Rock & Minerals Study Guide | Classification Of Minerals | Minerals

BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. also known incorrectly as almandite. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.: /ˈælməndɪn/). Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. inclining to purple.512 Å at 100 K. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. It is frequently cut with a convex face. or en cabochon. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . of deep red color. Almandine. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. and is then known as carbuncle.5 K. upper mantle and transition zone. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group.

whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. and are sometimes cut and polished. in Tyrol. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Almandine is widely distributed. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. a name said to be taken from Syriam. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. When the color inclines to a violet tint. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. some years ago. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal.

25.024 [1] .790 (+/.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive. -..05 (+. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.7.AD.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .

may also have faint lines at 423. 460.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . and 573nm.

Because of its bright green color when polished. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. El Paso County. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. . the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. For many years. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. Colorado. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. More recently. Naturally. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. orthoclase. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Russia. where it occurs in granitic rocks. Virginia. although it is easily fractured. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Colorado. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area.

Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature.Colorado. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. white. brick-red. however. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. . Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. It is common in granite and pegmatites." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline may be clear. or green. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Amazon stone. viewed under a polarizing microscope. pale-yellow. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. or amazonite. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar.

APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. respectively. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. in the mid-20th century. in the crystal. sodium .g. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. named for high concentrations of OH . Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale.F . usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite.F. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. also known as hydroxylapatite.Cl)2. Similarly. Cl or ions. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. Hydroxyapatite.

Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. blue to violet.Cl. brown.BN. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock.fluoride. usually green. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. sodium monofluorophosphate). that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. compact or granular . pink.[1] Crystal habit Tabular.OH) Strunz classification 08. yellow. massive. prismatic crystals. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. less often colorless. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane.

013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.[1] Dispersion 0.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave. Other colors are weak to very weak.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. −0.012.638 (+0. blue and yellow to colorless. green stones – greenish yellow .002–0.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.006)[1] Birefringence 0.16–3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.634–1.

which is stronger in long wave.[1] . light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.


Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. In some mollusks. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. An aragonite cave. the entire shell is aragonite. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. is situated in Slovakia. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. The mineral vaterite. also known as μ-CaCO3. one of the two common. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. In the USA. naturally occurring. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. [edit]Uses In aquaria. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Spain). and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. respectively. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. It is formed by biological and physical processes.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). in others. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. resulting in a different crystal shape. [citation Aragonite . Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone.

c = 5. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. reniform.95 Å. globular.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . Aude department. stalactitic. red.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. green . internally banded . yellow.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. coralloidal. Z = 4 Identification Color White. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05.96 Å.74 Å. columnar.AB. prismatic crystals. pisolitic. acicular. orange. b = 7.

1.5-4 Luster Vitreous.530 nβ = 1.682 nγ = 1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.685 .686 Birefringence δ = 0. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.1. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.680 .529 . yellow.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. white or .1.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.

phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish. yellowish (SW UV) .

Al. [edit]Characteristics .AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Ti)(Si.Fe. Augite has two prominent cleavages.Al)2O6.Na)(Mg. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.

but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. olivine. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. labradorite. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. titanium. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. and sodium and other elements. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations.4 x 3. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. With declining temperature.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. sanidine. Augite . [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. leucite. which is from the Greekaugites. meaning "brightness". gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. but mostly of temperature.0 x 2. brown or [2] black) luster. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. for example. It is found near the Ken River. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite.

DA.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.97°. also acicular.844 Å. in thin section.Fe.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. c = 5.Augite .Al.Ti)(Si. Z=4 Identification Color Black. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. β = 106.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. skeletal.Na)(Mg. dendritic .272 Å. brown. violet-brown. b = 8. greenish.699 Å.

19 . Y = pale brown.1.680 . grayish green. nβ = 1. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. pale yellow-green.0.706 . green.684 . Z = pale green.1.1. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.741. violet .026 .5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. nγ = 1.735. greenish yellow.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.774 Birefringence δ = 0. pale brown. violet.3.


It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. has been known since ancient times. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). . Namibia. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. With azurite. a carbonate. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. and unknown white crystals.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. The mineral. From Tsumeb. France. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies.

Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. Characteristic of a carbonate. Azurite is destroyed by heat. with a Mohs hardness of only 3.77 to 3. powdery copper(II) oxide. Azurite is soft.89. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. the other being bright green malachite. and are often stalactitic in form.5 to 4. . losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. carbonate and hydroxide.

France. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian).[edit]Color The optical properties (color. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. a term applied to many blue pigments. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. Ultramarine withstands heat. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . but azurite turns to black copper oxide. Heating destroys azurite easily. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. However. However. and its basic content of copper carbonate. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. a similar but much more expensive pigment. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. and also as an ornamental stone. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. such as saltwater aquariums. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. it gave a wide range of blues. in the silver mines located there.

[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. However. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. bright light. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. General . dark. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. heat. collectors should use a cool. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself.

5 to 4 .43°. prismatic. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.35 Å. Berlin blue. fair on {100}. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. very dark to pale blue. c = 10. b = 5.85 Å. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.BA.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. stalactitic. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. β = 92. twin planes {101}.01 Å.

758 nγ = 1. 3.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .838 Birefringence δ = 0.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.773 (measured).730 nβ = 1.

[edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. and shale. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. gneiss.basalt. the clay mineral kaolinite.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. syenite. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. In the case of Jamaica. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). .

[edit]Production trends In 2010. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. Increased aluminium recycling. and Guinea. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. India. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. Brazil. . Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. followed by China.

Sr)SO4.BARITE Baryte. or barite. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. and is the main [1] source of barium. [edit]Names [2] and history . (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. The baryte group consists of baryte. celestine.

such as washing. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. and blanc fixe.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. [2] [3] Spar. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. but rather a material that meets that specification. [2] Heavy associations and locations . or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. heavy media separation. Other names have been used for baryte. jigging. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. tiff. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. tabling. flotation. [8] schwerspath. [8] barytes. including barytine. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). The American [2][7] spelling is barite. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . Most baryte is ground to a small. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. an addition to industrial products. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product.

It has also been identified in meteorites. .Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. and with hematite ore. among others. in hot spring deposits. hydrothermal. Perthshire. and evaporation. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Scotland.

Chile. Iran. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Muirshiel [2] Mine. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. As a well is drilled. The deeper the hole. blue. each with different characteristics. New Mexico. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. by weight. and no more than 30%. Iran (250). The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. India. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. Turkey. Connecticut. De Kalb. can be less than 6 μm diameter.2 or greater. paper. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. United States (670). Morocco. radiation-shielding cement. Derbyshire. and paint. Romania (Baia Sprie). chemically inert. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. Peru. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. sound reduction in engine compartments. Canada. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. brown or gray depending on the ore body. China. Virginia.Kentucky. Georgia.Perthshire. Liberia. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. New York & Fort Wallace. [edit]Paleothermometry . Cumbria. the bit passes through various formations. Tennessee. by weight.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil.000). It is mined in Arkansas. Nevada & Missouri. Durham. Morocco (460). can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. North [2] Carolina. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. Greece. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Connecticut. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). India [12] (1.600). UK (Cornwall. Thailand. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium).

systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. away from continental sources of sediment.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. . Since baryte has oxygen.

and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). yellow. veḷiru ( ). and [5] the English word brilliance. and white. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. [edit]Deposits . the Spanish word brillo. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. theFrench word brille meaning "shine".which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". from Sanskrit vaidurya-. Pure beryl is colorless. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. possible colors are green. blue. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill.BERYL In geology. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. also meaning "shine". [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. Old French: beryl. red.

Madagascar. In Brazil.5 meters in diameter. Mozambique. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. beryl locations are in California. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites.S. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. In the United States.000 kilogrammes. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Colombia. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. such as that occurring in Brazil. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. Connecticut. South Africa. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. North Carolina. Madagascar. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. and limestone inColombia. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. InWyoming. and Bahia. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. U. Espírito Santo. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. New Hampshire. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. near Powder River Pass. Ireland and Russia. Maine. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. neutrons or even X-rays). [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. Colorado.5 m by 1. and weighing 380. Sweden (especially morganite). as well as Brazil. South Dakota and Utah. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. and Zambia. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. Austria. though the color returns with irradiation. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . 18 meters [6] long and 3. Germany. and 2+ 3+ . the United States. Idaho. Mainewith dimensions 5. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. As of 1999.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. Clear yellow beryl.

Most emeralds are highly included. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. Malawi. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. In the US. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. Pakistan. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. which has been on the market since 1964. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Brazil.. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. [15] [7][14] . It weighed over 110 kg. Brazil. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. Madagascar. India. The mines of Colombia. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. Coscuez. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Minas Gerais. Afghanistan and Russia. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. meaning "green". marakata (म कन). as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). such as Zambia. as such. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Zambia. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. and its dimensions were 48. In 1998. Madagascar. It is named for the trapiche. and Chivor. in 1910. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. Zimbabwe. North Carolina. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and.

Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. In the past. However. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. . Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. Nowadays. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. The name originates from Goshen. Unlike emerald.C. Washington.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. D. golden beryl has very few flaws. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true.

also known as "pink beryl". eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". its type locality. V. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. at Pala. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. "pink emerald". was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. Thomas [26][27] Range. pink. Fe. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. USA. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). originally somewhat orange in hue. green. Juab County. and Co impurities. with other gemstone minerals. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. In December 1910. The crystal. However. because of the . [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). such astourmaline and kunzite. Utah. It was also known. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. P. "rose beryl". blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. California. On October 7. Morgan. 1989. goshenite can be colored yellow.Maine. Sc. Ti. and color banding is common. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca.

While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain.000 per carat for faceted stones. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. and Juab County. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite.orthoclase. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. topaz. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. Utah. quartz. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl".risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. pseudobrookite and hematite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9.05 . Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. Utah. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Utah. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. spessartine. Beaver County.CJ. New [1] Mexico. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. [28] of Fillmore.Sierra County. while he was prospecting for uranium. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite.

50 Color Green. colorless.19 Å. columnar. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . c = 9.21 Å. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. blue. radial. yellow.

595 nε = 1.0040–0.564–1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.568–1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.Specific gravity Average 2.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. but the stone itself does not) .

OH)2. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.L. in 1816. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . silicon.F. it refers to the dark mica series.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. Biotite is a sheet silicate.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. Iron. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. researched the optical properties of mica. [4] discovering many unique properties. More generally. magnesium. who. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. Biotite was named by J. oxygen. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. aluminium. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite.

and a grey-white streak. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. Ontario. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. or lamellae. in some instances side-by-side. When biotite is found in large chunks. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. fracture is uneven. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. and consists of flexible sheets. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. which easily flake off. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks.than phlogopite. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. and even yellow when weathered. It has amonoclinic crystal system. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. as in New England. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. For instance. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. Norway. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Virginia and North Carolina. It appears greenish to brown or black. It can be transparent to opaque. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. has a vitreous to pearly luster. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. especially in pegmatite veins. .

greenish brown. yellow. blackish brown.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. less common on the {001} .Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.53 g Color Dark brown. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].

r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .8–3.565–1.7–3.625 nβ = 1.675 nγ = 1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich). elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.605–1.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.675 Birefringence δ = 0.03–0.5–3.605–1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.1 Density 2.

also known as peacock ore. is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic). [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .BORNITE Bornite.

Lomagundi district. the Mangula mine. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. S. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. . Kazakhstan. Karlovy Vary Region. Talate. eastern Tirol. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Illogan. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791).4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge).Connecticut in the U. Morocco.England. Austria. Montana and at Bristol.5 x 4.3 x 3. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. from the N’ouva mine. and elsewhere in Cornwall. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. Zimbabwe.Mexico (size: 7.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

In carbonate marine sediments. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation.The mineral is found worldwide. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. usually in small quantities. Celestine . Crystal Cave. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. The world's largest known geode.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Ohio. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar.

352 Å.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. black .AD. c = 6.866 Å.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. white.359 Å. pale blue. pale green. pale brown. b = 5. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. pink.

622 .622 nβ = 1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.3.95 .3.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. good on {210}.1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . lamellar.1.1. earthy.630 . poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 . pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.624 nγ = 1.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Vitreous.632 Birefringence δ = 0.619 . also fibrous.

long UV=yellow. white blue .Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue.

chalcocite (Cu2S). carbonates such as malachite and azurite. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. covellite (CuS). [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. hydroxides and sulfates. Copper is shown in pink. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. On exposure to air.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. digenite (Cu9S5). and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). .

it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits.8 x 6. and trace amounts of Ag. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. molybdenite representing Mo. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. Ontario. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. etc. the American cordillera and the Andes. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. V.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Pt. Cr. Au. In. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Pd.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Ni. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. from huge masses as at Timmins. . Fe and As substitute for sulfur.3 x 4. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. and Sb are reported. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Se. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Mn. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. However. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. Pb.

+ 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.CB.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. Colorado. Ouray County.

and sometimes botryoidal. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. c = 10.1 – 4.289 Å.Unit cell a = 5. commonly massive.54 Color Brass yellow.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.3 .423 Å. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

Pure copper is soft and malleable. a building material. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. both by itself and as part of pigments.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. Decorative art prominently features copper. muscle and bone. Characteristics . The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. and a constituent of various metal alloys. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. and wood preservatives. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). In the Roman era. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. fungicides. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). later shortened to сuprum. needed] In sufficient concentration. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments.

As with other metals. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak.Physical A copper disc (99. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. above which it begins to heat excessively. At the macroscopic scale.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. galvanic corrosion will occur. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. For this reason. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. and osmium (bluish). Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. Copper. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. such as grain boundaries. which are relatively weak for a soft metal.

as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. this oxide layer stops the further. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. such as the Statue of Liberty. respectively. Edinburgh. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. It does not react with water. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. bulk corrosion. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2.

Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. Cu. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. [15] . Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. decays both ways. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. they both have a spin of 3/2.7 hours. The other isotopes are radioactive.2×3. Cu and Cu are stable.83 hours. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). Native copper is a polycrystal. US. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . which has [13] a half-life of 12. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β .4×3.There are 29 isotopes of copper. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61.2 cm.8 minutes. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3.

. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. it can scratch almost every other mineral. It is a rock-forming mineral. and wood.0. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. with an average hardness near 8. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". It is commonly used as anabrasive. but can have different colors when impurities are present.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. All other colors are called sapphire. plastics. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. and the mix is less abrasive. e.0 Mohs). corundum is unusual for its density of 4. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. In addition to its hardness. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. titanium and chromium.g. Transparent specimens are used as gems.02 g/cm .

Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. [4] Ontario. In 1903. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. silicon carbide.632 °F). Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0.Corundum from Brazil. [4] USA. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. . Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont.000 °C (3. In 1847. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe.8 in × 1 in). New York. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. gneiss. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Russia. Sri Lanka and India. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut.

synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes.CB. scratchresistant optics. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.1.05 Dana classification 4. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.3. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis.1 . Apart from ornamental uses. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. scratch-resistant watch crystals. rods. and laser components. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). bearings. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. and other machined parts). Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis.

yellow. gray. pink to pigeon-blood-red. violet. c = 12. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. orange. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. green.75 Å.982 Å. may be color zoned. prismatic. blue to cornflower blue. tabular. rhombohedral crystals. translucent toopaque . brown.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless.

hematite.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.Specific gravity 3.759–1. or hercynite .767–1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.772 nε = 1.95–4.

General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. green. Less often blue.CB. . brown or gray to colorless. purple and red. black. pink.10a Identification Formula mass 12. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. violet. translucent white. orange.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow.

Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.52±0.044 .418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.5–3.01 Density 3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. or in old U. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. often as a result of diagenesis. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work.S. In 1791. [edit]Properties .

gray to pink. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. dolomite is a double carbonate. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). i. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Crystal twinning is common. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). namely. Arkansas. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. Unlike calcite.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. having a different structural arrangement. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. although it is usually massive. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record.e. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form.g. It forms white. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. where organic matter content is high. . In the 1950s and 60s.

For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. in a 1999 study. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. textural and chemical characteristics. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. . through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. California. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated.Dolomite. White Mountains. However.

6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium.2×4. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly.4×7. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. and copper. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Kansas(size: 11. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. Cherokee County. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. zinc. a concrete aggregate. Dolomite . In horticulture.

gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals.8012(1) Å. granular.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. massive. stalactitic. Crystal system Trigonal .AB. c = 16. 3 Unit cell a = 4. also columnar. often with curved faces. Z = 3 Identification Color White.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.002 Å.

Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.500 Birefringence δ = 0.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.681 nε = 1.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. triboluminescent.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. .679–1.179–0. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.84–2.

the pleochroic colors being usually green. yellow and brown. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. The color is green. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). brown or nearly black. the optical constants. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. and the specific gravity. the color. grey. Ca2Al2(Fe . [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. crystallizing in the monoclinic system." 3+ . Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. It displays strong pleochroism.

