BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. of deep red color. also known incorrectly as almandite. upper mantle and transition zone. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. and is then known as carbuncle. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. It is frequently cut with a convex face. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d.512 Å at 100 K. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. inclining to purple. or en cabochon.5 K.: /ˈælməndɪn/). Almandine. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices.

whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. a name said to be taken from Syriam. in Tyrol. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). some years ago. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . in theNorthern Territory of Australia. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Almandine is widely distributed. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. and are sometimes cut and polished. When the color inclines to a violet tint.

and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .AD.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .7..024 [1] . -.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.25.05 (+.790 (+/.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.

460.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. may also have faint lines at 423. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . and 573nm.

More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Colorado. although it is easily fractured. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Because of its bright green color when polished. Colorado.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. . Naturally. where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Virginia. orthoclase. Russia. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. El Paso County. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. For many years. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River.

Amazon stone. Microcline may be clear. pale-yellow. viewed under a polarizing microscope. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. white. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. It is common in granite and pegmatites. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. . however. brick-red. or green. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. or amazonite.Colorado. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase.

Cl or ions. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.g. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals.F. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. in the mid-20th century. in the crystal. Similarly. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. also known as hydroxylapatite. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. sodium . named for high concentrations of OH . Hydroxyapatite.Cl)2. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.F . respectively. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite.

less often colorless. prismatic crystals.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. brown. yellow. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent.Cl. compact or granular . massive. sodium monofluorophosphate). usually green. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.fluoride.OH) Strunz classification 08. pink.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.BN. blue to violet.

008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.006)[1] Birefringence 0.[1] Dispersion 0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave. −0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave. blue and yellow to colorless.16–3.638 (+0.634–1. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.002–0.012. Other colors are weak to very weak. green stones – greenish yellow .Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.

violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.[1] . light purple in short wave.which is stronger in long wave.


resulting in a different crystal shape. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. [edit]Uses In aquaria. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. The mineral vaterite. In some mollusks. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. An aragonite cave. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. naturally occurring. also known as μ-CaCO3. respectively. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. one of the two common. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. In the USA. in others. Spain). the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. is situated in Slovakia. [citation Aragonite . the entire shell is aragonite. It is formed by biological and physical processes. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums.

95 Å. prismatic crystals. b = 7. c = 5.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. columnar. green .15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) .Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. red. stalactitic. Z = 4 Identification Color White.AB. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. pisolitic. reniform. globular. coralloidal.74 Å. Aude department.96 Å. internally banded . acicular. orange. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. yellow.

1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.1. white or . yellow. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.680 .95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.686 Birefringence δ = 0.1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.529 .Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.682 nγ = 1.5-4 Luster Vitreous.530 nβ = 1.685 .

yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish. phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

Al. Augite has two prominent cleavages. [edit]Characteristics .AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.Al)2O6.Fe. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Na)(Mg. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Ti)(Si.

olivine. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. labradorite. Augite . Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. leucite.4 x 3. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. With declining temperature. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. It is found near the Ken River. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. which is from the Greekaugites. sanidine. brown or [2] black) luster. for example. and sodium and other elements.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. meaning "brightness".0 x 2. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. but mostly of temperature. titanium. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks.

greenish. violet-brown.Na)(Mg. skeletal.Ti)(Si. in thin section. b = 8. β = 106.272 Å. also acicular.699 Å. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. c = 5. Z=4 Identification Color Black.DA.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.Al.Fe.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.844 Å. dendritic .Augite .97°. brown.

nβ = 1. Z = pale green.3. pale yellow-green.774 Birefringence δ = 0. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. pale brown.706 . Y = pale brown.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.735. nγ = 1. violet.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. greenish yellow.741.1.19 .0.026 .Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}. grayish green.1. violet .684 .56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. green.1.680 .


and unknown white crystals. has been known since ancient times. The mineral. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. With azurite. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. France. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. Namibia. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. . From Tsumeb. a carbonate.AZURITE Azurite is a soft." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue.

and are often stalactitic in form. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Characteristic of a carbonate. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. . powdery copper(II) oxide. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite crystals are monoclinic.89.77 to 3. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. carbonate and hydroxide. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.5 to 4. Azurite is soft. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. the other being bright green malachite. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2.

France. and also as an ornamental stone. it gave a wide range of blues. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. in the silver mines located there. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. Heating destroys azurite easily. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. a similar but much more expensive pigment. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. a term applied to many blue pigments. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. However. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. such as saltwater aquariums. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. and its basic content of copper carbonate. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. However. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Ultramarine withstands heat. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony.

producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. However. bright light. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. collectors should use a cool. dark. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. heat.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. General . sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone.

