BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

a town in Caria in Asia Minor. and is then known as carbuncle. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. of deep red color. inclining to purple. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11.5 K. or en cabochon. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. upper mantle and transition zone. The name is a corruption of alabandicus.512 Å at 100 K. also known incorrectly as almandite. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series.: /ˈælməndɪn/). is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. It is frequently cut with a convex face. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. Almandine. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.

When the color inclines to a violet tint. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Almandine is widely distributed. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. some years ago. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. in Tyrol.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. and are sometimes cut and polished. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . a name said to be taken from Syriam. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal.

.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.790 (+/. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . -.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.05 (+.AD.25.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .7.024 [1] .

Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. 460. may also have faint lines at 423. and 573nm. 610 and 680-690nm [1] .

high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Colorado. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Naturally. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. orthoclase. El Paso County. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. Virginia.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. More recently. Russia. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. where it occurs in granitic rocks. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. Because of its bright green color when polished. . and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. For many years. Colorado. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. although it is easily fractured.

Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. pale-yellow. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. or amazonite. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. brick-red. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. It is common in granite and pegmatites. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. viewed under a polarizing microscope. or green.Colorado. however. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. white." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Amazon stone. Microcline may be clear. . Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope.

Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Cl or ions. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.g.F . Similarly. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. named for high concentrations of OH . in the crystal. also known as hydroxylapatite.F. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. respectively. in the mid-20th century. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale.Cl)2. sodium .

Cl. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins.OH) Strunz classification 08. blue to violet. less often colorless.fluoride. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. prismatic crystals. massive. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. usually green. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.BN. pink.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. compact or granular . Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. sodium monofluorophosphate). brown. yellow.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.

012.638 (+0. Other colors are weak to very weak.[1] Dispersion 0.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1. green stones – greenish yellow . [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.16– stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.002–0.634–1.006)[1] Birefringence 0. blue and yellow to colorless. −0.

which is stronger in long wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave. light purple in short wave.[1] .


is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. In some mollusks. the entire shell is aragonite. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. respectively. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. An aragonite cave. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. is situated in Slovakia. In the USA. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. Spain). The mineral vaterite. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. naturally occurring. also known as μ-CaCO3. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. one of the two common. [edit]Uses In aquaria. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. [citation Aragonite . occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. It is formed by biological and physical processes. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. in others. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. resulting in a different crystal shape.

green . globular. orange. yellow. pisolitic. reniform. Z = 4 Identification Color White.95 Å. b = 7.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . c = 5. red.74 Å. coralloidal. Aude department. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. columnar. internally banded .Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal.AB.96 Å.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. acicular. stalactitic. prismatic crystals.

682 nγ = 1.680 .1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.686 Birefringence δ = 0.1.530 nβ = 1.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.685 .5-4 Luster Vitreous.529 .95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. white or . yellow.1.

yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish. phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

[edit]Characteristics .AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.Ti)(Si.Fe. meeting at angles near 90 degrees. Augite has two prominent cleavages. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Na)(Mg.Al.Al)2O6.

[edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. sanidine. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. brown or [2] black) luster.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. which is from the Greekaugites. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. With declining temperature.0 x 2. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. and sodium and other elements. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. olivine. for example. titanium. but mostly of temperature. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. labradorite. leucite. meaning "brightness". There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. Augite . Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India.4 x 3. It is found near the Ken River. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure.

272 Å. β = 106.844 Å.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. violet-brown.Fe.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9. dendritic .97°. b = 8. c = 5.699 Å. skeletal. Z=4 Identification Color Black. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Augite .Ti)(Si.Na)(Mg.DA. greenish.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Al. also acicular. in thin section. brown.

026 .5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. grayish green.735.1.774 Birefringence δ = 0.684 .3.706 . greenish yellow. Y = pale brown. nβ = 1. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Z = pale green. violet .039 Pleochroism X = pale green. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.19 .0. green. pale yellow-green.680 .1.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}. violet. nγ = 1. pale brown.1.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.741.


From Tsumeb. . Namibia. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. The mineral. France. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. has been known since ancient times. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. and unknown white crystals. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure").AZURITE Azurite is a soft. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. With azurite. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. a carbonate.

89. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite crystals are monoclinic.5 to 4. . Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. Azurite is soft. carbonate and hydroxide. Characteristic of a carbonate. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Azurite is destroyed by heat.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. the other being bright green malachite.77 to 3. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. and are often stalactitic in form. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. powdery copper(II) oxide.

As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. and also as an ornamental stone. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. However. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. a similar but much more expensive pigment. it gave a wide range of blues. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. a term applied to many blue pigments. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. France. such as saltwater aquariums. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. and its basic content of copper carbonate. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). Ultramarine withstands heat. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. However. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. Heating destroys azurite easily. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. in the silver mines located there.

Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. heat. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. dark. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. However. bright light. General . collectors should use a cool.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China.

pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. b = 5.85 Å. β = 92. c = 10.35 Å. Berlin blue.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.BA. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. fair on {100}.5 to 4 . stalactitic. prismatic. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.01 Å.43°. very dark to pale blue.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. twin planes {101}.

3.838 Birefringence δ = 0.758 nγ = 1.773 (measured).78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.730 nβ = 1. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.

The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone.basalt. the clay mineral kaolinite. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. syenite. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. gneiss.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). and shale. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). and diaspore α-AlO(OH). where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. . In the case of Jamaica. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite.

[edit]Production trends In 2010. and Guinea. India. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. Increased aluminium recycling. followed by China. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. . Brazil. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves.

and is the main [1] source of barium. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. anglesite and anhydrite. The baryte group consists of baryte. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. celestine.BARITE Baryte. or barite. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.Sr)SO4. [edit]Names [2] and history .

tabling. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). but rather a material that meets that specification. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. including barytine. jigging. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. [2] [3] Spar. such as washing. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . heavy media separation. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. and blanc fixe. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. an addition to industrial products. flotation. Other names have been used for baryte. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most baryte is ground to a small.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. tiff. [2] Heavy associations and locations . The American [2][7] spelling is barite. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. [8] barytes. [8] schwerspath. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density.

USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. in hot spring deposits. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. Scotland. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. and evaporation. among others. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. and with hematite ore. hydrothermal. Perthshire. .

filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. Connecticut. the bit passes through various formations. and paint. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. Georgia. Tennessee. Morocco (460). India [12] (1. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). by weight. United States (670). the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. and no more than 30%. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. China. De Kalb. Muirshiel [2] Mine. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Peru. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. Turkey. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. sound reduction in engine compartments. New York & Fort Wallace. As a well is drilled. Canada.600). coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. Iran. can be less than 6 μm diameter. Derbyshire. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. blue. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Cumbria. Virginia. friction products for automobiles and trucks. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. Chile. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. It is mined in Arkansas.Perthshire. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. Iran (250). Liberia. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). Greece. Durham.2 or greater.Kentucky.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. [edit]Paleothermometry . The deeper the hole. Nevada & Missouri. India. by weight. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. Thailand. Morocco. North [2] Carolina. chemically inert. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Romania (Baia Sprie). UK (Cornwall. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. each with different characteristics. Connecticut. radiation-shielding cement. New Mexico. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). paper. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging.000).

away from continental sources of sediment.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. . systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.

maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. yellow. possible colors are green.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". theFrench word brille meaning "shine". Old French: beryl. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. veḷiru ( ). blue. and white. [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. Pure beryl is colorless. and [5] the English word brilliance. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. red. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). but it is frequently tinted by impurities. [edit]Deposits . Terminated crystals are relatively rare. the Spanish word brillo.BERYL In geology. also meaning "shine". The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill.

U. South Africa. Germany. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. 18 meters [6] long and 3. neutrons or even X-rays). and Bahia. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. As of 1999. as well as Brazil. Maine. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. In the United States.5 m by 1. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. such as that occurring in Brazil. near Powder River Pass. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. the United States.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Madagascar. Madagascar. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. Clear yellow beryl.000 kilogrammes. North Carolina. though the color returns with irradiation. Idaho. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . New Hampshire. South Dakota and Utah. Ireland and Russia. and weighing 380. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. beryl locations are in California. Colombia. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe.5 meters in diameter. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. InWyoming. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. Colorado. Espírito Santo. Mainewith dimensions 5.S. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. Mozambique. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. In Brazil. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. and Zambia. and 2+ 3+ . Sweden (especially morganite). Connecticut. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. and limestone inColombia.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. Austria.

its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. In the US. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Zimbabwe. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. Coscuez. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. and Chivor. India. as such. Brazil. In 1998. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. North Carolina. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Brazil. Pakistan. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. Minas Gerais. meaning "green". It is named for the trapiche. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. [15] [7][14] . Zambia. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. and its dimensions were 48. Madagascar.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Madagascar. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. which has been on the market since 1964. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. such as Zambia. It weighed over 110 kg. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. marakata (म कन). The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. in 1910. Malawi. The mines of Colombia. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo.. Most emeralds are highly included. Afghanistan and Russia.