The perfectly transparent. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. amphiboles. Haddam inConnecticut. but one of secondary origin. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. adularia. and apatite. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. garnets. calcite. and others) composing igneous rocks. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. withasbestos. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. dark green. . Arendal in Norway. pyroxenes. as magnificent. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. micas. here as large. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin.

which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. Epidote . and many different names applied. pitchy in lustre. being black or dark brown in color. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. reddish-black. Although not a common mineral. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. gneiss. andesite. Dollaseite is less common.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. after whom the species was named. and others. rhyolite. near Ivrea in Piedmont. yellowish-. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. at Finbo. sometimes a foot in length. and well-developed crystals are rare. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. Piemontite occurs as small. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. near Falun in Sweden. and greenish-brown colors. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. syenite. there is little or no cleavage. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. granite. further. and opaque in the mass.

3–3. yellow-green.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3. fibrous.6 .

797 Birefringence δ = 0.751 nβ = 1.784 nγ = 1.046 Pleochroism Strong .Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.019–0.734–1.725–1.

The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. While slowly cooling within the earth. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. . of plagioclase.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. Typically. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8).

It measured ~10×10×0. Germany. In gemology. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . Russia.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. some ceramics. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. It is the state gem of Florida. Most moonstones are translucent and white. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. such as porcelain. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. and as a constituent of scouring powder.

Greenish. Cleavages intersect at 90°. Greyish yellow. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. White. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless.63 Optical Biaxial (-). pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.55–2. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. 2V = 65–75 . Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral.

522–1.525 Birefringence 0. Other characteristics Low negative relief . Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.520 nβ = 1.0050– Refractive index nα = 1.522–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.518–1.524 nγ = 1.

GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . It is the most important lead ore mineral. calcite and fluorite. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite.

[3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. USA (size: 5. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. Derbyshire. Bulgaria. Missouri.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Somerset. antimony. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Smolyan Province. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena.S. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. the Madan. In the United States. Broken Hill. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Idaho. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. the former mining town of Galena. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Iowa and Wisconsin. In addition zinc. Saxony. .1×3. Illinois. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Rhodope Mountains.2×2. in a process similar to bioleaching. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Utah and Montana. and Cumberland.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. England. Cornwall.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. Of the latter. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. cadmium. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. The Mendips.

For example. which was known as a "cat's whisker". in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined.g.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . In modern wireless communication systems. Isle of [5] Man. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. however.K. U. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. in Ancient Egypt. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. which. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. which were a potential source of disease. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose.

CD.1. No.5–2.75 . Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.10 Dana classification 2.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001]. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.936 Å. space group Fm3m. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.8. 225 Twinning Contact.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.2–7.

The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. and jarosite. Although originally defined as a single mineral. but generally in the 4 . although specimens may show a [6] . although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE.5. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.3. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. lepidocrocite. but limonite does not. The hardness is variable. among them goethite. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών).7 to 4.akaganeite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore.5 range. the other being hematite.

hematite and magnetite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. burnt umbers and siennas.botryoidal. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. pyroxene. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. Because of its amorphous nature. Main article: Ochre#History . from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. to process limonite. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. Nonetheless. Complex systems developed. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. in Africa. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. reniform or stalactitic. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. amphibole. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. sometimes mammillary. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. Before smelting. and hematite was far easier to smelt. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. [10] California mining district. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. producing red ochres. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. and biotite. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. [12] notably in Tanzania.

Limonite General Category Amorphous. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .5½ .

3 Density 2.7 .4.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.9 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

GOLD Gold is a dense. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. which dissolves silver and base metals. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. forming amalgam alloys. It dissolves in mercury. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. which have been used in mining. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. . It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. so named because it dissolves gold. jewelry. giving rise to the term theacid test. usually with tellurium. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. as nuggets or grains in rocks. in 1932. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. soft.S. is insoluble in nitric acid. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. malleable and ductile metal. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. with huge war debts. in veins and in alluvial deposits. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. Chemically. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. Less commonly. In Europe. shiny. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79.

ductility.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. 40% in [3] investments. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. .5 billion troy ounces or. and 10% in industry. and other fields. This is roughly equivalent to 5. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions.7 m on a side. or a cube 20.A total of 171. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. about 8876 m . gold has many practical uses in dentistry. Its highmalleability. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. colored-glass production and gold leafing. electronics. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. includingelectric wiring. in terms of volume. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin.

Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. for its use in pencils. It is. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). 3.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). 2. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). . flat. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. the last stage of coalification. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. "to draw/write". There are three principal types of natural graphite. consequently. graphite is an electrical conductor. a semimetal. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon.

S. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. Brazil (76 kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. Graphite . world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.S. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). in particular. respectively. India (130 kt). In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. China is the largest producer of graphite.110 thousand tonnes (kt). but U. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. calcite. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt).18 billion. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). U. micas and tourmaline. Graphite is not mined in the United States.

708 Å. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.CB. c = 6.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. six-sided foliatedmasses. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .461 Å.

sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.09–2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .

in the form of selenite. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. When the crystal lattice is heated. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. cleavable masses called selenite. In hand-sized samples. and in the early 19th century. it is alabaster. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. typically opaque. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections.5 g/l at 25°C) and. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". fibrous form. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. called alabaster. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. Finally. rather. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. It can be used as afertilizer. and transparent. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. In arid areas. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). [edit]Occurrence . it exhibits a retrograde solubility. As a mineral.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. in contrast to most other salts. referring to its crystalline projections. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. "spear stone". it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. As foranhydrite.0–2. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. Upon addition of water. Selenite contains no significantselenium. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. Selenite may also occur in a silky. "chalk" or "plaster".) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. it may also be granular or quite compact. (Thus. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum.

with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Pure gypsum is white. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Under reducing conditions. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Commercial exploitation of the area. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. from volcanic vapors. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Wyoming. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water.000 years. and sulfate solutions inveins. strongly opposed by area residents. Blue Anchor. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. UK. Somerset. as well as in hot springs. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. . However. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Gypsum is a common mineral.

which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. b = 15.CD.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.202(14) Å.522(6) Å. c = 6. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. tan. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. β = 118.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. may be yellow. brown. blue. pink.679(5) Å.43°. reddish brown or gray .

523 nγ = 1. flat. inelastic.522–1. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.519–1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky. pearly. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.529–1.31–2. Mohs scalehardness 1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.530 Birefringence δ = 0.521 nβ = 1.010 .

fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). colored black to steel or silver-gray. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. . Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. they all have a rust-red streak. spring. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Hematite is harder than pure iron. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). It is mined as the main ore of iron. Hematite can also occur without water. Hematite is a mineral. however.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. While the forms of hematite vary. but much more brittle. or other standing water.HEMATITE Hematite. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). Maghemite is a hematite. or otherwise highly weathered soils. or red. Varieties includekidney ore. usually as the result of volcanic activity. one of several iron oxides. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. brown to reddish brown. ancient. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. also spelled as haematite.

Fe2O3.038(2) Å. c = 13.772(12) Å. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. dull to bright red .Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.CB.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.

280 .220.5–6.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. granular.150–3.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. reniform. micaceous or platy. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.940 Birefringence δ = 0.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. columnar. radiating fibrous. nε = 2. commonly in rosettes. earthy.870–2. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.

Pleochroism O = brownish red. E = yellowish red .

Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. greenish-brown.Fe. brown or black color. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). but the name is used as a general or field term. . to refer to a dark amphibole. The general formula can be given as (Ca.F)2.9–3. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.4 and is typically an opaque green.Al)5(Al.Na)2–3(Mg. and an iron-magnesium silicate.Si)8O22(OH. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. a specific gravity of 2. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.

[edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. and named edenite. from its locality in Edenville. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. syenite. Fe. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. is gray to white in color. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Al)5 (Al. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. New York. andschist. gneiss. andesite. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. gabbro. basalt. Orange County.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. diorite.

Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray. gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.9 Pleochroism Strong .

semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. [edit]Chemistry [6] . yellow or light orange colors. China. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. pinyin: Gaoling). it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). giving it a distinct rust hue. a village near Jingdezhen. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. In Africa. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. United States. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). earthy. part of the group of industrial minerals. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. It is a layered silicate mineral.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. It is a soft. In many parts of the world. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Jiangxi province. Lighter concentrations yield white. Alternating layers are sometimes found. calaba.

but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. Al2Si2O7. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Si3Al4O12. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. [edit]Occurrence . [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. S = SiO2. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). H = H2O. however. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2.

Korea. Germany. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. [1] the People's Republic of China. Kaolinite . Iran. it is mined. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals.5 million tonnes. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. India. as kaolin. United Kingdom. the Czech Republic and the United States. Bulgaria. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. France. in Brazil. Australia. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot.

γ = 89. thin plates or stacked.13 Å. α = 90°.ED.8°. sometimes red. Z = 2 Identification Color White.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. β = 104.5°.89 Å. aggregated into compact.25 Å. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. c = 7. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. b = 8. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .

569–1.16–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.569.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. nγ = 1. nβ = 1.559–1.553–1.565. Calculated: 44° .

