BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

512 Å at 100 K. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. It is frequently cut with a convex face. or en cabochon. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. a town in Caria in Asia Minor.: /ˈælməndɪn/). Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. inclining to purple. also known incorrectly as almandite. and is then known as carbuncle. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. [edit]Occurrence 2+ .ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. of deep red color. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. Almandine. upper mantle and transition zone.5 K. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope.

a name said to be taken from Syriam. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. some years ago. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . the stone is often called Syriam garnet. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. and are sometimes cut and polished. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. When the color inclines to a violet tint. Almandine is widely distributed. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. in Tyrol. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka.

790 (+/.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.25.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .AD.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.7.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.024 [1] .05 (+. -. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 ..

610 and 680-690nm [1] . and 573nm. 460.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. may also have faint lines at 423.

50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. More recently. . It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. where it occurs in granitic rocks. For many years. although it is easily fractured. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. El Paso County. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Virginia. Naturally. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. orthoclase. Colorado. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. Colorado. Because of its bright green color when polished. Russia. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia.

Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. or green.Colorado. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. however. . pale-yellow. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. Amazon stone. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. or amazonite. brick-red. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. It is common in granite and pegmatites. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Microcline may be clear. viewed under a polarizing microscope. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. white. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region.

A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.Cl)2. in the mid-20th century. respectively. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. Hydroxyapatite. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH.g.F. also known as hydroxylapatite.F . sodium . is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. Cl or ions. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Similarly. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. named for high concentrations of OH .

prismatic crystals. compact or granular . yellow. sodium monofluorophosphate). brown.OH) Strunz classification 08. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. less often colorless.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.BN. blue to violet.fluoride. massive. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. usually green.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. pink. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.Cl. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other.

−0.012.[1] Dispersion 0.634–1.002–0.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. green stones – greenish yellow .Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. Other colors are weak to very weak. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.006)[1] Birefringence 0.16–3.638 (+0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong. blue and yellow to colorless.

violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave. light purple in short wave.[1] .which is stronger in long wave.


aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. the entire shell is aragonite. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. naturally occurring. resulting in a different crystal shape. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. It is formed by biological and physical processes. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. In the USA. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. respectively. is situated in Slovakia. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. one of the two common. An aragonite cave. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. also known as μ-CaCO3. in others. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. In some mollusks. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. The mineral vaterite. [citation Aragonite . Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. [edit]Uses In aquaria. Spain).

prismatic crystals. c = 5.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. pisolitic.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. green .15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . orange.95 Å.96 Å. yellow. stalactitic. internally banded . France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. coralloidal. globular. Z = 4 Identification Color White. reniform. columnar.74 Å. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. red. Aude department. b = 7.AB. acicular.

680 .682 nγ = 1. white or .529 .5-4 Luster Vitreous.685 .686 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.530 nβ = 1.1.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. yellow. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.1.1.

characteristics bluish. yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Fe. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. Augite has two prominent cleavages.Al.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.Ti)(Si.Al)2O6. [edit]Characteristics .Na)(Mg.

[edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792.4 x 3. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. and sodium and other elements. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. for example. brown or [2] black) luster. With declining temperature. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. titanium. but mostly of temperature. sanidine. leucite. meaning "brightness". Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. labradorite. It is found near the Ken River. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. which is from the Greekaugites. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. Augite . olivine. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks.0 x 2. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India.

699 Å.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. b = 8. brown.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.844 Å. β = 106. c = 5.Al.272 Å.Fe.Na)(Mg. Z=4 Identification Color Black.97°.DA. dendritic . colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Ti)(Si.Augite . greenish. also acicular. in thin section. skeletal. violet-brown.

Y = pale brown. grayish green. pale brown.026 .56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. violet.706 . Z = pale green. violet . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.741.735.1.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.3.774 Birefringence δ = 0. pale yellow-green. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}. nγ = 1. nβ = 1.1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.19 .684 .0.1.680 . greenish yellow. green.


It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. a carbonate. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. ." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. From Tsumeb. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. Namibia. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. has been known since ancient times. and unknown white crystals. The mineral. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. With azurite. France.

89. powdery copper(II) oxide. carbonate and hydroxide. and are often stalactitic in form. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. the other being bright green malachite. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Azurite crystals are monoclinic.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. Characteristic of a carbonate. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black.5 to 4. Azurite is destroyed by heat. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. . with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Azurite is soft. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite.77 to 3. The specific gravity of azurite is 3.

in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). in the silver mines located there. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. it gave a wide range of blues. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. However. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. and also as an ornamental stone. such as saltwater aquariums. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. and its basic content of copper carbonate. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. Ultramarine withstands heat. a similar but much more expensive pigment. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. a term applied to many blue pigments. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. Heating destroys azurite easily. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. However. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. France. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite.

bright light. General . and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. However. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. heat. dark. collectors should use a cool. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores.

b = 5.35 Å. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. β = 92.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. c = 10. very dark to pale blue. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.01 Å.BA. stalactitic. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. Berlin blue.85 Å. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. fair on {100}. prismatic. twin planes {101}.43°.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.5 to 4 .

730 nβ = 1.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.838 Birefringence δ = 0.773 (measured).108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.758 nγ = 1. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak . 3.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.

syenite. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821.basalt. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. . and shale. gneiss.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. the clay mineral kaolinite. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). and small amounts of anataseTiO2. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). In the case of Jamaica.

. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. and Guinea. India. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Increased aluminium recycling. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. Brazil.[edit]Production trends In 2010. followed by China.

The baryte group consists of baryte. or barite.Sr)SO4. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. [edit]Names [2] and history .BARITE Baryte. celestine. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. anglesite and anhydrite. and is the main [1] source of barium.

In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. Most baryte is ground to a small. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. such as washing. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. [2] [3] Spar. Other names have been used for baryte. tiff. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. heavy media separation. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. but rather a material that meets that specification. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. jigging. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). including barytine. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. and blanc fixe. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . [8] barytes. [8] schwerspath. flotation. tabling.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. an addition to industrial products. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. [2] Heavy associations and locations .

Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. Perthshire. and with hematite ore. in hot spring deposits. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. and evaporation. hydrothermal. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. . It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. It has also been identified in meteorites. among others. Scotland.

[edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. sound reduction in engine compartments. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. North [2] Carolina. Morocco (460). can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. radiation-shielding cement. Tennessee. China.Perthshire. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. The deeper the hole. United States (670). New Mexico. Morocco. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Cumbria. Iran (250). paper. UK (Cornwall. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). It is mined in Arkansas. As a well is drilled. De Kalb. Virginia. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes.000). Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire.2 or greater. Georgia. Canada. Derbyshire. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. New York & Fort Wallace. and no more than 30%. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). each with different characteristics. Nevada & Missouri. the bit passes through various formations. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Durham. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Turkey. Connecticut.Kentucky. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Peru. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. Thailand. Connecticut. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Romania (Baia Sprie). The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. Chile. by weight. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100).Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. blue. friction products for automobiles and trucks. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. chemically inert. Muirshiel [2] Mine. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. India [12] (1. Iran. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). by weight. and paint. India. Liberia. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Greece. can be less than 6 μm diameter. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. [edit]Paleothermometry .600).

Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. . pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. Since baryte has oxygen. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. away from continental sources of sediment. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.

The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. and white. also meaning "shine". but it is frequently tinted by impurities. [edit]Deposits . theFrench word brille meaning "shine". possible colors are green.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus.BERYL In geology. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. yellow. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. blue. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. Pure beryl is colorless. the Spanish word brillo. and [5] the English word brilliance. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. veḷiru ( ). Old French: beryl. red.

Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. and Bahia. and 2+ 3+ . Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment.5 m by 1. Clear yellow beryl. U. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. Colorado. Germany. Ireland and Russia. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. such as that occurring in Brazil. In the United States. as well as Brazil. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. neutrons or even X-rays). New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Espírito Santo. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. In Brazil. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . South Dakota and Utah. and Zambia. the United States. Austria. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. InWyoming. near Powder River Pass. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Sweden (especially morganite). including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Madagascar. Madagascar. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . though the color returns with irradiation.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. and limestone inColombia. Mainewith dimensions 5. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. New Hampshire. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Mozambique. Colombia. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. Maine. Idaho. South Africa. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. and weighing 380.000 kilogrammes. Connecticut. 18 meters [6] long and 3. beryl locations are in California. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains.5 meters in diameter. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar.S. As of 1999. North Carolina. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe.

