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. It is named for the trapiche. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. The mines of Colombia. Madagascar. in 1910. and Chivor. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Zambia. Malawi. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. It weighed over 110 kg. meaning "green". Madagascar. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.. Brazil. North Carolina. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. In 1998.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Brazil. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia.

The name originates from Goshen. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. golden beryl has very few flaws. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets.C. . Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. In the past. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Unlike emerald. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. Nowadays. D. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. However. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. Washington. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency.

is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. and color banding is common. pink. On October 7. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. and Co impurities. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. Morgan. The crystal. 1989.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). Ti. USA. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. also known as "pink beryl". "pink emerald". with other gemstone minerals. In December 1910. However. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). Thomas [26][27] Range. because of the . blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. at Pala. "rose beryl". P. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. originally somewhat orange in hue. such astourmaline and kunzite. green. goshenite can be colored yellow. Fe. California. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. its type locality. Sc. It was also known. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Juab County.Maine. Utah. V. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl.

spessartine.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Beaver County. New [1] Mexico. Utah. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite.000 per carat for faceted stones. quartz. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". topaz. Utah. and Juab County. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. [28] of Fillmore.CJ. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones.orthoclase. pseudobrookite and hematite.05 . Utah. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. while he was prospecting for uranium.Sierra County. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9.

granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent .50 Color Green. radial.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. colorless. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.19 Å. blue. c = 9. columnar.21 Å. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals. yellow.

0040–0. but the stone itself does not) .568–1.595 nε = 1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.564–1.Specific gravity Average 2.

More generally. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.L.OH)2. researched the optical properties of mica. silicon. oxygen. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . aluminium. magnesium. who. in 1816. Biotite is a sheet silicate. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. [4] discovering many unique properties.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group.F. Biotite was named by J. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. Iron. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. it refers to the dark mica series.

When biotite is found in large chunks. or lamellae. as in New England. . and even yellow when weathered. in some instances side-by-side. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. and consists of flexible sheets. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. and a grey-white streak. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Norway.than phlogopite. Virginia and North Carolina. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. especially in pegmatite veins. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. It can be transparent to opaque. has a vitreous to pearly luster. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. fracture is uneven. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. which easily flake off. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It appears greenish to brown or black. For instance. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. It has amonoclinic crystal system. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. Ontario.

OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. less common on the {001} . greenish brown.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.53 g Color Dark brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2. yellow. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. blackish brown.

Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.675 Birefringence δ = 0.7–3.605–1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich). elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.5–3.605–1.565–1.675 nγ = 1.03–0.1 Density 2.625 nβ = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .8–3.

also known as peacock ore. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite.

[edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). .England. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Kazakhstan. Karlovy Vary Region. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Talate. Morocco.Mexico (size: 7. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. and elsewhere in Cornwall.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. the Mangula mine. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. S. Austria. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan.Connecticut in the U. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.3 x 3.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Zimbabwe. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks.Lomagundi district. eastern Tirol. Illogan. from the N’ouva mine. Montana and at Bristol. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791).5 x 4.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Ohio. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. The world's largest known geode. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. Celestine . is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.The mineral is found worldwide. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. usually in small quantities.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. In carbonate marine sediments. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. Crystal Cave. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation.

352 Å. pink. b = 5. pale blue. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. white. pale brown.866 Å.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. c = 6.359 Å. black .AD. pale green.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.

Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. good on {210}.3.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.630 . also fibrous.1. lamellar. earthy.619 .5 Luster Vitreous.1.1.622 nβ = 1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .632 Birefringence δ = 0. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.95 . massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .622 .3.624 nγ = 1.

long UV=yellow.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue . white blue.

: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. chalcocite (Cu2S). and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). Copper is shown in pink. On exposure to air.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. hydroxides and sulfates. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). carbonates such as malachite and azurite.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. covellite (CuS). It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. digenite (Cu9S5). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. . It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.

Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Ni. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As.3 x 4. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. Cr. Pd. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Ontario.8 x 6. and trace amounts of Ag. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. However.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. . Se. the American cordillera and the Andes. etc. Pt. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Mn. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. from huge masses as at Timmins. In. and Sb are reported. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Pb.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Au. V. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. molybdenite representing Mo. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite.

[edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large.CB. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Ouray County. Colorado. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells.

5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. c = 10.3 .1 – 4.289 Å. and sometimes botryoidal.Unit cell a = 5. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron. commonly massive.423 Å. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.54 Color Brass yellow.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. Decorative art prominently features copper. a building material. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. later shortened to сuprum. Pure copper is soft and malleable. Characteristics . copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. In the Roman era. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. muscle and bone. and wood preservatives. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. both by itself and as part of pigments. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). fungicides.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. and a constituent of various metal alloys. needed] In sufficient concentration. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina).

such as grain boundaries. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. galvanic corrosion will occur. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. At the macroscopic scale. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. above which it begins to heat excessively.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. and osmium (bluish). which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. As with other metals. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. For this reason. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice.Physical A copper disc (99. Copper.

Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. bulk corrosion. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. It does not react with water. Edinburgh. respectively. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. such as the Statue of Liberty.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. this oxide layer stops the further. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2.

Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. they both have a spin of 3/2. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper.7 hours.2 cm. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. [15] .4×3.83 hours. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized.There are 29 isotopes of copper. which has [13] a half-life of 12. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . Native copper is a polycrystal. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.2×3. US. Cu. Cu and Cu are stable. The other isotopes are radioactive. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. decays both ways.8 minutes.

and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. with an average hardness near 8..02 g/cm . and wood. "green sapphire" for a green specimen.g.0 Mohs). corundum is unusual for its density of 4. Transparent specimens are used as gems. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. In addition to its hardness. titanium and chromium. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. plastics. but can have different colors when impurities are present. It is a rock-forming mineral. and the mix is less abrasive. e. It is commonly used as anabrasive. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". All other colors are called sapphire. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. it can scratch almost every other mineral.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence .

Corundum from Brazil. silicon carbide. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. Russia. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe.632 °F). [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. In 1903. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. [4] Ontario. New York. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. In 1847. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist.8 in × 1 in). Sri Lanka and India. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. [4] USA. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. . The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). gneiss.000 °C (3. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut.

Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.05 Dana classification 4. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.1. scratchresistant optics.CB. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. and laser components. bearings. scratch-resistant watch crystals. and other machined parts).1 . rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.3. Apart from ornamental uses. rods. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).

orange.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. brown. may be color zoned. tabular. yellow. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. translucent toopaque .75 Å. rhombohedral crystals. gray. blue to cornflower blue. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. violet. c = 12.982 Å. pink to pigeon-blood-red. green. prismatic.

772 nε = 1.Specific gravity 3.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.95–4.759–1.hematite. or hercynite .763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.767–1.

. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. purple and red. green. black.CB. translucent white. pink. brown or gray to colorless. Less often blue.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. violet.10a Identification Formula mass 12. orange. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.

01 Density 3.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.044 .52±0.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.5–3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

In 1791. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. often as a result of diagenesis. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. or in old U. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.S. [edit]Properties . Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.

namely.g. gray to pink. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. . [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. It forms white. Arkansas. dolomite is a double carbonate.e. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. although it is usually massive. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. having a different structural arrangement. i. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Unlike calcite. where organic matter content is high. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. In the 1950s and 60s.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. Crystal twinning is common. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4.

leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. California.Dolomite. textural and chemical characteristics. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. in a 1999 study. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. However. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". . The specific mechanism of dolomitization. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. White Mountains.