35 Å. Berlin blue. c = 10. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.BA. twin planes {101}. b = 5.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. stalactitic. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.43°. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. very dark to pale blue.85 Å.01 Å. prismatic. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.5 to 4 . β = 92.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. fair on {100}.

78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak . 3.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.773 (measured).838 Birefringence δ = 0.730 nβ = 1.758 nγ = 1.

They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. and small amounts of anataseTiO2.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. gneiss. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. In the case of Jamaica. . the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. syenite. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. and shale. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). and diaspore α-AlO(OH). the clay mineral kaolinite. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite.basalt. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer.

Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Increased aluminium recycling. Brazil. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. India. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves.[edit]Production trends In 2010. followed by China. . and Guinea. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries.

The baryte group consists of baryte. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. [edit]Names [2] and history .Sr)SO4. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. and is the main [1] source of barium.BARITE Baryte. or barite. celestine. anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless.

The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. but rather a material that meets that specification. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. an addition to industrial products. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy).The unit cell of barite The radiating form. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. [2] Heavy associations and locations . sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. flotation. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [8] barytes. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . including barytine. Other names have been used for baryte. tabling. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. [2] [3] Spar. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. jigging. tiff. and blanc fixe. [8] schwerspath. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. such as washing. Most baryte is ground to a small. heavy media separation.

and evaporation.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. Perthshire. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. in hot spring deposits. Scotland. hydrothermal. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. . It has also been identified in meteorites. among others. and with hematite ore. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy.

Iran. Canada. Greece. each with different characteristics. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. Morocco (460). North [2] Carolina. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Turkey. De Kalb. Nevada & Missouri. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. The deeper the hole. sound reduction in engine compartments.Kentucky. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. brown or gray depending on the ore body. As a well is drilled. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Derbyshire. and paint. China. Morocco. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Connecticut. by weight. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. by weight. UK (Cornwall. Tennessee. Iran (250). New York & Fort Wallace. Cumbria. Romania (Baia Sprie). Peru. India [12] (1. Georgia. Durham. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. It is mined in Arkansas. United States (670). Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). the bit passes through various formations. India. blue.000). Connecticut. friction products for automobiles and trucks. can be less than 6 μm diameter. New Mexico.Perthshire. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Thailand. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. and no more than 30%. Liberia.600). radiation-shielding cement. Chile. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. paper. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. chemically inert. [edit]Paleothermometry . Virginia. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). Muirshiel [2] Mine.2 or greater.

systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. away from continental sources of sediment. Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. .

[edit]Deposits . also meaning "shine". maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. blue. and white. Old French: beryl.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. the Spanish word brillo. Pure beryl is colorless. but it is frequently tinted by impurities.BERYL In geology. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. veḷiru ( ). and [5] the English word brilliance. possible colors are green. yellow. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). red. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. from Sanskrit vaidurya-.

Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. the United States. In the United States. Connecticut. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. and weighing 380. InWyoming. U. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina.5 m by 1. such as that occurring in Brazil.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. Madagascar. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. North Carolina. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. Clear yellow beryl. Espírito Santo. Colombia. and 2+ 3+ . Austria. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment.5 meters in diameter. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. South Africa. As of 1999. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. neutrons or even X-rays). the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Sweden (especially morganite). and Bahia. and Zambia.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites.000 kilogrammes. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. though the color returns with irradiation. New Hampshire. Ireland and Russia. beryl locations are in California. Colorado. Mainewith dimensions 5. near Powder River Pass. and limestone inColombia. Germany. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. Madagascar. as well as Brazil. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Maine. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. Mozambique. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. Idaho. In Brazil. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. South Dakota and Utah.S.

in 1910. Brazil. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. Pakistan. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Madagascar.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Minas Gerais. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. Madagascar. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. The mines of Colombia. which has been on the market since 1964.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. In 1998. It is named for the trapiche. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Coscuez. and Chivor. [15] [7][14] . Afghanistan and Russia. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. and its dimensions were 48. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). Zimbabwe. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. Malawi. as such. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. Brazil. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. It weighed over 110 kg.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. meaning "green". In the US. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. North Carolina. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. such as Zambia. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Zambia. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. India. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. Most emeralds are highly included. marakata (म कन)..