Nowadays. The name originates from Goshen. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Washington. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. D. Unlike emerald. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets.C. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. golden beryl has very few flaws. . while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. However. In the past.

Ti. at Pala. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. "pink emerald". The crystal. such astourmaline and kunzite. Morgan. Juab County. pink. and color banding is common. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). also known as "pink beryl". [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. 1989. California. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield.Maine. In December 1910. On October 7. V. P. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. originally somewhat orange in hue. USA. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. Sc. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. its type locality. green. Thomas [26][27] Range. with other gemstone minerals. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. because of the . Utah. Fe. and Co impurities. It was also known. goshenite can be colored yellow. "rose beryl". However. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low.

Sierra County.orthoclase. Utah. quartz. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. [28] of Fillmore. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10.05 . Utah. topaz. Beaver County. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. spessartine. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. Utah. pseudobrookite and hematite.CJ. and Juab County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl".000 per carat for faceted stones. while he was prospecting for uranium. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. New [1] Mexico. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9.

21 Å.19 Å.50 Color Green.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. c = 9.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . yellow. columnar. radial. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. colorless. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals. blue.

602 Birefringence δ = 0.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce. but the stone itself does not) .Specific gravity Average 2.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.564–1.0040–0.595 nε = 1.568–1.

it refers to the dark mica series. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. [4] discovering many unique properties.OH)2. magnesium. researched the optical properties of mica. Biotite is a sheet silicate. in 1816. aluminium. Iron. More generally. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions.F. silicon. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. oxygen. Biotite was named by J.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. who.L. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite.

fracture is uneven. especially in pegmatite veins. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Virginia and North Carolina. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. It appears greenish to brown or black. or lamellae. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Ontario. in some instances side-by-side. has a vitreous to pearly luster. It can be transparent to opaque. and consists of flexible sheets. Norway. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists.than phlogopite. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. It has amonoclinic crystal system. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. and even yellow when weathered. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. . as in New England. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. For instance. When biotite is found in large chunks. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. which easily flake off. and a grey-white streak. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks.

less common on the {001} .53 g Color Dark brown.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. blackish brown.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. greenish brown. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. yellow.

565–1.7–3. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.5–3.605–1.1 Density 2.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.8–3.675 nγ = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .675 Birefringence δ = 0.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.625 nβ = 1.03–0.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).605–1.

also known as peacock ore. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite.

England. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.Mexico (size: 7. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Montana and at Bristol. the Mangula mine. Kazakhstan. Austria. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore.Lomagundi district. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Morocco. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. and elsewhere in Cornwall.3 x 3. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Zimbabwe.5 x 4.Connecticut in the U. Karlovy Vary Region. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. from the N’ouva mine. eastern Tirol. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. S. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. Illogan. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. Talate. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. .


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

The mineral is found worldwide. The world's largest known geode. Crystal Cave. In carbonate marine sediments. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. Ohio. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. Celestine . The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. usually in small quantities.

pink. black .Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.AD. pale brown. b = 5. c = 6. white. pale blue. pale green.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.359 Å.352 Å.866 Å.

632 Birefringence δ = 0.95 .97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1.3. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.630 .1.3. lamellar.619 . good on {210}. earthy.5 Luster Vitreous.1. also fibrous.622 .622 nβ = 1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .624 nγ = 1.

white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. long UV=yellow. white blue .

Copper is shown in pink.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. hydroxides and sulfates. covellite (CuS). . carbonates such as malachite and azurite. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). chalcocite (Cu2S). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. On exposure to air. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. digenite (Cu9S5).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O).

There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. Pb. V. However. Ontario. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types.3 x 4. Ni. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Mn.8 x 6. Pd. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. etc. . Au. Se. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. and Sb are reported. the American cordillera and the Andes. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. from huge masses as at Timmins.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. In. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Pt. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. and trace amounts of Ag. Cr. molybdenite representing Mo. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co.

General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells.CB. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Ouray County. Colorado. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules.

54 Color Brass yellow.1 – 4. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. commonly massive.Unit cell a = 5. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.423 Å.3 . Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.289 Å. and sometimes botryoidal. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron. c = 10.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. and a constituent of various metal alloys. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. Characteristics . Pure copper is soft and malleable. both by itself and as part of pigments. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. needed] In sufficient concentration. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus).COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. Decorative art prominently features copper. and wood preservatives. fungicides. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. later shortened to сuprum. In the Roman era. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). a building material. muscle and bone.

galvanic corrosion will occur. and osmium (bluish). above which it begins to heat excessively. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. For this reason. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. At the macroscopic scale. Copper. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow).6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. such as grain boundaries. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.Physical A copper disc (99. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. As with other metals. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver.

It does not react with water. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). bulk corrosion. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. such as the Statue of Liberty. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. Edinburgh. respectively. this oxide layer stops the further. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface.

4×3.83 hours. which has [13] a half-life of 12. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. Cu and Cu are stable. Native copper is a polycrystal. [15] . they both have a spin of 3/2. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer.7 hours. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. The other isotopes are radioactive. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .2×3. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.8 minutes. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging.There are 29 isotopes of copper. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite.2 cm. Cu. decays both ways. US.

0. Transparent specimens are used as gems. and the mix is less abrasive. plastics. it can scratch almost every other mineral. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. titanium and chromium. All other colors are called sapphire.02 g/cm . which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. It is commonly used as anabrasive. but can have different colors when impurities are present. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. and wood. e. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. with an average hardness near 8.0 Mohs). In addition to its hardness.g. It is a rock-forming mineral. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby".. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . corundum is unusual for its density of 4.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron.

In 1847. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. gneiss. silicon carbide. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Sri Lanka and India. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. . New York. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Russia. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. [4] Ontario.Corundum from Brazil.632 °F). Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. In 1903. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. [4] USA. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.000 °C (3. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid.8 in × 1 in). The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in).

1. rods. and other machined parts). synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. scratchresistant optics. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.CB. scratch-resistant watch crystals. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).05 Dana classification 4. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. Apart from ornamental uses.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.1 . Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. and laser components.3. bearings.

rhombohedral crystals. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. green. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. c = 12.982 Å. prismatic. pink to pigeon-blood-red. tabular. orange. violet. gray. may be color zoned. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. brown.75 Å. translucent toopaque . yellow. blue to cornflower blue.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4.

hematite.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1. or hercynite .767–1.Specific gravity 3.759–1.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.95–4.772 nε = 1.

10a Identification Formula mass 12. violet. pink. translucent white. purple and red. black.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. brown or gray to colorless. Less often blue. green.CB. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. .01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. orange. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.

5–3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.044 .01 Density 3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.52±0.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. In 1791. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure.S. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. often as a result of diagenesis. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). or in old U. [edit]Properties . Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.

having a different structural arrangement. gray to pink. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. although it is usually massive. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today.g. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. where organic matter content is high. namely. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. In the 1950s and 60s. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis).The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. i. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. It forms white. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. . Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. Arkansas.e. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Unlike calcite. dolomite is a double carbonate. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Crystal twinning is common. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO.

Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. White Mountains.Dolomite. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. California. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. . leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. textural and chemical characteristics. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. in a 1999 study. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). However. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form.

dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Cherokee County. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. and copper.2×4. In horticulture.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.4×7. zinc.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. a concrete aggregate. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. Kansas(size: 11. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Dolomite .

c = 16. stalactitic. also columnar. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. Crystal system Trigonal . 3 Unit cell a = 4.002 Å.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05.AB. granular. often with curved faces.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. Z = 3 Identification Color White. massive.8012(1) Å.

179–0.84–2.679–1. .681 nε = 1.500 Birefringence δ = 0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. triboluminescent. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.

" 3+ . the pleochroic colors being usually green.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. and the specific gravity. Ca2Al2(Fe . brown or nearly black. The color is green.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. the optical constants. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. It displays strong pleochroism. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. grey. the color. yellow and brown. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition.

adularia. . here as large. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. garnets.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. as magnificent. Arendal in Norway. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. The perfectly transparent. micas. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. and apatite. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. and others) composing igneous rocks. calcite. pyroxenes. Haddam inConnecticut. amphiboles. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. but one of secondary origin. withasbestos. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. dark green. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné.