6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. zinc.2×4. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role.4×7. In horticulture. Cherokee County. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. a concrete aggregate. and copper. Kansas(size: 11. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. Dolomite .[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district.

Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. massive.8012(1) Å.AB. 3 Unit cell a = 4. also columnar. granular. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals.002 Å.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. Crystal system Trigonal . c = 16. often with curved faces. Z = 3 Identification Color White. stalactitic.

86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.679–1.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.500 Birefringence δ = 0.84–2.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.179–0. . triboluminescent.681 nε = 1.

brown or nearly black. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. grey. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. yellow and brown. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. The color is green.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). the optical constants. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. the pleochroic colors being usually green. the color. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition." 3+ . It displays strong pleochroism. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. Ca2Al2(Fe . crystallizing in the monoclinic system. and the specific gravity. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron.

here as large. Arendal in Norway.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. pyroxenes. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. and others) composing igneous rocks. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. as magnificent. withasbestos. calcite. but one of secondary origin. and apatite. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. The perfectly transparent. micas. amphiboles. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. garnets. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. . adularia. Haddam inConnecticut. dark green. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone.

Piemontite occurs as small. at Finbo. Dollaseite is less common. and greenish-brown colors. being black or dark brown in color. rhyolite. syenite. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. there is little or no cleavage. and others. near Falun in Sweden. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. granite. and opaque in the mass. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. reddish-black. Although not a common mineral. after whom the species was named. sometimes a foot in length. near Ivrea in Piedmont. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. andesite.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. pitchy in lustre. further. and well-developed crystals are rare. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. yellowish-. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. Epidote . In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. and many different names applied. gneiss.

Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.6 . greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. fibrous. yellow-green.3–3.

797 Birefringence δ = 0.725–1.715–1.019–0.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.046 Pleochroism Strong .784 nγ = 1.751 nβ = 1.734–1.

The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. While slowly cooling within the earth. . the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. of plagioclase. Typically. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar.

in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. It measured ~10×10×0.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. In gemology. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. It is the state gem of Florida. Germany. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. and as a constituent of scouring powder. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. such as porcelain. some ceramics. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. Russia. Most moonstones are translucent and white. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.

White. Greyish yellow. Cleavages intersect at 90°.55–2. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. 2V = 65–75 . Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Greenish. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.

Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger Refractive index nα = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .518–1.522–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.524 nγ = 1.522–1.0050–0.525 Birefringence 0.520 nβ = 1.

GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important lead ore mineral. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .

1×3. Missouri. Cornwall. Somerset. Galena is the official state mineral of the U.2×2. cadmium. the former mining town of Galena. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. In the United States. Iowa and Wisconsin. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). antimony. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Idaho. Illinois. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. . states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Rhodope Mountains. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Utah and Montana. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. Smolyan Province. England. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. The Mendips.S. Of the latter.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Saxony. In addition zinc. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. and Cumberland. Bulgaria. Derbyshire. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. in a process similar to bioleaching. Broken Hill.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. the Madan. USA (size: 5. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia.

the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals.K. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. which. For example. however.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. U. in Ancient Egypt. Isle of [5] Man. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. which was known as a "cat's whisker". was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. which were a potential source of disease. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. In modern wireless communication systems.g.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire.

1.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.5–2. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.10 Dana classification 2. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.936 Å. space group Fm3m.8. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].75 . No.CD.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5. 225 Twinning Contact.

Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.

Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores.5 range. and jarosite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. the other being hematite.3. but generally in the 4 . although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. among them goethite. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. The hardness is variable.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). Although originally defined as a single mineral. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown.5.7 to 4. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore.akaganeite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. but limonite does not. lepidocrocite. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. although specimens may show a [6] .

amphibole. reniform or stalactitic. producing red ochres. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. [10] California mining district. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. Complex systems developed. Before smelting. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. Nonetheless. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. burnt umbers and siennas. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. to process limonite. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. and biotite. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. [12] notably in Tanzania. sometimes mammillary. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. hematite and magnetite. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. in Africa. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. Because of its amorphous nature. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. pyroxene. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains.botryoidal. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. and hematite was far easier to smelt. Main article: Ochre#History . [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron.

Limonite General Category Amorphous. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.5½ . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .

3 Density 2.4.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.9 .7 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. .GOLD Gold is a dense. in veins and in alluvial deposits. In Europe. malleable and ductile metal. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. which have been used in mining. is insoluble in nitric acid. forming amalgam alloys. as nuggets or grains in rocks. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. jewelry. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. Less commonly. soft. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. It dissolves in mercury. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. in 1932. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide.S. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. which dissolves silver and base metals. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. Chemically. so named because it dissolves gold. with huge war debts. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. giving rise to the term theacid test. shiny. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. usually with tellurium.

ductility. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. includingelectric wiring. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. 40% in [3] investments. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. or a cube 20. . This is roughly equivalent to 5.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. and 10% in industry.A total of 171. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. about 8876 m . colored-glass production and gold leafing. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. electronics. Its highmalleability. and other fields.5 billion troy ounces or. in terms of volume.7 m on a side.

for its use in pencils. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. . Therefore. There are three principal types of natural graphite. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. 2. "to draw/write". Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. a semimetal. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. 3. graphite is an electrical conductor. flat. the last stage of coalification. consequently. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. It is. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope).

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. China is the largest producer of graphite.S. U. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.18 billion.110 thousand tonnes (kt). [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. India (130 kt). respectively. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. but U. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). calcite. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). Minerals associated with graphite include quartz.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. Brazil (76 kt). In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals.S. Graphite is not mined in the United States. [7] totaling 73% of all global production. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. Graphite . micas and tourmaline. in particular. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer.

deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. c = 6.708 Å.CB. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .461 Å. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. six-sided foliatedmasses.

Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.09–2.

It can be used as afertilizer. cleavable masses called selenite. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. [edit]Occurrence . [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. (Thus. When the crystal lattice is heated. called alabaster. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. As a mineral.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. Selenite contains no significantselenium. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. and transparent. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. As foranhydrite. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. in contrast to most other salts. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. "chalk" or "plaster". and in the early 19th century. Upon addition of water. rather. In hand-sized samples.0–2. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Finally. Selenite may also occur in a silky. it may also be granular or quite compact.5 g/l at 25°C) and. referring to its crystalline projections. it is alabaster.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. typically opaque. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. In arid areas. fibrous form. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. "spear stone". resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). in the form of selenite. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration.

000 years. Somerset. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. . Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. However. and sulfate solutions inveins. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Wyoming. Under reducing conditions. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Gypsum is a common mineral. strongly opposed by area residents. from volcanic vapors. Blue Anchor. as well as in hot springs. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Pure gypsum is white. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. UK. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Commercial exploitation of the area. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group.

40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. blue.43°. brown. β = 118. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. tan. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. b = 15. c = 6.202(14) Å. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. pink.CD.522(6) Å.679(5) Å. may be yellow.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. reddish brown or gray .

Mohs scalehardness 1. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. pearly. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.529–1.010 .522–1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.521 nβ = 1. flat. inelastic.31–2.519–1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.530 Birefringence δ = 0. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.523 nγ = 1.

slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. but much more brittle. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Hematite is a mineral. . spring. also spelled as haematite. While the forms of hematite vary. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. ancient. or otherwise highly weathered soils. brown to reddish brown. Hematite is harder than pure iron. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. one of several iron oxides. or other standing water. Maghemite is a hematite. however.HEMATITE Hematite.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. or red. Hematite can also occur without water. It is mined as the main ore of iron. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. usually as the result of volcanic activity. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Varieties includekidney ore. they all have a rust-red streak. is responsible for the red color of many tropical.