The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. . The name originates from Goshen. Nowadays. However. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. D. In the past. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems.C. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. golden beryl has very few flaws. Washington. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Unlike emerald.

because of the . Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. originally somewhat orange in hue. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. with other gemstone minerals. such astourmaline and kunzite. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". It was also known. "rose beryl"." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. The crystal. However. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). pink. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. and Co impurities. USA.Maine. V. Thomas [26][27] Range. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. "pink emerald". eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Juab County. its type locality. goshenite can be colored yellow. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. 1989. Sc. also known as "pink beryl". Morgan. Fe. Utah. Ti. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. In December 1910. California. and color banding is common. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. green. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). On October 7. at Pala. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. P. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl.

Sierra County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". while he was prospecting for uranium. Utah.orthoclase.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. and Juab County. pseudobrookite and hematite.CJ. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index.05 . Beaver County. [28] of Fillmore. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite.000 per carat for faceted stones. Utah. Utah. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. quartz. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. topaz. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. spessartine. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. New [1] Mexico.

columnar.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.19 Å. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. yellow.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . radial.21 Å.50 Color Green. colorless. c = 9. blue.

0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.595 nε = 1.0040–0.602 Birefringence δ = 0.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.564–1. but the stone itself does not) .568–1.Specific gravity Average 2.

silicon. Biotite is a sheet silicate.OH)2. in 1816. who. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.F. Biotite was named by J.L. Iron. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. magnesium. oxygen. it refers to the dark mica series. More generally. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. [4] discovering many unique properties. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. aluminium. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. researched the optical properties of mica.

and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. For instance. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. especially in pegmatite veins. and even yellow when weathered. in some instances side-by-side. When biotite is found in large chunks. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. and consists of flexible sheets. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. It has amonoclinic crystal system. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. and a grey-white streak. It can be transparent to opaque. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. has a vitreous to pearly luster. fracture is uneven. Ontario. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature.than phlogopite. . which easily flake off. It appears greenish to brown or black. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. Virginia and North Carolina. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. or lamellae. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. as in New England. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. Norway.

greenish brown.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. blackish brown. less common on the {001} .53 g Color Dark brown. yellow.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.

4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.605–1.675 nγ = 1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).03–0. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .605–1.5–3.7–3.8–3.1 Density 2.625 nβ = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.675 Birefringence δ = 0.565–1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.

is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . also known as peacock ore.

Talate.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Illogan.3 x 3. the Mangula mine. Austria. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. . Morocco. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore.Mexico (size: 7. Montana and at Bristol. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. Karlovy Vary Region. eastern Tirol.Connecticut in the U.England. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. Kazakhstan. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Zimbabwe. and elsewhere in Cornwall.Lomagundi district. from the N’ouva mine. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. S.5 x 4. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation.The mineral is found worldwide. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. Ohio. In carbonate marine sediments. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. Crystal Cave. The world's largest known geode. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. Celestine . estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. usually in small quantities. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie.7 m) in diameter at its widest point.

866 Å. black .352 Å. pale blue. c = 6.359 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. b = 5.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. white.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. pink. pale green. pale brown.AD.

630 .624 nγ = 1. earthy.1.95 . pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .3.5 Luster Vitreous. lamellar.1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.619 .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . good on {210}. also fibrous.632 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.622 nβ = 1.3.622 .

white blue . long UV=yellow. white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.

carbonates such as malachite and azurite. . Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). digenite (Cu9S5). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. Copper is shown in pink. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. chalcocite (Cu2S). hydroxides and sulfates.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. On exposure to air. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. covellite (CuS).: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system.

Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation.8 x 6. V. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. . and trace amounts of Ag. Ontario. molybdenite representing Mo. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. In. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. and Sb are reported. Mn. from huge masses as at Timmins. Pt. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Pb. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. the American cordillera and the Andes. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. Pd. Cr. Se. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. However. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. etc. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Au. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. Ni.3 x 4.

and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite).10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.CB. Colorado. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Ouray County.

289 Å.423 Å. c = 10.1 – 4. commonly massive. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.Unit cell a = 5.54 Color Brass yellow. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183. and sometimes botryoidal. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.3 .

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. and wood preservatives. and a constituent of various metal alloys. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. muscle and bone. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. a building material. Pure copper is soft and malleable. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. Characteristics . Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In the Roman era. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. later shortened to сuprum.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. Decorative art prominently features copper. needed] In sufficient concentration. both by itself and as part of pigments. fungicides.

silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. As with other metals. such as grain boundaries. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. For this reason. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. At the macroscopic scale. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. galvanic corrosion will occur. if copper is placed [6] against another metal.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). above which it begins to heat excessively. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice.Physical A copper disc (99. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. Copper. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. and osmium (bluish). which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form.