North Carolina. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. marakata (म कन). its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. Malawi. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. such as Zambia. as such. Zimbabwe.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. In the US. Zambia. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. and Chivor.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. in 1910. and its dimensions were 48. The mines of Colombia. Madagascar. Most emeralds are highly included. It is named for the trapiche. India. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Brazil. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. It weighed over 110 kg. Madagascar. Minas Gerais. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. Coscuez. Brazil. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. which has been on the market since 1964. meaning "green". Pakistan.. In 1998. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. Afghanistan and Russia. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. [15] [7][14] . Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham.

C. Unlike emerald. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Washington. The name originates from Goshen.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. . Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Nowadays. D. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. However. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. golden beryl has very few flaws. In the past.

blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. pink. It was also known. at Pala. California. Juab County. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. Fe. "pink emerald". and color banding is common.Maine. and Co impurities. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. However. Ti. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. such astourmaline and kunzite. green. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). Morgan. "rose beryl". On October 7. its type locality. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. In December 1910.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. also known as "pink beryl". Utah. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. The crystal. because of the . goshenite can be colored yellow. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. Sc. originally somewhat orange in hue. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. 1989. P. with other gemstone minerals. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. Thomas [26][27] Range. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. V. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". USA. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite.

also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. Utah. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index.05 . Utah. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. pseudobrookite and hematite. and Juab County.Sierra County. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. topaz.CJ. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. [28] of Fillmore. Utah. spessartine. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Beaver County.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby).orthoclase. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10.000 per carat for faceted stones. New [1] Mexico. quartz. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. while he was prospecting for uranium. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite.

colorless. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.21 Å. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.19 Å.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9.50 Color Green. yellow.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. blue. radial. columnar. c = 9.

76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.564–1.Specific gravity Average 2.568–1.0040–0.602 Birefringence δ = 0. but the stone itself does not) .595 nε = 1.

BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. [4] discovering many unique properties. who.F. aluminium. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. in 1816. silicon. magnesium. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. researched the optical properties of mica. More generally. it refers to the dark mica series. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite.L. Biotite was named by J.OH)2. Biotite is a sheet silicate. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. Iron. oxygen.

It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. It can be transparent to opaque. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. . and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. Norway. Virginia and North Carolina. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. For instance. Ontario. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. and a grey-white streak. in some instances side-by-side. When biotite is found in large chunks. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. It appears greenish to brown or black. and consists of flexible sheets. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. has a vitreous to pearly luster. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. as in New England. and even yellow when weathered. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. fracture is uneven.than phlogopite. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. or lamellae. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. It has amonoclinic crystal system. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. which easily flake off. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. especially in pegmatite veins. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination.

OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. blackish brown. yellow.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.53 g Color Dark brown. less common on the {001} . greenish brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.

565–1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).8–3.5–3.675 Birefringence δ = 0.675 nγ = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.7–3.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.605–1.605–1.1 Density 2. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .625 nβ = 1.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.03–0.

[edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . also known as peacock ore. is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite.

Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. from the N’ouva mine.England. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Talate. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. and elsewhere in Cornwall.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.3 x 3. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. the Mangula mine. Morocco. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. Illogan. S.Connecticut in the U. Austria.5 x 4. Montana and at Bristol.Lomagundi district. . Zimbabwe. Karlovy Vary Region. Kazakhstan. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. eastern Tirol.Mexico (size: 7.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. Celestine . Ohio. usually in small quantities.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Crystal Cave. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.The mineral is found worldwide. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. The world's largest known geode. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. In carbonate marine sediments. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across.

35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. b = 5.359 Å. pale green. pale blue.AD.866 Å. black . c = 6.352 Å. pink. pale brown. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. white.

poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .619 .630 .97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. also fibrous.5 Luster Vitreous. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.95 .Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .3.622 nβ = 1. earthy. lamellar.624 nγ = 1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}. good on {210}.632 Birefringence δ = 0.622 .

white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. long UV=yellow. white blue .

Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. digenite (Cu9S5). hydroxides and sulfates. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. Copper is shown in pink. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. On exposure to air. chalcocite (Cu2S). and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). carbonates such as malachite and azurite.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. .5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. covellite (CuS).

molybdenite representing Mo.3 x 4.8 x 6. In.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Ontario. Ni. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. V. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. and Sb are reported. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. from huge masses as at Timmins.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Mn. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Se. . [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. However. Pd. Pb. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. etc. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. the American cordillera and the Andes. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Cr. and trace amounts of Ag. Pt. Au.

Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite).10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Ouray County. Colorado. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large.CB.

may have iridescent purplish tarnish. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183. and sometimes botryoidal. commonly massive. c = 10. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.3 .Unit cell a = 5.54 Color Brass yellow.423 Å.289 Å.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.1 – 4.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. In the Roman era. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. both by itself and as part of pigments. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). needed] In sufficient concentration. fungicides. Pure copper is soft and malleable. and wood preservatives.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. muscle and bone. and a constituent of various metal alloys. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. later shortened to сuprum. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. Characteristics . Decorative art prominently features copper. a building material. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments.

which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. galvanic corrosion will occur. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. As with other metals. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. At the macroscopic scale. Copper. above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. and osmium (bluish). introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. For this reason. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow).6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.Physical A copper disc (99. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. if copper is placed [6] against another metal.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. such as grain boundaries.

Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. It does not react with water. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). Edinburgh. this oxide layer stops the further. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. such as the Statue of Liberty. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. respectively. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. bulk corrosion.

4×3.2×3. The other isotopes are radioactive. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β .There are 29 isotopes of copper. which has [13] a half-life of 12. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61.2 cm. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized.7 hours. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. they both have a spin of 3/2. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . decays both ways. Native copper is a polycrystal. US.8 minutes. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. Cu and Cu are stable.83 hours. [15] . 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. Cu. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite.

In addition to its hardness. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. Transparent specimens are used as gems. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. it can scratch almost every other mineral. All other colors are called sapphire.g. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. plastics. titanium and chromium.02 g/cm . and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. e.0 Mohs). "green sapphire" for a green specimen.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. It is commonly used as anabrasive. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". It is a rock-forming mineral. and wood. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. and the mix is less abrasive.. but can have different colors when impurities are present. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. with an average hardness near 8. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence .0. corundum is unusual for its density of 4.

USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum.Corundum from Brazil. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.632 °F). silicon carbide. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. In 1847. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. [4] USA. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives.000 °C (3. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. New York. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. . gneiss. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. Sri Lanka and India. Russia. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering.8 in × 1 in). and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. In 1903. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. [4] Ontario.

scratchresistant optics. bearings. and laser components. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.1 . Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. scratch-resistant watch crystals. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).CB. and other machined parts). synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. rods. Apart from ornamental uses.3.1. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.05 Dana classification 4. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis.

Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. may be color zoned. c = 12. tabular. pink to pigeon-blood-red. brown. translucent toopaque . prismatic. violet. yellow.982 Å. rhombohedral crystals. blue to cornflower blue. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. green.75 Å. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. gray. orange.

hematite.772 nε = 1.95–4. or hercynite .763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.759–1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.Specific gravity 3.767–1.

01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. Less often blue. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. green. .DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. brown or gray to colorless. purple and red. pink. translucent white.CB. violet. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. orange. black.10a Identification Formula mass 12.

Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.52±0.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.5–3.01 Density 3.044 .

Melting point Pressure dependent .

The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. In 1791. [edit]Properties . Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. or in old U. often as a result of diagenesis. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron.S. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.

Crystal twinning is common. It forms white. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). although it is usually massive. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Unlike calcite. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. . Dolomite druse from Lawrence County.g. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. dolomite is a double carbonate. Arkansas. In the 1950s and 60s. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. having a different structural arrangement. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. where organic matter content is high.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. i. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. gray to pink. namely. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium.e.

Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. . leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. textural and chemical characteristics. White Mountains. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. However.Dolomite. California. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. in a 1999 study.

Cherokee County. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source.2×4. In horticulture. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. zinc. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.4×7. a concrete aggregate. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. Kansas(size: 11. Dolomite . Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. and copper. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone.

often with curved faces. c = 16.002 Å. Z = 3 Identification Color White. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.AB. granular. Crystal system Trigonal . also columnar.8012(1) Å. stalactitic. massive.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. 3 Unit cell a = 4.

500 Birefringence δ = 0.179–0.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV. triboluminescent. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. .181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.679–1.681 nε = 1.84–2.