Canada. Ural Mountains. tourmaline. Notable occurrences include Brazil. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. amblygonite. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. Bernic Lake.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. in some high-temperature quartz veins. United States. Russia.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. cassiterite. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies.Si)3O10(F. Tanco Mine. feldspar. andMadagascar.spodumene. topaz and beryl. Manitoba. greisens and granites. columbite. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. It occurs in granite pegmatites. California. Lepidolite .

OH)2 Strunz classification 09.EC.149(5) Å. rose-red. purple.Lepidolite.209(2) Å b = 9. β = 100:77(4)°. colorless .Si)3O10(F. white. Brazil (size 2.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.4 x 2.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.Cm Unit cell a = 5. Minas Gerais.011(5) Å c = 10. violet-gray.1 x 0. yellowish. Virgem da Lapa.

Y = Z = pink.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.0290–0.58° measured .0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.586 Birefringence 0. nγ=1. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.554– 1.551–1. nβ=1.58.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.8–2.525–1. pale violet 2V angle 0° .548.

and ulvospinel have been much studied. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. will attract small pieces of iron. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster.e. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. called lodestone.. Commonly. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. hematite. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity.

05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.085 °F). Z=8 Identification Color Black. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.397 Å.BB.III) oxide. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. 1. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. In many igneous rocks. including banded iron formations. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.

parting on {Ill}. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.17–5.Crystal habit Octahedral. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.5–6. the spinel law.

. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. This opaque. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. "mallow". Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. "The Tazza". where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. variant of καιάχε malāchē. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. fibrous.000 years. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. in fractures and spaces. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. Since then. a large malachite vase. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. It is also used for decorative purposes. which features a huge malachite vase. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. "mallow-green stone". deep underground. The pigment is moderately lightfast. Middle French: melochite. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. or stalagmitic masses. and most often forms botryoidal.

Russia. . Namibia. Tsumeb. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. New South [7] Wales. Except for its vibrant green color.1 g/mol Color Bright green. dark green. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. and calcite. goethite. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Mexico. Broken Hill.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Israel. the source of the carbonate. blackish green.Zambia. France. Timna valley. Gabon. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones.BA.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Lyon.

botryoidal.909 Birefringence δ = 0. stalactitic.254 . silky if fibrous.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.commonly banded in masses.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.655 nβ = 1. Polysynthetic twinning also present.5–4.875 nγ = 1. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.

OH)2. isinglass. or (rarely) violet or red. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. The green. Its crystal system is monoclinic. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. greens. [4] . or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. yellows. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. It can be colorless or tinted through grays.25 parallel to the [001] face. and can be transparent or translucent. browns.76–3. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. India. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.

OH)2 Strunz classification 09.3×3.8×3.9×4. found in granites.15 Dana classification 71.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. and schists. pegmatites. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. Minas Gerais. morganite) from Paprok.kyanite. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. feldspar.02. gneisses.Muscovite with beryl (var.EC.02a. In pegmatites. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. etc. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.

Z = 4 Identification Color White.576 .106 Å. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). β = 95. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. grey.552–1.027 Å. b = 9.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous. c = 20.78°.199 Å.Unit cell a = 5. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. silky.

618 Birefringence δ = 0.587–1.582–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .615 nγ = 1.nβ = 1.035 – 0.

silicon. magnesium and iron. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.g. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. as do other properties. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). almost 1900 °C. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. it is also called peridot and chrysolite).. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg.Fe)2SiO4. Fo 70Fa30). Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4).

Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. . Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel).. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. USA. Gila Co. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Arizona. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15.

more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Mars. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. In contrast. and . as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. from the Greek words for gold and stone). Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. 12 GPa.g. or forsterite. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. moreover. the French word for olivine). 2012). the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. October 17. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. falling into infant stars. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa.feldspar. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas.Fe)2Si2O6). Such meteorites include chondrites. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. First X-ray view of Martian soil .[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. collections of debris from the early solar system. pyroxenes. because olivine is so abundant. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. in the dust of comet Wild 2. andpallasites. the Moon.

[edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. In an alternative view. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. O3 lies in a general position. and magnesium/iron in blue. while M1 exists on an inversion center. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. O2. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. silicon in pink. O2 and O3 in figure 1). Olivine . the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. O1. Oxygen is shown in red.

5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

690 Birefringence δ = 0.650–1.650 nβ = 1.670 nγ = 1.670–1.630–1.27–3.040 .Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

orange. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. rhyolite. [edit]Precious opal . the reds against black are the most rare. Opal ranges from clear through white. Of these hues. yellow. blue. gray. and black. olive. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. For gemstone use. brown. marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. a mineraloid form. sandstone. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. not a mineral. slate. magenta. red. green. being most commonly found withlimonite. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. like basalt. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. pink. rose. whereas white and greens are the most common.

Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. . packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.

Potch does not show a play of color. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. it has an internal structure. . Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. basalt. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath.Australian Opal Doublet. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. or obsidian. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. Contrarily. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. unlike triplet opals. of which opal is the best known natural example. In addition. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. and are not classed as precious opal. which is correctly termed play of color. which is often of lower quality.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). or star . which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. orange-yellow or red. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. orange. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. menilite. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. also called siliceous sinter. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. They do not usually show any play of color. resin opal. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. geyserite. hyalite. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. wood opal. which is brown or grey. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico.

Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal.effect. when cut properly. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm).000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. It does not display pleochroism. Boulder Opal. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). However. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. Queensland . It weighs 17. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. Queensland.

Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. [citation needed] [12] A .585 carats. Bonanza. crystal opal. closely related to boulder opal. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. and marine creatures in South Australia. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Royal Peacock. bones. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. Idaho." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. and lemon opal. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. crystal. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. from Kynuna in the north. white." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. and weighs 2. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Nevada. known as the "Black Peacock. fire. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. weighing 160 carats. and black opal. fish. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Opal Queen. Another Australian town. Miocene age opalised teeth. is the main source of black opal. and a snake head have been found.

SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. orange.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. yellow. In late 2008. black.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. white. Brazil (inPedro II. in masses. Honduras. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars.7 by 0. Turkey. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . Indonesia. brown. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. Hungary. green. Guatemala. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. [19] Slovakia. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. red. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. Piauí ).

common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. may phosphoresce. but typically reads 1. or yellow in long and short wave. translucent.020.450 (+. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.90)[1] Density 2. -.15 (+.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.[1] . green.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. -.42–1.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. transparent Specific gravity 2.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.Mohs scalehardness 5. May also phosphoresce.37.08. may phosphoresce.

hydrofluoric acid . methanol.humic acid. bases.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.

The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). By Georgius Agricola's time. brazzle and Brazil. "fire". Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. In ancient Roman times. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. as well as in coal beds. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure.37 wt% gold. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. [edit]Uses . Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. sedimentary rock. and metamorphic rock. in turn from πύρ (pur). In the Carlin–type gold deposits. "of fire" or "in fire". or iron pyrite. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0.

By the 19th century.95 eV. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. . In the 15th century. Navajún. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. most notably the wheellock. it had become the [12] dominant method. was popular in the Victorian era. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. iron(II) sulfate.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. that is. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. often set in silver. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. La Rioja. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Marcasite jewelry. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). [14] During the early years of the 20th century. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Until the vacuum tube matured. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available.

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.417 Å. Rioja.05a Dana classification 2. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. Z=4 .1. 512 g.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.12.EB.

granular. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. Often inter-grown. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.5–3 to a magnetic globule . faces may be striated.10 Fusibility 2.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. massive. globular and stalactitic.5 Luster Metallic. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. radiated.95–5.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

There are many different varieties of quartz. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. respectively. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). Polish twardy ("hard")). space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. giving an overall formula SiO2. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. after feldspar. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. distorted.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". several of which are semi-precious gemstones. The . It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. space group P6221 and P6421. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. only one termination pyramid is present. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf.

Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. For other uses. Natural citrines are rare. or mixed rocks including quartz. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. milky quartz. but they differ in hardness. Common colored varieties include citrine. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. onyx. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. . carnelian. and jasper. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). and has often been used for hardstone carvings. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. rose quartz. without change in the way they are linked. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. amethyst. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. are agate. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. see Citrine (disambiguation). Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. and others. Citrine has ferric impurities. such as the Lothair Crystal. heliotrope. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown.transformation between α. sard. Quartz goes by an array of different names. and is rarely found naturally. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. smoky quartz.

The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. in the massive material. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. USA. Brazil. Magaliesburg. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. . iron. Maine. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. or manganese. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz.

[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. translucent version of quartz. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black.

trapped during the crystal formation. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. liquid. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. This does not always hold true. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. exhibiting chatoyancy. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. Agate Multi-colored. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. banded chalcedony. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. parallel and consistent in size. Rock crystal Clear. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. colorless Amethyst Purple. transparent . or both. Otherwise more specific names are used. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral.

Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. translucent. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . translucent to opaque. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. transparent Rose quartz Pink.

Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.03. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.05 Dana classification 75. fine-grained to microcrystalline.01. drusy.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.9133 Å.DA.4053 Å. c = 5.

543–1. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .552–1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. variable 2.554 Birefringence +0. may betriboluminescent.65.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.545 nε = 1.59–2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.57 .738 nβ = Birefringence δ = 0.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.5 .724 .3.714 .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.1.711 .741 nγ = 1. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .1.

Latin: argentum. . to make ornaments. Its compounds are used in photographic film. and zinc refining. and is used as an investment. as an alloy with gold and other metals. lustrous transition metal. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. The metal occurs naturally in its pure.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. Today. gold. and currency coins. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. white. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. lead. both from the Indo-European root*arg. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. high-value tableware. further research into clinical potential continues. utensils (hence the term silverware). and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. jewelry. A soft. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. free form (native silver).

nosean. . crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. with a polished rock surface. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. Canada. lazurite and tugtupite. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario.

If left in a dark environment for some time. sodalite is named after its sodium content. Occurring typically in massive form. cancrinite and natrolite. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Maine. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. in Canada. Well known for its blue color. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. calcite. West Greenland. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. aegirine. shortwave ultraviolet light. Conversely. British Columbia. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. albite. the violet will fade again. namelyleucite. and Litchfield. green. Arkansas. Other associated minerals include nepheline. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. and Mont-SaintHilaire.ankerite and baryte. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Quebec. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. yellow. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. [1] Narsaq. [3] titanian andradite. sodalite may also be grey. Ontario. near Golden. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. The Ice River [5] complex. in the USA. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. contains sodalite. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. particularly.A light. fluorite. Smaller deposits are found in South . and Magnet Cove. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. microcline. sanidine.

America (Brazil and Bolivia). Burma and Russia.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. violet. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Italy. Romania. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Portugal. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. green. white veining common .FB. Euhedral. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. yellow.876(6) Å.

rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.27-2. sodium .487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.Crystal habit Massive.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. with yellowishphosphorescence.1. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.483 .5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .OH)2. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. Magnesium. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. mostly opaque.

near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. Norway. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. It is the official state mineral of the U. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. Samples are also found in Taos. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. as well as albite. Virginia. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism.S. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. called penetration twinning. biotite. Keivy Mountains. It occurs with almandine garnet. kyanite. depth. micas. Kola Peninsula. . In handsamples. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. New Mexico. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape.

yellowish brown.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.AF.65 Å. Northern Region.45°. c = 5. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.5 x 2.86 Å. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . 2.Murmanskaja Oblast'. β = 90. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.6 Å.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. b = 16. rarely blue. Russia.

736 .009 .3.740 . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°. Y = pale yellow.686 calc. 3. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.754 nγ = 1.745 .0.74 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.747 nβ = 1.1.762 Birefringence δ = 0.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.1.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 . weak .7.1.83 meas.


and the folia are non-elastic. a clear or dusty luster. In loose form. Its streak is white. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. although slightly flexible.8. Talc is not soluble in water. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. It has a specific gravity of 2. and is translucent to opaque. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife).5– 2. It has a perfect basal cleavage. [edit]Formation . Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.

amphibole. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. and are known as whiteschist. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. friable. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. pyroxene. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. This is typically associated with high-pressure.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. and fibrous. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. Such rocks are typically white. [edit]Occurrence . garnet. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. olivine.

such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. India. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. eastern Australia. from Brazil.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. Oman and the Middle East. representing 8% of world production. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. Nepal and Bhutan.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. formed upon a polydeformed. the western European Alps especially in Italy. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. layered ultramafic intrusion. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. Western Australia. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. the Guiana Shield. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral .

09°.173 Å. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .95 Å. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.90°.287 Å. c = 5. γ = 90. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.290 Å. β = 119.158 Å.3°. b = 9. b = 9. c = 18. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).68°. α = 98.EC. Z = 2 or a = 5. β = 99.291 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. brown.

589 – 1.600 Birefringence δ = 0.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.550 nβ = 1.538 – 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.594 nγ = 1. long UV=yellow .589 – 1.58 to 2.

TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F.OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.

The American Golden Topaz. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . typical topaz is wine. Brazil.892. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Imperial topaz is yellow. in Afghanistan.5 carats. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. colorless. It can also be made white. pink (rare. the symbol of [5] friendship. Sri Lanka. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. also known as precious topaz. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. if natural) or pink-orange. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. yellow. a more recent gem.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. measured a massive 22. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. is the traditional November birthstone. gold. Japan. pale green. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Australia. Flinders Island. pink (rare). Czech Republic. Italy. gold. sometimes even violet. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. pale gray.Sweden. blue. Orange topaz. reddish-orange. or blue brown. Norway. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. Pakistan. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. pink or violet colored. Nigeria and the United States. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Mexico.75 carats. Germany. Typically.

the ancient name of St. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. [edit]Biblical background.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. etymology. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. In the Middle Ages. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). both of which predate the Greek word. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. some scholars think it is related to . [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. [edit]History Nicols. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible." However. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. Minas Gerais. a topaz.

8 Å. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). metaphorically. meaning "yellow burn" or.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. = yellow. b = 8.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. c = 8. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.4 Å. "fiery". [citation needed] More likely. Z = 4 .65 Å Assyrian word meaning "flashed".

yellow.638 .Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).616–1. orange.629 nβ = 1.631 nγ = 1. gray. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.49–3. also columnar. green. brown. blue.606–1.609–1.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. compact. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.

reddish.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. yellow. short UV=golden yellow. Z = violet. long UV=cream . violet. Y = yellow. bluish. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent.Birefringence δ = 0.

sodium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Italy . magnesium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ).TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. or potassium. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. iron. lithium.

in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau.Drava river area. Austro-Hungarian Empire. in addition to cassiterite. The word tourmaline has two etymologies.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). Up to about 1600.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. In the 19th century the names common schorl. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". . The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". This village had a nearby tin mine where. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. schörl. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. for the Drava river area. In English. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. Carinthia. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). and "Schurl". Beginning in the 18th century. "Schörle". Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. black tourmaline was found. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today.

In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Elba Island. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. Italy. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Zn. Elba Island. Czech Republic. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. vacancy Y = Li. Tuscany. K. Fe . Italy. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. Ti .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Province of [5] Livorno. Sweden. United States. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. Na. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. Al. Fe .5Al1. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Mn . California. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. San Piero in Campo. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. vacancy V = OH. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. Al. Mg. B B = B. vacancy Z = Mg.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Cr . with the simplified formula (Li. Al. Fe . H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. O W = OH. Italy. sodium-. V .Campo nell'Elba.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). F. Cr . V T = Si. where: [6] X = Ca.

San Diego Co. California.5.Al1. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. US.. Cryo-Genie Mine.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F .Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.

San Diego Co.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011.. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. US [edit]Physical properties . Himalaya Mine. California.

yellow. etc. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. or green on the outside and pink inside. no other common mineral has three sides. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. in western Australia. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. it is colorless. [edit]Geology . The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. Usually. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. During their 2+ growth. called hemimorphism. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. Rarely. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. green. Heavily-included tourmalines. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. red. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. pink. currently. but is now exhausted. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. and are often pyroelectric as well. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. especially pink to red colored stones. and does not. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. impact the value.

K.Al. Scattered grains (in granite). Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Na. are generally restricted to schists and marble. .Mg.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. or in a dual-colored pink and green.B)6O18(OH.Mn)3(Al. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. green.V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Massive. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Li. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Fe.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. pink. sometimes radiating. dravites. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate.[])(Al. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. violet. Fe.Cr. Acicular prisms. but can range from brown.

Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.018 to -0. dark blue. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.040. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.635–1. small conchoidal. dark green.675. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.20 -. light blue .32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. dark red.06)[1] Density 2. nε=1.020 but in dark stones it may reach . dark brown.610–1.5 Luster Vitreous.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.650 Birefringence -0. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.82–3. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.06 (+. typically about .

red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.Dispersion .

lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. Nephrite. [edit]Occurrence . one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. is a green variety of tremolite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz.

French Pyrenees (size: 8. grossular.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Leventina. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. wollastonite. Piumogna [1] Valley.diopside. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . cummingtonite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Associated minerals include calcite.DE. Approximately 36. forsterite.Tremolite from the Aure Valley.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. talc.2 x 6. Switzerland. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.Ticino (Tessin). dolomite. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.