Although not a common mineral. syenite. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. Dollaseite is less common. yellowish-. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. being black or dark brown in color. and others. and well-developed crystals are rare. Piemontite occurs as small. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. and opaque in the mass. rhyolite. Epidote . and many different names applied. gneiss. pitchy in lustre. sometimes a foot in length. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. near Falun in Sweden. there is little or no cleavage. granite. near Ivrea in Piedmont. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. after whom the species was named. reddish-black. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. at Finbo. and greenish-brown colors. andesite. further.

yellow-green.3–3. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.6 . massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. fibrous.

751 nβ = 1.019–0.725–1.715–1.046 Pleochroism Strong .Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.734–1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.784 nγ = 1.

the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8).ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. While slowly cooling within the earth. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. Typically. . The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. of plagioclase.

Germany. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. It is the state gem of Florida. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. It measured ~10×10×0. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. some ceramics. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Most moonstones are translucent and white. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . Russia. and as a constituent of scouring powder. such as porcelain. In gemology. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. although their value and durability do not greatly differ.

2V = 65–75 . Greyish yellow. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. White.55–2. Cleavages intersect at 90°. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Greenish.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}.

0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron Refractive index nα = 1.520 nβ = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .518–1.524 nγ = 1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.525 Birefringence 0.522–1.0050–0.522–1.

Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It is the most important lead ore mineral. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms.

Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. and Cumberland. England. Rhodope Mountains. Illinois. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Iowa and Wisconsin. USA (size: 5. Derbyshire. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Smolyan Province. The Mendips. In the United States. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea.1×3. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Utah and Montana. Saxony. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Bulgaria. . Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Missouri. Cornwall.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Of the latter. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. the former mining town of Galena. antimony. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate).S. Broken Hill. the Madan. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure.2×2. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Idaho. Somerset. in a process similar to bioleaching. In addition zinc. cadmium. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral.

Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. which. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. For example.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. which were a potential source of disease. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. however. in Ancient Egypt. Isle of [5] Man. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. which was known as a "cat's whisker". measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. In modern wireless communication systems. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho).K. U.g.

936 Å.10 Dana classification 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.CD.75 . No. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].1.8. space group Fm3m. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. 225 Twinning Contact.5–2.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

7 to 4. and jarosite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. Although originally defined as a single mineral. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. but limonite does not. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. The hardness is variable. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. although specimens may show a [6] . although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. among them goethite.5 range.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. lepidocrocite.5. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. but generally in the 4 .3. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. the other being hematite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.akaganeite.

Complex systems developed. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. [10] California mining district. reniform or stalactitic. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. in Africa. [12] notably in Tanzania. and hematite was far easier to smelt. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. Because of its amorphous nature. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. Nonetheless. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. sometimes mammillary. pyroxene. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. producing red ochres.botryoidal. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. to process limonite. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. amphibole. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. hematite and magnetite. and biotite. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. Before smelting. Main article: Ochre#History . and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. burnt umbers and siennas. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment.

Limonite General Category Amorphous. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs.5½ .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .

7 .4.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .9 .3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U.GOLD Gold is a dense. so named because it dissolves gold. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. soft. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. In Europe. with huge war debts. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. Less commonly. in 1932. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. malleable and ductile metal. Chemically. is insoluble in nitric acid. usually with tellurium. shiny. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. giving rise to the term theacid test. . but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). it occurs in minerals as gold compounds.S. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. which dissolves silver and base metals. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. jewelry. It dissolves in mercury. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. forming amalgam alloys. which have been used in mining. in veins and in alluvial deposits. as nuggets or grains in rocks. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.

and other fields. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold.A total of 171. This is roughly equivalent to 5. or a cube 20. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. 40% in [3] investments. and 10% in industry. includingelectric wiring. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions.7 m on a side. in terms of volume. .5 billion troy ounces or. about 8876 m . colored-glass production and gold leafing. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. ductility. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. Its highmalleability. electronics.

plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). . for its use in pencils. "to draw/write". Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. It is. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. consequently. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. a semimetal.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. flat. Therefore. 2. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. There are three principal types of natural graphite. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). graphite is an electrical conductor. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. 3. the last stage of coalification.

In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. China is the largest producer of graphite. in particular. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. respectively. calcite. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite.S. Brazil (76 kt). of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). U. but U. Graphite is not mined in the United States. micas and tourmaline. Graphite .18 billion. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope.S. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.110 thousand tonnes (kt). Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. India (130 kt). This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer.

CB.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. c = 6. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.461 Å. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.708 Å. six-sided foliatedmasses. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .

Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.09–2.

Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. in contrast to most other salts. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. Upon addition of water. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. rather. [edit]Occurrence . it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. It can be used as afertilizer. and in the early 19th century. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. cleavable masses called selenite. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. "spear stone". its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it may also be granular or quite compact. As a mineral.5 g/l at 25°C) and. fibrous form. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. it is alabaster. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. When the crystal lattice is heated. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. (Thus. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. "chalk" or "plaster". [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. in the form of selenite. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. called alabaster. In hand-sized samples. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Selenite contains no significantselenium. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. Finally. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. In arid areas. and transparent. As foranhydrite. referring to its crystalline projections.0–2. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. typically opaque. Selenite may also occur in a silky. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. it exhibits a retrograde solubility.

Under reducing conditions. strongly opposed by area residents. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Blue Anchor. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Commercial exploitation of the area. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. . Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. and sulfate solutions inveins. as well as in hot springs. Wyoming. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. UK. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Gypsum is a common mineral.000 years. Somerset. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Pure gypsum is white.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. from volcanic vapors. However. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand.

CD. b = 15. blue.679(5) Å. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. brown. may be yellow. β = 118.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars.202(14) Å. pink. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. c = 6.522(6) Å.43°. tan.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. reddish brown or gray .

010 .31–2. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. flat.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. pearly.522–1.529–1.521 nβ = 1. Mohs scalehardness 1.519–1.530 Birefringence δ = 0. inelastic. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.523 nγ = 1. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Hematite is a mineral. or red. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). or otherwise highly weathered soils. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Hematite is harder than pure iron. Varieties includekidney ore. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Maghemite is a hematite. colored black to steel or silver-gray. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. but much more brittle. ancient. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. .HEMATITE Hematite. they all have a rust-red streak. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. brown to reddish brown. however. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. spring. one of several iron oxides. While the forms of hematite vary. Hematite can also occur without water. It is mined as the main ore of iron.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. also spelled as haematite. or other standing water. usually as the result of volcanic activity.

Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. c = 13.CB. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. Fe2O3.772(12) Å. dull to bright red .038(2) Å.

870–2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. columnar.220. commonly in rosettes. micaceous or platy. granular.150–3. radiating fibrous. nε = 2. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.280 . earthy. reniform. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5–6.940 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.

Pleochroism O = brownish red. E = yellowish red .

[edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.Na)2–3(Mg. The general formula can be given as (Ca. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.F)2.4 and is typically an opaque green.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. and an iron-magnesium silicate. brown or black color. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Fe. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.9–3. greenish-brown. .Si)8O22(OH. a specific gravity of 2.Al)5(Al. but the name is used as a general or field term. to refer to a dark amphibole.

and named edenite. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. andschist. New York. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. Fe. andesite. gabbro. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. gneiss. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. syenite. Al)5 (Al. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. Orange County. basalt. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. from its locality in Edenville. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. diorite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. is gray to white in color.

9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. Jiangxi province.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. pinyin: Gaoling). part of the group of industrial minerals. China. calaba. It is a soft. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. earthy. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. giving it a distinct rust hue. It is a layered silicate mineral. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. In Africa. Lighter concentrations yield white. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). Alternating layers are sometimes found. [edit]Chemistry [6] . a village near Jingdezhen. yellow or light orange colors. In many parts of the world. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). United States. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar.

[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. H = H2O. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. however. S = SiO2. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Al2Si2O7. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. Si3Al4O12. [edit]Occurrence . Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O.

Korea. Iran. the Czech Republic and the United States. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. as kaolin. United Kingdom. Kaolinite . where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system.5 million tonnes. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. India. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Australia. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. [1] the People's Republic of China. France. Germany.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. it is mined. Bulgaria. in Brazil. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5.

More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. α = 90°.8°.13 Å.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. c = 7. thin plates or stacked. b = 8. sometimes red. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. γ = 89. β = 104. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.89 Å. Z = 2 Identification Color White.ED. aggregated into compact.5°.25 Å.

553–1. Calculated: 44° .570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.559–1.565.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. nγ = 1.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.569.569–1.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.16–2. nβ = 1.

