BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

: /ˈælməndɪn/). The name is a corruption of alabandicus. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. or en cabochon. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. Almandine. also known incorrectly as almandite.512 Å at 100 K. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. It is frequently cut with a convex face. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.5 K. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . inclining to purple. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. and is then known as carbuncle. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. upper mantle and transition zone. of deep red color. a town in Caria in Asia Minor.

The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. a name said to be taken from Syriam. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. When the color inclines to a violet tint. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. some years ago. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . in Tyrol. and are sometimes cut and polished. Almandine is widely distributed.

Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.05 (+..25.024 [1] . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .AD.7.790 (+/. -. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .

may also have faint lines at 423. 520. 610 and 680-690nm [1] .Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. and 573nm. 460.

More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. More recently. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Virginia. Colorado. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. Russia. where it occurs in granitic rocks. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. Colorado. although it is easily fractured. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. For many years. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. Because of its bright green color when polished. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Naturally. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. El Paso County. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. orthoclase. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. . Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park.

The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. It is common in granite and pegmatites. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. Amazon stone. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. viewed under a polarizing microscope. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m.Colorado. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. pale-yellow. however. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Microcline may be clear. or amazonite. white. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. or green. .Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. brick-red.

Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. respectively. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. Hydroxyapatite. in the mid-20th century.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. sodium .g.F . and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. in the crystal. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.F. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. Cl or ions. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Similarly.Cl)2. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. also known as hydroxylapatite. named for high concentrations of OH .

Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. yellow. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. sodium monofluorophosphate).[1] Crystal habit Tabular. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. usually green.fluoride.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. massive.Cl. brown. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. pink. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. blue to violet.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. less often colorless. prismatic crystals. compact or granular . Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.OH) Strunz classification 08.BN.

−0.634–1.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.[1] Dispersion 0.002–0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.006)[1] Birefringence 0. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1. green stones – greenish yellow .012.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. blue and yellow to colorless. Other colors are weak to very weak.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.638 (+0.16–3.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.

[1] .which is stronger in long wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave. light purple in short wave.


Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. In some mollusks. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. in others. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. also known as μ-CaCO3. respectively. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. resulting in a different crystal shape. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. is situated in Slovakia. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). The mineral vaterite.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. [citation Aragonite . Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. In the USA. one of the two common. the entire shell is aragonite. An aragonite cave. It is formed by biological and physical processes. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. Spain). naturally occurring. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. [edit]Uses In aquaria. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells.

acicular. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. Z = 4 Identification Color White. Aude department. orange.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. yellow. c = 5. b = 7. red.95 Å.74 Å. pisolitic.96 Å.AB. prismatic crystals. green . reniform. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. internally banded .dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. stalactitic. columnar. coralloidal.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . globular.

1.685 .529 . imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.682 nγ = 1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.1.686 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2. yellow.5-4 Luster Vitreous.1.530 nβ = 1.680 . white or .

characteristics bluish. phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV). yellowish (SW UV) .

Augite has two prominent cleavages.Ti)(Si.Al)2O6.Na)(Mg.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.Fe. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Al. [edit]Characteristics .

sanidine. It is found near the Ken River. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. but mostly of temperature. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. titanium. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. brown or [2] black) luster. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. which is from the Greekaugites. for example. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. meaning "brightness". although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. and sodium and other elements. labradorite. With declining temperature. leucite. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase.0 x 2.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. olivine.4 x 3. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. Augite .

Z=4 Identification Color Black. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. skeletal.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Augite .Fe. also acicular. β = 106.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.97°. dendritic . b = 8.DA. violet-brown.Na)(Mg. c = 5. brown.699 Å.844 Å. greenish.Al.Ti)(Si. in thin section.272 Å.

0.1. violet. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Z = pale green. violet . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.680 . pale yellow-green.1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.741.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. pale brown. nβ = 1.19 .684 .735. nγ = 1.3.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.706 . green.774 Birefringence δ = 0.026 .1. greenish yellow. grayish green. Y = pale brown.


and unknown white crystals. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. . The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. From Tsumeb.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. With azurite." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. France. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. The mineral. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. Namibia. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. has been known since ancient times. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. a carbonate.

Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite.5 to 4. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. The specific gravity of azurite is 3.77 to 3. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. Azurite is soft. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Characteristic of a carbonate. Azurite is destroyed by heat. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. carbonate and hydroxide. powdery copper(II) oxide. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature.89. . the other being bright green malachite. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. and are often stalactitic in form.

However. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. Heating destroys azurite easily. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. it gave a wide range of blues. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. a term applied to many blue pigments. Ultramarine withstands heat. in the silver mines located there. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. and also as an ornamental stone. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. France. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. such as saltwater aquariums. However. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. a similar but much more expensive pigment. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. and its basic content of copper carbonate.

However. dark. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. bright light. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. heat. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. collectors should use a cool. General .[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone.

prismatic.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.BA. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. β = 92.35 Å. Berlin blue.5 to 4 . very dark to pale blue.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. b = 5. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.85 Å. fair on {100}. stalactitic. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. twin planes {101}.01 Å. c = 10. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.43°.

108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.758 nγ = 1.730 nβ = 1.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3. 3.838 Birefringence δ = 0.773 (measured). calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .

In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. and shale. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. .basalt. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. gneiss. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. the clay mineral kaolinite. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. syenite.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. In the case of Jamaica. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites).

Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. followed by China. Increased aluminium recycling. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. Brazil. India.[edit]Production trends In 2010. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. . and Guinea. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves.

BARITE Baryte. [edit]Names [2] and history . and is the main [1] source of barium. The baryte group consists of baryte. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.Sr)SO4. or barite. celestine. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless.

tabling. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. including barytine. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. jigging. Other names have been used for baryte. but rather a material that meets that specification. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. Most baryte is ground to a small. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . heavy media separation. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. tiff. [2] Heavy associations and locations . which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. [8] schwerspath. an addition to industrial products. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [8] barytes. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. flotation. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). [2] [3] Spar. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. and blanc fixe. such as washing.

USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. and with hematite ore. in hot spring deposits.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. . Perthshire. among others. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. and evaporation. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. It has also been identified in meteorites. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. Scotland. hydrothermal.

Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). and paint. Morocco. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. New Mexico. friction products for automobiles and trucks. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. India. Romania (Baia Sprie). Liberia. Canada. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. United States (670). glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. India [12] (1. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Thailand. each with different characteristics. Iran. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. Peru. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire.2 or greater. radiation-shielding cement. China. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ).Perthshire.600). Georgia.Kentucky. New York & Fort Wallace. Nevada & Missouri. UK (Cornwall. As a well is drilled. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). can be less than 6 μm diameter. Connecticut. chemically inert. It is mined in Arkansas. Cumbria. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. The deeper the hole. the bit passes through various formations.000). South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). blue. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Virginia. Derbyshire. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. [edit]Paleothermometry . Turkey. Chile. Connecticut. Greece. brown or gray depending on the ore body. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Muirshiel [2] Mine. De Kalb. North [2] Carolina. and no more than 30%. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). sound reduction in engine compartments. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. by weight. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. Morocco (460). Iran (250). ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. Durham. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. paper. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. by weight. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. Tennessee.

systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. away from continental sources of sediment. Since baryte has oxygen. . pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.

maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. the Spanish word brillo. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". Terminated crystals are relatively rare. and [5] the English word brilliance. [edit]Deposits . Old French: beryl. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. Pure beryl is colorless.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". but it is frequently tinted by impurities. veḷiru ( ). also meaning "shine". beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. yellow. [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). which is ultimately of Dravidian origin.BERYL In geology. possible colors are green. and white. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. blue. red.

North Carolina. Clear yellow beryl. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. Madagascar. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. as well as Brazil. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. such as that occurring in Brazil. and Bahia. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. Ireland and Russia.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. InWyoming. Connecticut. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. neutrons or even X-rays). including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. In the United States. Idaho.5 m by 1. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. As of 1999. Espírito Santo.S. Colorado. Mozambique. South Dakota and Utah. Austria. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. U.5 meters in diameter. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. beryl locations are in California. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. near Powder River Pass. and 2+ 3+ . Germany. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais.000 kilogrammes. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Madagascar. South Africa. and Zambia. Maine.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. Colombia. and weighing 380. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. New Hampshire. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. though the color returns with irradiation. In Brazil. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. the United States. Mainewith dimensions 5. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Sweden (especially morganite). "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. and limestone inColombia. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe .

Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. It is named for the trapiche. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Coscuez. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Brazil. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. in 1910. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. Zimbabwe. such as Zambia. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. Minas Gerais. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. Brazil. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. Malawi. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. [15] [7][14] . meaning "green". In 1998.. Afghanistan and Russia. as such.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. and Chivor. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. marakata (म कन). A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. Madagascar. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. India. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. which has been on the market since 1964. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. It weighed over 110 kg. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. Madagascar. The mines of Colombia. In the US. and its dimensions were 48. North Carolina. Pakistan. Zambia. Most emeralds are highly included. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region.

C. golden beryl has very few flaws. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. The name originates from Goshen. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. In the past. Unlike emerald. However. D. . The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Washington. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. Nowadays. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless.

" was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. and color banding is common. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. On October 7. Ti. pink. It was also known. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). Utah. "pink emerald". USA.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. The crystal. because of the . Morgan. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. also known as "pink beryl". at Pala. P. its type locality. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". However.Maine. In December 1910. originally somewhat orange in hue. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. "rose beryl". It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. with other gemstone minerals. Thomas [26][27] Range. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. 1989. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. and Co impurities. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. Sc. green. Juab County. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. Fe. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. V. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. such astourmaline and kunzite. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. California. goshenite can be colored yellow.

05 . The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. pseudobrookite and hematite. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10.000 per carat for faceted stones. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. [28] of Fillmore. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. Utah. and Juab County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl".orthoclase. Utah.Sierra County. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. quartz. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. New [1] Mexico.CJ. Utah. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. topaz. while he was prospecting for uranium.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Beaver County. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. spessartine.

yellow.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. columnar. radial. blue.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. colorless.19 Å. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals. c = 9.50 Color Green. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7.21 Å.

564–1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.0040–0.595 nε = 1. but the stone itself does not) .568–1.Specific gravity Average 2.

Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. Iron. silicon. who. researched the optical properties of mica.OH)2. More generally. Biotite was named by J. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . magnesium. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. aluminium. Biotite is a sheet silicate.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. [4] discovering many unique properties. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. it refers to the dark mica series.F.L. oxygen. in 1816.

these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. and a grey-white streak. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. and even yellow when weathered. It can be transparent to opaque. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. For instance. It has amonoclinic crystal system. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. has a vitreous to pearly luster. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. which easily flake off. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. When biotite is found in large chunks. as in New England. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. . or lamellae. fracture is uneven. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites.than phlogopite. in some instances side-by-side. Virginia and North Carolina. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. especially in pegmatite veins. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. Ontario. and consists of flexible sheets. Norway. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. It appears greenish to brown or black.

less common on the {001} . blackish brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.53 g Color Dark brown. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. greenish brown.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. yellow.

8–3.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).5–3.03–0.565–1.675 nγ = 1.1 Density 2. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .605–1.605–1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.7–3.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.625 nβ = 1.675 Birefringence δ = 0.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.

also known as peacock ore.BORNITE Bornite. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).

[edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. Talate. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Montana and at Bristol. Austria. S. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks.Lomagundi district. Kazakhstan.Connecticut in the U.3 x 3. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. from the N’ouva mine. Zimbabwe. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. the Mangula mine. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). and elsewhere in Cornwall.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. eastern Tirol. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Morocco.Mexico (size: 7. Illogan.England. Karlovy Vary Region. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. .5 x 4.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. Ohio.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. The world's largest known geode. usually in small quantities. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine.The mineral is found worldwide. Celestine . The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. Crystal Cave. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. In carbonate marine sediments. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each.

black .359 Å. pale brown. c = 6.866 Å. pale blue. white. pale green.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. b = 5. pink.AD. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.352 Å.

632 Birefringence δ = .622 nβ = 1. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .95 .1.619 .1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. lamellar.3.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. good on {210}. also fibrous. earthy.624 nγ = 1. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.622 .5 Luster Vitreous.

white blue. long UV=yellow.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue .

Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. hydroxides and sulfates.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. chalcocite (Cu2S). digenite (Cu9S5). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. . On exposure to air. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). covellite (CuS). Copper is shown in pink.

Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. V. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. from huge masses as at Timmins. Ni. Pt. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Ontario. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. molybdenite representing Mo. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co.8 x 6. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. and trace amounts of Ag. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. the American cordillera and the Andes. Pb. Mn. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. . Pd. In. Se.3 x 4. Cr. However. Au. and Sb are reported.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. etc.

CB. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). Ouray County. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral .Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Colorado.

Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.54 Color Brass yellow. and sometimes botryoidal.3 .Unit cell a = 5. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. c = 10. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.423 Å. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.289 Å. commonly massive.1 – 4.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. and wood preservatives. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. fungicides. needed] In sufficient concentration. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). Pure copper is soft and malleable. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. muscle and bone. In the Roman era. Decorative art prominently features copper. both by itself and as part of pigments. later shortened to сuprum.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Characteristics . Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. and a constituent of various metal alloys. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. a building material. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color.

introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. For this reason.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. such as grain boundaries. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. Copper. As with other metals. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. At the macroscopic scale. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . galvanic corrosion will occur. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness.Physical A copper disc (99. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). and osmium (bluish). Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. above which it begins to heat excessively.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area.

Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. such as the Statue of Liberty. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. respectively. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. Edinburgh.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. It does not react with water. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. bulk corrosion. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. this oxide layer stops the further. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2.

with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. The other isotopes are radioactive.There are 29 isotopes of copper. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper.2 cm. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. Cu and Cu are stable. decays both ways. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4.4×3. Cu. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. which has [13] a half-life of 12. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite.8 minutes.83 hours. they both have a spin of 3/2.2×3.7 hours. [15] . US. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. Native copper is a polycrystal.

The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda.0 Mohs). which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. titanium and chromium. It is commonly used as anabrasive.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. plastics. All other colors are called sapphire. Transparent specimens are used as gems.. and wood. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . it can scratch almost every other mineral. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". It is a rock-forming mineral.g. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. In addition to its hardness. and the mix is less abrasive.0. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. but can have different colors when impurities are present.02 g/cm . and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. e. with an average hardness near 8.

gneiss. Russia. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. In 1903. New York.Corundum from Brazil. [4] Ontario. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837.8 in × 1 in). In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. . The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment.000 °C (3. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. Sri Lanka and India. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. [4] USA. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives.632 °F). size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. In 1847. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. silicon carbide. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2.

large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. and other machined parts). synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. and laser components.1.3. scratchresistant optics.05 Dana classification 4. rods. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.1 . bearings. Apart from ornamental uses. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. scratch-resistant watch crystals.CB.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.

massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent.982 Å. translucent toopaque .75 Å. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. tabular. violet.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. gray. rhombohedral crystals. blue to cornflower blue. brown. c = 12. orange. pink to pigeon-blood-red. prismatic. may be color zoned. yellow. green.

763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.772 nε = 1.hematite.95–4.Specific gravity 3.759–1. or hercynite .767–1.

black.CB. orange. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.10a Identification Formula mass 12. Less often blue. translucent white. green.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. purple and red. pink. . brown or gray to colorless. violet.

01 Density 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.044 .53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.52±0.5–3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

[edit]Properties . Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone.S. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. In 1791. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. often as a result of diagenesis. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. or in old U.

and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. Arkansas. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Unlike calcite. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. although it is usually massive. gray to pink. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. i. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. . having a different structural arrangement. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. where organic matter content is high.g. namely.e. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). In the 1950s and 60s. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. It forms white. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Crystal twinning is common. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. dolomite is a double carbonate.

to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. White Mountains. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". in a 1999 study. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. However. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. California. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. has not yet been [12] demonstrated.Dolomite. textural and chemical characteristics. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. . Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite).

dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source.2×4. Kansas(size: 11. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Cherokee County. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. In horticulture. Dolomite . Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. and copper. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district.4×7. a concrete aggregate. zinc.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role.

stalactitic. also columnar. granular. 3 Unit cell a = 4. massive.8012(1) Å. Z = 3 Identification Color White.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. often with curved faces.AB. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. c = 16.002 Å. Crystal system Trigonal .10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.

Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.179–0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.500 Birefringence δ = 0.84–2.681 nε = 1.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered. triboluminescent.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. .679–1.

The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. the pleochroic colors being usually green. yellow and brown.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral." 3+ . crystallizing in the monoclinic system. The color is green. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. Ca2Al2(Fe .Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). grey. It displays strong pleochroism. the color. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. the optical constants. and the specific gravity. brown or nearly black.