02 Å.84 Å.95°. β = 104. light green.99 – 3.Unit cell a = 9. Z = 2 Identification Color White. also as fibrous. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. c = 5. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. gray.27 Å. common parallel to {100}. lavender to pink. b = 18. or flattened crystals.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

625 .1.612 nβ = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.1.626 nγ = 1.599 .1.613 . Long UV=range pink .026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.Refractive index nα = 1.

Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. water. mirabilite. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. gyps [1] um and halite. hydroboracite. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. probertite. water and hydroxide octahedra. sometimes known as TV rock. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. and Kazakhstan. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. glauberite. It is found principally in California and Nevada. borax. by internal reflection. The chains are linked together by calcium.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). Tarapacá Region in Chile. calcite. trona. USA. meyerhofferite. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. . Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium.

The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. two of which are polarized. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). Ulexite . when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. Ulexite decomposes in hot water.

678(1) Å.25°.11. b = 12. Z =2 Identification .1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.1°.Ulexite from California(size: 6.EA. γ = 105.816(3) Å. c = 6.05. β = 109.9 x 5 x 3.12°. α = 90.87Å.25 Dana classification 26.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.

506 br/>nγ = 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.491 – 1.519 – 1.95 – 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Vitreous.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.520 Birefringence δ = 0.028 .496 nβ = 1.504 – 1.

2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . cream. greenish yellow.

chlorite or other platyminerals. diorite gneisses. albite gneiss. . biotite gneiss. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. they may also be called garnet gneiss. rotten or possibly worthless material. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. so called because the rock glitters). Depending on their composition. etc. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.

from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). [3][4] "crystalline rock". Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. sparkle. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Armenian marmar. meaning "marble-like. [5] gleam". Polish marmur. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. .German. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Portuguese mármore. Italian marmo. sand. most other European languages (e. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. "shining stone". or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. however. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. Turkish mermer." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. most commonly calcite or dolomite. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. Dutch marmer. Spanish mármol. silt. Danish and Swedish ma rmor.g. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron).MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. "to flash. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Norwegian. iron oxides.


PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. and chlorite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. . Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. or chlorite impart a silky. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. sericite mica. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. Minute crystals of graphite. sericite. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye.

the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. diagenetically altered. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. Although few fossils are normally present. Canada . Minor amounts of former cementing materials. silica. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. British Columbia.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. and both usages are found in the literature. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Other colors. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. carbonate and clay. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. not around them. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. such as yellow and orange. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. therefore. rutile and magnetite. iron oxide. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. are due to other mineral impurities.

High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. precambrian quartzite. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. several mountains (e. near Salt Lake City. southwestMinnesota. the Wasatch Range in Utah. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area).g. The highest mountain in Mozambique. In Wales. In Canada. In the United Kingdom. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. Central Texas. and stair steps. pale grey. silicon and silicon carbide. as roofing tiles. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Foinaven. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. Monte Binga (2436 m). Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. [4] . Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. industrial silica sand.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. In the Scottish Highlands. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. as flooring.


graphite. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. hornblende. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. If the whole district. however. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. for example. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. and others. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. for example. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. Usually. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". such as garnet schist. the terms slate. A quartz-porphyry. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. etc. glaucophane schist. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. In other . rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. can be seen by the naked eye. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. By definition. tourmaline schist. The individual mineral grains in schist.talc. chlorite. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas.clastic structure.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. Most schists are mica schists.

foliated. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. staurolite. schistose character. contain silicate minerals such as mica. For example. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. A subgroup is the andalusite. with crystalline dolomites. dolomites. as limestones. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). feldspar. The majority of mica-schists. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. marbles. and the white mica-schists. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. diopside. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. which have been derived from rhyolites. however. tremolite. with variable amounts of white and black mica. quartz and feldspar. for example. Such rocks. while others are found only among igneous masses. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. are alteredclaystones and shales. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. scapolite. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. and calc-schists. zoisite and hornblende. garnet. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized.cases intrusive junctions. chilled edges. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. many metamorphic limestones. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. . some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


traditionally a small piece of slate. Slate is not to be confused with shale. from which it may be formed. en masse. the terms slate. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. For example. foliated. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. often along with biotite. However. Slate is frequently grey in color. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. .. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. or a writing slate. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. It may mean a single roofing slate. tourmaline.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. as in the purple slates of North Wales. covering roofs. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. kaolinite. In the context of underground coal mining. from pale to dark. for example. or zirconas well as feldspar. less frequently. hematite. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. especially when seen. chlorite. leaving a light green spotted texture. apatite. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. graphite. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. magnetite. and pyrite and. and may also be purple. Occasionally. or schist. green or cyan. often framed in wood.


ilmenite. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. 3.g. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. biotite. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. Magnetite. [5] sediment. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. potassium (K). This removal can take place in a variety of ways. Partial melting of crustal material. 2. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. the relative contribution of the three components (crust.. leading to metamorphism.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. anhydrous forms. of intermediate composition. In a general sense. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. zircon. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition.e. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Characteristic of subduction zones. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. apatite. During subduction. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. zeolites.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. chlorite etc. but most . Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. volcanic rock. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. barium(Ba).

In order to remain active. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. creating a layer of molten material at its base. therefore. Once there. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. however. . show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. these reservoirs cool. If it underplates the crust. however. its intermediate phase. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. such as the Andes. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. As this process continues. Basalt can. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. forming mafic cumulates. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. Models of heat transfer. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. however. the composition is returned to andesite. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. Without continued addition of mafic material. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite.


(In comparison. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. Mars. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. the third largest moon of Jupiter. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. and even on the asteroid Vesta. Venus. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface.. On Earth.. /ˈbæsɒlt/. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.BASALT Basalt (pron. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. By definition. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Sobolev et al. Hungary . 2007). basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume.g.

Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. Arizona. basanites "very hard stone. . believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". as building blocks or in the groundwork). misspelling of L. an excellent thermal insulator. libri XII. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). from βάζανος (basanos.g. US quarter for scale. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen.

MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. most large oceanic islands. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins.     . MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt).

occasionally with porphyry. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. and to provide a durable finished work. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. into which they may subtly merge. and/or pyroxene. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite.DIORITE Diorite (pron. . and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. and frequently has a greenish cast. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. microcline and olivine.biotite. central Sweden. Basin and Range province. the Isle of Guernsey. magnetite. however. Scotland. making it difficult to carve and work with. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Northeastern Turkey. hornblende. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Its hardness. the Andes Mountains. source localities include Leicestershire. Zircon. and Idahet in Egypt. Italy. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Minnesota in theUSA. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. apatite. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). It can also be black or bluish-grey. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. Sondrio. the Darrans range of New Zealand.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. which is transitional togabbro. Finland. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. Romania. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. sphene.

it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. In later times. but mostly for fortress walls. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. London. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. Guernsey and Scotland. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. Paul's Cathedral. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. inscribed upon a 2. . where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. weaponry. etc. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. Assyria and Sumer. Babylonia. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St.

amphibole. Scotland. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. plagioclase. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. the rock is then a norite.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. and ulvospinel. Rock Creek Canyon. ilmenite. Gabbro is dense. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. California. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. Gabbros contain minor amounts. coarse-grained. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. Isle of Skye. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. easternSierra Nevada. typically a few percent. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. The rocks areplutonic. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges.

Massachusetts. gold. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. although it may be porphyritic at times. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. intruding into the rift flanks. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. cobalt. platinum.extra descriptiveness is desired. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. silver. . Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. US. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. and copper sulfides. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. nickel.


GRANITE Granite (pron.1260 °C. By definition. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. This rock consists mainly of quartz. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. Granitoid is a general. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. descriptive field term for light-colored. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. mica. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels.65 and 2. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. northern Chile . and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. near the town of Caldera. an unusual type of granite. and feldspar. a grain. The average density of granite is between 2.75 3 g/cm . Granites can be pink to gray in color. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). hard and tough. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. Melting temperature is 1215 .: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. felsic.

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .

Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. valley of the Merced River Roche Rock. Cornwall .

by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.22% MgO — 0. Granite often occurs as relatively small. sanidine. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.69% CaO — 1.12% MnO — 0. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. In some locations. it is called tonalite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.82% FeO — 1. although much of it is of Precambrian age. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. . alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. where it forms a major part of continental crust.71% TiO2 — 0.The Cheesewring.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.68% Fe2O3 — 1. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth.12% Na2O — 3.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase.30% P2O5 — 0.


obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. California . where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. in addition. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. which is the parent material. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. usually 70% or more. Obsidian is hard and brittle. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Obsidian is mineral-like. forming perlite. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. [9][10][11] .. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis)..