A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. this oxide layer stops the further. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. respectively. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. Edinburgh. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). such as the Statue of Liberty. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. bulk corrosion. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. It does not react with water.

whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3.2 cm. they both have a spin of 3/2. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer.2×3. Native copper is a polycrystal.4×3. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. US. The other isotopes are radioactive.There are 29 isotopes of copper. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4.8 minutes. Cu. [15] . which has [13] a half-life of 12. Cu and Cu are stable. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography.7 hours.83 hours. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . decays both ways. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite.

titanium and chromium. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. and wood. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron.02 g/cm . on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. with an average hardness near 8.0. All other colors are called sapphire.0 Mohs). The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. In addition to its hardness. and the mix is less abrasive. it can scratch almost every other mineral. but can have different colors when impurities are present. e. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. It is a rock-forming mineral. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. plastics. Transparent specimens are used as gems. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances.g. It is commonly used as anabrasive.. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby".

Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. In 1847. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. Sri Lanka and India. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. . In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. In 1903. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes.8 in × 1 in). [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837.000 °C (3. [4] Ontario. Russia. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering.Corundum from Brazil. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. silicon carbide. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. gneiss. [4] USA. New York. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment.632 °F).

Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. and other machined parts).CB.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. bearings. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. Apart from ornamental uses. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.05 Dana classification 4.1. and laser components. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. scratch-resistant watch crystals.3. rods. scratchresistant optics.1 . rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.

Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. brown. translucent toopaque .75 Å.982 Å. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. rhombohedral crystals. yellow. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. pink to pigeon-blood-red. violet. orange. tabular. green.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. c = 12. blue to cornflower blue. gray. may be color zoned. prismatic.

hematite.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite. or hercynite .95–4.772 nε = 1.759–1.767–1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.Specific gravity 3.

CB. violet.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. purple and red. green. black. Less often blue.10a Identification Formula mass 12. brown or gray to colorless. pink. translucent white. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. orange. .01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow.

52±0.01 Density 3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.5–3.044 .53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

often as a result of diagenesis. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. [edit]Properties . The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone.S. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. In 1791. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. or in old U. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist.

Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. gray to pink. Unlike calcite. Arkansas. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today.g. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. i. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. having a different structural arrangement. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. It forms white. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. namely. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. dolomite is a double carbonate. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above.e. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. In the 1950s and 60s. although it is usually massive. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. where organic matter content is high. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Crystal twinning is common. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. .

. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. California. However. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. textural and chemical characteristics. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation.Dolomite. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. White Mountains. in a 1999 study. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record.

Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. Dolomite . zinc. In horticulture. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Kansas(size: 11. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. and copper. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. Cherokee County. a concrete aggregate. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source.2×4. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly.4×7.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite.

10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. stalactitic. often with curved faces. 3 Unit cell a = 4.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. Crystal system Trigonal .002 Å. also columnar. massive.8012(1) Å. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals.AB. c = 16. granular. Z = 3 Identification Color White.

triboluminescent.500 Birefringence δ = 0. . rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.84–2. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.679–1.681 nε = 1.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.179–0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.

" 3+ .Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. the pleochroic colors being usually green. the optical constants. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. Ca2Al2(Fe . the color. grey. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. and the specific gravity.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. The color is green. It displays strong pleochroism. yellow and brown. brown or nearly black. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance.

Haddam inConnecticut. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. calcite. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. garnets. pyroxenes. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. micas. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. and apatite. as magnificent. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. and others) composing igneous rocks. here as large. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. dark green. amphiboles. withasbestos. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. adularia. The perfectly transparent. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. . A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. Arendal in Norway. but one of secondary origin.

Although not a common mineral. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. andesite. gneiss. and others. Epidote . Piemontite occurs as small. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. being black or dark brown in color. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. pitchy in lustre. after whom the species was named. there is little or no cleavage. and well-developed crystals are rare. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. syenite. near Falun in Sweden.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. granite. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. sometimes a foot in length. further. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Dollaseite is less common. and opaque in the mass. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. and greenish-brown colors. and many different names applied. rhyolite. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. reddish-black. near Ivrea in Piedmont. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. at Finbo. yellowish-. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral.

Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. yellow-green. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.6 . fibrous.3–3.

Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.019–0.797 Birefringence δ = 0.734–1.725–1.751 nβ = 1.715–1.046 Pleochroism Strong .784 nγ = 1.

the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8)." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. of plagioclase. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. While slowly cooling within the earth. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. Typically. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. . the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite.

Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. such as porcelain. It is the state gem of Florida. Germany. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Most moonstones are translucent and white. and as a constituent of scouring powder. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. some ceramics. Russia. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. In gemology. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. It measured ~10×10×0.

Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.55–2. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. White. Greenish.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Greyish yellow. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Cleavages intersect at 90°. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. 2V = 65–75 .

properties Refractive index nα = 1.520 nβ = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .522–1.525 Birefringence 0.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.522–1.0050–0.518–1.524 nγ = 1.

[edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. It is the most important lead ore mineral. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.

Illinois. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Idaho. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Of the latter. Cornwall. Smolyan Province. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. The Mendips.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. England. Iowa and Wisconsin. In addition zinc. the former mining town of Galena. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Bulgaria. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. the Madan. Utah and Montana. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Broken Hill. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Derbyshire. antimony. Saxony. Somerset. . and Cumberland. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments.S. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Rhodope Mountains.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. USA (size: 5. cadmium.1×3. Missouri. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. in a process similar to bioleaching. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. states of Missouri and Wisconsin.2×2.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. In the United States. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea.

significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. in Ancient Egypt.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. U. Isle of [5] Man.K. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. which were a potential source of disease. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. For example. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). which. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. however. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. In modern wireless communication systems.g. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. which was known as a "cat's whisker".

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.1. 225 Twinning Contact.75 . parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2. space group Fm3m.936 Å. No.CD. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].10 Dana classification 2.5–2. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.8.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

among them goethite. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. lepidocrocite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak.7 to 4. but limonite does not. Although originally defined as a single mineral. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. and jarosite. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.5 range. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. The hardness is variable. although specimens may show a [6] . The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish.5. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. but generally in the 4 .akaganeite. the other being hematite.3. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown.

reniform or stalactitic. amphibole. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. to process limonite. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States.botryoidal. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. Before smelting. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. sometimes mammillary. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. producing red ochres. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. Main article: Ochre#History . that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. Nonetheless. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. and biotite. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. burnt umbers and siennas. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. and hematite was far easier to smelt. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. [10] California mining district. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. Because of its amorphous nature. [12] notably in Tanzania. pyroxene. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. hematite and magnetite. Complex systems developed. in Africa. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe.

5½ . it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 . Limonite General Category Amorphous.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.

7 .4.3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.9 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. as nuggets or grains in rocks. shiny. with huge war debts. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. in veins and in alluvial deposits. giving rise to the term theacid test. which dissolves silver and base metals.S. jewelry. soft. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s.GOLD Gold is a dense. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. It dissolves in mercury. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. usually with tellurium. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. so named because it dissolves gold. Less commonly. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. In Europe. malleable and ductile metal. forming amalgam alloys. which have been used in mining. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. in 1932. . The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. Chemically. is insoluble in nitric acid. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide.

includingelectric wiring. ductility. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. in terms of volume.A total of 171. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core.7 m on a side. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. colored-glass production and gold leafing. 40% in [3] investments. about 8876 m .5 billion troy ounces or. and 10% in industry.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. and other fields. This is roughly equivalent to 5. or a cube 20. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. . resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. Its highmalleability. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. electronics.

GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. There are three principal types of natural graphite. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. flat. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. 2. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. It is. the last stage of coalification. graphite is an electrical conductor. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). 3. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. "to draw/write". consequently. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Therefore. for its use in pencils. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. a semimetal. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. . each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon.

as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. China is the largest producer of graphite. micas and tourmaline. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). U. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. but U.18 billion. Graphite .110 thousand tonnes (kt). The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. Graphite is not mined in the United States. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. [7] totaling 73% of all global production. respectively.S.S. in particular. calcite. India (130 kt). Brazil (76 kt).

six-sided foliatedmasses.461 Å. c = 6. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.CB.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .708 Å. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.

23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.09–2. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.

In arid areas. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. typically opaque. and transparent. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. it is alabaster. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. (Thus. It can be used as afertilizer. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. and in the early 19th century. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. in contrast to most other salts. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. [edit]Occurrence . rather. As a mineral. Selenite contains no significantselenium. in the form of selenite. cleavable masses called selenite. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. Finally. In hand-sized samples. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt.0–2. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Upon addition of water. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. As foranhydrite. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. When the crystal lattice is heated. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. called alabaster. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. referring to its crystalline projections. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Selenite may also occur in a silky.5 g/l at 25°C) and. "chalk" or "plaster". fibrous form.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. it may also be granular or quite compact. "spear stone". it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature.

Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. from volcanic vapors. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Commercial exploitation of the area. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Blue Anchor.000 years. However. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. as well as in hot springs. Pure gypsum is white. Under reducing conditions. Wyoming. . gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. UK. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. strongly opposed by area residents. Gypsum is a common mineral. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. and sulfate solutions inveins. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Somerset. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. amongst others by pyrite oxidation.

b = 15.522(6) Å. brown.CD.202(14) Å. reddish brown or gray . blue.43°. β = 118.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. may be yellow. tan. pink. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.679(5) Å. c = 6.

pearly.521 nβ = 1.31–2.530 Birefringence δ = 0. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.522–1.523 nγ = 1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.519–1.529–1. Mohs scalehardness 1. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.010 . flat.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. inelastic.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.

dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

usually as the result of volcanic activity. Hematite is harder than pure iron. Hematite is a mineral. Hematite can also occur without water. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. spring. however. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). also spelled as haematite. one of several iron oxides. . While the forms of hematite vary. Varieties includekidney ore. or red. Maghemite is a hematite. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. or other standing water.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum.HEMATITE Hematite. or otherwise highly weathered soils. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. brown to reddish brown. they all have a rust-red streak. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. but much more brittle. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. It is mined as the main ore of iron. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). ancient.

Fe2O3.CB.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.038(2) Å. dull to bright red . Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.772(12) Å.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. c = 13.

radiating fibrous.870–2.280 .Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.940 Birefringence δ = 0.150–3. columnar.220.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None. nε = 2. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. micaceous or platy. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. earthy. granular.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6. commonly in rosettes. reniform.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

[edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. The general formula can be given as (Ca.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.Al)5(Al. and an iron-magnesium silicate. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present. to refer to a dark amphibole. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.Fe. greenish-brown.F)2.Si)8O22(OH. brown or black color. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.Na)2–3(Mg.9–3. .4 and is typically an opaque green. a specific gravity of 2. but the name is used as a general or field term.

New York. Al)5 (Al. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . andesite. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. syenite. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. gneiss. gabbro. andschist. from its locality in Edenville. basalt. diorite. Fe. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. is gray to white in color. and named edenite. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Orange County. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous.

Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.

Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. It is a soft. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). yellow or light orange colors. giving it a distinct rust hue. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. [edit]Chemistry [6] . China. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). Alternating layers are sometimes found. part of the group of industrial minerals. Lighter concentrations yield white. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral. pinyin: Gaoling). In many parts of the world. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. Jiangxi province. a village near Jingdezhen. earthy. In Africa. calaba. United States. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g).

[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. H = H2O. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Si3Al4O12. and highly crystalline cristobalite. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. Al2Si2O7. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. however. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. S = SiO2. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. [edit]Occurrence .

Iran. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. it is mined. [1] the People's Republic of China. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. Germany. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. India. as kaolin. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. the Czech Republic and the United States.5 million tonnes. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. Bulgaria. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Australia.Korea. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. United Kingdom. France. in Brazil. Kaolinite .

α = 90°. Z = 2 Identification Color White. aggregated into compact.ED. sometimes red. thin plates or stacked. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.5°.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09.89 Å. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. γ = 89.8°.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. β = 104. c = 7. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .13 Å.25 Å. b = 8.

565. nβ = 1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. nγ = 1.569.569–1.553–1.16–2. Calculated: 44° .570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.559–1.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.

topaz and beryl. Lepidolite . It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. Canada.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. in some high-temperature quartz veins. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Tanco Mine. Bernic Lake. cassiterite. amblygonite.spodumene. columbite. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. California. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. Ural Mountains. It occurs in granite pegmatites. tourmaline. Notable occurrences include Brazil. feldspar. United States. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. andMadagascar.Si)3O10(F. Manitoba.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. Russia. greisens and granites.

colorless .OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Cm Unit cell a = 5. violet-gray. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.EC.4 x 2. Minas Gerais. white.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. purple.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.011(5) Å c = 10. Brazil (size 2. β = 100:77(4)°.149(5) Å.209(2) Å b = 9.Si)3O10(F.1 x 0. Virgem da Lapa.Lepidolite. yellowish. rose-red.

554– 1.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals. pale violet 2V angle 0° .8–2.586 Birefringence 0. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.0290–0. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2. nγ=1. nβ=1.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless. Y = Z = pink.551–1.548.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.58° measured .9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.525–1.58.

Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks.e. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. and ulvospinel have been much studied. Commonly. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . hematite. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. will attract small pieces of iron. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields.. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. called lodestone. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak.

Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .BB. Z=8 Identification Color Black. In many igneous rocks. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.085 °F). Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.397 Å. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. including banded iron formations. 1. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization.III) oxide. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.

the spinel law. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid . fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.17–5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. parting on {Ill}.Crystal habit Octahedral.5–6.

"The Tazza". It is also used for decorative purposes.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. deep underground. The pigment is moderately lightfast. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. or stalagmitic masses. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. "mallow". fibrous.000 years. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. which features a huge malachite vase. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. . where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. in fractures and spaces. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. variant of καιάχε malāchē. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. Since then. a large malachite vase. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. and most often forms botryoidal. This opaque. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. Middle French: melochite. "mallow-green stone". malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone.

Lyon. blackish green. . Mexico. goethite. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Russia. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. dark green. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.Zambia. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Gabon.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Tsumeb. Timna valley. Broken Hill. Israel. New South [7] Wales. the source of the carbonate. Except for its vibrant green color.BA. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Namibia. and calcite. France.1 g/mol Color Bright green.

0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.875 nγ = 1.655 nβ = 1.5–4. botryoidal. silky if fibrous. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.254 .909 Birefringence δ = 0. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. Polysynthetic twinning also present.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.commonly banded in masses. stalactitic.

76–3. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. isinglass. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.OH)2. browns.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. yellows. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. [4] . or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). The green. greens. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. and can be transparent or translucent.25 parallel to the [001] face. or (rarely) violet or red. Its crystal system is monoclinic. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. India.

15 Dana classification 71. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.3×3. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. gneisses. etc. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. Minas Gerais. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. morganite) from Paprok.9×4. found in granites.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. In pegmatites. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.8×3. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.02. pegmatites.Muscovite with beryl (var. and schists.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.kyanite.02a.EC. feldspar. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica.

Unit cell a = 5.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.106 Å.78°.552–1. β = 95.576 . space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. b = 9. Z = 4 Identification Color White. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m).027 Å. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. c = 20.199 Å. grey.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. silky.

618 Birefringence δ = 0.587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .nβ = 1.582–1.615 nγ = 1.035 – 0.

[edit]Identification and paragenesis . Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. as do other properties. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. almost 1900 °C.Fe)2SiO4. Fo 70Fa30). Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). magnesium and iron. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. it is also called peridot and chrysolite).g. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. silicon. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers..OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality.

Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. . Gila Co. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Arizona. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. USA..

In contrast. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. the French word for olivine). falling into infant stars. and .feldspar. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. pyroxenes.Fe)2Si2O6). 2012). The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. from the Greek words for gold and stone). The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". Such meteorites include chondrites. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water.g. or forsterite. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. 12 GPa. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. because olivine is so abundant. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Mars. in the dust of comet Wild 2. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. moreover. andpallasites. collections of debris from the early solar system. First X-ray view of Martian soil . [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. October 17. the Moon. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow.

while M1 exists on an inversion center. Oxygen is shown in red. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. In an alternative view. silicon in pink. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. O2 and O3 in figure 1). There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. Olivine . the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. O3 lies in a general position. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O2. O1. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. and magnesium/iron in blue.

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.

Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670–1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.650 nβ = 1.650–1.630–1.040 .670 nγ = 1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.27–3.

It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. [edit]Precious opal . green. brown. rose. sandstone. rhyolite. and black. slate. olive. being most commonly found withlimonite. like basalt. whereas white and greens are the most common. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. marl and basalt. magenta. Of these hues. a mineraloid form. gray. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . not a mineral. Opal ranges from clear through white. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. For gemstone use. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. orange. the reds against black are the most rare. pink. blue. red. yellow. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply.

.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.

the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. Contrarily. it has an internal structure. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. . An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. Potch does not show a play of color. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. or obsidian. of which opal is the best known natural example. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. and are not classed as precious opal. unlike triplet opals. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. In addition.Australian Opal Doublet. which is often of lower quality. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. which is correctly termed play of color. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. basalt.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

which is brown or grey. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. hyalite. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. orange. geyserite. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. orange-yellow or red. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. wood opal. resin opal. also called siliceous sinter.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. menilite. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. or star . a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. They do not usually show any play of color.

effect. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. However. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. It weighs 17. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). It does not display pleochroism. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. when cut properly. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. Boulder Opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. Queensland. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Queensland .000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long.

high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. known as the "Black Peacock. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. crystal opal. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. Miocene age opalised teeth. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. is the main source of black opal. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. weighing 160 carats. bones. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Idaho. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. [citation needed] [12] A . The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. and black opal. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Opal Queen. Nevada. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots.585 carats. crystal. Bonanza. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. and weighs 2.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. white. closely related to boulder opal. from Kynuna in the north. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Another Australian town. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. fish. and marine creatures in South Australia. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Royal Peacock. and lemon opal. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. and a snake head have been found. fire.