It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. garnets. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. pyroxenes. and others) composing igneous rocks. calcite. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. and apatite. . but one of secondary origin. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. withasbestos. here as large. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. Haddam inConnecticut. amphiboles. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. as magnificent. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. micas. adularia. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. dark green. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. Arendal in Norway. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. The perfectly transparent.

becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. andesite. and opaque in the mass. near Falun in Sweden. there is little or no cleavage. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. yellowish-. syenite. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. rhyolite. and many different names applied. and others. and well-developed crystals are rare. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. being black or dark brown in color. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. Although not a common mineral. gneiss. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. reddish-black. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. near Ivrea in Piedmont. and greenish-brown colors. further. after whom the species was named. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. Dollaseite is less common. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. Epidote . pitchy in lustre. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. sometimes a foot in length. granite. Piemontite occurs as small. at Finbo.

yellow-green. fibrous.3–3. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.6 .

751 nβ = 1.019–0.715–1.784 nγ = 1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.725–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.046 Pleochroism Strong .734–1.

the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. of plagioclase. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. . While slowly cooling within the earth. Typically. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution.

Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. It measured ~10×10×0. Most moonstones are translucent and white. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. such as porcelain. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. Russia. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. Germany. and as a constituent of scouring powder. some ceramics. It is the state gem of Florida. In gemology. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline.

(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Cleavages intersect at 90°.63 Optical Biaxial (-). It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Greyish yellow. White. Greenish. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. 2V = 65–75 . Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}.55–2. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance.

properties Refractive index nα = 1.525 Birefringence 0.518–1.522–1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.524 nγ = 1.522–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.0050–0. Other characteristics Low negative relief .520 nβ = 1.

Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. It is the most important lead ore mineral.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .

Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. The Mendips. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Of the latter. Smolyan Province. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena.1×3. Cornwall. Idaho. the former mining town of Galena. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Iowa and Wisconsin. . Somerset. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Bulgaria. antimony. Missouri. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. cadmium. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. England.2×2. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Broken Hill. Utah and Montana. Illinois. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. USA (size: 5. Rhodope Mountains. Derbyshire.S. and Cumberland. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. in a process similar to bioleaching.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. In the United States. In addition zinc. Saxony. the Madan.

the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). however. which was known as a "cat's whisker". In modern wireless communication systems. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. U. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. For example. in Ancient Egypt. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire.g. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.K.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. which. Isle of [5] Man. which were a potential source of disease. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems.

tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.1.CD.75 .10 Dana classification 2. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001]. 225 Twinning Contact. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.936 Å.8. space group Fm3m.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.5–2. No. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. among them goethite. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). although specimens may show a [6] . In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O.5. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. the other being hematite. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. but limonite does not.akaganeite.5 range.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. and jarosite. lepidocrocite. Although originally defined as a single mineral.3.7 to 4. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. The hardness is variable. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. but generally in the 4 . In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore.

pyroxene. and biotite. producing red ochres. to process limonite. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. amphibole. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. Complex systems developed. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. Main article: Ochre#History . while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. hematite and magnetite. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore.botryoidal.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. burnt umbers and siennas. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. Nonetheless. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. sometimes mammillary. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. Because of its amorphous nature. [12] notably in Tanzania. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. and hematite was far easier to smelt. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. in Africa. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. Before smelting. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. [10] California mining district. reniform or stalactitic.

powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. Limonite General Category Amorphous. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs.5½ .

4.3 Density 2.9 .7 .4.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

with huge war debts. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. giving rise to the term theacid test. is insoluble in nitric acid. so named because it dissolves gold. in veins and in alluvial deposits. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. which dissolves silver and base metals. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. as nuggets or grains in rocks. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. . The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. in 1932. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. Chemically. In Europe. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds.S. It dissolves in mercury. malleable and ductile metal. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. usually with tellurium. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. Less commonly.GOLD Gold is a dense. forming amalgam alloys. shiny. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. jewelry. soft. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. which have been used in mining.

about 8876 m . with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. ductility. Its highmalleability. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. This is roughly equivalent to 5. or a cube 20. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. . and 10% in industry. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. includingelectric wiring. colored-glass production and gold leafing. in terms of volume. and other fields. electronics.7 m on a side.A total of 171. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry.5 billion troy ounces or.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. 40% in [3] investments. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions.

flat. It is. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. "to draw/write".: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. graphite is an electrical conductor. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). .GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. 3. There are three principal types of natural graphite. 2. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. a semimetal. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. Therefore. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. for its use in pencils. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. consequently. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. the last stage of coalification.

S. in particular. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. China is the largest producer of graphite. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. micas and tourmaline. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). respectively. Brazil (76 kt). Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals.18 billion. [7] totaling 73% of all global production.110 thousand tonnes (kt).Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. U. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. calcite.S. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. India (130 kt). North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. Graphite is not mined in the United States. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. Graphite . but U.

deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.708 Å.461 Å.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. six-sided foliatedmasses. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray. otherwise rough when not on cleavage . granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.CB. c = 6.

09–2.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.

in contrast to most other salts. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. typically opaque. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. and in the early 19th century. (Thus. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. fibrous form. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. rather. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes.5 g/l at 25°C) and.0–2. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. cleavable masses called selenite. [edit]Occurrence . with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. Selenite contains no significantselenium. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. and transparent. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. In arid areas. "spear stone". is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. referring to its crystalline projections. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). it exhibits a retrograde solubility. Upon addition of water. Finally. When the crystal lattice is heated. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. it may also be granular or quite compact. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. In hand-sized samples. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". it is alabaster. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. It can be used as afertilizer. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. As a mineral. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. As foranhydrite. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. "chalk" or "plaster". Selenite may also occur in a silky.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. called alabaster. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. in the form of selenite. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved.

as well as in hot springs. UK. However. Under reducing conditions. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Wyoming. Blue Anchor. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. and sulfate solutions inveins.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls.000 years. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. from volcanic vapors. Gypsum is a common mineral. Somerset. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Pure gypsum is white. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. strongly opposed by area residents. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Commercial exploitation of the area. .

CD. β = 118. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. reddish brown or gray . blue. pink. tan. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07.679(5) Å. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. c = 6. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. b = 15.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.202(14) Å.43°.522(6) Å. may be yellow.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. brown.

Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. inelastic. flat.530 Birefringence δ = 0.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.519–1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}. Mohs scalehardness 1.522–1.010 .due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.529–1.31–2.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. pearly.521 nβ = 1.523 nγ = 1.

fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

however. or otherwise highly weathered soils. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. also spelled as haematite. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. brown to reddish brown. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. spring. While the forms of hematite vary.HEMATITE Hematite. colored black to steel or silver-gray. one of several iron oxides. Hematite is harder than pure iron. they all have a rust-red streak. or other standing water. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. usually as the result of volcanic activity. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. ancient. Hematite can also occur without water. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). Maghemite is a hematite. Hematite is a mineral. Varieties includekidney ore. . but much more brittle. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite).

772(12) Å. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.CB. Fe2O3. c = 13.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. dull to bright red .038(2) Å.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.

150–3.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.940 Birefringence δ = 0. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.870–2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3.220. earthy.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. radiating fibrous. commonly in rosettes. reniform. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.280 . micaceous or platy. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. nε = 2. columnar. granular.5–6.

Pleochroism O = brownish red. E = yellowish red .

an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. brown or black color. to refer to a dark amphibole.Fe. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. but the name is used as a general or field term. greenish-brown.Si)8O22(OH.F)2. a specific gravity of 2. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. The general formula can be given as (Ca.9–3. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.4 and is typically an opaque green. and an iron-magnesium silicate. .Na)2–3(Mg.Al)5(Al. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.

Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . andesite. gneiss. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. diorite. andschist. Orange County. Al)5 (Al. Fe. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. is gray to white in color. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. from its locality in Edenville. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. syenite. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. and named edenite. New York. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. gabbro.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. basalt.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.9 Pleochroism Strong .Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). calaba. pinyin: Gaoling). giving it a distinct rust hue. In many parts of the world. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. part of the group of industrial minerals.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. Jiangxi province. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). United States. earthy. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. [edit]Chemistry [6] . Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Lighter concentrations yield white. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. It is a layered silicate mineral. In Africa. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. Alternating layers are sometimes found. a village near Jingdezhen. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. It is a soft. yellow or light orange colors. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. China.

3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. Si3Al4O12. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. S = SiO2. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. H = H2O. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. [edit]Occurrence . however. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. Al2Si2O7.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3).

soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene.5 million tonnes. in Brazil. Australia. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. Bulgaria. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas.Korea. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Iran.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. as kaolin. it is mined. the Czech Republic and the United States. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Kaolinite . France. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. India. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. [1] the People's Republic of China. Germany. United Kingdom.

Z = 2 Identification Color White.ED. thin plates or stacked. β = 104. aggregated into compact. c = 7. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. α = 90°. b = 8. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .13 Å. sometimes red.8°.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09.25 Å.89 Å.5°. γ = 89.