S. Italy. Colorado. Very few samples are nearly colorless. . Iceland. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Scotland and the United States. El Salvador. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). Armenia. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled.Utah.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Mexico. Japan. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Pantelleria.S. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. New Zealand. white. states including Arizona. Kenya. Oregon and Idaho. Peru. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. In some stones. It can be found in Argentina. Chile. states of Virginia. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. New [13] [14] Mexico. Washington. Azerbaijan. Texas. Guatemala. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. Occurrence Glass Mountain. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Canada. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). and deposits can be found in many other western U. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci.Greece. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. the inclusion of small. as well as Pennsylvania. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari.


    Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Theory Theory . explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Similarly. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. macroscale graphic texture is known. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. exsolution lamellae. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. in essence a granite. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Therefore. For this reason. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature.5 cm in size. feldspar and mica. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. pyroxene and other minerals are known. and when affected by hydrous crystallization.

Beyond pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. Rock Creek Canyon. with bulk chemical and textural change. . often with mica and usually with quartz. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. granite-associated mineralisation styles. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. for example greisens. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. eastern Sierra Nevada. being altogether "granitic" in character. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. California. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. to liberate the right constituents and water. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. and are usually granitic in character. in a few cases.

[edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. accessory minerals and timing. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. fluorite. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. topaz. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. aluminium. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. commonly almandine or spessartine. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. In most cases. boron. Hence. tourmaline. lepidolite. tantalite. among others. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. cesium. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. Often. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. orange and brown almandine garnet. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. . et cetera. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. potassium and lithium. Australia).Garnet. Geochemically. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. such as aquamarine. tourmaline. beryllium. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. however. tourmaline. Occasionally. columbite. Queensland. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. orientation. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. niobium. zinnwaldite and so forth. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. tantalite. apatite and corundum. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. uranium. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. Bismuth. thorium. Tantalum. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. say. niobite) are found in association with spodumene.

[edit]Occurrence Worldwide. . pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. "granitic" or "metasomatic". notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. However. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. Within the metamorphic belts. transitional with some greisens. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. Similarly.

compressed with fiamme on right. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass.PUMICE Pumice pron. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. . causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). Rocks from the Bishop tuff. uncompressed with pumice on left. Pumice is created when super-heated. It is typically light colored. which may or may not contain crystals. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.

A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. with tree trunks floating among them. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. to green-brown or black. Pumice is commonly pale in color. phonolite. In 1979. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. dacitic. When larger amounts of gas are present. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. blue or grey. . rhyolitic. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. After the explosion of Krakatoa. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. andesite. ranging from white. many samples float in water. In [4] fact. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls.S. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. but basaltic and other compositions are known. and initially floats on water. trachyte). It is commonly. it sinks rapidly.. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. 1984 and 2006. cream. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. pantellerite. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin.g. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser.

in the case of pumiceous lavas. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. especially in polishes. It is also used as an abrasive. pencil erasers. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks.There are two main forms of vesicles. . Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. smooth. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. cosmetic exfoliants. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. during flow. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. plaster-like concrete. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. When used as an additive for cement. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption.

The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. the eruptions were at the St. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. and consequently. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. also called obsidian. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. below:pumice.nodular. and lithophysal structures. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. . Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). volcanic (extrusive) rock. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. spherulitic. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.


Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. . usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. black or purplish red). An old name for scoria is cinder. typically near its surface. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. a unique form of Scoria. creating bubbles in the molten rock. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. and hence is denser. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. and bursting. Quincan. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. rust. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. and sinks in water. Auckland in New Zealand.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. bubble growth. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. another vesicular volcanic rock. An example is Mount Wellington. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . but in contrast to pumice. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. and may contain phenocrysts. Vesicles are usually small. coalescence. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. blocks and bombs). spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Australia. instead they open into one another with little distortion. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. skōria. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones.

It is somewhat porous. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. and to carve some moai from. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and often has striking colours. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. . The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. has high surface area and strength for its weight.

Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. "coal-like.4. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). Ukraine. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. In America." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). markets to distinguish it from its competitors. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. the UK. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. coal) is a hard.1% and 98%. North Korea. blue. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources.3– 1. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. the fewest impurities. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. [5] Vietnam. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). which also include bituminous coal and lignite. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. which is used mainly in power generation. mineral-matter-free basis. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. its higher relative density of 1. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. which is used as a pigment. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . which is softer). and black diamond. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. It has the highest carbon content. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal.S. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG).ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). blind coal (in Scotland). Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. as opposed to lignite. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. is known as culm. Australia and the US. and lustre. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. hard coal. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. and smokeless flame. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. other producers are Russia. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition.

an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. In [6] June 2008. The thermal conductivity is also higher. coking coal and domestic house coals. Since the 1980s. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. New Mexico. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. Structurally. For example. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. [7] It was In the United States.MJ/kg). anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. In southwest Wales.. circa 1935 . mined near Saundersfoot. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. Pennsylvania. on the as-received basis (i. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton.e. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. By 1795. and Western Pennsylvania. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former.

Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. placed in descending order. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . In spring 1808. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Pennsylvania. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. From that first mine. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. making it ideal for this purpose. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War.S. on an open grate in a fireplace. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. Of that. Pennsylvania. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. Current U. such as schools. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. Many large public buildings.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). In the early 20th century United States. Group of breaker boys. the Delaware. about 1. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year.

as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. "poor". Commercial mining has now ceased.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. or less. anthracite was largely used. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. Switzerland and parts of Germany. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". both in America and South Wales. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. [10] . Similarly. Formerly.Anthracite".

ARKOSE Arkose (pron. most commonly granitic rocks. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. and some mica is often present. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. although bedding is frequently visible. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. Apart from the mineral content. Fossils are rare in arkose. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. rock fragments may also be a significant component. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. due to the depositional processes that form it. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. . Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour.


a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. These distinctive sequences. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. mineral-matter-free basis. and sulphur. bright-banded" or "bright. dull-banded". hydrogen. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). and exinite. which are classified according to either "dull. . Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Within the coal mining industry. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. the rest is composed of water. air. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. good ventilation and vigilant site management. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³).

079 in) in size. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word is a loan from Italian. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. lithified colluvium. In the field. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. A conglomerate. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. by their relative movements. Technically. in essence. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. igneous breccia. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. tectonic breccia. These are. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. avalanches. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. poorly sorted. . as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. by contrast. typically in a karst landscape.

. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks.g. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. When particularly intense. Lavas. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. both of lava and pyroclastic type. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. as they slide past each other. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. This occurs when the thick. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. Broken. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. granites and kimberlite pipes. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. also called pillow breccias. and these form volcanic breccias.

Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. In addition. a type of impactite. shocked minerals. iridium and osmium anomalies). Impact breccia.g. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. Nevada.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. and are usually found at impact craters. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. in the rim. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. near Blessington in Ireland. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. and attrition quickly o . impact glass. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. steam and boiling water.Pahranagat Range.

at much greater depths. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. As a result. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). in particular CO2.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. If boiling occurs. Pend Oreille mine. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids.rounds angular breccia fragments. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. Washington. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Pend Oreille County. silver and gold. On their journey. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. In the mesothermal regime. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. . Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. as the formational event is brief. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing.


Buffalo. but most often manifests as gray. brown. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. (3. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. hard chert. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. It also occurs in thin beds. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). Oklahoma. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. limestone. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. "chalcedony" and "flint" . [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. chalk.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. [edit]Terminology: "chert". Where it occurs in chalk or marl. New York. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides.CHERT Chert (pron. it is usually called flint.

This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". Everett. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. . Strictly speaking. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). The term does not include quartzite. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure.chert being lower quality than flint.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Among petrologists. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert.

Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. which consist of angular clasts. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. South Dakota. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. . [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm).

so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. conglomerates are normally very well sorted.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . In this setting.000 ft. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict . At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. approximate depth 10. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational .clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. Alaska. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. and are known as basal conglomerates.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.

in rapidly eroding (e. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. These form the basis of a number of . Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. desert) environments. matrix-supported conglomerates.g. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. in Australia's Northern Territory. are typically poorly-sorted. Tillites.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . near Barcelona. forming structures such aseskers. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. The matrix is generally fine-grained.

. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly.g. as different sectors of the fault moved. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.large oil fields. e.

shallow submarine raised banks. or other invertebrates. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. which compose them. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. As a result. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. swift tidal channels. in the form of seashells or coral. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. brachiopods. abraded. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. trilobites. abrasion. and barrier bars. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. close packing. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported.COQUINA Coquina (pron.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. fracturing. . The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. and sorting of the shells. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. often including some phosphate.

Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. but still comparatively soft. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. When first quarried. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos.Close-up of coquina from Florida. The stone makes a very good material for forts. . However. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. coquina is extremely soft. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Saint Augustine. cannon balls would sink into. Because of coquina's softness. form. The scale bar is 10 mm. rather than shatter or puncture. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. In order to be used as a building material. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years.