772(12) Å.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.CB. c = 13.038(2) Å. Fe2O3. dull to bright red . Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.

granular.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.870–2. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None. micaceous or platy.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. radiating fibrous.940 Birefringence δ = 0. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.150–3. earthy.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. columnar.220. commonly in rosettes.280 . may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5–6. reniform. nε = 2.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

4 and is typically an opaque green. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. and an iron-magnesium silicate.F)2. a specific gravity of 2. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. brown or black color. but the name is used as a general or field term.9–3. to refer to a dark amphibole. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.Na)2–3(Mg. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Si)8O22(OH. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. greenish-brown.Al)5(Al. The general formula can be given as (Ca. .Fe.

basalt. syenite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. andschist. New York.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Orange County. gneiss. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. andesite. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. and named edenite. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. from its locality in Edenville. gabbro. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. Fe. diorite. is gray to white in color. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. Al)5 (Al. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite.

Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.

The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. a village near Jingdezhen. It is a soft. United States. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. Lighter concentrations yield white. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. In Africa. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. pinyin: Gaoling). it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. [edit]Chemistry [6] . part of the group of industrial minerals. yellow or light orange colors. Jiangxi province. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). earthy. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. In many parts of the world. Alternating layers are sometimes found. China. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. calaba. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). It is a layered silicate mineral. giving it a distinct rust hue.

however. S = SiO2. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). [edit]Occurrence .[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. H = H2O. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. Si3Al4O12. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. Al2Si2O7. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure.

Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals.Korea.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. in Brazil. [1] the People's Republic of China. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. Germany.5 million tonnes. Australia. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. it is mined. France. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. Iran. as kaolin. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. United Kingdom. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. Bulgaria. India. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. the Czech Republic and the United States. Kaolinite . moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates.

89 Å.13 Å. thin plates or stacked. b = 8. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . β = 104.25 Å. c = 7.ED. γ = 89. aggregated into compact.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. Z = 2 Identification Color White.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. α = 90°. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. sometimes red. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.5°.8°.

nγ = 1.565.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.16–2.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2. nβ = 1. Calculated: 44° .68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.559–1.553–1.569.569–1.

amblygonite. Russia. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. feldspar. California. Tanco Mine.spodumene. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Notable occurrences include Brazil. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. Manitoba. greisens and granites. in some high-temperature quartz veins. cassiterite. Lepidolite . tourmaline. columbite. Bernic Lake. Ural Mountains. andMadagascar.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. Canada. topaz and beryl.Si)3O10(F. United States. It occurs in granite pegmatites.

Z = 2 Identification Color Pink. violet-gray.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. colorless . yellowish.Lepidolite.011(5) Å c = 10.149(5) Å.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. rose-red. Brazil (size 2.1 x 0. β = 100:77(4)°. white.Cm Unit cell a = 5. purple.209(2) Å b = 9.4 x 2. Minas Gerais.Si)3O10(F.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.EC. Virgem da Lapa.

9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.554– 1. nβ=1.0290–0.586 Birefringence 0. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.8–2.58. pale violet 2V angle 0° .5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless. Y = Z = pink. nγ=1.551–1.548.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.525–1.58° measured . scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.

Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.e. Commonly. and ulvospinel have been much studied. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. hematite. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . called lodestone..III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. will attract small pieces of iron. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass.

magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. 1. Z=8 Identification Color Black. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.BB.III) oxide. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. In many igneous rocks.397 Å. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. including banded iron formations. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.085 °F).

Crystal habit Octahedral. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. the spinel law.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .17–5. parting on {Ill}.

very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. It is also used for decorative purposes. The pigment is moderately lightfast. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II.000 years. or stalagmitic masses. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Middle French: melochite. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. which features a huge malachite vase. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. variant of καιάχε malāchē. . such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. and most often forms botryoidal. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. Since then. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. This opaque. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. "mallow". "mallow-green stone". fibrous. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. in fractures and spaces. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. "The Tazza". a large malachite vase. deep underground. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis.

Mexico. Gabon. France. goethite. Timna valley. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. blackish green. Except for its vibrant green color. Tsumeb. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. Russia.Zambia.1 g/mol Color Bright green. Lyon.BA. New South [7] Wales. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Israel. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Broken Hill. dark green.10 Identification Formula mass 221.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. and calcite. the source of the carbonate. Namibia. .

silky if fibrous.875 nγ = 1. Polysynthetic twinning also present.909 Birefringence δ = 0. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. botryoidal.254 . Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.commonly banded in masses.655 nβ = 1. stalactitic.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.5–4.

browns. Its crystal system is monoclinic. greens.OH)2. and can be transparent or translucent. The green. isinglass. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.76–3. or (rarely) violet or red. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. India. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. [4] . mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).25 parallel to the [001] face. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. yellows.

OH)2 Strunz classification 09. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. feldspar.02a.Muscovite with beryl (var. In pegmatites. pegmatites. Minas Gerais. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. found in granites. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. morganite) from Paprok.kyanite.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.8×3.02. gneisses. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. and schists. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.15 Dana classification 71. etc. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .9×4.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica.EC. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.3×3.

199 Å.576 .106 Å.552–1. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. b = 9. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. β = 95. Z = 4 Identification Color White. c = 20.027 Å.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Unit cell a = 5.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous. silky. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). grey.78°.

042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .618 Birefringence δ = 0.nβ = 1.582–1.587–1.615 nγ = 1.035 – 0.

OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.Fe)2SiO4. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). silicon. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.g. Fo 70Fa30). magnesium and iron. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). as do other properties. almost 1900 °C. it is also called peridot and chrysolite).. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen.

Green sand is actually olivine crystals. USA. Arizona. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). . though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.. Gila Co.

from the Greek words for gold and stone). That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. collections of debris from the early solar system. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. in the dust of comet Wild 2. because olivine is so abundant. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1.feldspar. moreover. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. pyroxenes. Such meteorites include chondrites. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. the Moon. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. 12 GPa. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. Mars. the French word for olivine).Fe)2Si2O6). In contrast.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. First X-ray view of Martian soil . 2012). Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. or forsterite. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. and . The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. falling into infant stars. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume.g. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. October 17. andpallasites.

silicon in pink. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O2. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. Olivine .the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. O2 and O3 in figure 1). There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. In an alternative view. while M1 exists on an inversion center. O1. Oxygen is shown in red. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. O3 lies in a general position. and magnesium/iron in blue.

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.

670 nγ = 1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.650–1.650 nβ = 1.670–1.630–1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.27–3.040 .

yellow. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. marl and basalt. rhyolite.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. Of these hues. Opal ranges from clear through white. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. [edit]Precious opal . It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. being most commonly found withlimonite. For gemstone use. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. like basalt. sandstone. magenta. the reds against black are the most rare. slate. orange. gray. blue. green. whereas white and greens are the most common. a mineraloid form. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. red. and black. not a mineral. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. rose. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. olive. brown. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. pink.

Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. .

At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. and are not classed as precious opal. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. it has an internal structure. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. unlike triplet opals. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. Potch does not show a play of color. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. In addition. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. . This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. Contrarily. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem.Australian Opal Doublet. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. basalt. which is correctly termed play of color. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. or obsidian. of which opal is the best known natural example. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. which is often of lower quality. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

also called siliceous sinter. hyalite. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. geyserite. menilite. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. or star . a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. orange-yellow or red. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. They do not usually show any play of color. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. resin opal. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. which is brown or grey. wood opal. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. orange.

Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions.effect. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. Queensland . Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. However. It weighs 17. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. Queensland. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). It does not display pleochroism. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Boulder Opal. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. when cut properly. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm).000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long.

is the main source of black opal. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. Royal Peacock. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. fire. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). closely related to boulder opal. and marine creatures in South Australia. bones. and black opal. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Miocene age opalised teeth. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley.585 carats. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. and weighs 2. [citation needed] [12] A . Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. from Kynuna in the north. Idaho. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Opal Queen. white." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. Australia also has opalised fossil remains.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. crystal opal. Nevada. Another Australian town. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. fish. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. and a snake head have been found. crystal. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. weighing 160 carats. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. known as the "Black Peacock. and lemon opal. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. Bonanza. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit.

red. Indonesia.7 by 0. orange. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. Hungary.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. Piauí ). Nicaragua and Ethiopia. yellow. brown. black. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. Turkey. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . Guatemala. green. Honduras. Brazil (inPedro II. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. white. [19] Slovakia. in masses. In late 2008. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0.

may phosphoresce. or yellow in long and short wave. -.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. but typically reads 1.15 (+. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.Mohs scalehardness 5.37.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.90)[1] Density 2.42–1. green.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.08. -.[1] . May also phosphoresce. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.020. may phosphoresce. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. translucent. transparent Specific gravity 2.450 (+.

hydrofluoric acid . methanol. bases.humic acid. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm.

as well as in coal beds. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. brazzle and Brazil. By Georgius Agricola's time. "fire". and as a replacement mineral in fossils. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. sedimentary rock.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. and metamorphic rock. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. in turn from πύρ (pur). or iron pyrite. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. [edit]Uses . In ancient Roman times. "of fire" or "in fire". Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure.37 wt% gold. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold.

iron(II) sulfate. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). By the 19th century. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. that is. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.95 eV. Until the vacuum tube matured. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). Navajún. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. In the 15th century. most notably the wheellock. was popular in the Victorian era. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. La Rioja. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. . Marcasite jewelry. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. it had become the [12] dominant method. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. often set in silver. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm.

main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. Z=4 .1. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.EB. Rioja.05a Dana classification 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.417 Å.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún. 512 g.12.

sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. massive.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5 Luster Metallic. faces may be striated. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. globular and stalactitic.5–3 to a magnetic globule . Often inter-grown. granular. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. radiated.10 Fusibility 2. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.95–5.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). after feldspar. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. Polish twardy ("hard")). with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. space group P6221 and P6421. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. There are many different varieties of quartz. distorted. giving an overall formula SiO2. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. respectively. The . α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. only one termination pyramid is present. several of which are semi-precious gemstones.

are agate. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. rose quartz. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. see Citrine (disambiguation). smoky quartz. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. but they differ in hardness." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. and jasper. and is rarely found naturally. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. . traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). Quartz goes by an array of different names. For other uses. milky quartz. heliotrope. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz.transformation between α. such as the Lothair Crystal. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. carnelian. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. onyx. Citrine has ferric impurities. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. sard. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. amethyst. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. or mixed rocks including quartz. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification).and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Common colored varieties include citrine. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. without change in the way they are linked. and others. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Natural citrines are rare.

Brazil. . iron. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Magaliesburg. USA. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Maine.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. in the massive material. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. or manganese. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.

translucent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. Some can also be black.

semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. liquid. parallel and consistent in size.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. trapped during the crystal formation. Otherwise more specific names are used. banded chalcedony. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. or both. Rock crystal Clear. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. Agate Multi-colored. transparent . Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. colorless Amethyst Purple. exhibiting chatoyancy. This does not always hold true.

transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. translucent. translucent to opaque. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .

SiO2) Strunz classification 04.05 Dana classification 75. fine-grained to microcrystalline. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .03. c = 5. drusy.9133 Å.DA.4053 Å. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.01.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.

chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .545 nε = 1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.552–1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.59–2.65.554 Birefringence +0. may betriboluminescent. variable 2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.543–1.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

738 nβ = 1.5 .1.724 . Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.714 .57 .751 Birefringence δ = 0.1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.711 .3.1.741 nγ = 1.6.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

Today. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). lustrous transition metal. free form (native silver). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. further research into clinical potential continues. utensils (hence the term silverware). Latin: argentum.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. jewelry. lead. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. and zinc refining. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. both from the Indo-European root*arg. A soft. and is used as an investment. white. to make ornaments. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. high-value tableware. Its compounds are used in photographic film. as an alloy with gold and other metals. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. gold.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. and currency coins. . Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper.

[edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. . Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Canada. with a polished rock surface. lazurite and tugtupite.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. nosean.

Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. calcite. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. albite. British Columbia. Well known for its blue color. sodalite may also be grey. namelyleucite. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. in Canada. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. sanidine. Maine. If left in a dark environment for some time. [1] Narsaq. Quebec.ankerite and baryte. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. sodalite is named after its sodium content. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. microcline. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. shortwave ultraviolet light. Arkansas. fluorite. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. West Greenland. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. and Litchfield. Smaller deposits are found in South . Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. in the USA. the violet will fade again. Ontario. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. near Golden. particularly. aegirine. Conversely. Occurring typically in massive form. yellow. cancrinite and natrolite. [3] titanian andradite. The Ice River [5] complex. Other associated minerals include nepheline. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. green. contains sodalite. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. and Mont-SaintHilaire.A light. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. and Magnet Cove. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft.

876(6) Å. yellow. Euhedral. Romania. violet. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Italy.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Portugal. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. green.FB. Burma and Russia. white veining common .

5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. sodium .1. with yellowishphosphorescence.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.Crystal habit Massive.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.483 . rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.27-2.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . Magnesium.OH)2. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. mostly opaque.

It occurs with almandine garnet. New Mexico. Virginia. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. kyanite.S.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. Kola Peninsula. biotite. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. In handsamples. . The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. micas. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. Keivy Mountains. Norway. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. depth. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. as well as albite. It is the official state mineral of the U. called penetration twinning. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. Samples are also found in Taos. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape.

5 x 2. rarely blue. Northern Region.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. 2.AF. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . yellowish brown. β = 90.45°.65 Å.6 Å.86 Å. Russia. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. b = 16.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.Murmanskaja Oblast'. c = 5.

Y = pale yellow.83 meas.74 .762 Birefringence δ = 0.740 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.1. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .0.1. weak .009 .736 .754 nγ = 1. 3.686 calc. Pleochroism X = colorless.747 nβ = 1.745 .


5– 2. Talc is not soluble in water. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. and is translucent to opaque. although slightly flexible. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.8. and the folia are non-elastic. It has a specific gravity of 2. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. It has a perfect basal cleavage. In loose form. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). a clear or dusty luster. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. Its streak is white. [edit]Formation . and in an exceptionally rare crystal form.

serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. and fibrous. pyroxene.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. olivine. and are known as whiteschist. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. [edit]Occurrence . in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. friable. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. garnet. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. amphibole. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. This is typically associated with high-pressure. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. Such rocks are typically white.

its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. India. eastern Australia. Western Australia.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. Nepal and Bhutan. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. layered ultramafic intrusion. from Brazil. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. formed upon a polydeformed. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. the western European Alps especially in Italy. Oman and the Middle East. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. representing 8% of world production. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. the Guiana Shield. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States.

Z = 2 or a = 5.68°. c = 5.3°.90°.173 Å.287 Å. β = 119.291 Å.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.95 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. α = 98. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . brown. b = 9. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. γ = 90.158 Å. β = 99. b = 9.09°.290 Å. c = 18.EC.

long UV=yellow .538 – 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.600 Birefringence δ = 0.589 – 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.58 to 2.594 nγ = 1.550 nβ = 1.589 – 1.