Mohs scalehardness 2–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.569.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.559–1. Calculated: 44° .68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.565. nγ = 1.553–1.569–1. nβ = 1.16–2.

tourmaline.Si)3O10(F. topaz and beryl. feldspar.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Manitoba. Associated minerals [1] include quartz.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. cassiterite. columbite. andMadagascar. Russia. Notable occurrences include Brazil. greisens and granites. Canada. United States. California. Ural Mountains. amblygonite. Lepidolite . It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series.spodumene. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. Bernic Lake. in some high-temperature quartz veins. Tanco Mine. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. It occurs in granite pegmatites.

Si)3O10(F. Minas Gerais.149(5) Å. rose-red. Brazil (size 2. yellowish.209(2) Å b = 9. Virgem da Lapa.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.EC.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.Cm Unit cell a = 5. white.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Lepidolite. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink. colorless .1 x 0. violet-gray. β = 100:77(4)°.4 x 2. purple.011(5) Å c = 10.

8–2.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.548. pale violet 2V angle 0° .Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals. Y = Z = pink. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.58. nγ=1.551–1.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.586 Birefringence 0.58° measured .0290–0.525–1.554– 1. nβ=1. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. hematite. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Commonly. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster.e. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. called lodestone. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. will attract small pieces of iron. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. and ulvospinel have been much studied.

1. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. In many igneous rocks.III) oxide. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .BB. including banded iron formations. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.397 Å. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont.085 °F). Z=8 Identification Color Black.

as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. the spinel law.Crystal habit Octahedral. parting on {Ill}.17–5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5–6.

000 years. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. "mallow".MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. a large malachite vase. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. It is also used for decorative purposes. and most often forms botryoidal. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. deep underground. fibrous. which features a huge malachite vase. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. variant of καιάχε malāchē. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. in fractures and spaces. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. Middle French: melochite. Since then. . or stalagmitic masses. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. "The Tazza". The pigment is moderately lightfast. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. "mallow-green stone".

Gabon. Namibia. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. dark green. Mexico. Timna valley. Russia. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. Israel. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Broken Hill. . goethite.BA. Except for its vibrant green color. Lyon. blackish green.Zambia. Tsumeb. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals.1 g/mol Color Bright green. New South [7] Wales. and calcite. France.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones.10 Identification Formula mass 221. the source of the carbonate. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.

254 .875 nγ = 1.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. stalactitic.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.commonly banded in masses. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.5–4. Polysynthetic twinning also present. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. silky if fibrous.655 nβ = 1. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.909 Birefringence δ = 0. botryoidal.

and can be transparent or translucent.25 parallel to the [001] face. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. India. browns. The green.76–3. Its crystal system is monoclinic. yellows. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. [4] . greens. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. or (rarely) violet or red. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. isinglass. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite.OH)2. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite.

3×3. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. Minas Gerais.02a. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. In pegmatites.Muscovite with beryl (var. and schists. gneisses. morganite) from Paprok. found in granites. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.8×3. etc.EC. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.kyanite. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.9×4.02. feldspar. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . pegmatites.15 Dana classification 71.

β = 95.199 Å.576 . silky.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.027 Å.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Unit cell a = 5. Z = 4 Identification Color White. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.78°.552–1. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). b = 9. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.106 Å. grey. c = 20.

035 – 0.582–1.587–1.nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .615 nγ = 1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.

The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember).Fe)2SiO4.g. [edit]Identification and paragenesis .. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. almost 1900 °C. magnesium and iron. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. Fo 70Fa30). monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. silicon. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). as do other properties. The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers.

though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Arizona. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. . Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Gila Co. USA. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals..

collections of debris from the early solar system. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e.Fe)2Si2O6). In contrast. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. the French word for olivine). and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. because olivine is so abundant. Such meteorites include chondrites. 2012). Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. falling into infant stars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. andpallasites. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. First X-ray view of Martian soil . 12 GPa. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. in the dust of comet Wild 2. the Moon. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. from the Greek words for gold and stone). olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. and .g. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. moreover. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Mars. October 17. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites.feldspar. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. or forsterite. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. pyroxenes.

O3 lies in a general position. O2. In an alternative view. Olivine . meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O2 and O3 in figure 1). while M1 exists on an inversion center. Oxygen is shown in red. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. silicon in pink. and magnesium/iron in blue.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. O1. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7 Luster Vitreous .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.630–1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.670–1.650–1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.27–3.670 nγ = 1.040 .650 nβ = 1.

olive. For gemstone use. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. brown. yellow. Of these hues. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. rose. [edit]Precious opal . but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. rhyolite. green. and black.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . This includes the production of the state of South Australia. orange. red. whereas white and greens are the most common. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. a mineraloid form. pink. not a mineral. being most commonly found withlimonite. marl and basalt. the reds against black are the most rare. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. magenta. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. blue. Opal ranges from clear through white. gray. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. slate. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. sandstone. like basalt.

Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. . packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. Contrarily. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. Potch does not show a play of color. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. . Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. In addition. which is often of lower quality. it has an internal structure. which is correctly termed play of color. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. basalt. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. unlike triplet opals. or obsidian. and are not classed as precious opal. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. of which opal is the best known natural example. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone.Australian Opal Doublet.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

hyalite. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. or star .A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. They do not usually show any play of color. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. which is brown or grey. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). geyserite. orange. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. menilite. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. also called siliceous sinter. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. resin opal. wood opal. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. orange-yellow or red. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal.

The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. It weighs 17. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. when cut properly. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. Boulder Opal. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. However.effect. Queensland . 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. It does not display pleochroism. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Queensland. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions.

known as the "Black Peacock. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Idaho. Opal Queen. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Another Australian town. is the main source of black opal. white. and lemon opal. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. and black opal.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. [citation needed] [12] A . and marine creatures in South Australia. bones. and a snake head have been found. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada.585 carats." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Bonanza. crystal opal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color)." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. and weighs 2. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Royal Peacock. from Kynuna in the north. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. crystal. fire. closely related to boulder opal. Miocene age opalised teeth. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. weighing 160 carats. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. fish. Nevada. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal.

yellow. Brazil (inPedro II. Piauí ). SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. green. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. [19] Slovakia. red. Hungary. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . Indonesia. Guatemala. Turkey. orange. In late 2008. black.7 by 0.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. white. in masses.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. brown. Honduras. Nicaragua and Ethiopia.

37.15 (+.450 (+. but typically reads 1. or yellow in long and short wave.[1] . may phosphoresce.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. -. -.90)[1] Density 2.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.42–1. transparent Specific gravity 2.08. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. translucent.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. may phosphoresce.Mohs scalehardness 5. green.020. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. May also phosphoresce.

hydrofluoric acid .humic acid. bases. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. methanol.

The color has also led to the nicknames brass. sedimentary rock. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. in turn from πύρ (pur). brazzle and Brazil. as well as in coal beds. "fire". "of fire" or "in fire". the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. and metamorphic rock. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. [edit]Uses . almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. In ancient Roman times. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. or iron pyrite. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold.37 wt% gold.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. By Georgius Agricola's time. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure.

Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. that is. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Navajún. iron(II) sulfate. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. was popular in the Victorian era. [14] During the early years of the 20th century.95 eV. . Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). By the 19th century. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. it had become the [12] dominant method.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. often set in silver. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Marcasite jewelry. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Until the vacuum tube matured. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. In the 15th century. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). most notably the wheellock. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. La Rioja.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine.

Rioja.417 Å.12. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. 512 g.EB. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. Z=4 .1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.1.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.05a Dana classification 2.

95–5.10 Fusibility 2. Often inter-grown. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. radiated. massive.5–3 to a magnetic globule . but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. globular and stalactitic. granular. faces may be striated. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven.5 Luster Metallic.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Czech tvrdy ("hard"). Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. space group P6221 and P6421. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. giving an overall formula SiO2. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. There are many different varieties of quartz. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Polish twardy ("hard")). The . varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. after feldspar. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. only one termination pyramid is present. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. respectively. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). distorted.

onyx. rose quartz. see Citrine (disambiguation). milky quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. smoky quartz. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. are agate.transformation between α. amethyst. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. sard. or mixed rocks including quartz. Common colored varieties include citrine. and is rarely found naturally. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. Natural citrines are rare. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. carnelian. heliotrope. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). . [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. such as the Lothair Crystal. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. and others. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. For other uses. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. Citrine has ferric impurities. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. but they differ in hardness. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. without change in the way they are linked. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. and jasper.

In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. in the massive material.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Brazil. USA. or manganese. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. iron. Magaliesburg. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. . Maine.

[edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz.

liquid. Agate Multi-colored. or both. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. This does not always hold true. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. colorless Amethyst Purple. transparent . Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. Otherwise more specific names are used. parallel and consistent in size. exhibiting chatoyancy. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. trapped during the crystal formation. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Rock crystal Clear. banded chalcedony.

transparent Rose quartz Pink. translucent. translucent to opaque. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .

SiO2) Strunz classification 04.01.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.9133 Å.03. drusy.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. c = 5.05 Dana classification 75. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.DA.4053 Å. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. fine-grained to microcrystalline. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).

552–1.59–2.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.545 nε = 1. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. variable 2. may betriboluminescent.554 Birefringence +0.65. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.543–1.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

1.738 nβ = 1.5 .751 Birefringence δ = 0.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.6.711 .57 . Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .1.741 nγ = 1.714 .1.3.724 .

free form (native silver). and zinc refining. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. gold. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. A soft. . Today. to make ornaments. and currency coins. lustrous transition metal. high-value tableware.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. further research into clinical potential continues. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. and is used as an investment. lead. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). both from the Indo-European root*arg. jewelry. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. Latin: argentum. as an alloy with gold and other metals. white. utensils (hence the term silverware).for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. Its compounds are used in photographic film.

Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. nosean. with a polished rock surface. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Canada. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. lazurite and tugtupite. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. .

Well known for its blue color. Quebec. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. sodalite is named after its sodium content. British Columbia. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. green. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. West Greenland. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. shortwave ultraviolet light. calcite. sanidine. namelyleucite. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. albite. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. Occurring typically in massive form. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. near Golden. in the USA. and Magnet Cove. Smaller deposits are found in South . and Mont-SaintHilaire. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. cancrinite and natrolite. Conversely. sodalite may also be grey.A light. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. Other associated minerals include nepheline.ankerite and baryte. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. The Ice River [5] complex. in Canada. and Litchfield. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. [3] titanian andradite. If left in a dark environment for some time. Ontario. Arkansas. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. yellow. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. microcline. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. particularly. aegirine. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. [1] Narsaq. Maine. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. the violet will fade again. fluorite. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. contains sodalite.

America (Brazil and Bolivia). violet.FB.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Romania.876(6) Å. Burma and Russia. yellow. Italy. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. green. Portugal. white veining common . Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Euhedral. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.

may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass. sodium . with yellowishphosphorescence.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.483 .1.27-2.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Massive. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . Magnesium. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. mostly opaque.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.

biotite. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. Samples are also found in Taos. Norway. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. Keivy Mountains. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. kyanite. New Mexico. In handsamples. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character.S. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. Virginia. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. It occurs with almandine garnet. called penetration twinning. It is the official state mineral of the U. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. Kola Peninsula. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. micas. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. depth. as well as albite. . Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism.

30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7. rarely blue.Murmanskaja Oblast'. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.45°.65 Å. b = 16.6 Å. 2. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. Russia. c = 5. yellowish brown.86 Å. Northern Region. β = 90.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.AF.5 x 2. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.

1. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.83 meas.009 . weak . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°. Y = pale yellow.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.74 .1.740 .745 .3.1.754 nγ = 1.736 .Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 . 3.762 Birefringence δ = 0. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.7.747 nβ = 1.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.0.686 calc.


Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. Its streak is white. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). It has a specific gravity of 2. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. In loose form.5– 2. and the folia are non-elastic. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. although slightly flexible. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk.8. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Talc is not soluble in water. [edit]Formation . and is translucent to opaque. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. a clear or dusty luster.

Such rocks are typically white. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. and are known as whiteschist. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. garnet. olivine. and fibrous. amphibole. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. friable. [edit]Occurrence . glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. This is typically associated with high-pressure. pyroxene. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite.

the Guiana Shield. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. Nepal and Bhutan.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Oman and the Middle East. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). Western Australia. layered ultramafic intrusion. India. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. from Brazil. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. the western European Alps especially in Italy. eastern Australia. formed upon a polydeformed. representing 8% of world production.

158 Å.09°. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. β = 119. b = 9. c = 18. γ = 90.290 Å.90°. b = 9.287 Å.68°. c = 5.173 Å. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.291 Å.3°. Z = 2 or a = 5. β = 99.95 Å. α = 98.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.EC. brown.

594 nγ = 1.550 nβ = 1.58 to 2.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. long UV=yellow .600 Birefringence δ = 0.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.589 – 1.589 – 1.538 – 1.

TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.OH)2.

Typically. Orange topaz. Sri Lanka. Czech Republic. Italy. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. is the traditional November birthstone. Nigeria and the United States. also known as precious topaz. Flinders Island. sometimes even violet. yellow. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. It can also be made white. measured a massive 22. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah.5 carats. a more recent gem. pink (rare. blue. Germany. The American Golden Topaz. colorless. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. typical topaz is wine. pink or violet colored. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Brazil. the symbol of [5] friendship. pink (rare).Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. in Afghanistan. Japan.Sweden. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . Imperial topaz is yellow. pale gray. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. if natural) or pink-orange. Australia. gold. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Mexico.75 carats. gold. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent.892. pale green. Pakistan. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. Norway. or blue brown. reddish-orange.

some scholars think it is related to .[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius." However. [edit]History Nicols. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. a topaz. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. Minas Gerais. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. the ancient name of St. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. In the Middle Ages. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. etymology. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. [edit]Biblical background. both of which predate the Greek word. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬.

"fiery".35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. = yellow.4 Å.an Assyrian word meaning "flashed". Z = 4 .OH)2 Strunz classification 9.AF. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn).65 Å. metaphorically. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.8 Å. b = 8. [citation needed] More likely. meaning "yellow burn" or. c = 8.

pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.49–3.638 . compact. gray. also columnar.606–1. brown.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).631 nγ = 1.629 nβ = 1. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. green.616–1. orange. yellow.609–1. blue.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

bluish. yellow. violet. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. short UV=golden yellow. Y = yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. reddish. Z = violet. long UV=cream .010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow.

[edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. lithium. Italy .TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. magnesium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. iron. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). sodium. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. or potassium.

"Schörle". The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. in addition to cassiterite. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). In the 19th century the names common schorl. for the Drava river area. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature.Drava river area. Austro-Hungarian Empire. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. schörl. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. Carinthia. This village had a nearby tin mine where. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". and "Schurl".Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). The word tourmaline has two etymologies. Beginning in the 18th century. . black tourmaline was found. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". In English. Up to about 1600. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927).

Elba Island. V T = Si. vacancy Y = Li. O W = OH. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. San Piero in Campo. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). where: [6] X = Ca. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Na. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Al. V . and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. Zn. Al. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Cr . in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. Cr . The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. B B = B. Fe . Elba Island. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. California. Italy. Al. Italy. Ti . Sweden. Fe . was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Province of [5] Livorno. K. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. United States.5Al1. Mg. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Fe . vacancy V = OH. Italy.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Mn .Campo nell'Elba. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Tuscany. sodium-. vacancy Z = Mg. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. F. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. with the simplified formula (Li. Czech Republic.

5.Al1.. San Diego Co. Cryo-Genie Mine. California. US.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.

California. US [edit]Physical properties . Himalaya Mine. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz..Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. San Diego Co.

currently. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. and are often pyroelectric as well. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. [edit]Geology . Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. red.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. it is colorless. called hemimorphism. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. Rarely. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. impact the value. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. or green on the outside and pink inside. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. in western Australia. Usually. and does not. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. yellow. pink. no other common mineral has three sides. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. Heavily-included tourmalines. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. etc. especially pink to red colored stones. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. but is now exhausted. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . During their 2+ growth. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. green.

dravites. or in a dual-colored pink and green.K. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.B)6O18(OH. Fe.Mn)3(Al.Mg. are generally restricted to schists and marble. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Cr.Fe.[])(Al. green.Li. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. but can range from brown. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.Na.V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Scattered grains (in granite). .F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. Massive. pink. Acicular prisms.Al. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. sometimes radiating. violet.

dark brown. nε=1.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.82–3.5 Luster Vitreous. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.20 -.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.675. small conchoidal. typically about .040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.040. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.610–1.020 but in dark stones it may reach .06 (+. dark blue.018 to -0. light blue . yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.635–1.06)[1] Density 2. dark green.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.650 Birefringence -0. dark red.

017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .Dispersion .

one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. [edit]Occurrence .TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. is a green variety of tremolite. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Nephrite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite.