Initially. the peasant and goods waggoner. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. it was thought that limestone had been found. mechanical insecticide.: /ˌdaɪ. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. and athermal insulator. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. TheCelle engineer. This powder has an abrasive feel. cat litter. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6.13 by 0. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. Peter Kasten. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. is a naturally occurring. recognized its ability to filter. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. soft. It is used as a filtration aid. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. which could be used as fertilizer. Wilhelm Berkefeld. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. a type of hard-shelled algae. diatomite. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. a stabilizing component of dynamite. matting agent for coatings.5 to 2% iron oxide.. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. similar to pumice powder. anti-block in plastic films. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] .E.69 mm.236 pixels/ μm. absorbent for liquids. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. activator in blood clotting studies. porous support for chemical catalysts. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal.

1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared.  ca. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. used successfully.from diatomaceous earth. . with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca.

In Colorado and in Clark. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Nevada (USA). Washington and California. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. such as this one for swimming pools . Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland.Virginia.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. but are of low quality. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. France. Oregon. Denmark and the Czech Republic.

[edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. such as beer and wine. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. [7] taste. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. but this method may take weeks to work. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. due to its physico-sorptive properties. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. since slugs inhabit humid environments. especially for swimming pools. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. hollow particles. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. causing them to [9] dehydrate. sugar. However. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs..Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. for this purpose. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid.e. as well as in some facial scrubs.. and other liquids. . Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. coffin-like. or nutritional properties. It is also used to filter water. with questionable efficacy. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. efficacy is very low. It can also filter syrups. It has a high porosity. based on Fick's law of diffusion. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. foodgrade— see below). and honey without removing or altering their color. because it is composed of microscopically small.e. In order to be effective as an insecticide. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.

[edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. including water. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. . Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. As with other silicates. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant.vermiculite. as [20] well as an insecticide. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. particularly as bonsai soil. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. Fungicide. Like perlite. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills.S. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate.

and has a high silica content (>60%). allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. as feed supplement. For instance. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. it retains water and nutrients. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. while draining fast and freely. which is used as an indigestible marker. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. which has been widely used for the same purpose.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). Libya. has a very fine particle size. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology.and expanded clay. the largest single . [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and as an insecticide. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. It is produced uncalcinated.

.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. generating dust by abrasion. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes.

Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification.G. however.S. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. but it can still develop solution features over time. In old U. It is.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite.S. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. used in some geological publications. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. . The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence.

6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.5 million BTU/ton). Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.e. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).LIGNITE COAL Lignite. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. mineral-matter-free basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. Australia averages 8. When reacted with quaternary amine. it is mined in Greece.. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . on the as-received basis (i. Serbia. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. Germany. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.4 MJ/kg (6. often referred to as brown coal. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. India. Poland. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. the United States. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. Russia. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. ca. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Lignite mining in Western North Dakota.

. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. [4] Victoria. particularly in combination with strip mining.than for comparable black-coal plants. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria.

The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. USA . The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Virginia. as aggregate for the base of roads. and as a chemical feedstock.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite.

which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. building upon past generations. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. depending on the method of formation. Classification Two major classification schemes.travertine. iron oxide and other materials. sand.e. i. Romania. This produces speleothems. organic remains. pH. including the water temperature.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Travertine is a banded. such as clay. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. When conditions are right for precipitation. and extraclasts. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks.000 meters. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. granular. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. is found near waterfalls. such as stalagmites and stalactites. or massive. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Limestone may be crystalline. Because of impurities. and dissolved ionconcentrations. particularly where there are waterfalls. diatoms. depending on several factors. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Crystals of calcite. flint. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. radiolarians). The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. especially onweathered surfaces. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. most limestone is composed of grains. . and varying amounts of clay. peloids. limestone recrystallizes into marble. jasper. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Below about 3. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves).) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. many limestones exhibit different colors. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. the Folk and the Dunham. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. intraclasts. or it can fill fractures. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. and around hot or cold springs. quartz. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. clastic. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. etc.

These include limestone pavements. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. The Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Based on composition. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. pot holes. cenotes. matrix (mostly micrite).Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. caves and gorges. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. there are three main components: allochems (grains). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Unlike the Folk scheme. Such erosion landscapes are known . and cement (sparite). especially in acid. and therefore self-supporting. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. not the grains in the sample. Robert J. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles.

Notch Peak in Utah. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. typically clays. Clare. Sweden. England. especially in Europe and North America. making it impractical for tall buildings. While draining. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Ireland. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. However. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. are made of limestone. theVerdon Gorge in France. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Examples include the Burren in Co. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). The Florida Keys. It is most common in the tropics. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. karsts. Sweden. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). extend for more than a hundred kilometers. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Many landmarks across the world. islands off the south coast of Florida. This process is known as bioerosion. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Ontario. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Unique habitats are found on alvars. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. the only building material available. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. [9] Michigan. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. So many buildings in Kingston. 2003). including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. for a long time. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). it is a very heavy material. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. and relatively expensive as a building material. On the island of Malta. .

Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.

and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. but only in thin plates for covering. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). [11] . most notably the Bloomington area. in some circumstances. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. cement and mortar. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. durable. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Indiana. Glass making. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. paint. rather than solid blocks. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Train stations. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. tiles. It is added to toothpaste. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. called Indiana limestone. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. uses limestone. Used in blast furnaces. paper. In the United States. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. Purified. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). such as for poultry (when ground up).A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. plastics. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. since it is hard.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

Fine-grained aquifers. such as sandstones. . making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). Sandstone is mined by quarrying. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. yellow. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. pink. gray. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. Like sand. red. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features.France. but the most common colours are tan. most [1] sandstone is red. In the western United States and incentral Australia. sandstone may be any colour. [edit]Uses 17. white and black. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. brown. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity.

in Freiburg.Germany.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. around 1770. .

. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. and other buildings.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. and continues to be used. cathedrals. homes.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. These are sandstone beverage coasters. It is relatively soft. making it easy to carve.

such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. are typically called argillaceous sediments. like chalk and coal. However.0 mm. some that have been used in the past. [3] like gypsum and jasper). including siltstones and shales. Because of the hardness of individual grains. e. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. Utah. yet are easy to work.079 inches). [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. rocks with greater grain sizes. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. . Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain.002–0. have been found less resistant. or chemical. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. clays.g. for sharpening blades and other implements.. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. and silica. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. Scale bar is 1. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite.0625 mm to 2 mm (0.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. gritstone. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings.

which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation.e. Arizona. and composition and. lake. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. in finer detail. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone.. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. include its grain size. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Typically. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. in more general detail. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. which. once it has accumulated. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. over other construction. Finally. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine.g. i. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. or sea) or from air (as in a desert).sorting. First. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand).. either from water (as in a stream. in a desert or erg).

Tidal flats 4. Deltas 2. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Beach and shoreface sands 3. such as hardness and chemical stability. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Rivers (levees. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Glacial outwash 4.1. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. channel sands) 2. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone.  . Lakes 5. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Alluvial fans 3. point bars.

25 millimeter. magnetite. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. Although. pyroxene. Common heavy minerals include zircon. and corundum. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. olivine. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. or sedimentary rock. this represents a complete solid solution.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. or other dense. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. metamorphic. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. tourmaline. rutile (hence ZTR).garnet. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. One is to call the . [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. upper picture is plane-polarized light. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. called lithic fragments or clasts. scale box at left-center is 0.

 Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. barite. such as calcite.  .sandstone an arenite. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. limonite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. and zeolite minerals. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. and very rarely is in other sandstones. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. feldspars. anhydrite.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. and the other is to call it a wacke. [6] gypsum. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. clay minerals.


Mudstones. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Sand grain = 2 mm. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). iron . Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. sodium. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate.reds).browns and limonite [1] yellow). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. magnesium. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. on the other hand. calcium. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. iron hydroxide (goethite . [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers.greens). [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. montmorillonite and illite. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. especially quartz and calcite. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . or micaceous minerals (chlorite. in dia. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. called fissility. Red. the terms slate. biotite and illite .

Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. black shales were deposited in anoxic. hematite and albite. uranium. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. in river deltas. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. 'Black shales' are dark. dolomite. quiet water. However.and water. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. . as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. The enriched values are of controversial origin. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. and zinc. These released elements form authigenic quartz. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. calcite. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. such as in stagnant water columns.chert. ankerite.Cumberland Plateau. vanadium. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. reducing environments. in relatively deep.

With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. . "Flintstone of Princestone". 1961. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. apatite. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. The Flintstones. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. fissile. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. which originally aired on November 3. or various carbonate minerals. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). metamorphic rockknown as slate. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale".Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. then schist and finally to gneiss. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite.

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