OH)2.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.

Sweden. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. It can also be made white. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. typical topaz is wine. gold. Mexico. Italy. if natural) or pink-orange.75 carats. sometimes even violet. Brazil. also known as precious topaz. Sri Lanka. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. reddish-orange. pink or violet colored.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. pink (rare. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. in Afghanistan. Flinders Island. yellow. pink (rare). Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. pale green. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. Imperial topaz is yellow. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. gold. blue. Czech Republic. the symbol of [5] friendship. colorless.892. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Orange topaz. measured a massive 22. Typically. a more recent gem.5 carats. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Japan. Norway. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. or blue brown. Pakistan. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. pale gray. Australia. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Germany. The American Golden Topaz. is the traditional November birthstone. Nigeria and the United States.

[edit]Biblical background. In the Middle Ages. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). a topaz. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). [edit]History Nicols. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. the ancient name of St. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. both of which predate the Greek word.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. some scholars think it is related to . including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. etymology." However. Minas Gerais.

65 Å.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). Z = 4 . metaphorically. c = 8. "fiery".OH)2 Strunz classification Assyrian word meaning "flashed". meaning "yellow burn" or.AF.4 Å.8 Å. [citation needed] More likely. b = 8. = yellow.

gray.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.629 nβ = 1.616–1.631 nγ = 1. also columnar.606–1.638 . pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. compact.49–3. green. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). orange. brown.609–1. blue. yellow.

yellow. violet. short UV=golden yellow. Z = violet. long UV=cream . reddish. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. bluish. Y = yellow.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow.Birefringence δ = 0.

iron. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. magnesium. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. or potassium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. lithium. sodium. Italy .

and "Schurl". Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. In the 19th century the names common schorl. Up to about 1600. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). schörl. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. for the Drava river area. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. Carinthia. Beginning in the 18th century. . additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Austro-Hungarian Empire. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). This village had a nearby tin mine where. In English. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". The word tourmaline has two etymologies.Drava river area. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. black tourmaline was found. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. in addition to cassiterite. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". "Schörle".

performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Al. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. B B = B. Na. Mg. Elba Island.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Italy. vacancy Y = Li. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. where: [6] X = Ca.5Al1. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. vacancy V = OH. Ti . vacancy Z = Mg. sodium-. Tuscany. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Czech Republic. V T = Si. Al. Sweden. Elba Island. United States. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Cr . Fe . with the simplified formula (Li. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Fe . Mn . V . California. Province of [5] Livorno. Fe .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Zn.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Italy. San Piero in Campo. O W = OH. Italy. F. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. Cr . Al. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. K. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton.Campo nell'Elba. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete.

. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.5. San Diego Co.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . California. Cryo-Genie Mine. US.Al1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.

California. Himalaya Mine. US [edit]Physical properties .Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.. San Diego Co.

iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. especially pink to red colored stones. and are often pyroelectric as well. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. or green on the outside and pink inside. no other common mineral has three sides. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. currently. [edit]Geology . but is now exhausted. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. yellow. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. Rarely. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. in western Australia. Usually. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. and does not. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. called hemimorphism. it is colorless. pink. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. green. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. Heavily-included tourmalines. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. During their 2+ growth. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. red. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. impact the value. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. etc. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs.

Mn)3(Al. sometimes radiating.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. Massive. violet.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. Scattered grains (in granite). Fe. pink. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments. . are generally restricted to schists and marble.Al.B)6O18(OH. Acicular prisms. green.Na. but can range from brown. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Fe.Cr. dravites.[])(Al.Li. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Mg.K. or in a dual-colored pink and green. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated.

5 Luster Vitreous. light blue .675.018 to -0.06)[1] Density 2. dark brown. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. dark green.20 -.020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.82–3.040.650 Birefringence -0. small conchoidal.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.610–1. dark red. nε=1. dark blue.635–1.06 (+.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. typically about .

Dispersion .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .

one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Nephrite. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. is a green variety of tremolite. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. [edit]Occurrence .

Piumogna [1] Valley. grossular. wollastonite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Switzerland.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside.Ticino (Tessin). Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. cummingtonite. Leventina. French Pyrenees (size: 8.2 x 6. Associated minerals include calcite. Approximately 36.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . It is otherwise only found as a contaminant.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. forsterite. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. dolomite. talc. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.diopside.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.DE.

b = 18. β = 104.02 Å.95°. also as fibrous. lavender to pink.84 Å. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Z = 2 Identification Color White.Unit cell a = 9. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. c = 5. or flattened crystals.27 Å.99 – 3. gray. common parallel to {100}. light green.

626 nγ = 1.599 .613 .612 nβ = 1. Long UV=range pink .Refractive index nα = 1.1.625 .637 Birefringence δ = 0.1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.1.

Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. probertite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. USA. calcite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). and Kazakhstan. water and hydroxide octahedra. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. mirabilite. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. glauberite. . gyps [1] um and halite. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. It is found principally in California and Nevada. trona. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. by internal reflection. sometimes known as TV rock. meyerhofferite. Tarapacá Region in Chile. water. The chains are linked together by calcium. borax. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. hydroboracite.

Ulexite decomposes in hot water. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. two of which are polarized. Ulexite . the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.

EA.678(1) Å.25°.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.87Å. b = 12. c = 6. Z =2 Identification .12°.05. γ = 105.816(3) Å. β = 109.25 Dana classification 26. α = 90.Ulexite from California(size: 6.11.1°.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.9 x 5 x 3.

519 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.506 br/>nγ = 1.491 – 1.496 nβ = 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.95 – 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.504 – 1.028 .

greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. cream. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .

chlorite or other platyminerals. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. diorite gneisses. etc. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. albite coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. so called because the rock glitters).GNEISS Gneiss (pron. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. they may also be called garnet gneiss. . Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. rotten or possibly worthless material. biotite gneiss. Depending on their composition. etc.

iron oxides. [3][4] "crystalline rock". stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). [5] gleam". The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Norwegian.g. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. however. "to flash. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). sand. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Italian marmo. most other European languages (e. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros).German. Turkish mermer. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Dutch marmer. Polish marmur. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. . [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Portuguese mármore. most commonly calcite or dolomite. sparkle. Spanish mármol. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. Armenian marmar. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. "shining stone". Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. meaning "marble-like. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. silt.


The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. sericite. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. or chlorite impart a silky. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). and chlorite. . Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Minute crystals of graphite. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. sericite mica. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye.

This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Canada .QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. diagenetically altered. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). not around them. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. British Columbia. iron oxide. Although few fossils are normally present. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. Other colors. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. such as yellow and orange. carbonate and clay. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. rutile and magnetite. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. and both usages are found in the literature. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. are due to other mineral impurities. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. silica. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. therefore. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.

Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. Monte Binga (2436 m). as flooring. silicon and silicon carbide. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. as roofing tiles. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. precambrian quartzite. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. In the United Kingdom. In the Scottish Highlands. and stair steps. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. southwestMinnesota. pale grey. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. In Wales. The highest mountain in Mozambique. Central Texas. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. near Salt Lake City. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. Foinaven. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. [4] . Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. In Canada. industrial silica sand. the Wasatch Range in Utah. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. several mountains (e. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard.g.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch.


clastic structure. A quartz-porphyry. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. chlorite. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. In other . occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. The individual mineral grains in schist. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. for example. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Most schists are mica schists. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. tourmaline schist. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. etc. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. By definition. the terms slate. graphite. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. and others. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. for example. such as garnet schist. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. hornblende. can be seen by the naked eye. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split".The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. glaucophane schist. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. however. Usually. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. If the whole district.talc. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs.

kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. foliated. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. . are alteredclaystones and shales. and calc-schists. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. A subgroup is the andalusite. with crystalline dolomites. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. staurolite. for example. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. diopside. quartz and feldspar. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. however. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). and the white mica-schists. feldspar. which have been derived from rhyolites. For example. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. Such rocks. tremolite. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists.cases intrusive junctions. marbles. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. as limestones. scapolite. contain silicate minerals such as mica. schistose character. many metamorphic limestones. zoisite and hornblende. while others are found only among igneous masses. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. The majority of mica-schists. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. dolomites. chilled edges. garnet. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. with variable amounts of white and black mica. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


hematite. less frequently. In the context of underground coal mining. It may mean a single roofing slate. apatite. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. For example. foliated. traditionally a small piece of slate. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. or schist. especially when seen.. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. from pale to dark. from which it may be formed. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. Slate is not to be confused with shale. tourmaline. kaolinite. magnetite. en masse. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. . chlorite. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. the terms slate. and may also be purple. or zirconas well as feldspar. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. leaving a light green spotted texture. for example. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. covering roofs. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. and pyrite and. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. often along with biotite. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. However. Occasionally. as in the purple slates of North Wales. or a writing slate. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. green or cyan. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. often framed in wood. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. graphite. Slate is frequently grey in color.


biotite. 2. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. apatite. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. [5] sediment.e. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. barium(Ba). zircon. zeolites. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Magnetite. Characteristic of subduction zones.. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. potassium (K). such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. but most . [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. In a general sense. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. During subduction. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. leading to metamorphism. ilmenite. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. chlorite etc. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Partial melting of crustal material. 3. anhydrous forms. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. of intermediate composition. volcanic rock. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. This removal can take place in a variety of ways.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous.g.

In order to remain active. creating a layer of molten material at its base. If it underplates the crust. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. Once there. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. however. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. . meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. such as the Andes. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. As this process continues. Models of heat transfer. Without continued addition of mafic material. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. Basalt can. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. however. however. therefore. the composition is returned to andesite. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. its intermediate phase. forming mafic cumulates. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. these reservoirs cool. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season.


. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Hungary . On Earth. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. (In comparison. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. 2007). By definition.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. /ˈbæsɒlt/.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. and even on the asteroid Vesta. Venus.BASALT Basalt (pron..g. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Sobolev et al. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. Mars. the third largest moon of Jupiter. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase.

Arizona." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). as building blocks or in the groundwork).Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. . misspelling of L. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. from βάζανος (basanos. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". US quarter for scale. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". libri XII.g. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. an excellent thermal insulator. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. basanites "very hard stone.

It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids.     . and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. most large oceanic islands. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges.

occasionally with porphyry. the Darrans range of New Zealand. into which they may subtly merge. Diorite has a medium grain size texture.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). the Andes Mountains. and/or pyroxene. It can also be black or bluish-grey. however. and to provide a durable finished work. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. Scotland. apatite. microcline and olivine. Zircon. and Idahet in Egypt. Italy. Finland. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. which is transitional togabbro. source localities include Leicestershire.DIORITE Diorite (pron. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. hornblende. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. Its hardness. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. . Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. the Isle of Guernsey. and frequently has a greenish cast. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. Northeastern Turkey. Sondrio. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). central Sweden. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. magnetite. sphene. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Minnesota in theUSA. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. Romania.biotite. Basin and Range province. making it difficult to carve and work with. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz).

It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Babylonia. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. inscribed upon a 2. Guernsey and Scotland. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. Assyria and Sumer. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. but mostly for fortress walls. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. weaponry. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. etc.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. In later times. Paul's Cathedral. . diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. London. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre.

although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. Scotland.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. typically a few percent. coarse-grained. California. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. The rocks areplutonic. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. plagioclase. Gabbros contain minor amounts. Isle of Skye. easternSierra Nevada. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. the rock is then a norite. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. ilmenite. amphibole. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. and ulvospinel. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). Rock Creek Canyon. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Gabbro is dense.

. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. gold. and copper sulfides. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase.extra descriptiveness is desired. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. although it may be porphyritic at times. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. silver. platinum. US. Massachusetts. nickel. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. intruding into the rift flanks. cobalt. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops.


Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. Melting temperature is 1215 . and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. The average density of granite is between 2. near the town of Caldera. an unusual type of granite. Granitoid is a general. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. This rock consists mainly of quartz. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. northern Chile . A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. Granites can be pink to gray in color. a grain. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). By definition. felsic. hard and tough.1260 °C. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. descriptive field term for light-colored. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive.GRANITE Granite (pron. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. mica. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy.75 3 g/cm . its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. and feldspar. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust.65 and 2. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India.

Cornwall .Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.

or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.82% FeO — 1.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. sanidine.12% MnO — 0. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.69% CaO — 1. In some locations.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. although much of it is of Precambrian age.68% Fe2O3 — 1.22% MgO — 0.12% Na2O — 3. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. . When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase.The Cheesewring.71% TiO2 — 0.30% P2O5 — 0. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. it is called tonalite. Granite often occurs as relatively small. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. where it forms a major part of continental crust. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.


no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age.. Obsidian is hard and brittle. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. which is the parent material. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. in addition. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. Obsidian is mineral-like. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava.. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. usually 70% or more. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. California . forming perlite. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. [9][10][11] . so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral.

as well as Pennsylvania. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. states including Arizona. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Peru. states of Virginia. In some stones. Occurrence Glass Mountain.Greece. Kenya. and deposits can be found in many other western U. Armenia. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Colorado. Iceland. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Italy. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. New [13] [14] Mexico.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Texas. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Mexico. El Salvador. white. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Oregon and Idaho.S. Washington. Pantelleria.S. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Guatemala. It can be found in Argentina. . Japan.Utah. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. the inclusion of small. Scotland and the United States. Chile. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). New Zealand. Canada. Azerbaijan. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent.


intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. macroscale graphic texture is known. feldspar and mica. in essence a granite.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Similarly. For this reason. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Theory Theory . pyroxene and other minerals are known. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. exsolution lamellae. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Therefore.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found.5 cm in size. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions.

at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. Beyond that. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. with bulk chemical and textural change. and somewhat with skarn associated pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. and are usually granitic in character. being altogether "granitic" in character. . could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. to liberate the right constituents and water. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. Rock Creek Canyon. eastern Sierra Nevada. often with mica and usually with quartz. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. in a few cases. California. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. for example greisens. granite-associated mineralisation styles.

and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. Australia). for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. say. lepidolite. orientation. Tantalum. orange and brown almandine garnet. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. Often. fluorite. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. boron. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. beryllium. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. accessory minerals and timing. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. aluminium. commonly almandine or spessartine. tantalite. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. In most cases. . zinnwaldite and so forth. thorium. Occasionally. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. such as aquamarine. Geochemically. tourmaline. Queensland.Garnet. potassium and lithium. columbite. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. tantalite. Hence. et cetera. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. tourmaline. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. apatite and corundum. niobium. uranium. topaz. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. among others. however. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. tourmaline. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. Bismuth. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. cesium. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite.

However. Within the metamorphic belts. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. "granitic" or "metasomatic". transitional with some greisens. . pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic".While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. Similarly.

Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. compressed with fiamme on right. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. . The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. Rocks from the Bishop tuff.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. It is typically light colored. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). which may or may not contain crystals. Pumice is created when super-heated. uncompressed with pumice on left. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.PUMICE Pumice pron.

pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. . 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. many samples float in water. ranging from white.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. it sinks rapidly. trachyte). In [4] fact. to green-brown or black. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. and initially floats on water. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin.. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. phonolite. rhyolitic. dacitic. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. cream. pantellerite. with tree trunks floating among them. It is commonly. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. 1984 and 2006. but basaltic and other compositions are known. andesite. blue or grey.g. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. In 1979. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. When larger amounts of gas are present. After the explosion of Krakatoa. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. Pumice is commonly pale in color. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass.S.

especially in polishes. plaster-like concrete. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. in the case of pumiceous lavas. smooth. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. pencil erasers. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. When used as an additive for cement.There are two main forms of vesicles. cosmetic exfoliants. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. . It is also used as an abrasive. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. during flow. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts.

alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. spherulitic. and lithophysal structures. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. . lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. the eruptions were at the St. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. volcanic (extrusive) rock. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre).RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. also called obsidian. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. below:pumice. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea.nodular. and consequently. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas.


The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. and sinks in water. black or purplish red). dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. Auckland in New Zealand. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. and bursting. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. typically near its surface. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. a unique form of Scoria. Quincan. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. but in contrast to pumice. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. creating bubbles in the molten rock. rust. another vesicular volcanic rock. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. and may contain phenocrysts. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. . bubble growth. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). An old name for scoria is cinder. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. skōria. and hence is denser. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . blocks and bombs). Australia. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. An example is Mount Wellington. coalescence. instead they open into one another with little distortion. Vesicles are usually small. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried.

. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. It is somewhat porous. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. and often has striking colours. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. has high surface area and strength for its weight. and to carve some moai from.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used.

Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. In America. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). which is used as a pigment. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. "coal-like. as opposed to lignite. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. and smokeless flame. the UK. and lustre. [5] Vietnam. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. Ukraine.1% and 98%. blind coal (in Scotland). "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. North Korea. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. other producers are Russia. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. which is used mainly in power generation. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed.4. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. which is softer). and black diamond. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. coal) is a hard. is known as culm. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania.3– 1.S. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). Australia and the US. the fewest impurities. hard coal. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). It has the highest carbon content. mineral-matter-free basis. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). blue. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. its higher relative density of 1. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance.

the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks.e. and Western Pennsylvania.MJ/kg). Since the 1980s. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. coking coal and domestic house coals. By 1795. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. In southwest Wales. Structurally. New Mexico. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. on the as-received basis (i. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. mined near Saundersfoot. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. Pennsylvania. [7] It was In the United States. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former.. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. In [6] June 2008. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. circa 1935 . containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The thermal conductivity is also higher. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. For example.

S. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal).Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Many large public buildings. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. From that first mine. Group of breaker boys. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. Of that. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. making it ideal for this purpose. Current U. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. In the early 20th century United States. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Pennsylvania. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. placed in descending order. such as schools. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. on an open grate in a fireplace. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Pennsylvania. the Delaware. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. In spring 1808. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. about 1. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders.

Anthracite". Commercial mining has now ceased. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Similarly. or less. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". [10] . both in America and South Wales. Switzerland and parts of Germany. anthracite was largely used. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. "poor". meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. Formerly. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour.

Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. most commonly granitic rocks. and some mica is often present. Fossils are rare in arkose. due to the depositional processes that form it. Apart from the mineral content. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. . Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. rock fragments may also be a significant component. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). although bedding is frequently visible. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock.


this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. mineral-matter-free basis. Within the coal mining industry. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. bright-banded" or "bright. and sulphur. These distinctive sequences. . dull-banded". The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. the rest is composed of water. air. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. and exinite. hydrogen. which are classified according to either "dull. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. good ventilation and vigilant site management.

and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel.079 in) in size. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. by contrast. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. The word is a loan from Italian. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. These are. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. poorly sorted. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. lithified colluvium. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. typically in a karst landscape. tectonic breccia. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. A conglomerate. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. in essence. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. by their relative movements. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. igneous breccia. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. . Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. In the field. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. avalanches. Technically. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source.

granites and kimberlite pipes. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. This occurs when the thick. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. . especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. and these form volcanic breccias.g. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. also called pillow breccias. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. When particularly intense. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. Lavas. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. both of lava and pyroclastic type. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. Broken. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. as they slide past each other. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions.

Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. In addition. and are usually found at impact craters. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. Impact breccia. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. shocked minerals. in the rim. steam and boiling water. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. near Blessington in Ireland. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. impact glass. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. and attrition quickly o . iridium and osmium anomalies). Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. Nevada.Pahranagat Range. a type of impactite. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones.g.

as the formational event is brief. silver and gold. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. at much greater depths. As a result. Pend Oreille mine.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. in particular CO2. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata.rounds angular breccia fragments. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. Washington. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. In the mesothermal regime. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. . If boiling occurs. Pend Oreille County. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. On their journey. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate.


brown. [edit]Terminology: "chert". It varies greatly in color (from white to black). cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. (3. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. chalk. Oklahoma. "chalcedony" and "flint" . The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. but most often manifests as gray. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. it is usually called flint.CHERT Chert (pron. hard chert. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. Buffalo. New York. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Where it occurs in chalk or marl.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. limestone. It also occurs in thin beds. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively).

Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. The term does not include quartzite.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Among petrologists.chert being lower quality than flint. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). . Everett. Strictly speaking. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony.

A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. . Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. South Dakota.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. which consist of angular clasts. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm).: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes.

conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. and are known as basal conglomerates. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. Alaska. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.000 ft. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. approximate depth 10. In this setting.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict .

consisting of finely milled rock fragments. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. are typically poorly-sorted.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. near Barcelona. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. matrix-supported conglomerates. forming structures such aseskers. These form the basis of a number of . Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. The matrix is generally fine-grained. desert) environments.g.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. in rapidly eroding (e. in Australia's Northern Territory. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . Tillites. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans.

.g. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.large oil fields. e. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. as different sectors of the fault moved.

Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. fracturing. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. . they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and barrier bars. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks.COQUINA Coquina (pron.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. or other invertebrates. As a result. swift tidal channels. brachiopods. abrasion. close packing. and sorting of the shells. often including some phosphate. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. abraded. which compose them. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. in the form of seashells or coral. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. shallow submarine raised banks. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. trilobites. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented.

which causes the stone to harden into a usable. but still comparatively soft. cannon balls would sink into. Because of coquina's softness. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. coquina is extremely soft.Close-up of coquina from Florida. rather than shatter or puncture. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Saint Augustine. The stone makes a very good material for forts. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. The scale bar is 10 mm. However. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. form. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. In order to be used as a building material. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. When first quarried. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. . Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years.


E. is a naturally occurring. Initially. matting agent for coatings. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. a stabilizing component of dynamite. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] .. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. and athermal insulator. recognized its ability to filter.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. similar to pumice powder. which could be used as fertilizer. This powder has an abrasive feel. the peasant and goods waggoner. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica.236 pixels/ μm. porous support for chemical catalysts. it was thought that limestone had been found. TheCelle engineer. It is used as a filtration aid. cat litter.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1.: /ˌdaɪ.5 to 2% iron oxide. Peter Kasten. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. Wilhelm Berkefeld. diatomite. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. activator in blood clotting studies. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. anti-block in plastic films. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules.13 by 0. mechanical insecticide. soft. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. a type of hard-shelled algae. absorbent for liquids.69 mm.

 ca. used successfully. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. . 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892.from diatomaceous earth.

Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Nevada (USA). Oregon. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Washington and California. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. such as this one for swimming pools . In Colorado and in Clark. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast.Virginia. France. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). but are of low quality.

Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. coffin-like. hollow particles. or nutritional properties. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. with questionable efficacy. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. sugar. It has a high porosity. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. since slugs inhabit humid environments. because it is composed of microscopically small. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. It is also used to filter water. as well as in some facial scrubs. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. In order to be effective as an insecticide. and honey without removing or altering their color. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. [7] taste. causing them to [9] dehydrate. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. . and other liquids.. due to its physico-sorptive properties. but this method may take weeks to work.. especially for swimming pools. efficacy is very low. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. It can also filter syrups.e. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper.e. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. for this purpose. such as beer and wine. based on Fick's law of diffusion.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. However. foodgrade— see below). It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs.

The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants.vermiculite. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. Fungicide. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. particularly as bonsai soil. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. as [20] well as an insecticide.S. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. . It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. As with other silicates. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. including water. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. Like perlite. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking.

allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. while draining fast and freely. the largest single . and has a high silica content (>60%). It is produced uncalcinated. as feed supplement. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. which is used as an indigestible marker. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Libya. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. has a very fine particle size. it retains water and nutrients. which has been widely used for the same purpose.and expanded clay. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. and as an insecticide. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. For instance. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%).  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere.

.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.

It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. but it can still develop solution features over time.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. used in some geological publications.S. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. however.S. .G. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. In old U. It is. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence.

[edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. on the as-received basis (i. ca. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . amine treated lignite (ATL) forms.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.. Australia averages 8. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. Germany. the United States.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Serbia. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Russia.5 million BTU/ton). it is mined in Greece. India. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. Poland. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. often referred to as brown coal. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota.4 MJ/kg (6. mineral-matter-free basis.e. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. When reacted with quaternary amine. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.

The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. originating mainly in the Tertiary period.than for comparable black-coal plants. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. . The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. particularly in combination with strip mining. [4] Victoria. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns.

The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. and as a chemical feedstock. as aggregate for the base of roads. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Virginia. USA . as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite.

Travertine is a banded. quartz. depending on the method of formation. compact variety of limestone formed along streams.e. many limestones exhibit different colors. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. and around hot or cold springs. building upon past generations. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). flint. etc. When conditions are right for precipitation. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Romania. diatoms. granular. sand. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. peloids. Classification Two major classification schemes.travertine. Tufa. clastic. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. the Folk and the Dunham. particularly where there are waterfalls. Crystals of calcite.000 meters. such as clay. including the water temperature. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. and dissolved ionconcentrations. depending on several factors. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Because of impurities. most limestone is composed of grains. and extraclasts. and varying amounts of clay. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. . or massive. radiolarians). and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. This produces speleothems. organic remains. such as stalagmites and stalactites. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Below about 3. is found near waterfalls. Limestone may be crystalline. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. iron oxide and other materials. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. especially onweathered surfaces. or it can fill fractures.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. limestone recrystallizes into marble. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Like most other sedimentary rocks. pH.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. intraclasts. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. jasper. i. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die.

or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. caves and gorges.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. cenotes. The Folk system uses two-part names. These include limestone pavements. matrix (mostly micrite). Unlike the Folk scheme. not the grains in the sample. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Based on composition. pot holes. and cement (sparite). The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. and therefore self-supporting. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Such erosion landscapes are known . Robert J. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. especially in acid. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. there are three main components: allochems (grains). because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock.

The Florida Keys. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. making it impractical for tall buildings. 2003). Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Many landmarks across the world. England. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Uses Limestone is very common in karsts. [9] Michigan. the only building material available. typically clays. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. While draining. On the island of Malta. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Notch Peak in Utah. Egypt. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. islands off the south coast of Florida. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). and relatively expensive as a building material. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Sweden. . Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Sweden. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Unique habitats are found on alvars. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Examples include the Burren in Co. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. It is most common in the tropics. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. Clare. it is a very heavy material. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. especially in Europe and North America. Ontario. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. theVerdon Gorge in France. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. are made of limestone. for a long time. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. This process is known as bioerosion. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). However. So many buildings in Kingston. Ireland. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures.

The Great Pyramid of Giza. Kansas . its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan.

but only in thin plates for covering. paper. since it is hard. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). Glass making. uses limestone. rather than solid blocks. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. Indiana. [11] . It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. called Indiana limestone. tiles. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. paint. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. durable. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. Purified. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Used in blast furnaces. In the United States. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. limestone extracts iron from its ore. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. plastics. It is added to toothpaste. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. such as for poultry (when ground up). it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. Train stations. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. most notably the Bloomington area. cement and mortar. in some circumstances. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. In the western United States and incentral Australia. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. white and black. [edit]Uses 17. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. gray.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. pink. sandstone may be any colour. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Fine-grained aquifers.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. but the most common colours are tan. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. most [1] sandstone is red. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. . brown. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. Like sand. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). such as sandstones. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. red.France. yellow.

Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. around 1770. in Freiburg.Germany. .

and other buildings. and continues to be used. It is relatively soft. cathedrals. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. making it easy to carve. homes. These are sandstone beverage coasters. .

Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. have been found less resistant. yet are easy to work. like chalk and coal. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. gritstone. [3] like gypsum and jasper). . necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings.g.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material.079 inches). for sharpening blades and other implements. rocks with greater grain sizes. including siltstones and shales. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. However. or chemical. Utah.0 mm. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. e.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. clays. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. Scale bar is 1.002–0. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. some that have been used in the past. and silica. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. are typically called argillaceous sediments. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite.. Because of the hardness of individual grains.

in finer detail. include its grain size. i.. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. lake. Typically. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages.. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Finally. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. and composition and.e. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide.sorting. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.g. once it has accumulated. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . First. either from water (as in a stream. which. in more general detail. Arizona. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). over other construction.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. in a desert or erg).

such as hardness and chemical stability. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Rivers (levees. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. point bars. Tidal flats 4. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. Deltas 2.  . Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Glacial outwash 4. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. channel sands) 2. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events.1. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Alluvial fans 3. Lakes 5.

Common heavy minerals include zircon. or other dense. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Although. One is to call the . This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. called lithic fragments or clasts. magnetite. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. this represents a complete solid solution. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). rutile (hence ZTR). commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. tourmaline. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. metamorphic. olivine. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. upper picture is plane-polarized light. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. pyroxene. scale box at left-center is 0. or sedimentary rock.25 millimeter. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. and corundum. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains.garnet. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks.

and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented.  . Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. [6] gypsum.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials.sandstone an arenite. anhydrite. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. barite. and the other is to call it a wacke. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. limonite. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. and zeolite minerals. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. clay minerals. feldspars. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. and very rarely is in other sandstones. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. such as calcite. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together.


often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. biotite and illite . on the other hand. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. iron hydroxide (goethite . The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. the terms slate. iron . in dia. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Red. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. magnesium. Sand grain = 2 mm. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. sodium. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers.browns and limonite [1] yellow). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. called fissility.reds). especially quartz and calcite. Mudstones. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. calcium. montmorillonite and illite. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal.greens). shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones.

. such as in stagnant water columns. black shales were deposited in anoxic. The enriched values are of controversial origin. in river deltas. These released elements form authigenic quartz. uranium. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. calcite. hematite and albite. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. However. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). vanadium.chert.and water. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. reducing environments. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. in relatively deep. quiet water. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. ankerite. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. 'Black shales' are dark. and zinc. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple.Cumberland Plateau. dolomite.

With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". metamorphic rockknown as slate. The Flintstones. "Flintstone of Princestone". it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. or various carbonate minerals. apatite. . animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. 1961.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. fissile. which originally aired on November 3. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. then schist and finally to gneiss.

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