DE. Switzerland.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.diopside. wollastonite. cummingtonite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Associated minerals include calcite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Approximately 36. talc. forsterite. dolomite. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. grossular. French Pyrenees (size: 8. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Piumogna [1] Valley. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.2 x 6.Ticino (Tessin). Leventina. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.

also as fibrous. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . β = 104. lavender to pink. light green.02 Å. or flattened crystals.95°. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic.84 Å. common parallel to {100}.99 – 3. Z = 2 Identification Color White. c = 5.Unit cell a = 9. b = 18. gray.27 Å.

613 .625 .599 .1.626 nγ = 1.Refractive index nα = 1.1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. Long UV=range pink .1.612 nβ = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.

glauberite. and Kazakhstan. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. by internal reflection. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. USA. trona. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. gyps [1] um and halite. borax. meyerhofferite. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. calcite. mirabilite. water and hydroxide octahedra. . water. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). It is found principally in California and Nevada. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. probertite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. sometimes known as TV rock. The chains are linked together by calcium. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. Tarapacá Region in Chile. hydroboracite. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it.

Ulexite decomposes in hot water. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. two of which are polarized. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. Ulexite . When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection.

β = 109.Ulexite from California(size: 6.9 x 5 x 3.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.816(3) Å.1°.11.EA.12°.87Å. α = 90. Z =2 Identification .25°. c = 6.678(1) Å.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.05. γ = 105.25 Dana classification 26. b = 12.

491 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous.506 br/>nγ = 1.95 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.519 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.496 nβ = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.028 .504 – 1.

2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. greenish yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . cream.

albite gneiss. diorite gneisses. etc. Depending on their composition. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. rotten or possibly worthless material.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. biotite gneiss. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. they may also be called garnet gneiss. etc. It has occurred in English since at least [1] coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. . so called because the rock glitters). Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. chlorite or other platyminerals.

sparkle.g. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. . Dutch marmer. Armenian marmar. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Italian marmo. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. [5] gleam". Portuguese mármore. most other European languages (e. [3][4] "crystalline rock". perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō)." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre.German. silt. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Turkish mermer. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. sand. "shining stone". meaning "marble-like. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. iron oxides. Norwegian. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Spanish mármol. "to flash. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. however. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Polish marmur.


sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). sericite mica. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. . and chlorite. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. sericite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. or chlorite impart a silky.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz.

non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. such as yellow and orange. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. rutile and magnetite. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. not around them. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Canada . Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. Other colors. diagenetically altered. are due to other mineral impurities. iron oxide. Although few fossils are normally present. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. and both usages are found in the literature. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. therefore. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. British Columbia. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. silica. carbonate and clay.

[edit]Occurrences In the United States. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. industrial silica sand. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. In the Scottish Highlands. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. as flooring. [4] . Monte Binga (2436 m).Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. Foinaven. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. pale grey. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. precambrian quartzite. In Canada. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. the Wasatch Range in Utah. southwestMinnesota. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. The highest mountain in Mozambique. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. In Wales. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. In the United Kingdom. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. silicon and silicon carbide. and stair steps. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. near Salt Lake City. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. Central Texas. as roofing tiles. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction.g. several mountains (e. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs.


Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps.talc. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. tourmaline schist. hornblende. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. for example. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. for example. however. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. etc. If the whole district. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. By definition. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. In other . Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. The individual mineral grains in schist. Usually. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. Most schists are mica schists. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. and others. A quartz-porphyry. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. In the [2] context of underground coal mining.clastic structure. graphite. chlorite. can be seen by the naked eye. glaucophane schist. the terms slate. such as garnet schist. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist.

there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). which have been derived from rhyolites. Such rocks. many metamorphic limestones. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. A subgroup is the andalusite. . and calc-schists. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. garnet. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. with crystalline dolomites. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity.cases intrusive junctions. and the white mica-schists. chilled edges. marbles. while others are found only among igneous masses. feldspar. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. quartz and feldspar. with variable amounts of white and black mica. dolomites. contain silicate minerals such as mica. For example. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. zoisite and hornblende. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). scapolite. tremolite. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. as limestones. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. diopside. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. however. for example. schistose character. are alteredclaystones and shales. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. foliated. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. staurolite. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. The majority of mica-schists.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. or zirconas well as feldspar. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. However. en masse. traditionally a small piece of slate. and may also be purple. magnetite.. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. Slate is not to be confused with shale. hematite. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. covering roofs. the terms slate. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. leaving a light green spotted texture. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. or schist. for example. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. from which it may be formed. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. as in the purple slates of North Wales. kaolinite. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. foliated. apatite. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. Slate is frequently grey in color. less frequently. green or cyan. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. from pale to dark. graphite. often framed in wood. especially when seen. . and pyrite and. tourmaline. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. Occasionally. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. It may mean a single roofing slate. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. In the context of underground coal mining.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. For example. often along with biotite. or a writing slate. chlorite.


but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. chlorite etc. In a general sense. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. 2. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. 3. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. zircon. anhydrous forms.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. apatite. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. Characteristic of subduction zones. but most . releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. of intermediate composition. barium(Ba). with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. zeolites. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. During subduction. Magnetite. [5] sediment. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite.e. ilmenite.g. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. potassium (K). active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. volcanic rock. Partial melting of crustal material. leading to metamorphism. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous.. biotite. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska.

are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. the composition is returned to andesite. therefore. such as the Andes. forming mafic cumulates. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. Once there. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. Basalt can. its intermediate phase. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. As this process continues. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. . the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. In order to remain active. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. however. however. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. If it underplates the crust. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. creating a layer of molten material at its base. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. however. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. Without continued addition of mafic material. Models of heat transfer. these reservoirs cool. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition.


Venus. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume.g. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. By definition. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase..BASALT Basalt (pron.. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. 2007). It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. (In comparison. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. the third largest moon of Jupiter. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Mars. and even on the asteroid Vesta. Hungary . containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. On Earth. Sobolev et al. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. /ˈbæsɒlt/.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust.

. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. as building blocks or in the groundwork). believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. basanites "very hard stone. an excellent thermal insulator. from βάζανος (basanos. US quarter for scale. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. libri XII. misspelling of L. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. Arizona." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites).g.

 Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt.     . most large oceanic islands. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins.

It may contain small amounts of quartz. the Isle of Guernsey. Northeastern Turkey. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. occasionally with porphyry.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine).biotite. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Basin and Range province. magnetite. however. Finland. hornblende. Minnesota in theUSA. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. Its hardness. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Sondrio. source localities include Leicestershire. apatite.DIORITE Diorite (pron. and/or pyroxene. into which they may subtly merge. the Andes Mountains. microcline and olivine. Romania. central Sweden. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. It can also be black or bluish-grey. and frequently has a greenish cast. . The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Italy. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. making it difficult to carve and work with. and Idahet in Egypt. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. and to provide a durable finished work. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. which is transitional togabbro. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. the Darrans range of New Zealand. sphene. Zircon. Scotland. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite.

. Assyria and Sumer. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. Guernsey and Scotland.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. London. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. but mostly for fortress walls. inscribed upon a 2.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. weaponry. Babylonia. etc. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Paul's Cathedral. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. In later times.

amphibole. Scotland. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. the rock is then a norite. easternSierra Nevada. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. Gabbros contain minor amounts.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). Gabbro is dense. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. plagioclase. typically a few percent. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. ilmenite. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. and ulvospinel. California. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. coarse-grained. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . Rock Creek Canyon. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. The rocks areplutonic. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. Isle of Skye.

although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. intruding into the rift flanks. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. although it may be porphyritic at times. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. gold. cobalt. and copper sulfides. . platinum. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive.extra descriptiveness is desired. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. Massachusetts. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. nickel. silver. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. US. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region.


northern Chile . a grain.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. felsic. This rock consists mainly of quartz. Granitoid is a general. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy.GRANITE Granite (pron. descriptive field term for light-colored. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. By definition. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. near the town of Caldera. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. hard and tough. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. The average density of granite is between 2. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone.65 and 2. an unusual type of granite. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color.75 3 g/cm . A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. mica. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa.1260 °C. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. Granites can be pink to gray in color. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). Melting temperature is 1215 . and feldspar.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai.

Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park.

30% P2O5 — 0.12% Na2O — 3.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. it is called tonalite. where it forms a major part of continental crust. although much of it is of Precambrian age. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.71% TiO2 — 0. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. sanidine.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. In some locations. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.The Cheesewring. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase.82% FeO — 1. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. . a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.69% CaO — 1. Granite often occurs as relatively small.68% Fe2O3 — 1. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.22% MgO — 0.12% MnO — 0.


Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). [9][10][11] . The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth.. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. forming perlite. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. Obsidian is hard and brittle. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. which is the parent material. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis).. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. in addition. California . though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. usually 70% or more. Obsidian is mineral-like. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. New [13] [14] Mexico. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Armenia.S. Azerbaijan. Japan. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. states including Arizona. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America.Greece. Scotland and the United States. New Zealand. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Washington. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. . rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). Guatemala.Utah. white. Canada. as well as Pennsylvania. Oregon and Idaho. the inclusion of small. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Colorado. It can be found in Argentina. El Salvador. Peru. states of Virginia. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. Italy. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. and deposits can be found in many other western U. In some stones. Chile. Mexico. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). Pantelleria. Kenya. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions.S. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Texas. Iceland.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East.


Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Theory Theory . feldspar and mica. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. in essence a granite. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline.5 cm in size. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. exsolution lamellae. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Similarly. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. pyroxene and other minerals are known. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. Therefore. For this reason. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. macroscale graphic texture is known. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites.

Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. California. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. granite-associated mineralisation pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. and are usually granitic in character. to liberate the right constituents and water. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. being altogether "granitic" in character. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. Beyond that. often with mica and usually with quartz. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. in a few cases. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. . Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. eastern Sierra Nevada. for example greisens. with bulk chemical and textural change. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. Rock Creek Canyon.

columbite. potassium and lithium. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. tourmaline. Hence. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. Geochemically. zinnwaldite and so forth. orange and brown almandine garnet. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. . tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. et cetera. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Often. say. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. commonly almandine or spessartine. orientation. aluminium. topaz. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. tourmaline. In most cases. Queensland. Tantalum. lepidolite. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. boron. niobium. such as aquamarine. Bismuth. Australia). often along with tin and tungstenminerals. accessory minerals and timing. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. tantalite. cesium. tantalite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. thorium. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. apatite and corundum. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. uranium. however. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. beryllium. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite.Garnet. among others. fluorite. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". tourmaline. Occasionally. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures.

pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. Within the metamorphic belts. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. . creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. "granitic" or "metasomatic". Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. transitional with some greisens. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. However. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. Similarly. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension.

compressed with fiamme on right. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). . which may or may not contain crystals. uncompressed with pumice on left. Pumice is created when super-heated. It is typically light colored. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail.PUMICE Pumice pron.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.

it sinks rapidly. It is commonly. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. rhyolitic. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. In [4] fact. cream.. In 1979. 1984 and 2006. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. . phonolite. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. many samples float in water. Pumice is commonly pale in color. to green-brown or black. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e.g. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. ranging from white.S.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. dacitic. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. When larger amounts of gas are present. blue or grey. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. trachyte). After the explosion of Krakatoa. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. and initially floats on water. andesite. pantellerite. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. but basaltic and other compositions are known. with tree trunks floating among them.

There are two main forms of vesicles. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. in the case of pumiceous lavas. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. cosmetic exfoliants. smooth. pencil erasers. It is also used as an abrasive. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. When used as an additive for cement. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. during flow. especially in polishes. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. . It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. plaster-like concrete.

volcanic (extrusive) rock. the eruptions were at the St. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). and consequently. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. . lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. and lithophysal structures.nodular. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. spherulitic. also called obsidian. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. below:pumice. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known.


and bursting. typically near its surface. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. creating bubbles in the molten rock. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. but in contrast to pumice. and sinks in water. rust. An old name for scoria is cinder. Auckland in New Zealand. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . skōria. Quincan. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. and may contain phenocrysts. and hence is denser. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. An example is Mount Wellington. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. another vesicular volcanic rock. coalescence. blocks and bombs). a unique form of Scoria. Vesicles are usually small. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). black or purplish red). instead they open into one another with little distortion. Australia. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. bubble growth. . [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures.

It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. and often has striking colours. . Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. It is somewhat porous. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. and to carve some moai from. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. has high surface area and strength for its weight.

[5] Vietnam. the fewest impurities. Ukraine. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. "coal-like. China accounts for the lion’s share of production.1% and 98%. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. which also include bituminous coal and lignite." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Australia and the US. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. other producers are Russia. and black diamond. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. which is used mainly in power generation. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. hard coal. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. the UK. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. and lustre. mineral-matter-free basis. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG).S. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. blue. its higher relative density of 1. which is softer). [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. as opposed to lignite. In America. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. which is used as a pigment. North Korea. and smokeless flame. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found.4. is known as culm. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. coal) is a hard. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism).3– 1. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. It has the highest carbon content. blind coal (in Scotland). The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist.

anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. coking coal and domestic house coals. [7] It was In the United States. In [6] June 2008. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks.MJ/kg). produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. Pennsylvania.. By 1795. Structurally. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. mined near Saundersfoot. In southwest Wales. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. circa 1935 . with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). For example. The thermal conductivity is also higher. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal.e. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. Since the 1980s. New Mexico. and Western Pennsylvania. on the as-received basis (i.

Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. making it ideal for this purpose. Pennsylvania. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Pennsylvania. the Delaware. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. such as schools. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. From that first mine. about 1. Of that. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces.S. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. placed in descending order. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. on an open grate in a fireplace. Group of breaker boys. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. In the early 20th century United States. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). Current U. Many large public buildings. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. In spring 1808.

Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". "poor". Commercial mining has now ceased.Anthracite". anthracite was largely used.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Formerly. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. both in America and South Wales. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. or less. [10] . but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Switzerland and parts of Germany. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Similarly. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.

[3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. . but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). although bedding is frequently visible. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. and some mica is often present. due to the depositional processes that form it. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. Fossils are rare in arkose. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. Apart from the mineral content.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. most commonly granitic rocks. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide.


hydrogen. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. . Within the coal mining industry. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. air. dull-banded". a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. bright-banded" or "bright. and sulphur. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. the rest is composed of water. which are classified according to either "dull. which have not been driven off from the macerals. good ventilation and vigilant site management. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. mineral-matter-free basis. and exinite. These distinctive sequences. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³).

by their relative movements. These are. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. In the field. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia.079 in) in size. typically in a karst landscape. The word is a loan from Italian. lithified colluvium. Technically. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. in essence. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. avalanches. poorly sorted.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. . turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. by contrast. A conglomerate. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. igneous breccia. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. tectonic breccia. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source.

Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. . [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. This occurs when the thick. also called pillow breccias. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. as they slide past each other. both of lava and pyroclastic type. Lavas. granites and kimberlite pipes. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. and these form volcanic breccias. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. Broken.g. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. When particularly intense. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes.

Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. steam and boiling water. Impact breccia. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. iridium and osmium anomalies).Pahranagat Range. and attrition quickly o . when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. impact glass. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. near Blessington in Ireland. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. a type of impactite.g.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. and are usually found at impact craters. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. In addition. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. Nevada. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. in the rim. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. shocked minerals.

in particular CO2. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. Washington. silver and gold. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. As a result. Pend Oreille mine. at much greater depths. In the mesothermal regime. . The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. Pend Oreille County. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing.rounds angular breccia fragments. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. If boiling occurs. as the formational event is brief. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. On their journey. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues.


New York. limestone. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils.CHERT Chert (pron. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. chalk. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Oklahoma. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. but most often manifests as gray. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). It varies greatly in color (from white to black). it is usually called flint. "chalcedony" and "flint" .8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. hard chert. It also occurs in thin beds. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. (3. [edit]Terminology: "chert". Where it occurs in chalk or marl. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. brown. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Buffalo. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral.

chert being lower quality than flint. . "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Among petrologists. The term does not include quartzite. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Strictly speaking. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. Everett.

Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. which consist of angular clasts.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. . South Dakota. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles.

conglomerates are normally very well sorted. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict . [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. and are known as basal conglomerates.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. In this setting. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . approximate depth 10.000 ft. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . Alaska. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags.

matrix-supported conglomerates.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). desert) environments. near Barcelona. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. forming structures such aseskers. These form the basis of a number of . Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. in rapidly eroding (e. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. Tillites. are typically poorly-sorted.g. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . The matrix is generally fine-grained. in Australia's Northern Territory.

the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.g. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. .large oil fields. e. as different sectors of the fault moved. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile.

fracturing. . Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. brachiopods. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. shallow submarine raised banks. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and barrier bars. abrasion. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. and sorting of the shells. or other invertebrates. As a result.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. in the form of seashells or coral. trilobites. swift tidal channels. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. close packing. often including some phosphate. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. which compose them. abraded.COQUINA Coquina (pron.