The color is green. It displays strong pleochroism. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. the optical constants. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. yellow and brown. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. grey. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. and the specific gravity. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. brown or nearly black." 3+ . [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. the pleochroic colors being usually green. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). Ca2Al2(Fe . the color.

withasbestos. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. . dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. and others) composing igneous rocks.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. as magnificent. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. pyroxenes. Arendal in Norway. Haddam inConnecticut. but one of secondary origin. calcite. adularia. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. garnets. amphiboles. here as large. The perfectly transparent. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. and apatite. micas. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. dark green. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand.

becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. andesite. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. reddish-black. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. granite. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. at Finbo. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. and greenish-brown colors. near Ivrea in Piedmont. there is little or no cleavage. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. rhyolite. and opaque in the mass. Epidote . gneiss.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. Piemontite occurs as small. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. and many different names applied. sometimes a foot in length. further. syenite. and well-developed crystals are rare. being black or dark brown in color. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. near Falun in Sweden. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. and others. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Dollaseite is less common. after whom the species was named. pitchy in lustre. yellowish-. Although not a common mineral. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-.

Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. yellow-green.6 .3–3. fibrous. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.

725–1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.751 nβ = 1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.046 Pleochroism Strong .734–1.019–0.784 nγ = 1.

The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. of plagioclase. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. . sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. Typically. While slowly cooling within the earth. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8)." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite.

such as porcelain. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. In gemology. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. It is the state gem of Florida. Most moonstones are translucent and white. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Russia. It measured ~10×10×0. and as a constituent of scouring powder. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. some ceramics. Germany. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons.

55–2. 2V = 65–75 . pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Cleavages intersect at 90°. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Greyish yellow. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. White. Greenish.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief.

518–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.522– Refractive index nα = 1.525 Birefringence 0.522–1.520 nβ = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .524 nγ = 1.0050–0.

[edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . calcite and fluorite. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. It is the most important lead ore mineral.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.

1×3. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. The Mendips. Of the latter. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Cornwall. Utah and Montana. Rhodope Mountains. in a process similar to bioleaching. England.S. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. USA (size: 5. and Cumberland. Bulgaria. cadmium. In addition zinc. Somerset. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. antimony. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Derbyshire. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. the former mining town of Galena. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. the Madan. Broken Hill. In the United States. Idaho. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Saxony. Smolyan Province. Iowa and Wisconsin. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. Missouri. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Illinois. .8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate).2×2.

significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. Isle of [5] Man. For example. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. however. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. which. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. In modern wireless communication systems. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. in Ancient Egypt. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. U. which was known as a "cat's whisker".4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl.g. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. which were a potential source of disease.K. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined.

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.936 Å.5–2. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. No. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.10 Dana classification 2.8. 225 Twinning Contact.1.75 . space group Fm3m. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001]. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.CD.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. although specimens may show a [6] . limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. but limonite does not. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών).7 to 4. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. lepidocrocite.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. among them goethite. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak.5. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. Although originally defined as a single mineral. The hardness is variable.3. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. but generally in the 4 . in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.akaganeite. the other being hematite.5 range. and jarosite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2.

where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. producing red ochres. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. to process limonite. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage.botryoidal.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. sometimes mammillary. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. Complex systems developed. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. [10] California mining district. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. reniform or stalactitic. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. pyroxene. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. hematite and magnetite. and hematite was far easier to smelt. in Africa. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. burnt umbers and siennas. amphibole. [12] notably in Tanzania. and biotite. Because of its amorphous nature. Nonetheless. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. Before smelting. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. Main article: Ochre#History . The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks.

5½ . powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 . it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. Limonite General Category Amorphous.

9 .4.3 Density 2.4.7 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

Less commonly. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. It dissolves in mercury. Chemically. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. . it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). malleable and ductile metal. with huge war debts. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. as nuggets or grains in rocks. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. giving rise to the term theacid test. jewelry. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element.S. is insoluble in nitric acid. so named because it dissolves gold. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide.GOLD Gold is a dense. in 1932. In Europe. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. which dissolves silver and base metals. which have been used in mining. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. in veins and in alluvial deposits. shiny. soft. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. forming amalgam alloys. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. usually with tellurium. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies.

and other fields. 40% in [3] investments. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. or a cube 20. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history.7 m on a side. Its highmalleability. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions.A total of 171. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. in terms of volume. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. and 10% in industry. about 8876 m . includingelectric wiring. This is roughly equivalent to 5. colored-glass production and gold leafing.5 billion troy ounces or. ductility. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. electronics. .

It is.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. There are three principal types of natural graphite. the last stage of coalification. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). and is probably hydrothermal in origin. a semimetal. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. for its use in pencils. Therefore. graphite is an electrical conductor. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. "to draw/write".GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. . it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. consequently. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. flat. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. 3. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. 2. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope).

Graphite is not mined in the United States. Brazil (76 kt). but U. respectively. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt).110 thousand tonnes (kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production. micas and tourmaline. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.18 billion. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. India (130 kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).S.S. China is the largest producer of graphite. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. U. Graphite . calcite. in particular.

CB.708 Å. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray. c = 6. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.461 Å.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. six-sided foliatedmasses.

23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.09–2.

it exhibits a retrograde solubility. It can be used as afertilizer. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". When the crystal lattice is heated. it may also be granular or quite compact. referring to its crystalline projections. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. [edit]Occurrence . called alabaster. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. "chalk" or "plaster". is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos).GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. rather. Finally. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes.0–2. "spear stone". Selenite contains no significantselenium.5 g/l at 25°C) and. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. As foranhydrite. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. it is alabaster. cleavable masses called selenite. In hand-sized samples. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. and transparent. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. In arid areas.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. in the form of selenite. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. typically opaque. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. in contrast to most other salts. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Selenite may also occur in a silky. fibrous form. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. and in the early 19th century. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. As a mineral. Upon addition of water. (Thus.

It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation.000 years. Somerset. and sulfate solutions inveins. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. However. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Commercial exploitation of the area. strongly opposed by area residents. Wyoming. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. Under reducing conditions. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. UK. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. . Blue Anchor. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. from volcanic vapors. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. Pure gypsum is white. as well as in hot springs. Gypsum is a common mineral. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1.

brown. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. reddish brown or gray .CD. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. b = 15.679(5) Å. pink.43°. β = 118.522(6) Å. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.202(14) Å. may be yellow. c = 6.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. blue. tan.

523 nγ = 1.31–2. inelastic.010 . pearly. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.530 Birefringence δ = 0. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.522–1. flat. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.529–1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.521 nβ = 1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.519–1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky. Mohs scalehardness 1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.

slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

brown to reddish brown. usually as the result of volcanic activity. Hematite is harder than pure iron. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. ancient. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. Hematite is a mineral. While the forms of hematite vary. one of several iron oxides. also spelled as haematite. Maghemite is a hematite. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. Hematite can also occur without water. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. or other standing water. colored black to steel or silver-gray.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. they all have a rust-red streak. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. however. Varieties includekidney ore. but much more brittle. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. It is mined as the main ore of iron. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. or otherwise highly weathered soils.HEMATITE Hematite. spring. . or red.

c = 13.772(12) Å. dull to bright red .05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.CB. Fe2O3. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.038(2) Å. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.

150–3.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. granular. earthy. micaceous or platy. nε = 2. reniform.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.280 . oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None. commonly in rosettes.940 Birefringence δ = 0. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.870–2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3.5–6. radiating fibrous. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. columnar.220.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

.Si)8O22(OH.Al)5(Al.Fe. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. but the name is used as a general or field term. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Na)2–3(Mg. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate.F)2.9–3. The general formula can be given as (Ca. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present. a specific gravity of 2. to refer to a dark amphibole. and an iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).4 and is typically an opaque green. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. brown or black color. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules.

Orange County. gneiss. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Al)5 (Al. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. is gray to white in color. and named edenite. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. andschist. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. diorite. syenite. gabbro. from its locality in Edenville. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. Fe. andesite. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. New York. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. basalt. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende.

Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.

following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. Lighter concentrations yield white. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). Alternating layers are sometimes found. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". Jiangxi province. giving it a distinct rust hue. In many parts of the world. part of the group of industrial minerals. It is a soft. It is a layered silicate mineral. pinyin: Gaoling). Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ).KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. United States. China. calaba. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. In Africa. [edit]Chemistry [6] . with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. yellow or light orange colors. a village near Jingdezhen. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. earthy.

but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. however. Si3Al4O12. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. H = H2O. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). [edit]Occurrence . which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. and highly crystalline cristobalite. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Al2Si2O7. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. S = SiO2.

the proportion of kaolinite decreases. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). [1] the People's Republic of China. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene.5 million tonnes. Australia. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. Kaolinite . where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. in Brazil. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. Iran. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. India. United Kingdom. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates.Korea. the Czech Republic and the United States. France. Bulgaria. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Germany. as kaolin. it is mined.

β = 104. aggregated into compact. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.ED.5°. γ = 89. α = 90°. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. Z = 2 Identification Color White.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.25 Å. c = 7.89 Å.8°. sometimes red. thin plates or stacked. b = 8.13 Å.