Canada. California. andMadagascar. Bernic Lake. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Ural Mountains. in some high-temperature quartz veins. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. topaz and beryl. feldspar.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. tourmaline. Manitoba. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. United States. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. Russia. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium.spodumene. greisens and granites.Si)3O10(F. cassiterite. It occurs in granite pegmatites. columbite. amblygonite.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. Lepidolite . Tanco Mine. Notable occurrences include Brazil. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium.

Cm Unit cell a = 5. purple.4 x 2. Brazil (size 2. violet-gray.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.149(5) Å. Virgem da Lapa.EC.011(5) Å c = 10. Minas Gerais.209(2) Å b = 9.Si)3O10(F.1 x 0. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink. rose-red.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. white. yellowish.Lepidolite. colorless .OH)2 Strunz classification 09. β = 100:77(4)°.

554– 1. nβ=1.8–2.58° measured .Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.586 Birefringence 0.548. Y = Z = pink.525–1.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.58.0290–0. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2. pale violet 2V angle 0° .5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. nγ=1.551–1.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.

Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. and ulvospinel have been much studied. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. called lodestone. hematite. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. will attract small pieces of iron. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity.e. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Commonly. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite..

The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. 1. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Z=8 Identification Color Black.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. In many igneous rocks. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. including banded iron formations. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization.397 Å.085 °F).BB.III) oxide.

18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6.17–5.Crystal habit Octahedral. the spinel law. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. parting on {Ill}.

Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. Middle French: melochite. which features a huge malachite vase. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. The pigment is moderately lightfast. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. "mallow-green stone". very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. fibrous. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. "mallow". . where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. and most often forms botryoidal. or stalagmitic masses. in fractures and spaces. a large malachite vase. verditer amongst other synthetic greens.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. Since then.000 years. "The Tazza". This opaque. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. variant of καιάχε malāchē. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. It is also used for decorative purposes. deep underground. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone.

Gabon. Russia. Except for its vibrant green color. the source of the carbonate. Timna valley. and calcite. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. . Israel.Zambia. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Mexico. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals.1 g/mol Color Bright green.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2).10 Identification Formula mass 221. blackish green. Broken Hill. goethite. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones.BA. New South [7] Wales. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lyon. Namibia. dark green. Tsumeb. France.

5–4. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. silky if fibrous.909 Birefringence δ = 0.655 nβ = 1. botryoidal. stalactitic.254 .875 nγ = 1.commonly banded in masses. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. Polysynthetic twinning also present.

and can be transparent or translucent. browns. isinglass. The green. yellows. Its crystal system is monoclinic. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. or (rarely) violet or red. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica.OH)2. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. [4] .76–3. India. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. greens.25 parallel to the [001] face. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).

Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.3×3. feldspar.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.8×3. and schists. In pegmatites.02.9×4. etc. gneisses. pegmatites. morganite) from Paprok. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.kyanite. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.Muscovite with beryl (var.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. Minas Gerais.15 Dana classification 71. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.EC. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.02a.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. found in granites.

Unit cell a = 5. grey. silky. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.576 .552–1. Z = 4 Identification Color White.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.027 Å.78°. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). b = 9. c = 20. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.199 Å.106 Å. β = 95.

618 Birefringence δ = 0.nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .587–1.582–1.615 nγ = 1.035 – 0.

The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.Fe)2SiO4. magnesium and iron. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). Fo 70Fa30). but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C).. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4).g. as do other properties. almost 1900 °C. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. silicon.

Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Gila Co. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Arizona. USA. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. .. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel).

andpallasites. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. falling into infant stars. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. 2012). 12 GPa. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. the Moon. October 17. moreover. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. in the dust of comet Wild 2. First X-ray view of Martian soil . Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. pyroxenes. collections of debris from the early solar system.feldspar.g. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". or forsterite. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.Fe)2Si2O6). mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. Such meteorites include chondrites. from the Greek words for gold and stone). Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. because olivine is so abundant. and . That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. In contrast. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. the French word for olivine).Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. Mars. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow.

Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. In an alternative view. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. and magnesium/iron in blue. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. silicon in pink. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. O2 and O3 in figure 1). Olivine . Oxygen is shown in red. O3 lies in a general position. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. O1. O2. while M1 exists on an inversion center. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7 Luster Vitreous .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

670–1.040 .650 nβ = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.27–3.690 Birefringence δ = 0.630–1.650–1.670 nγ = 1.

Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. brown. Opal ranges from clear through white. rose. marl and basalt. and black. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . orange. red. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. whereas white and greens are the most common. being most commonly found withlimonite. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. Of these hues. like basalt. slate. magenta. rhyolite. a mineraloid form. gray. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. For gemstone use. pink. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. yellow. blue. olive. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. not a mineral. the reds against black are the most rare. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. sandstone. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. [edit]Precious opal . Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. green.

. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

The top layer also acts as a magnifier. or obsidian. Contrarily. Potch does not show a play of color. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. which is often of lower quality. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. unlike triplet opals. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. basalt. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. it has an internal structure. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. and are not classed as precious opal. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. of which opal is the best known natural example. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. In addition. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. . doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal.Australian Opal Doublet. which is correctly termed play of color. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. geyserite. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. orange-yellow or red. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. wood opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. hyalite. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. which is brown or grey. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. orange. resin opal. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. They do not usually show any play of color. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. menilite. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. or star . also called siliceous sinter.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color.

[edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). Queensland. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. However. It does not display pleochroism. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. when cut properly. Boulder Opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. It weighs 17. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Queensland . needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal.effect. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm).

Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. and marine creatures in South Australia. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. Opal Queen. closely related to boulder opal. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. and weighs 2. is the main source of black opal. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. Idaho.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917.585 carats. and black opal. Royal Peacock. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. from Kynuna in the north. Miocene age opalised teeth. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. fire. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. Nevada. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. bones. crystal opal. [citation needed] [12] A . white. Bonanza. crystal. fish. and lemon opal. known as the "Black Peacock. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. and a snake head have been found. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Another Australian town. weighing 160 carats. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots.

Turkey. white. Honduras. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. In late 2008. Piauí ). The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] .6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. yellow. brown. black. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. Nicaragua and Ethiopia.7 by 0. Indonesia. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. green. Brazil (inPedro II. Hungary. in masses. [19] Slovakia. Guatemala. red. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. orange.

[1] .42–1. transparent Specific gravity 2. but typically reads 1.15 (+.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. may phosphoresce.020. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. -.37. -. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. translucent.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.08. May also phosphoresce. green. or yellow in long and short wave.Mohs scalehardness 5. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.450 (+. may phosphoresce.90)[1] Density 2.

bases. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. hydrofluoric acid . methanol.humic acid.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm.

[edit]Uses . "of fire" or "in fire". The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). or iron pyrite. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. sedimentary rock. brazzle and Brazil. In ancient Roman times.37 wt% gold. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. in turn from πύρ (pur). almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. as well as in coal beds. By Georgius Agricola's time. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. and metamorphic rock. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. "fire".

Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. By the 19th century. was popular in the Victorian era. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). [14] During the early years of the 20th century. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. La Rioja. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Navajún. it had become the [12] dominant method. In the 15th century. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. that is. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Until the vacuum tube matured. . most notably the wheellock. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. iron(II) sulfate. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector.95 eV. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. Marcasite jewelry. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. often set in silver.

Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún. Z=4 .1.05a Dana classification 2.12.EB. Rioja.417 Å. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. 512 g.

5–3 to a magnetic globule . Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.95–5. faces may be striated.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. globular and stalactitic. granular. radiated. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic.10 Fusibility 2.5 Luster Metallic. Often inter-grown. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. massive. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Especially in Europe and the Middle East. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. There are many different varieties of quartz. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. giving an overall formula SiO2. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. Polish twardy ("hard")). Czech tvrdy ("hard"). space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. distorted. respectively.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. space group P6221 and P6421. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. only one termination pyramid is present. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. after feldspar. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). several of which are semi-precious gemstones. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. The . [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system.

The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). often including contrasting bands or patterns of color.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. but they differ in hardness. and is rarely found naturally. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Natural citrines are rare. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. Citrine has ferric impurities. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. are agate. without change in the way they are linked. Common colored varieties include citrine. and others. heliotrope. such as the Lothair Crystal. amethyst. or mixed rocks including quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. onyx.transformation between α. sard. carnelian. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. and jasper. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). see Citrine (disambiguation). which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. milky quartz. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. ." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. For other uses. rose quartz. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. smoky quartz. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque.

or manganese. Magaliesburg. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. in the massive material. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. Brazil. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. iron. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Maine. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. . Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. USA. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst.

Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray.

Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. exhibiting chatoyancy. Rock crystal Clear. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. parallel and consistent in size. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. liquid. Agate Multi-colored. Otherwise more specific names are used. or both. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. colorless Amethyst Purple. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. banded chalcedony. trapped during the crystal formation. transparent . [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. This does not always hold true.

translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . translucent to opaque. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent. transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White.