This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. coquina is extremely soft.Close-up of coquina from Florida. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. but still comparatively soft. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. rather than shatter or puncture. In order to be used as a building material. form. The stone makes a very good material for forts. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. The scale bar is 10 mm. When first quarried. . Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. Because of coquina's softness. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. However. Saint Augustine. cannon balls would sink into.


and is very light as a result of its high porosity. Initially. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. mechanical insecticide. a stabilizing component of dynamite.69 mm. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. Wilhelm Berkefeld.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. absorbent for liquids. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6.5 to 2% iron oxide. the peasant and goods waggoner. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. This powder has an abrasive feel. is a naturally occurring. matting agent for coatings. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. and athermal insulator. cat litter. anti-block in plastic films. similar to pumice powder. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. It is used as a filtration aid. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. diatomite.13 by 0. TheCelle engineer. recognized its ability to filter. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. Peter Kasten. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. porous support for chemical catalysts. activator in blood clotting studies. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter.. soft. it was thought that limestone had been found. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . a type of hard-shelled algae. which could be used as fertilizer. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica.236 pixels/ μm.E. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. or kieselgur/kieselguhr.: /ˌdaɪ. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0.

1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. used successfully. .1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca.from diatomaceous earth.  ca.

[edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Oregon.Virginia. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Nevada (USA). Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. such as this one for swimming pools . Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. In Colorado and in Clark. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Washington and California. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. but are of low quality. France. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast.

However. coffin-like. It has a high porosity.. and honey without removing or altering their color. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. such as beer and wine. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. sugar. efficacy is very low. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. [7] taste. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. based on Fick's law of diffusion. In order to be effective as an insecticide. . but this method may take weeks to work. since slugs inhabit humid environments.e. because it is composed of microscopically small. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.e. especially for swimming pools. It is also used to filter water. hollow particles. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. as well as in some facial scrubs. foodgrade— see below).. or nutritional properties. due to its physico-sorptive properties. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. for this purpose. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. causing them to [9] dehydrate. It can also filter syrups. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. with questionable efficacy.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. and other liquids.

It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter.S. As with other silicates. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. . Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. particularly as bonsai soil. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like perlite. Fungicide. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant.vermiculite. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. including water. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. as [20] well as an insecticide. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.

Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. the largest single . which is used as an indigestible marker. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. as feed supplement. while draining fast and freely. it retains water and nutrients. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). It is produced uncalcinated. and has a high silica content (>60%). For instance. has a very fine particle size.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. and as an insecticide. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%).and expanded clay. Libya. which has been widely used for the same purpose. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide.

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. .

The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.S.G. however.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. It is. . used in some geological publications.S. but it can still develop solution features over time. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. In old U.

Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. ca. Poland. When reacted with quaternary amine. Australia averages 8.4 MJ/kg (6.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. on the as-received basis (i. Serbia. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal.. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. it is mined in Greece. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.e. Germany.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.5 million BTU/ton). [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). India. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). amine treated lignite (ATL) forms.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. often referred to as brown coal. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. mineral-matter-free basis. Russia. the United States. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.

The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. [4] Victoria. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres).than for comparable black-coal plants. . particularly in combination with strip mining. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals.

[1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. and as a chemical feedstock. as aggregate for the base of roads. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Virginia. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. USA . as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3).

flint. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. intraclasts. and extraclasts. When conditions are right for precipitation. . many limestones exhibit different colors. the Folk and the Dunham. quartz.000 meters. i. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Romania. including the water temperature. radiolarians). The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. This produces speleothems. sand. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. and dissolved ionconcentrations. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. Limestone may be crystalline. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. building upon past generations. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). or massive. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. Because of impurities. especially onweathered surfaces. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. Like most other sedimentary rocks. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Crystals of calcite. depending on the method of formation. most limestone is composed of grains. and around hot or cold springs. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. such as clay. limestone recrystallizes into marble. or it can fill fractures. iron oxide and other materials. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. pH. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. etc. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. granular. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. jasper. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. depending on several factors. Below about 3. Classification Two major classification schemes. peloids. particularly where there are waterfalls.e.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. clastic. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. diatoms. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Travertine is a banded.travertine. is found near waterfalls. and varying amounts of clay. such as stalagmites and stalactites. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). organic remains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Tufa.

because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Based on composition. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. These include limestone pavements. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. matrix (mostly micrite). a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Robert J. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. and therefore self-supporting. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. The Folk system uses two-part names. pot holes. cenotes. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. especially in acid. there are three main components: allochems (grains). Such erosion landscapes are known . Unlike the Folk scheme. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. and cement (sparite). It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. not the grains in the sample. caves and gorges.

Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). . typically clays. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. [9] Michigan. Ireland. This process is known as bioerosion. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. making it impractical for tall buildings. Many landmarks across the world. Sweden. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in karsts. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. It is most common in the tropics. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Sweden. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. The Florida Keys. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Notch Peak in Utah. for a long time. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. So many buildings in Kingston. However. On the island of Malta. Examples include the Burren in Co. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Unique habitats are found on alvars. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. the only building material available. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. England. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. islands off the south coast of Florida. While draining. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Clare. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. 2003). theVerdon Gorge in France. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. and relatively expensive as a building material. especially in Europe and North America. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). it is a very heavy material. are made of limestone. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Ontario. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Egypt. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson.

The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. Kansas . one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.

paper. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. durable. Train stations. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. but only in thin plates for covering. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. such as for poultry (when ground up). most notably the Bloomington area. called Indiana limestone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. uses limestone. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. rather than solid blocks. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. tiles. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Indiana. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). in some circumstances. It is added to toothpaste. [11] . It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. Glass making. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. Used in blast furnaces. since it is hard. Purified. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. plastics. cement and mortar.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. In the United States. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). paint. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

most [1] sandstone is red. yellow. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. pink. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. Fine-grained aquifers. but the most common colours are tan. Like sand. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. such as sandstones.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). Sandstone is mined by quarrying. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. brown. . sandstone may be any colour. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. In the western United States and incentral Australia.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains.France. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. red. [edit]Uses 17. gray. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. white and black.

Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. .Germany. around 1770. in Freiburg.

cathedrals. It is relatively soft. and other buildings. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. homes. These are sandstone beverage coasters.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. . and continues to be used.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. making it easy to carve.

are typically called argillaceous sediments. have been found less resistant. Scale bar is 1. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0.g. including siltstones and shales. yet are easy to work. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. gritstone. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. clays. Because of the hardness of individual grains. like chalk and coal. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. or chemical. rocks with greater grain sizes. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain.002–0..079 inches). and silica. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. some that have been used in the past. . These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. e. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. [3] like gypsum and jasper). some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones.0 mm. Utah. for sharpening blades and other implements. However.0625 mm to 2 mm (0.

with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. which.. or sea) or from air (as in a desert).sorting. Arizona. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. First. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. once it has accumulated. either from water (as in a stream. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments .. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. in a desert or erg). Finally. in finer detail. over other construction. in more general detail. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. Typically. include its grain size. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. i. and composition and. lake. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.e. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.g.

Alluvial fans 3. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. Tidal flats 4. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Glacial outwash 4. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar.  . Lakes 5. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. such as hardness and chemical stability. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled.1. Deltas 2. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Rivers (levees. point bars. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. channel sands) 2. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock.

upper picture is plane-polarized light. and corundum. scale box at left-center is 0.25 millimeter. olivine. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. One is to call the . [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. rutile (hence ZTR). Although. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. magnetite. Common heavy minerals include zircon. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. called lithic fragments or clasts. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. or sedimentary rock. this represents a complete solid solution. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. metamorphic. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. pyroxene. tourmaline. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. or other dense. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. resistate minerals derived from the source rock.garnet. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock.

The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. such as calcite. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials.  . Permeability is the rate in which water flows. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. and zeolite minerals.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. [6] gypsum. and very rarely is in other sandstones. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. clay minerals. feldspars. barite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. and the other is to call it a wacke. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement.sandstone an arenite. limonite. anhydrite. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together.


The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock.browns and limonite [1] yellow). shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. iron . montmorillonite and illite. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. Red. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. sodium. magnesium. the terms slate. especially quartz and calcite. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Mudstones. Sand grain = 2 mm. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. in dia. calcium. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. on the other hand. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. called fissility.reds).SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. iron hydroxide (goethite .greens). often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. biotite and illite .

black shales were deposited in anoxic.Cumberland Plateau. 'Black shales' are dark. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. The enriched values are of controversial origin. quiet water. ankerite.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. However. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. dolomite. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. in river deltas. and zinc. reducing environments.and water.chert. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. calcite. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. vanadium. . such as in stagnant water columns. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. hematite and albite. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. uranium. in relatively deep. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. These released elements form authigenic quartz.

Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. then schist and finally to gneiss. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. or various carbonate minerals. apatite. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. . metamorphic rockknown as slate. which originally aired on November 3. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. fissile. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. "Flintstone of Princestone". in keeping with the Stone Age puns. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. 1961. The Flintstones.

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