68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.16–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.553–1. Calculated: 44° . nγ = 1. nβ = 1.569.565.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.569–1.559–1.

amblygonite. California. Lepidolite . columbite. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. It occurs in granite pegmatites. Russia.Si)3O10(F. Canada. andMadagascar. cassiterite.spodumene. Tanco Mine. Notable occurrences include Brazil. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. in some high-temperature quartz veins. feldspar. Manitoba. tourmaline. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. topaz and beryl. Ural Mountains. Bernic Lake. United States. greisens and granites.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium.

rose-red.Cm Unit cell a = 5. purple. yellowish.4 x 2.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.1 x 0. Virgem da Lapa. Brazil (size 2.Lepidolite. colorless .011(5) Å c = 10.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. violet-gray. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.209(2) Å b = 9. white.EC.Si)3O10(F.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. β = 100:77(4)°.149(5) Å. Minas Gerais.

scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.58° measured .554– 1. nγ=1.0290–0. nβ=1.551–1.525–1.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.58.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1. pale violet 2V angle 0° .8–2.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.586 Birefringence 0. Y = Z = pink.548.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.

The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Commonly. will attract small pieces of iron. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite.e. hematite. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. and ulvospinel have been much studied. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. called lodestone. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i.. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism.

including banded iron formations.085 °F).III) oxide. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. 1.BB. In many igneous rocks. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.397 Å. Z=8 Identification Color Black.

5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.Crystal habit Octahedral.17–5. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. parting on {Ill}.5–6.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid . as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. the spinel law.

It is also used for decorative purposes. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. a large malachite vase. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. This opaque.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. in fractures and spaces. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. fibrous. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. deep underground. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II.000 years. Since then. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. "mallow-green stone". variant of καιάχε malāchē. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. which features a huge malachite vase. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. The pigment is moderately lightfast. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. "mallow". and most often forms botryoidal. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. "The Tazza". Middle French: melochite. or stalagmitic masses. . green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system.

blackish green.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. the source of the carbonate. Gabon. Namibia. Israel. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. Mexico. Timna valley. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. France. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Lyon.1 g/mol Color Bright green. Russia. Except for its vibrant green color. New South [7] Wales. Tsumeb. Broken Hill. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. and calcite. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. .Zambia. goethite.BA. dark green.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2).

crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.875 nγ = 1. Polysynthetic twinning also present.commonly banded in masses.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.909 Birefringence δ = 0.655 nβ = 1. stalactitic. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.5–4. botryoidal. silky if fibrous.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.254 .

Its crystal system is monoclinic. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. yellows. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. India. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. greens.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica.76–3. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. isinglass. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. The green. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. [4] .OH)2. browns. and can be transparent or translucent.25 parallel to the [001] face. or (rarely) violet or red. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.

and schists.EC. etc. found in granites. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. feldspar.02. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.kyanite. morganite) from Paprok. gneisses.3×3.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. In pegmatites. Minas Gerais.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica.Muscovite with beryl (var.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.9×4. pegmatites. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.8×3.02a.15 Dana classification 71.

76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.106 Å. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.199 Å.Unit cell a = 5. grey. b = 9.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.552–1. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.576 . β = 95.027 Å. c = 20. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). silky. Z = 4 Identification Color White.78°.

618 Birefringence δ = 0.615 nγ = 1.582–1.587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .nβ = 1.035 – 0.

The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember).. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers.Fe)2SiO4.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). magnesium and iron. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. almost 1900 °C. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. as do other properties.g. Fo 70Fa30). silicon. [edit]Identification and paragenesis .

Arizona.. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Gila Co. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. . Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. USA. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.

collections of debris from the early solar system. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. in the dust of comet Wild 2.feldspar. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. because olivine is so abundant. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. Such meteorites include chondrites. pyroxenes. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. 2012). and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. andpallasites. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e.Fe)2Si2O6). It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. or forsterite. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. the French word for olivine). Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine.g. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. First X-ray view of Martian soil . moreover. In contrast. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. 12 GPa. falling into infant stars. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. October 17. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. and . the Moon. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. Mars. from the Greek words for gold and stone).

close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. In an alternative view. and magnesium/iron in blue.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. Oxygen is shown in red. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. O3 lies in a general position. O2 and O3 in figure 1). Olivine . [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. silicon in pink. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. while M1 exists on an inversion center. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O1. O2.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7 Luster Vitreous .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

670–1.650–1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.650 nβ = 1.670 nγ = 1.27–3.040 .37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.630–1.

olive. [edit]Precious opal . rhyolite. Of these hues.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . marl and basalt. green. magenta. sandstone. whereas white and greens are the most common. slate. brown. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. pink. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. rose. yellow. being most commonly found withlimonite. and black. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. the reds against black are the most rare. blue. like basalt. gray. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. orange. For gemstone use. Opal ranges from clear through white. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. not a mineral. a mineraloid form. red. This includes the production of the state of South Australia.

. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. Potch does not show a play of color. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. or obsidian.Australian Opal Doublet. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. Contrarily. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. unlike triplet opals. of which opal is the best known natural example. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. it has an internal structure. basalt. which is correctly termed play of color. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. . It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. which is often of lower quality. and are not classed as precious opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. In addition. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

also called siliceous sinter. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. They do not usually show any play of color. or star . there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. hyalite. wood opal. menilite. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. geyserite. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). orange-yellow or red. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. orange. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. which is brown or grey. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. resin opal. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico.

The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Queensland . 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. It does not display pleochroism. It weighs 17. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. However. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Boulder Opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. when cut properly.effect. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). Queensland.

opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. known as the "Black Peacock. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. [citation needed] [12] A . Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. closely related to boulder opal. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. and black opal. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. and weighs 2. fish. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. Royal Peacock. and marine creatures in South Australia. is the main source of black opal. Nevada. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Another Australian town. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. from Kynuna in the north. Bonanza. crystal opal. crystal. Opal Queen. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. and a snake head have been found. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. bones. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Miocene age opalised teeth. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. and lemon opal.585 carats." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. white. weighing 160 carats. Idaho.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. fire.

SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. Hungary. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . brown. white. red. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. yellow. orange. Guatemala.7 by 0. Turkey. black. Nicaragua and Ethiopia.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. Brazil (inPedro II. In late 2008. Piauí ).Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. Honduras. Indonesia. [19] Slovakia. green. in masses. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars.

020.42–1. transparent Specific gravity 2. or yellow in long and short wave.[1] . common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. May also phosphoresce. -.Mohs scalehardness 5.08.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. translucent. may phosphoresce.37.15 (+.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.90)[1] Density 2.450 (+. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. green. may phosphoresce.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. -. but typically reads 1.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.

methanol. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.humic acid. bases.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. hydrofluoric acid .

pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. and metamorphic rock. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. "of fire" or "in fire". By Georgius Agricola's time. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. as well as in coal beds. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. "fire". In the Carlin–type gold deposits. in turn from πύρ (pur). brazzle and Brazil. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). In ancient Roman times.37 wt% gold. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. sedimentary rock. or iron pyrite. [edit]Uses .

. most notably the wheellock. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Until the vacuum tube matured.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. was popular in the Victorian era. iron(II) sulfate. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. Navajún. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C.95 eV. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). By the 19th century. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. it had become the [12] dominant method. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. often set in silver. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. La Rioja.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Marcasite jewelry. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. In the 15th century. that is. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. [14] During the early years of the 20th century.

Z=4 .05a Dana classification 2.417 Å. Rioja.1. 512 g.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.12.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.EB. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.

10 Fusibility 2. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. globular and stalactitic. granular. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. Often inter-grown.5 Luster Metallic.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow.5–3 to a magnetic globule . faces may be striated. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. radiated.95–5. massive. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Czech tvrdy ("hard"). It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. Polish twardy ("hard")). varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. distorted. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). respectively. after feldspar. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. space group P6221 and P6421.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. There are many different varieties of quartz. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. giving an overall formula SiO2. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. The . only one termination pyramid is present. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end.

. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. and jasper. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. carnelian. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification)." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. smoky quartz. amethyst. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. Natural citrines are rare. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. onyx. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. heliotrope. see Citrine (disambiguation). without change in the way they are linked. sard. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. and others. For other uses. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. and is rarely found naturally. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz).transformation between α. but they differ in hardness. such as the Lothair Crystal. are agate. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. or mixed rocks including quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. milky quartz. Citrine has ferric impurities. Common colored varieties include citrine. rose quartz.

. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. Brazil. Magaliesburg. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. or manganese. Maine. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. iron. in the massive material. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. USA.

It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. translucent version of quartz. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . Some can also be black.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray.

Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. Otherwise more specific names are used. or both. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. parallel and consistent in size. banded chalcedony. Agate Multi-colored. exhibiting chatoyancy. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. colorless Amethyst Purple. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. trapped during the crystal formation. liquid. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. This does not always hold true. Rock crystal Clear. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. transparent .

translucent. transparent Rose quartz Pink. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent to opaque. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green.

Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.01. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).03. c = 5. fine-grained to microcrystalline. drusy. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.05 Dana classification 75.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.9133 Å.DA.4053 Å.

65.543–1.552–1. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .545 nε = 1.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1. variable 2.554 Birefringence +0.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric. may betriboluminescent.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.59–2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

3.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness nβ = 1.751 Birefringence δ = 0.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.724 .1.5 .013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.57 .711 .714 .5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.741 nγ = 1.1. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .

. gold. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. free form (native silver). lustrous transition metal. lead.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. further research into clinical potential continues. as an alloy with gold and other metals. and currency coins. and zinc refining. Its compounds are used in photographic film. and is used as an investment. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. to make ornaments. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. utensils (hence the term silverware). it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. jewelry. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). white. Latin: argentum. A soft. high-value tableware. both from the Indo-European root*arg. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Today.

Canada. lazurite and tugtupite.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. with a polished rock surface. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. . nosean. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia.

Occurring typically in massive form. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. sodalite may also be grey. particularly. The Ice River [5] complex. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. calcite. Maine. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. West Greenland. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. [3] titanian andradite. Smaller deposits are found in South . namelyleucite. in Canada. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. near Golden. the violet will fade again. British Columbia. Arkansas.ankerite and baryte. aegirine. Quebec. Conversely. and Mont-SaintHilaire. in the USA. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. contains sodalite. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. shortwave ultraviolet light. Ontario. Other associated minerals include nepheline. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. and Magnet Cove. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. [1] Narsaq. green. fluorite. sodalite is named after its sodium content. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. cancrinite and natrolite. albite. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. and Litchfield. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. yellow. Well known for its blue color.A light. microcline. If left in a dark environment for some time. sanidine.

transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Portugal. Burma and Russia. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Italy.FB. yellow. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Euhedral. violet.America (Brazil and Bolivia). white veining common .876(6) Å. green. Romania.

5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.1.27-2. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.483 .Crystal habit Massive. sodium . with yellowishphosphorescence.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

mostly opaque. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . Magnesium.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system.

macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. Kola Peninsula. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. New Mexico. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. micas. biotite. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. In handsamples. Keivy Mountains. called penetration twinning. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. kyanite. .S. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. Samples are also found in Taos. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. Norway. Virginia. It occurs with almandine garnet. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. as well as albite. It is the official state mineral of the U. depth. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature.

yellowish brown.45°. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.5 x 2. rarely blue.Murmanskaja Oblast'. b = 16. 2.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.AF.86 Å. Northern Region. c = 5.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.6 Å. β = 90. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.65 Å. Russia.

0. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .740 .009 .747 nβ = 1. 3.754 nγ = 1.83 meas.686 calc.1. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.745 .015 Pleochroism X = colorless.762 Birefringence δ = 0.736 . Y = pale yellow.7.74 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.3.1.1. weak .


TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. and is translucent to opaque. and the folia are non-elastic. Talc is not soluble in water. It has a specific gravity of 2.5– 2. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form.8. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It has a perfect basal cleavage. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. In loose form. although slightly flexible. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. [edit]Formation . Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Its streak is white. a clear or dusty luster. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel.

which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. amphibole.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. garnet. and fibrous. olivine. [edit]Occurrence . dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. friable. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. This is typically associated with high-pressure. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. pyroxene. and are known as whiteschist. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. Such rocks are typically white. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral.

notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . India. eastern Australia.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Nepal and Bhutan. layered ultramafic intrusion. formed upon a polydeformed. Oman and the Middle East. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. the western European Alps especially in Italy. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. the Guiana Shield. representing 8% of world production. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Western Australia. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. from Brazil. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). certain areas of the Musgrave Block.

b = 9.291 Å. c = 18. c = 5.158 Å.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.90°.09°. b = 9.68°. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). β = 99.95 Å. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .290 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. brown.173 Å.287 Å. α = 98. β = 119. γ = 90.3°.EC. Z = 2 or a = 5.

58 to 2.589 – 1. long UV=yellow .589 – 1.538 – 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.550 nβ = 1.594 nγ = 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.600 Birefringence δ = 0.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

OH)2. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

pale green. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. pale gray. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. pink (rare). [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Australia. yellow. Czech Republic. Flinders Island. Imperial topaz is yellow. Sri Lanka. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah.Sweden. gold. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds.5 carats. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Japan. colorless. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. or blue brown. reddish-orange. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow.892. a more recent gem. Mexico. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections.75 carats. Italy. also known as precious topaz. Nigeria and the United States. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Orange topaz. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. measured a massive 22. pink or violet colored. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. sometimes even violet. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. if natural) or pink-orange. in Afghanistan. pink (rare. Germany. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Pakistan. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. blue. is the traditional November birthstone. It can also be made white. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Brazil. the symbol of [5] friendship. gold. The American Golden Topaz. typical topaz is wine. Typically. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Norway. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time.

the ancient name of St. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. Minas Gerais. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. etymology. In the Middle Ages. a topaz. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. [edit]Biblical background. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row." However. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. [edit]History Nicols. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. some scholars think it is related to . even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. both of which predate the Greek word.

65 Å. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. b = 8. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn).an Assyrian word meaning "flashed". c = 8. metaphorically.4 Å. meaning "yellow burn" or. = yellow. "fiery". Z = 4 . [citation needed] More likely.OH)2 Strunz classification 9.8 Å.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.AF.

629 nβ = 1. compact. also columnar. orange.638 .631 nγ = 1. gray.606–1. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. green. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. brown.49–3. blue.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). yellow.616–1.609–1.

violet.Birefringence δ = 0.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. reddish. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. bluish. yellow. Z = violet. Y = yellow. long UV=cream . short UV=golden yellow.

At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). magnesium. iron.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. or potassium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. Italy . Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. sodium. lithium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems.

Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Beginning in the 18th century. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. In the 19th century the names common schorl. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). Up to about 1600. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. in addition to cassiterite. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). and "Schurl". schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. for the Drava river area.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. . "Schörle". Carinthia. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). black tourmaline was found. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. schörl.Drava river area. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". Austro-Hungarian Empire. This village had a nearby tin mine where. In English. both from the Sinhalese word turamali.

Czech Republic. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. vacancy Y = Li. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Zn. California.Campo nell'Elba. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. B B = B. Cr . vacancy V = OH. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. United States. sodium-. Fe . Ti . Cr . which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. F. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. O W = OH. Italy. where: [6] X = Ca. Al. Fe . with the simplified formula (Li. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Province of [5] Livorno. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. V T = Si. Elba Island. V . Na. K. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Tuscany. Al. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. Sweden. Mg. Elba Island. Fe . In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Al. Mn . O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County.5Al1. Italy. San Piero in Campo. Italy. vacancy Z = Mg.

US.5.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . Cryo-Genie Mine. California.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.Al1. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. San Diego Co..

San Diego Co. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. Himalaya Mine. US [edit]Physical properties .. California.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011.

etc. impact the value. but is now exhausted. green. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. and are often pyroelectric as well. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. [edit]Geology . slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. yellow. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. no other common mineral has three sides. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. it is colorless. During their 2+ growth. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. Usually. Heavily-included tourmalines. and does not. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. especially pink to red colored stones. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. currently. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. Rarely. in western Australia. called hemimorphism. pink. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. or green on the outside and pink inside. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. red.

Scattered grains (in granite). .Cr.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. Massive.Li. but can range from brown.B)6O18(OH. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. Acicular prisms.Al. violet.V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. or in a dual-colored pink and green.[])(Al.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Fe.K. green. sometimes radiating. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Mn)3(Al. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Na. dravites. pink. are generally restricted to schists and marble.Mg. Fe.

020 but in dark stones it may reach .635–1.675. typically about .040.06)[1] Density 2.018 to -0. dark green.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.5 Luster Vitreous.610–1. dark red. dark brown. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. small conchoidal. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. light blue .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.06 (+.82–3. nε=1.20 -.650 Birefringence -0.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. dark blue.

red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.

TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Nephrite. is a green variety of tremolite. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. [edit]Occurrence . Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite.