4053 Å. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.9133 Å. c = 5.01. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .05 Dana classification 75. drusy.DA. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. fine-grained to microcrystalline.03. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.

65.545 nε = 1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2. may betriboluminescent.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .552–1.554 Birefringence +0.59–2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.543–1. variable 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

5 .751 Birefringence δ = 0. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .1.711 .3.741 nγ = 1.714 .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.57 .6.724 .1.738 nβ = 1.1.

A soft. and zinc refining. as an alloy with gold and other metals. white. both from the Indo-European root*arg. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. Its compounds are used in photographic film. utensils (hence the term silverware). and is used as an investment. gold. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. further research into clinical potential continues. lead. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. free form (native silver). and currency coins. lustrous transition metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. jewelry. to make ornaments.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. .SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). Latin: argentum. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. high-value tableware. Today.

Canada. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. with a polished rock surface.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. . Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. nosean. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. lazurite and tugtupite.

albite. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. green. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. calcite. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. Other associated minerals include nepheline. If left in a dark environment for some time. The Ice River [5] complex. sanidine. the violet will fade again. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. shortwave ultraviolet light. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. yellow. British Columbia. Arkansas. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. in the USA. particularly. sodalite is named after its sodium content. West Greenland. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. [3] titanian andradite. sodalite may also be grey.A light. aegirine. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. and Mont-SaintHilaire. contains sodalite.ankerite and baryte. microcline. Maine. fluorite. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. Smaller deposits are found in South . Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. Conversely. Occurring typically in massive form. cancrinite and natrolite. Quebec. near Golden. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. namelyleucite. Ontario. [1] Narsaq. and Litchfield. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. and Magnet Cove. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Well known for its blue color. in Canada.

yellow.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. green. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Portugal. white veining common . Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue.America (Brazil and Bolivia). transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. Euhedral.FB. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9.876(6) Å. violet. Romania. Italy. Burma and Russia.

may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. sodium .33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.1.27-2. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.483 . with yellowishphosphorescence.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.Crystal habit Massive.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system.OH)2. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. Magnesium. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. mostly opaque. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .

Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. Virginia. Kola Peninsula. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. Samples are also found in Taos. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. Norway. . It is the official state mineral of the U. as well as albite. depth. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. kyanite. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. micas. New Mexico. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. In handsamples. biotite. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Keivy Mountains. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. It occurs with almandine garnet. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area.S. called penetration twinning.

65 Å.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .5 x 2.86 Å.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.6 Å. yellowish brown. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. b = 16. Russia. β = 90. rarely blue. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. c = 5. Northern Region.AF.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. 2.Murmanskaja Oblast'.45°.

7.745 .747 nβ = 1.740 . Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.0.1. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.3.762 Birefringence δ = 0.74 .754 nγ = 1.686 calc.1. Y = pale yellow.83 meas.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.1.736 .5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .009 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v. weak . 3.


and the folia are non-elastic. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.8. It has a specific gravity of 2. [edit]Formation . It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. In loose form.5– 2. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. although slightly flexible. Talc is not soluble in water.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. Its streak is white. and is translucent to opaque. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. a clear or dusty luster. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. It has a perfect basal cleavage. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife).

its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. garnet. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. and are known as whiteschist. [edit]Occurrence . the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. and fibrous. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. This is typically associated with high-pressure. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. friable. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. amphibole. Such rocks are typically white. olivine.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. pyroxene. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles.

Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. representing 8% of world production. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. the Guiana Shield. certain areas of the Musgrave Block.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. eastern Australia.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. the western European Alps especially in Italy. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. layered ultramafic intrusion. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. Nepal and Bhutan. from Brazil. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . Oman and the Middle East. Western Australia. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. formed upon a polydeformed. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. India. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia.

c = 5. β = 119. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.158 Å.287 Å.09°. b = 9.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.90°.3°.68°. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. γ = 90. Z = 2 or a = 5. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . brown.173 Å.EC. c = 18.290 Å. b = 9. α = 98.95 Å.291 Å. β = 99.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).

83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.550 nβ = 1.589 – 1.600 Birefringence δ = 0.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2. long UV=yellow .051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.538 – 1.594 nγ = 1.589 – 1.58 to 2.

and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.OH)2.

Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . It can also be made white. or blue brown. Sri Lanka. Norway. Imperial topaz is yellow. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Australia. typical topaz is wine. colorless. Flinders Island. measured a massive 22. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah.Sweden. gold. pink or violet colored. Typically. pink (rare. a more recent gem. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. The American Golden Topaz. Czech Republic. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Pakistan. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. sometimes even violet. blue. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. Italy.75 carats.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. pale gray. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Mexico. gold. if natural) or pink-orange. Germany. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. also known as precious topaz. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow.5 carats. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. Japan. yellow. in Afghanistan. is the traditional November birthstone. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. pale green. Nigeria and the United States. reddish-orange. Brazil. the symbol of [5] friendship.892. Orange topaz. pink (rare).

some scholars think it is related to . but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire".[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652." However. etymology. Minas Gerais. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. [edit]History Nicols. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. [edit]Biblical background. a topaz. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. both of which predate the Greek word. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. In the Middle Ages. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. the ancient name of St. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here.

metaphorically.4 Å. Z = 4 . b = 8.8 Å.an Assyrian word meaning "flashed".65 Å. "fiery". c = 8.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. meaning "yellow burn" or. = yellow.AF. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. [citation needed] More likely.

gray. blue.616–1. yellow.49–3. compact.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.629 nβ = 1. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. orange.638 .631 nγ = 1. also columnar. green.609–1. brown.606–1.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).

long UV=cream . bluish.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. reddish. violet. short UV=golden yellow. Z = violet. Y = yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. yellow.

or potassium. sodium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. Italy . which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. magnesium. iron. lithium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral.

for the Drava river area. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). in addition to cassiterite. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". This village had a nearby tin mine where. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. In English. schörl. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. . which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Carinthia. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. and "Schurl". In the 19th century the names common schorl. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name).Drava river area. Austro-Hungarian Empire. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". The word tourmaline has two etymologies.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. black tourmaline was found. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. Beginning in the 18th century. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. "Schörle". Up to about 1600.

Fe . San Piero in Campo. Al. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. sodium-. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. United States. California. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. V T = Si. Mg. B B = B. Elba Island. Mn . Italy.5Al1. Tuscany. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. vacancy V = OH. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. Elba Island. Italy. vacancy Z = Mg. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. Na.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Italy. where: [6] X = Ca. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. O W = OH. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. with the simplified formula (Li. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. K. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Fe .Campo nell'Elba. Fe . Czech Republic. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. Cr . O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Ti . Zn. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. V .Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. F. vacancy Y = Li. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Al. Province of [5] Livorno. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Sweden. Al. Cr .

California..5. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. US.Al1. San Diego Co.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . Cryo-Genie Mine.

San Diego Co. Himalaya Mine. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.. US [edit]Physical properties .Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. California.

iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. impact the value. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. and does not. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. [edit]Geology .Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. Usually. currently. in western Australia. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. or green on the outside and pink inside. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . During their 2+ growth. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. yellow. this type is called watermelon tourmaline.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. and are often pyroelectric as well. called hemimorphism. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. but is now exhausted. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. especially pink to red colored stones. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. etc. Heavily-included tourmalines. green. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. it is colorless. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. no other common mineral has three sides. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. Rarely. red. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. pink. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline.

sometimes radiating. green. Massive. violet.Al. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. Fe. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. pink.B)6O18(OH. . Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Li.Fe. dravites. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. or in a dual-colored pink and green. but can range from brown. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.[])(Al.Mg. Acicular prisms.V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Cr.Na.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.K. are generally restricted to schists and marble.Mn)3(Al. Scattered grains (in granite).

040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. small conchoidal.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.650 Birefringence -0. nε=1.06)[1] Density 2.020 but in dark stones it may reach .610–1. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.675. dark brown.040. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. typically about . dark red. dark blue. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.06 (+.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.82–3. light blue . dark green.5 Luster Vitreous.018 to -0.635–1.20 -. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.

Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.

Nephrite. is a green variety of tremolite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. [edit]Occurrence . It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.

10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Leventina.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. wollastonite. grossular.2 x 6. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. talc. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.Ticino (Tessin). forsterite. French Pyrenees (size: 8. Switzerland. dolomite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Associated minerals include calcite.diopside. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. Piumogna [1] Valley.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. cummingtonite. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.Tremolite from the Aure Valley.DE. Approximately 36.

Z = 2 Identification Color White.99 – 3. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. gray. or flattened crystals. common parallel to {100}. lavender to pink. light green. also as fibrous.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) .27 Å. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.02 Å. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. b = 18.Unit cell a = 9. c = 5. β = 104.95°.84 Å.

1.613 .Refractive index nα = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0. Long UV=range pink .1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.625 .599 .612 nβ = 1.626 nγ = 1.1.

glauberite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. sometimes known as TV rock. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. probertite. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. meyerhofferite. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. . hydroboracite. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. and Kazakhstan. by internal reflection. USA. calcite. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. water and hydroxide octahedra. gyps [1] um and halite. water. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. It is found principally in California and Nevada. borax. mirabilite. Tarapacá Region in Chile. trona. The chains are linked together by calcium.

Ulexite decomposes in hot water. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. two of which are polarized. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. Ulexite .A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.

Z =2 Identification .9 x 5 x 3. c = 6.816(3) Å. β = 109.25 Dana classification 26.Ulexite from California(size: 6.1°.11. α = 90. γ = 105.12°.25°.87Å.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06. b = 12.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.678(1) Å.EA.05.

520 Birefringence δ = 0.506 br/>nγ = 1.519 – 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.496 nβ = 1.5 Luster Vitreous.028 . silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.95 – 1.491 – 1.504 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.

white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . cream. greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow.

chlorite or other platyminerals. . biotite gneiss.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. so called because the rock glitters). albite gneiss. they may also be called garnet gneiss. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. Depending on their composition. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. etc. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. rotten or possibly worthless material. etc. diorite gneisses.

" Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. Portuguese mármore. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Dutch marmer. sand. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Armenian marmar. iron oxides. sparkle. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. Turkish mermer. meaning "marble-like. Italian marmo. silt. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Norwegian. .German. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. [3][4] "crystalline rock". most other European languages (e. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Polish marmur. "to flash. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Spanish mármol.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. [5] gleam". "shining stone". however. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron).g.


sericite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. and chlorite. or chlorite impart a silky. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. sericite mica. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. . Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran.

The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. diagenetically altered. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. British Columbia. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. carbonate and clay. iron oxide. rutile and magnetite. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. and both usages are found in the literature.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Canada . silica. Although few fossils are normally present. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. therefore. are due to other mineral impurities. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. such as yellow and orange. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. Other colors. not around them. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved.

In Canada. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. southwestMinnesota. In the United Kingdom. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. The highest mountain in Mozambique. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. Monte Binga (2436 m). In the Scottish Highlands. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. industrial silica sand. and stair steps. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). near Salt Lake City.g. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. pale grey. Central Texas. as roofing tiles. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. silicon and silicon carbide. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. several mountains (e.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. precambrian quartzite. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Foinaven. [4] . A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. the Wasatch Range in Utah. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. as flooring. In Wales. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint.


chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs.clastic structure. and others. however. In other . may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. chlorite.talc. By definition. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. can be seen by the naked eye. graphite. for example. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. for example. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. If the whole district. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. glaucophane schist. In the [2] context of underground coal mining.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Most schists are mica schists. tourmaline schist. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. Usually. such as garnet schist. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. The individual mineral grains in schist. A quartz-porphyry. the terms slate. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. etc. hornblende. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced.

. while others are found only among igneous masses. marbles. tremolite. which have been derived from rhyolites. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). schistose character. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. scapolite. zoisite and hornblende. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. as limestones. diopside. A subgroup is the andalusite. quartz and feldspar. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. with variable amounts of white and black mica. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. however. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. dolomites. chilled edges.cases intrusive junctions. Such rocks. many metamorphic limestones. with crystalline dolomites. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. For example. are alteredclaystones and shales. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. staurolite. and calc-schists. foliated. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. feldspar. contain silicate minerals such as mica. and the white mica-schists. for example. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. garnet. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. The majority of mica-schists. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


apatite. It may mean a single roofing slate. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. or a writing slate. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. In the context of underground coal mining. as in the purple slates of North Wales. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. often along with biotite. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. traditionally a small piece of slate. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed.. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. from which it may be formed. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. graphite. less frequently. However. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. kaolinite. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. chlorite. Slate is frequently grey in color. especially when seen. For example. from pale to dark. magnetite.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. or schist. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. covering roofs. foliated. tourmaline. en masse. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. hematite. green or cyan. Slate is not to be confused with shale. for example. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. and pyrite and. the terms slate. and may also be purple. often framed in wood. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. or zirconas well as feldspar. Occasionally. . leaving a light green spotted texture.


[edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. biotite.. potassium (K). Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. apatite. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. volcanic rock. In a general sense. leading to metamorphism. the relative contribution of the three components (crust.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. 3. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. zeolites. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. of intermediate composition. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. [5] sediment. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Partial melting of crustal material. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge.g. 2.e. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Characteristic of subduction zones. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. ilmenite. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. Magnetite. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. anhydrous forms. zircon. chlorite etc. but most . barium(Ba). (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. During subduction. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs.

The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. its intermediate phase. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. therefore. . forming mafic cumulates. these reservoirs cool. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. however. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. If it underplates the crust.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. Models of heat transfer. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. Basalt can. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. creating a layer of molten material at its base. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Without continued addition of mafic material. however. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. As this process continues. In order to remain active. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. however. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. the composition is returned to andesite. such as the Andes.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. Once there.


Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. Mars. By definition. Sobolev et al.. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. although it can sometimes be porphyritic.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. and even on the asteroid Vesta.. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. /ˈbæsɒlt/. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. On Earth. the third largest moon of Jupiter. (In comparison.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume.BASALT Basalt (pron. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill.g. 2007). Venus. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. Hungary .

[4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate".g. . as building blocks or in the groundwork). an excellent thermal insulator. from βάζανος (basanos. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. libri XII. misspelling of L. US quarter for scale. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone"." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. Arizona. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. basanites "very hard stone. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen.

 Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. most large oceanic islands. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase.     . Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy).

which is transitional togabbro. Its hardness. and to provide a durable finished work.DIORITE Diorite (pron. and frequently has a greenish cast. Sondrio. Northeastern Turkey. source localities include Leicestershire. Romania. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. and Idahet in Egypt. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. the Andes Mountains. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. It may contain small amounts of quartz. It can also be black or bluish-grey. Italy. Basin and Range province. Zircon. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. into which they may subtly merge. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). the rock grades into ferrodiorite. and/or pyroxene. Scotland. microcline and olivine. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. Finland. hornblende. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. however. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. . the Isle of Guernsey.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). occasionally with porphyry. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. the Darrans range of New Zealand. Diorite has a medium grain size texture.biotite. central Sweden. Minnesota in theUSA. magnetite. making it difficult to carve and work with. apatite. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. sphene. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock.

Guernsey and Scotland. . It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. etc. but mostly for fortress walls. inscribed upon a 2. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. weaponry. In later times. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Assyria and Sumer. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. Babylonia. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. London. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. Paul's Cathedral.

although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. Gabbros contain minor amounts. plagioclase. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. typically a few percent. Scotland. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. California. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. Isle of Skye. Gabbro is dense. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. Rock Creek Canyon. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. coarse-grained. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. and ulvospinel. easternSierra Nevada. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. The rocks areplutonic. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). the rock is then a norite. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). ilmenite. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. amphibole.GABBRO Gabbro (pron.

especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites.extra descriptiveness is desired. Massachusetts. US. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. although it may be porphyritic at times. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. . intruding into the rift flanks. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. and copper sulfides. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. nickel. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. gold. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. platinum. silver. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. cobalt.


in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. and feldspar. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. By definition. Granitoid is a general. The average density of granite is between 2. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills.GRANITE Granite (pron. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. northern Chile . Granites can be pink to gray in color. felsic. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. a grain. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. mica. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. hard and tough. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. Melting temperature is 1215 . Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures).65 and 2.1260 °C. near the town of Caldera. This rock consists mainly of quartz. descriptive field term for light-colored. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. an unusual type of granite.75 3 g/cm . depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture.

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.

Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.

where it forms a major part of continental crust. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.12% MnO — 0. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.22% MgO — 0. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. Granite often occurs as relatively small.30% P2O5 — 0.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma.71% TiO2 — 0.The Cheesewring. it is called tonalite.82% FeO — 1.69% CaO — 1. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.68% Fe2O3 — 1. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.12% Na2O — 3. sanidine. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. In some locations. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. although much of it is of Precambrian age. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. . True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.


The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid.. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. which is the parent material. forming perlite. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass.. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. in addition. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. California . Obsidian is hard and brittle. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. [9][10][11] . though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. Obsidian is mineral-like. usually 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges.