French Pyrenees (size: 8.diopside. forsterite. dolomite.DE.Tremolite from the Aure Valley.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . cummingtonite. wollastonite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Approximately 36. Associated minerals include calcite. grossular. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant.2 x 6. talc. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.Ticino (Tessin). riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Switzerland. Leventina.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Piumogna [1] Valley.

granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. β = 104.99 – 3. b = 18. or flattened crystals.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . Z = 2 Identification Color White.95°.27 Å.Unit cell a = 9. common parallel to {100}. c = 5. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. lavender to pink. also as fibrous. gray. light green.02 Å. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.84 Å.

1.625 .613 . Long UV=range pink .626 nγ = 1.Refractive index nα = 1.599 .026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.637 Birefringence δ = nβ = 1.

The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. borax. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. . water and hydroxide octahedra. water. by internal reflection. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. meyerhofferite. sometimes known as TV rock. hydroboracite. It is found principally in California and Nevada. gyps [1] um and halite. calcite. and Kazakhstan. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. trona. glauberite. USA. Tarapacá Region in Chile. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. mirabilite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. probertite. The chains are linked together by calcium.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide).

The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. two of which are polarized. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. Ulexite . An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection.

816(3) Å. c = 6.87Å.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.05.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.1°. γ = 105. α = 90.9 x 5 x 3.678(1) Å. Z =2 Identification .25°.12°. b = 12. β = 109.25 Dana classification 26.Ulexite from California(size: 6.EA.11.

5 Luster Vitreous.491 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.504 – 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.519 – 1.496 nβ = 1.028 .96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.95 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.

white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. cream.

chlorite or other platyminerals. rotten or possibly worthless material. biotite gneiss. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. so called because the rock glitters). [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. albite gneiss. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. diorite gneisses. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. they may also be called garnet gneiss. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. Depending on their composition. etc.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. . etc.GNEISS Gneiss ( coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas.

Turkish mermer. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). iron oxides. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Portuguese mármore. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay.German. meaning "marble-like. [3][4] "crystalline rock". . or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. [5] gleam".MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. silt. Norwegian. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals.g. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Armenian marmar. sand. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Dutch marmer. Polish marmur. however. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. sparkle. Spanish mármol. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. "to flash. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. "shining stone". This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. most other European languages (e." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Italian marmo. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock.


. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. and chlorite. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. or chlorite impart a silky. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. sericite. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. sericite mica.

The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. such as yellow and orange. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. iron oxide. silica. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. rutile and magnetite. not around them. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. and both usages are found in the literature. Although few fossils are normally present. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Canada . are due to other mineral impurities. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. therefore. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. Other colors. British Columbia. diagenetically altered. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. carbonate and clay. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite.

500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. pale grey. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. and stair steps. In the Scottish Highlands. several mountains (e. [edit]Occurrences In the United States.g. Foinaven. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. Monte Binga (2436 m). Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. industrial silica sand. In the United Kingdom. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. as roofing tiles. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. Central Texas. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. The highest mountain in Mozambique. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. near Salt Lake City. the Wasatch Range in Utah. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. silicon and silicon carbide. southwestMinnesota.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. precambrian quartzite. In Wales. [4] . formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. as flooring. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. In Canada.


shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. etc. for example. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated.talc. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. By definition. the terms slate. In other . chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. If the whole district. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. however. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. graphite. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. Usually. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. for example.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks.clastic structure. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. hornblende. A quartz-porphyry. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. tourmaline schist. glaucophane schist. The individual mineral grains in schist. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. and others. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. Most schists are mica schists. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. chlorite. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. such as garnet schist. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". can be seen by the naked eye. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century.

dolomites. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. scapolite. while others are found only among igneous masses. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. schistose character. and calc-schists. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). which have been derived from rhyolites. with variable amounts of white and black mica. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. staurolite.cases intrusive junctions. garnet. diopside. quartz and feldspar. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. for example. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). however. For example. tremolite. Such rocks. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. zoisite and hornblende. The majority of mica-schists. many metamorphic limestones. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. with crystalline dolomites. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. chilled edges. are alteredclaystones and shales. feldspar. contain silicate minerals such as mica. marbles. as limestones. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. and the white mica-schists. foliated. A subgroup is the andalusite. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). . The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


less frequently. or a writing slate. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. or zirconas well as feldspar. from which it may be formed. Slate is not to be confused with shale. often along with biotite. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. en masse. for example. as in the purple slates of North Wales. leaving a light green spotted texture. especially when seen. magnetite. traditionally a small piece of slate. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. kaolinite. Slate is frequently grey in color. often framed in wood. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. Occasionally. It may mean a single roofing slate. covering roofs. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. For example. chlorite. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. from pale to dark. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. . In the context of underground coal mining. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. and may also be purple. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. graphite. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. and pyrite and. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. foliated. apatite. However. hematite. green or cyan. the terms slate. tourmaline. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. or schist..


Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. Partial melting of crustal material. of intermediate composition. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. zeolites. Magnetite. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. but most .g. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. In a general sense. apatite. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate.e. 3.. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. leading to metamorphism. During subduction. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. biotite. 2. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. chlorite etc. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. ilmenite. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. volcanic rock. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. Characteristic of subduction zones. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. barium(Ba).: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. [5] sediment. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. anhydrous forms. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. zircon. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. potassium (K).

the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. Without continued addition of mafic material. creating a layer of molten material at its base. its intermediate phase. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. Once there. forming mafic cumulates. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. however. however. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. In order to remain active. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. however. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. If it underplates the crust.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. Basalt can. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. these reservoirs cool. . [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. therefore. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. such as the Andes. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Models of heat transfer. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. As this process continues. the composition is returned to andesite.


. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. Hungary . and even on the asteroid Vesta. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges.g. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro.. 2007). the third largest moon of Jupiter. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. (In comparison. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. /ˈbæsɒlt/. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.BASALT Basalt (pron. By definition. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. Venus. Mars. On Earth.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. Sobolev et al.

" which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). misspelling of L. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. an excellent thermal insulator. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. US quarter for scale. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. . as building blocks or in the groundwork). Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Arizona. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. from βάζανος (basanos.g. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". libri XII. basanites "very hard stone. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues.

is characteristically low in incompatible elements. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy).     . alkali feldspar and phlogopite. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. most large oceanic islands. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium.

Scotland. however. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. . occasionally with porphyry. and Idahet in Egypt. hornblende. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. Northeastern Turkey. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). central Sweden. Its hardness. Italy. Zircon. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. Sondrio. into which they may subtly merge. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. the Isle of Guernsey. magnetite. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. and frequently has a greenish cast. Romania. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. It may contain small amounts of quartz. the Darrans range of New Zealand. Finland. and/or pyroxene. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. It can also be black or bluish-grey. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. making it difficult to carve and work with. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine).DIORITE Diorite (pron. apatite. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. source localities include Leicestershire. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. which is transitional togabbro. microcline and olivine. Basin and Range province. Minnesota in theUSA. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. and to provide a durable finished work. sphene.biotite. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. the Andes Mountains.

One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. London. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. but mostly for fortress walls. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. In later times. Babylonia.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. etc. Paul's Cathedral. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. inscribed upon a 2. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. . Guernsey and Scotland. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. Assyria and Sumer. weaponry.

resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Scotland. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. Isle of Skye. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. Gabbro is dense. California.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. coarse-grained. plagioclase. easternSierra Nevada. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. ilmenite. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. the rock is then a norite. typically a few percent. The rocks areplutonic. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. Gabbros contain minor amounts. Rock Creek Canyon. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. and ulvospinel. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. amphibole. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin.

US. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. silver. cobalt. platinum. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. although it may be porphyritic at times. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic.extra descriptiveness is desired. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. . Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. gold. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. nickel. intruding into the rift flanks. and copper sulfides. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Massachusetts.


Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs.65 and 2. By definition.GRANITE Granite (pron. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. The average density of granite is between 2. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. This rock consists mainly of quartz. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. near the town of Caldera. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. descriptive field term for light-colored. an unusual type of granite.1260 °C. Granitoid is a general. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. felsic. northern Chile .75 3 g/cm . [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. Granites can be pink to gray in color. and feldspar. Melting temperature is 1215 . hard and tough. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. a grain. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. mica. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills.

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .

valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall .

12% MnO — 0.30% P2O5 — 0.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. where it forms a major part of continental crust. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. although much of it is of Precambrian age.82% FeO — 1.68% Fe2O3 — 1. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. Granite often occurs as relatively small. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor.69% CaO — 1. In some locations. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.71% TiO2 — 0.12% Na2O — 3. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. it is called tonalite.The Cheesewring. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. . When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. sanidine.22% MgO — 0. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.


Obsidian is mineral-like. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. forming perlite. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age.. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. which is the parent material. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. in addition. California . Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). [9][10][11] . Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). usually 70% or more. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. Obsidian is hard and brittle.. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral.

Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. New [13] [14] Mexico.S. Armenia. El Salvador. Oregon and Idaho. Scotland and the United States.S. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). white. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Japan. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. It can be found in Argentina. states of Virginia. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Washington. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Iceland. the inclusion of small. as well as Pennsylvania.Utah. and deposits can be found in many other western U. In some stones. Canada. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Italy. states including Arizona. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Mexico. . Peru. Colorado. Guatemala.Greece. Azerbaijan. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Pantelleria. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. New Zealand. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. Kenya. Texas. Chile.


pyroxene and other minerals are known. Theory Theory . with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. macroscale graphic texture is known.5 cm in size.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. For this reason. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. exsolution lamellae. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Therefore. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. Similarly. in essence a granite. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. feldspar and mica. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites.

and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. eastern Sierra Nevada. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. with bulk chemical and textural change. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. California. often with mica and usually with quartz. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Beyond that. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. . and are usually granitic in character. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. in a few cases. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. to liberate the right constituents and water. Rock Creek Canyon. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. for example greisens. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. granite-associated mineralisation styles. being altogether "granitic" in pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks.

et cetera. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. boron. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. accessory minerals and timing. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. Bismuth. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. among others. thorium. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. Hence. orange and brown almandine garnet. orientation. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. tourmaline. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. however. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. niobium. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. tourmaline. aluminium. tantalite. In most cases. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". Tantalum. lepidolite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. Australia). but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. tantalite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. Occasionally. columbite. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. say. cesium. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. niobite) are found in association with spodumene.Garnet. topaz. . tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. Queensland. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. zinnwaldite and so forth. Often. apatite and corundum. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. potassium and lithium. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. tourmaline. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. commonly almandine or spessartine. Geochemically. such as aquamarine. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. beryllium. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. uranium. fluorite.

Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. "granitic" or "metasomatic". and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. Within the metamorphic belts. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. transitional with some greisens. Similarly. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. . for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. However. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites.

The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail.PUMICE Pumice pron. Pumice is created when super-heated. uncompressed with pumice on left. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. compressed with fiamme on right. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. It is typically light colored. which may or may not contain crystals. .

It is commonly. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. and initially floats on water. . cream. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. but basaltic and other compositions are known. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. rhyolitic. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. with tree trunks floating among them. ranging from white. 1984 and 2006. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. pantellerite. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. After the explosion of Krakatoa.. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. it sinks rapidly. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. In 1979.S. phonolite. When larger amounts of gas are present.g. andesite. dacitic. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. to green-brown or black. many samples float in water. blue or grey. Pumice is commonly pale in color. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. In [4] fact. trachyte).

pencil erasers. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. . and the production of stone-washed jeans. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. plaster-like concrete. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. When used as an additive for cement. in the case of pumiceous lavas. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. during flow. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric.There are two main forms of vesicles. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. It is also used as an abrasive. smooth. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. especially in polishes. cosmetic exfoliants. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair.

rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. also called obsidian. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. spherulitic. the eruptions were at the St. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. below:pumice. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). . Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes.nodular. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. volcanic (extrusive) rock. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. and lithophysal structures. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. and consequently. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.


Auckland in New Zealand. An old name for scoria is cinder. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. Australia. Vesicles are usually small. creating bubbles in the molten rock. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. and bursting. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. . dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). another vesicular volcanic rock. a unique form of Scoria. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Quincan. and sinks in water.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. coalescence. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. but in contrast to pumice. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. bubble growth. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. blocks and bombs). or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. skōria. and may contain phenocrysts. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. and hence is denser. An example is Mount Wellington. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. black or purplish red). typically near its surface. rust. instead they open into one another with little distortion.

has high surface area and strength for its weight. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and to carve some moai from. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. and often has striking colours. . The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. It is somewhat porous.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills.

in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. In America. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. coal) is a hard. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. Australia and the US. and black diamond. mineral-matter-free basis. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. "coal-like. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. It has the highest carbon content. the fewest impurities. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. hard coal. as opposed to lignite. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. blind coal (in Scotland). and is mined in only a few countries around the world. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . China accounts for the lion’s share of production. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). Ukraine. the UK. other producers are Russia. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. [5] Vietnam. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection.1% and 98%.S. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. and lustre. which is used mainly in power generation. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance).3– 1. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. its higher relative density of 1. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. which is used as a pigment. is known as culm." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. North Korea. blue. and smokeless flame. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. which is softer).4. markets to distinguish it from its competitors.

[7] It was In the United States. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. Since the 1980s. coking coal and domestic house coals. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. circa 1935 .e. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former.MJ/kg). anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. on the as-received basis (i. mined near Saundersfoot. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. In [6] June 2008. Structurally. New Mexico. For example. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. and Western Pennsylvania. In southwest Wales. By 1795. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The thermal conductivity is also higher. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Pennsylvania. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation.. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton.

Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. In spring 1808. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. making it ideal for this purpose. Pennsylvania. In the early 20th century United States. about 1. placed in descending order. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use.S. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. Group of breaker boys. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Current U. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. From that first mine. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. on an open grate in a fireplace. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. Many large public buildings. Of that. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal)." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. the Delaware. Pennsylvania. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. such as schools.

Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. or less. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Switzerland and parts of Germany. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Commercial mining has now ceased. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. anthracite was largely used. [10] . as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed".Anthracite". Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. "poor". Similarly. Formerly. both in America and South Wales.

due to the depositional processes that form it. although bedding is frequently visible. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. Apart from the mineral content. Fossils are rare in arkose. .: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. most commonly granitic rocks. and some mica is often present. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid.


air. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. These distinctive sequences. the rest is composed of water. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. good ventilation and vigilant site management. . mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. which are classified according to either "dull. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. bright-banded" or "bright. and exinite. Within the coal mining industry. and sulphur. dull-banded". hydrogen.

in essence. igneous breccia. avalanches. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. lithified colluvium. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. These are. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. The word is a loan from Italian. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. tectonic breccia. . is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. by contrast. by their relative movements. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. In the field. typically in a karst landscape. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. poorly sorted. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock.079 in) in size.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. A conglomerate. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. Technically.

nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. This occurs when the thick. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. When particularly intense. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks.g. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. also called pillow breccias. . [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. Lavas. granites and kimberlite pipes. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. Broken. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. as they slide past each other. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. and these form volcanic breccias. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. both of lava and pyroclastic type.

and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. in the rim. iridium and osmium anomalies). near Blessington in Ireland. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. a type of impactite. and attrition quickly o . In addition.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. steam and boiling water. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. Nevada. shocked minerals.Pahranagat Range. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater.g. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. impact glass. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. Impact breccia. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. and are usually found at impact craters. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit.

Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. Washington. at much greater depths. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. silver and gold. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. . Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. Pend Oreille County. as the formational event is brief. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. On their journey. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. In the mesothermal regime. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. in particular CO2. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). If boiling occurs. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. As a result.rounds angular breccia fragments. Pend Oreille mine.


and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. (3.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. [edit]Terminology: "chert". New York. It also occurs in thin beds. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Oklahoma. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. hard chert. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. but most often manifests as gray. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. limestone. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. it is usually called flint. "chalcedony" and "flint" . when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). chalk.CHERT Chert (pron. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). brown. Buffalo. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils.

Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). The term does not include quartzite. . In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Everett. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert.chert being lower quality than flint. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Strictly speaking. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. Among petrologists. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz.

South Dakota.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. which consist of angular clasts. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. . Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm).

the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. Alaska. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. and are known as basal conglomerates.000 ft. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. conglomerates are normally very well sorted.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict .Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . In this setting.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict .clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. approximate depth 10. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .

Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. in rapidly eroding (e. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. in Australia's Northern Territory. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. matrix-supported conglomerates. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). are typically poorly-sorted. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. near Barcelona. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication.g. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. These form the basis of a number of . Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. The matrix is generally fine-grained. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. forming structures such aseskers. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. Tillites. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. desert) environments.

. as different sectors of the fault moved. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. e.large oil fields.g. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.

fracturing. swift tidal channels. . with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. which compose them. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. abraded. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. often including some phosphate. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding.COQUINA Coquina (pron. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. brachiopods. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. trilobites.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. shallow submarine raised banks. As a result. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. and barrier bars. in the form of seashells or coral. abrasion. close packing. and sorting of the shells. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. or other invertebrates. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches.

Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. cannon balls would sink into. In order to be used as a building material. However. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. Because of coquina's softness. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. The scale bar is 10 mm. Saint Augustine. form. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape.Close-up of coquina from Florida. coquina is extremely soft. rather than shatter or puncture. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. . it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. When first quarried. but still comparatively soft. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. The stone makes a very good material for forts. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years.


Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. diatomite. mechanical insecticide. It is used as a filtration aid. it was thought that limestone had been found. is a naturally occurring. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. Initially. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. which could be used as fertilizer. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. cat litter. TheCelle engineer. Wilhelm Berkefeld.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. activator in blood clotting studies. matting agent for coatings. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. and athermal insulator.E. This powder has an abrasive feel. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. the peasant and goods waggoner. a type of hard-shelled algae.: /ˌdaɪ. anti-block in plastic films.236 pixels/ μm. and is very light as a result of its high porosity.69 mm.13 by 0. porous support for chemical catalysts. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. soft.5 to 2% iron oxide.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. a stabilizing component of dynamite.. similar to pumice powder. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. recognized its ability to filter. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. absorbent for liquids. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. Peter Kasten.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron.

from diatomaceous earth. . [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. used successfully. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca.  ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region.

Nevada (USA). Denmark and the Czech Republic. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. but are of low quality. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. In Colorado and in Clark. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Washington and California. France. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.Virginia. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Oregon. such as this one for swimming pools .

Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. [7] taste. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. coffin-like. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. It can also filter syrups. In order to be effective as an insecticide. as well as in some facial scrubs. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. foodgrade— see below). particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. with questionable efficacy. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. efficacy is very low. causing them to [9] dehydrate. due to its physico-sorptive properties. and other liquids. However. such as beer and wine. especially for swimming pools. It has a high porosity. since slugs inhabit humid environments. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. It is also used to filter water. based on Fick's law of diffusion. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. and honey without removing or altering their color. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. hollow particles. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid.. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. for this purpose. but this method may take weeks to work. or nutritional properties.e..e. sugar. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. . because it is composed of microscopically small.

Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. particularly as bonsai soil. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. Fungicide. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. as [20] well as an insecticide. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like perlite. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.S. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.vermiculite. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. including water. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. As with other silicates. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. . guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils.

Libya. has a very fine particle size. For instance. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. while draining fast and freely. and has a high silica content (>60%). which has been widely used for the same purpose. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. and as an insecticide. It is produced uncalcinated. which is used as an indigestible marker. as feed supplement.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere.and expanded clay. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. the largest single . Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. it retains water and nutrients. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA).

generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. .

however. In old U. It is. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.S.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. but it can still develop solution features over time. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute.G.S. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. used in some geological publications. . It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater.

containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). India. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. it is mined in Greece. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher .LIGNITE COAL Lignite. on the as-received basis (i. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria.e. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. Poland. the United States. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. Serbia.4 MJ/kg (6. mineral-matter-free basis. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. ca.5 million BTU/ton). It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. Australia averages 8. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. Russia.. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. When reacted with quaternary amine. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. Germany. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. often referred to as brown coal.

can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. [4] Victoria. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite.than for comparable black-coal plants. particularly in combination with strip mining. . with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals.

as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. USA . in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. as aggregate for the base of roads. Virginia. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). and as a chemical feedstock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778.

Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. granular. diatoms. Classification Two major classification schemes. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. or it can fill fractures. radiolarians). Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. intraclasts. or massive. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs.000 meters. This produces speleothems. flint. quartz. Travertine is a banded. When conditions are right for precipitation. particularly where there are waterfalls. depending on several factors.e. building upon past generations. many limestones exhibit different colors. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. limestone recrystallizes into marble. pH. jasper. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. clastic. and varying amounts of clay. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Tufa. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Crystals of calcite. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Because of impurities. especially onweathered surfaces. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. i. peloids. the Folk and the Dunham. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. is found near waterfalls. Below about 3. compact variety of limestone formed along streams.travertine. sand. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). and dissolved ionconcentrations. . most limestone is composed of grains. Limestone may be crystalline. such as stalagmites and stalactites. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. such as clay. iron oxide and other materials.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. and around hot or cold springs. depending on the method of formation. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. organic remains. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. Romania. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. including the water temperature. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. etc. and extraclasts. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny).

there are three main components: allochems (grains). It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. pot holes.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. caves and gorges. Based on composition. and therefore self-supporting. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Such erosion landscapes are known . His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. The Folk system uses two-part names. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. not the grains in the sample. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. and cement (sparite). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. matrix (mostly micrite). Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. especially in acid. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Unlike the Folk scheme. cenotes. These include limestone pavements. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Robert J. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules.

and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. especially in Europe and North America. the only building material available. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Unique habitats are found on alvars. Examples include the Burren in Co. theVerdon Gorge in France. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. The Florida Keys. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. Ontario. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. It is most common in the tropics. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Sweden. Ireland. making it impractical for tall buildings. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. it is a very heavy material. Many landmarks across the karsts. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. While draining. Sweden. On the island of Malta. for a long time. [9] Michigan. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. islands off the south coast of Florida. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. Egypt. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. This process is known as bioerosion. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Clare. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Notch Peak in Utah. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. 2003). and relatively expensive as a building material. So many buildings in Kingston. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. . Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. typically clays. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. are made of limestone. However. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. England. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City.

one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. Kansas .

It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. durable. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. plastics. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. paper. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. tiles. paint. most notably the Bloomington area. but only in thin plates for covering. It is added to toothpaste. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). [11] . Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide).A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. in some circumstances. since it is hard. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. uses limestone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. Indiana. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. cement and mortar. Purified. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. rather than solid blocks. In the United States. Glass making. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. Train stations. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Used in blast furnaces. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. such as for poultry (when ground up). As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. called Indiana limestone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Like sand. . are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. gray. Fine-grained aquifers. red. white and black. most [1] sandstone is red. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities.France. but the most common colours are tan. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. sandstone may be any colour. In the western United States and incentral Australia. yellow.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. brown. pink. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. such as sandstones. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). [edit]Uses 17. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa.

in Freiburg.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer.Germany. around 1770. .

It is relatively soft. cathedrals.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. These are sandstone beverage coasters. . Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. making it easy to carve. homes. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. and continues to be used. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. and other buildings. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues.

The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. including siltstones and shales. like chalk and coal. for sharpening blades and other implements. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. gritstone. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material.0 mm. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. clays.g. yet are easy to work. Scale bar is 1. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.002–0. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. rocks with greater grain sizes. or chemical. are typically called argillaceous sediments. have been found less resistant.079 inches). [3] like gypsum and jasper). These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. Because of the hardness of individual grains. some that have been used in the past. and silica. e. However.. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. Utah. .

Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon.. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). Arizona. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. i. Finally. include its grain size. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. in a desert or erg). in more general detail. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). as well as central Europe and Mongolia. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. which. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.e. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . First.. and composition and.sorting. over other construction. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide.g. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. once it has accumulated. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Typically. in finer detail. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. either from water (as in a stream. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. lake.

channel sands) 2. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Beach and shoreface sands 3. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. Alluvial fans 3. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. such as hardness and chemical stability. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. point bars. Lakes 5. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone.  . These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Deltas 2.1. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Tidal flats 4. Glacial outwash 4. Rivers (levees. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars.

 [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. Common heavy minerals include zircon. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. or other dense. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. and corundum. metamorphic. or sedimentary rock.25 millimeter.garnet. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Although. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. magnetite. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. this represents a complete solid solution. called lithic fragments or clasts. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. pyroxene. scale box at left-center is 0. One is to call the . tourmaline. olivine. upper picture is plane-polarized light. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. rutile (hence ZTR).

and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. and very rarely is in other sandstones. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement.sandstone an arenite. and the other is to call it a wacke.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. limonite.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. such as calcite. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. barite. feldspars. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. clay minerals.  . Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. anhydrite. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and zeolite minerals. [6] gypsum. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement.


magnesium. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. on the other hand. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. biotite and illite . Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. iron hydroxide (goethite . Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained.reds).greens). Red. Sand grain = 2 mm. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.browns and limonite [1] yellow). or micaceous minerals (chlorite. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. the terms slate. calcium. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. montmorillonite and illite. in dia. Mudstones. iron . The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. sodium. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. especially quartz and calcite.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. called fissility.

Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ).chert. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. black shales were deposited in anoxic. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. However. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale.Cumberland Plateau. reducing environments. hematite and albite. These released elements form authigenic quartz. 'Black shales' are dark. dolomite. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. and zinc. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. . quiet water. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. calcite. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. such as in stagnant water columns. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. The enriched values are of controversial origin. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. in river deltas.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. in relatively deep. uranium. ankerite.and water. vanadium.

which originally aired on November 3. "Flintstone of Princestone". then schist and finally to gneiss. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. apatite. . Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. The Flintstones. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). metamorphic rockknown as slate. 1961. or various carbonate minerals. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. fissile. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale".

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