New Zealand.S. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. the inclusion of small. states including Arizona. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Chile. Peru. Oregon and Idaho. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian).Utah. states of Virginia. Scotland and the United States. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Texas. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. as well as Pennsylvania. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Guatemala. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. . Japan. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Pantelleria. Iceland. Canada. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U.S. Italy. Azerbaijan. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. It can be found in Argentina. and deposits can be found in many other western U. white. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Kenya. Colorado. Armenia. El Salvador. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. New [13] [14] Mexico. Mexico. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). Very few samples are nearly colorless. In some stones.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Washington. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East.Greece.


Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. For this reason. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. macroscale graphic texture is known. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. pyroxene and other minerals are known. Therefore. feldspar and mica. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. Similarly. exsolution lamellae. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. in essence a granite. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz.5 cm in size. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. Theory Theory . Ca-plagioclase feldspar. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks.

Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. Rock Creek Canyon. for example greisens. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. California. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. in a few cases. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. being altogether "granitic" in character. to liberate the right constituents and water. . and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. often with mica and usually with quartz. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. and are usually granitic in character. granite-associated mineralisation styles. with bulk chemical and textural change. eastern Sierra Nevada. Beyond that.

tantalite. beryllium. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. tantalite. Hence. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. Australia). apatite and corundum. potassium and lithium. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. Occasionally. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. columbite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. uranium. fluorite. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. tourmaline. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. Often. Queensland. et cetera. tourmaline. however. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. In most cases. zinnwaldite and so forth. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. boron. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. . tourmaline. Geochemically. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. thorium. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. accessory minerals and timing. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. orange and brown almandine garnet. commonly almandine or spessartine. such as aquamarine. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. Bismuth. Tantalum. lepidolite. cesium. niobium. aluminium. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. say. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. orientation. among others. topaz. niobite) are found in association with spodumene.Garnet.

pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. "granitic" or "metasomatic". based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. . for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Similarly. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. However. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. Within the metamorphic belts.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. transitional with some greisens. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension.

Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. compressed with fiamme on right. uncompressed with pumice on left. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). which may or may not contain crystals.PUMICE Pumice pron. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. It is typically light colored. . Pumice is created when super-heated.

andesite. rhyolitic. trachyte). rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. to green-brown or black. phonolite.g. blue or grey. pantellerite. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. In [4] fact. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. dacitic. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. many samples float in water. . After the explosion of Krakatoa. ranging from white. When larger amounts of gas are present. In 1979. and initially floats on water. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls.S. It is commonly. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. Pumice is commonly pale in color. it sinks rapidly.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. cream. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. but basaltic and other compositions are known. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. with tree trunks floating among them. 1984 and 2006. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag.. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density.

cosmetic exfoliants. It is also used as an abrasive. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. When used as an additive for cement. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. pencil erasers. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. during flow.There are two main forms of vesicles. plaster-like concrete. especially in polishes. smooth. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. . in the case of pumiceous lavas. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks.

Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. and lithophysal structures. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. below:pumice. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century.nodular. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. volcanic (extrusive) rock. the eruptions were at the St. spherulitic. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. also called obsidian. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). . and consequently. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre).


coalescence. black or purplish red). spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. Vesicles are usually small. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. and may contain phenocrysts. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. An example is Mount Wellington. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. but in contrast to pumice. a unique form of Scoria. another vesicular volcanic rock. and sinks in water. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. blocks and bombs). Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. typically near its surface. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. Australia. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. . allowing rapid volatile diffusion. instead they open into one another with little distortion. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. creating bubbles in the molten rock. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. and hence is denser. Auckland in New Zealand. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. rust. bubble growth. An old name for scoria is cinder. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). skōria. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. Quincan. and bursting. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried.

It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. and often has striking colours. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. .Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is somewhat porous. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. has high surface area and strength for its weight. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. and to carve some moai from.

The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. the UK. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. is known as culm. "coal-like. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. Australia and the US. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed.S. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. [5] Vietnam. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. and black diamond. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). blue. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. North Korea. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. which is softer). coal) is a hard. as opposed to lignite. Ukraine. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). the fewest impurities. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . and smokeless flame. and lustre. It has the highest carbon content.3– 1. hard coal. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In America.4. other producers are Russia. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). which also include bituminous coal and lignite. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. its higher relative density of 1.1% and 98%. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. which is used mainly in power generation. blind coal (in Scotland). mineral-matter-free basis. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland)." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). which is used as a pigment.

such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. By 1795. In [6] June 2008. [7] It was In the United States. Structurally. In southwest Wales. circa 1935 .. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. mined near Saundersfoot. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. Since the 1980s. coking coal and domestic house coals. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. New Mexico. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. For example. Pennsylvania. The thermal conductivity is also higher. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. and Western Pennsylvania. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former.MJ/kg). on the as-received basis (i. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite.e. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks.

Current U. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. Pennsylvania.S. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. on an open grate in a fireplace. Pennsylvania. placed in descending order. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. about 1. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. such as schools. making it ideal for this purpose. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal).8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. In the early 20th century United States." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. the Delaware. From that first mine. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. Group of breaker boys. Of that. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. In spring 1808. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Many large public buildings. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces.

Anthracite". "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. or less. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. "poor".consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Formerly. Switzerland and parts of Germany. Similarly. [10] . both in America and South Wales. Commercial mining has now ceased. anthracite was largely used. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter.

most commonly granitic rocks. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. although bedding is frequently visible. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. and some mica is often present.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. Apart from the mineral content. Fossils are rare in arkose. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. . which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. rock fragments may also be a significant component. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. due to the depositional processes that form it. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic.


Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. bright-banded" or "bright. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³).BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. and exinite. These distinctive sequences. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). and sulphur. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. which have not been driven off from the macerals. good ventilation and vigilant site management. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. Within the coal mining industry. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. which are classified according to either "dull. the rest is composed of water. dull-banded". mineral-matter-free basis. air. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. . Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. hydrogen.

impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. avalanches. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. These are. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Technically. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. . Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. poorly sorted. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. The word is a loan from Italian. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. igneous breccia. typically in a karst landscape. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. In the field. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. by contrast. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. lithified colluvium. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. in essence. tectonic breccia. They are formed by either submarine debris flows.079 in) in size. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. by their relative movements. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. A conglomerate.

This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. This occurs when the thick. and these form volcanic breccias. granites and kimberlite pipes. also called pillow breccias. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. Lavas. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. both of lava and pyroclastic type. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. When particularly intense. Broken. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. . usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater.g. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. as they slide past each other.

Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater.Pahranagat Range. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. iridium and osmium anomalies). or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit.g. a type of impactite.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. and are usually found at impact craters. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. near Blessington in Ireland. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. in the rim. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. In addition. Impact breccia. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. and attrition quickly o . shocked minerals. impact glass. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Nevada. steam and boiling water.

Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. In the mesothermal regime. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. As a result. If boiling occurs. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold.rounds angular breccia fragments. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. in particular CO2. Pend Oreille mine. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. On their journey. Pend Oreille County. Washington.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. at much greater depths. . as the formational event is brief. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. silver and gold. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes).


These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Oklahoma.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). grayish brown and light green to rusty red. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States.CHERT Chert (pron. "chalcedony" and "flint" . its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. chalk. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. (3. It also occurs in thin beds. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. limestone. brown. [edit]Terminology: "chert". and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. it is usually called flint.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. New York. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. hard chert. Buffalo. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. but most often manifests as gray. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. It varies greatly in color (from white to black).

Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Among petrologists. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. Strictly speaking.chert being lower quality than flint. . thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. The term does not include quartzite. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Everett. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties).

Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). . the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. South Dakota. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. which consist of angular clasts. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles.

In this setting. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. and are known as basal conglomerates. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. approximate depth 10. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational .clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. Alaska. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .000 ft. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict .

Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). are typically poorly-sorted. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. matrix-supported conglomerates. The matrix is generally fine-grained. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. in Australia's Northern Territory. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. forming structures such aseskers. These form the basis of a number of . Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. desert) environments. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta.g. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. in rapidly eroding (e. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. near Barcelona. Tillites. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic.

. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. e.g. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly.large oil fields. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. as different sectors of the fault moved.

COQUINA Coquina (pron. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. abraded. close packing. brachiopods. swift tidal channels. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. in the form of seashells or coral.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. As a result. often including some phosphate. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. . or other invertebrates. fracturing. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. shallow submarine raised banks. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. trilobites. abrasion. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. and barrier bars. and sorting of the shells. which compose them.

Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. rather than shatter or puncture. . This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. Saint Augustine. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. In order to be used as a building material. Because of coquina's softness. form.Close-up of coquina from Florida. The scale bar is 10 mm. coquina is extremely soft. However. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. The stone makes a very good material for forts. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. When first quarried. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. cannon balls would sink into. but still comparatively soft.


soft. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. recognized its ability to filter. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. is a naturally occurring. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. it was thought that limestone had been found. Initially. a stabilizing component of dynamite. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite.236 pixels/ μm. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . the peasant and goods waggoner. TheCelle engineer. and athermal insulator. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. Peter Kasten. mechanical insecticide. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill.: /ˌdaɪ. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. Wilhelm Berkefeld.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. a type of hard-shelled algae. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. similar to pumice powder.. which could be used as fertilizer. This powder has an abrasive feel. cat litter. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope.13 by 0. anti-block in plastic films. activator in blood clotting studies. porous support for chemical catalysts.69 mm. It is used as a filtration aid.5 to 2% iron oxide.E. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. diatomite. matting agent for coatings. absorbent for liquids.

1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca.from diatomaceous earth. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. used successfully. . 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca.  ca.

Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts.Virginia. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Nevada (USA). Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Washington and California. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. such as this one for swimming pools . Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. France. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. but are of low quality. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Oregon. In Colorado and in Clark. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.

However. It is also used to filter water. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. with questionable efficacy. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. due to its physico-sorptive properties. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. causing them to [9] dehydrate. for this purpose.. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. sugar. such as beer and wine. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. It can also filter syrups. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide.. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. or nutritional properties. especially for swimming pools. [7] taste. and other liquids. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. but this method may take weeks to work. hollow particles.e. because it is composed of microscopically small. .Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. foodgrade— see below). Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. based on Fick's law of diffusion.e. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. and honey without removing or altering their color. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. efficacy is very low. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. as well as in some facial scrubs. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. coffin-like. It has a high porosity. In order to be effective as an insecticide. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. since slugs inhabit humid environments.

[edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. Like perlite. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. as [20] well as an insecticide. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. particularly as bonsai soil. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. Fungicide. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. . Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. including water. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking.vermiculite. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. As with other silicates. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter.S. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.

which is used as an indigestible marker. It is produced uncalcinated. has a very fine particle size. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. as feed supplement. and as an insecticide. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology.and expanded clay. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. it retains water and nutrients. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. and has a high silica content (>60%). Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. For instance. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. which has been widely used for the same purpose.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. Libya. while draining fast and freely. the largest single . [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide.

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. . generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad.

but it can still develop solution features over time.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. however. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.G. It is. . The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite.S. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater.S. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. In old U. used in some geological publications.

LIGNITE COAL Lignite. Serbia. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. ca. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. Poland. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. Russia. When reacted with quaternary amine. the United States. mineral-matter-free basis. on the as-received basis (i. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . Germany. it is mined in Greece. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. It is considered the lowest rank of coal.e. Australia averages 8.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.5 million BTU/ton). such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. often referred to as brown coal. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%.. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. India.4 MJ/kg (6.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 .

. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. particularly in combination with strip mining. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns.than for comparable black-coal plants. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). [4] Victoria. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants.

[1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3).LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. USA . Virginia. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. and as a chemical feedstock. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. as aggregate for the base of roads. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.

quartz. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Because of impurities. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. Classification Two major classification schemes. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. the Folk and the Dunham. organic remains. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. peloids. etc.000 meters. flint. and extraclasts. pH. diatoms. . radiolarians). which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. depending on several factors. Limestone may be crystalline. i.e. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). a porous or cellular variety of travertine. particularly where there are waterfalls. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. or massive. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. granular. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. Tufa.travertine.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. When conditions are right for precipitation. is found near waterfalls. many limestones exhibit different colors. building upon past generations. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. This produces speleothems. limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. and around hot or cold springs. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Crystals of calcite. such as stalagmites and stalactites. iron oxide and other materials. jasper. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. depending on the method of formation. intraclasts. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). most limestone is composed of grains. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Romania. including the water temperature. and varying amounts of clay. Travertine is a banded. or it can fill fractures. clastic. Below about 3. such as clay. especially onweathered surfaces. sand. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility.

These include limestone pavements. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. Unlike the Folk scheme. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. caves and gorges. Based on composition. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. The Folk system uses two-part names. and therefore self-supporting. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. pot holes. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. not the grains in the sample. matrix (mostly micrite). and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. and cement (sparite). Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. there are three main components: allochems (grains). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Such erosion landscapes are known . Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. especially in acid. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. cenotes.

Clare. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Ö karsts. and relatively expensive as a building material. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Ontario. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). [9] Michigan. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. England. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. Examples include the Burren in Co. 2003). including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. typically clays. Egypt. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. . Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. It is most common in the tropics. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. Unique habitats are found on alvars. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. Notch Peak in Utah. the only building material available. are made of limestone. islands off the south coast of Florida. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. On the island of Malta. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. theVerdon Gorge in France. While draining. for a long time. However. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. it is a very heavy material. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). Ireland. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. especially in Europe and North America. making it impractical for tall buildings. Sweden. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Many landmarks across the world. Sweden. This process is known as bioerosion. So many buildings in Kingston. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. The Florida Keys. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland.

one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.

rather than solid blocks.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. [11] . paint. since it is hard. such as for poultry (when ground up). Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). in some circumstances. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. paper. most notably the Bloomington area. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. plastics. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. but only in thin plates for covering. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Used in blast furnaces. cement and mortar. Train stations. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. limestone extracts iron from its ore. durable. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. In the United States. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Indiana. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. uses limestone. tiles. It is added to toothpaste. Glass making. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. called Indiana limestone. Purified. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

In the western United States and incentral Australia. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. most [1] sandstone is red. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. . Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. gray. but the most common colours are tan. sandstone may be any colour. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. Fine-grained aquifers.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. such as sandstones. [edit]Uses 17. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. yellow. white and black. red. brown. Sandstone is mined by quarrying.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. Like sand. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. pink. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features.France.

Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer.Germany. . in Freiburg. around 1770.

It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. cathedrals. homes. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. and other buildings. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. It is relatively soft. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. making it easy to carve. and continues to be used.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. . These are sandstone beverage coasters.

. and silica.0 mm. Utah. clays.g. However. some that have been used in the past. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0.079 inches). are typically called argillaceous sediments. for sharpening blades and other implements. like chalk and coal. have been found less resistant.002–0.. or chemical. gritstone. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. Scale bar is 1. yet are easy to work. Because of the hardness of individual grains. including siltstones and shales. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. rocks with greater grain sizes. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. e. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. [3] like gypsum and jasper). [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain.

Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. and composition and. in more general detail.e. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.. which. i. in a desert or erg). either from water (as in a stream. Finally. lake. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). Arizona.. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. include its grain size. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. once it has accumulated. Typically. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension.sorting.g. over other construction. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). as well as central Europe and Mongolia. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. First. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. in finer detail.

while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Deltas 2. Glacial outwash 4. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. such as hardness and chemical stability. point bars. Tidal flats 4. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Lakes 5. Rivers (levees. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. channel sands) 2. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope.1. Alluvial fans 3. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks.  .

 Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. or sedimentary rock. metamorphic. or other dense. Although. One is to call the . The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. olivine. scale box at left-center is 0. and corundum. upper picture is plane-polarized light.garnet. called lithic fragments or clasts. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. magnetite. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. rutile (hence ZTR). tourmaline. Common heavy minerals include zircon. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite).25 millimeter. this represents a complete solid solution. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. pyroxene.

feldspars. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. such as calcite. and the other is to call it a wacke. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix.  . Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. and zeolite minerals. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. [6] gypsum. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. and very rarely is in other sandstones. barite. anhydrite. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones.sandstone an arenite. limonite. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. clay minerals. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock.


reds). the terms slate. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite .06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. sodium. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. biotite and illite . iron hydroxide (goethite . [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. calcium. montmorillonite and illite. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. Mudstones. on the other hand. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. magnesium. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. called fissility. especially quartz and calcite.greens). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana.browns and limonite [1] yellow). Sand grain = 2 mm. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. in dia. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. iron . Red.

on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. uranium.and water. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. However.chert. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. calcite. and zinc. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. in river deltas. The enriched values are of controversial origin.Cumberland Plateau. 'Black shales' are dark. . hematite and albite. reducing environments. dolomite. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). vanadium.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. quiet water. ankerite. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. such as in stagnant water columns. These released elements form authigenic quartz. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. in relatively deep. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. black shales were deposited in anoxic. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks.

animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. . then schist and finally to gneiss. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. "Flintstone of Princestone". Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. or various carbonate minerals. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. metamorphic rockknown as slate. which originally aired on November 3. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. apatite. fissile. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". 1961. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). The Flintstones.

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