7 by 0. green. Turkey. [19] Slovakia. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. white. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. Piauí ). in masses. Brazil (inPedro II. Hungary. red. Indonesia. yellow. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. black. orange. In late 2008. Honduras. brown. Guatemala.

080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.15 (+.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. May also phosphoresce.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. translucent.[1] .37.08. green.450 (+.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.020.42–1. but typically reads 1. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. -. transparent Specific gravity 2. -. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. or yellow in long and short wave.90)[1] Density 2. may phosphoresce.Mohs scalehardness 5. may phosphoresce. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.

humic acid. methanol.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. bases. hydrofluoric acid .

[5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. sedimentary rock. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). "fire". is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. In ancient Roman times. as well as in coal beds. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. in turn from πύρ (pur). [edit]Uses . Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. or iron pyrite.37 wt% gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. and metamorphic rock. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. By Georgius Agricola's time. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. brazzle and Brazil. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. "of fire" or "in fire". Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.

that is. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. often set in silver. La Rioja. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. Navajún. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. Until the vacuum tube matured. Marcasite jewelry. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. most notably the wheellock.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. it had become the [12] dominant method. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. . for use in such applications as thepaper industry. By the 19th century. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers.95 eV. was popular in the Victorian era. iron(II) sulfate. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. In the 15th century.

Rioja. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.417 Å.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.1. Z=4 .12. 512 g. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.05a Dana classification 2.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.EB.

radiated. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. massive.95–5. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. globular and stalactitic.5 Luster Metallic.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic.10 Fusibility 2. Often inter-grown. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. faces may be striated. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. granular.5–3 to a magnetic globule .

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. There are many different varieties of quartz. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. distorted. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. respectively. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). space group P6221 and P6421. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. only one termination pyramid is present. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. Polish twardy ("hard")). or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. giving an overall formula SiO2. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. after feldspar. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. The . The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix.

For other uses. amethyst. carnelian. . are agate. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Natural citrines are rare. sard. onyx. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. see Citrine (disambiguation). Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. heliotrope. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. or mixed rocks including quartz.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. milky quartz. but they differ in hardness. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine.transformation between α. Citrine has ferric impurities. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. without change in the way they are linked. Quartz goes by an array of different names. Common colored varieties include citrine. smoky quartz. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). and is rarely found naturally." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. and jasper. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. rose quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. and others. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. such as the Lothair Crystal. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly.

Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. in the massive material. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. iron. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. USA. Maine. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. or manganese. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. . Magaliesburg. Brazil.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford.

[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz.

Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Agate Multi-colored. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. liquid. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. or both. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. exhibiting chatoyancy. trapped during the crystal formation. parallel and consistent in size. colorless Amethyst Purple. Otherwise more specific names are used. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. banded chalcedony. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Rock crystal Clear. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. transparent . This does not always hold true.

translucent to opaque. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. transparent Rose quartz Pink. translucent. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony.

c = 5.9133 Å. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). drusy. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. fine-grained to microcrystalline.01.03.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.05 Dana classification 75.DA.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.4053 Å. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.

65. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.545 nε = 1.59–2.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.554 Birefringence +0. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) . may betriboluminescent.552–1.543–1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. variable 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

3.738 nβ = 1.751 Birefringence δ = 0.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.724 .714 .6.1.1.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.5 .57 . Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .1.711 .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.741 nγ = 1.

The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Today. as an alloy with gold and other metals. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. Latin: argentum. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. and zinc refining.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft. and is used as an investment.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. utensils (hence the term silverware). and currency coins. high-value tableware. Its compounds are used in photographic film. to make ornaments. further research into clinical potential continues. jewelry. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. gold. free form (native silver). Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. lead. white. lustrous transition metal. . both from the Indo-European root*arg. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics.

sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. lazurite and tugtupite. with a polished rock surface. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. . Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. Canada. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. nosean.

Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. and Litchfield. green. shortwave ultraviolet light. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. [1] Narsaq. namelyleucite. Ontario. particularly. calcite. Conversely. near Golden.A light. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. microcline. in the USA. and Mont-SaintHilaire. British Columbia. sodalite is named after its sodium content. Occurring typically in massive form. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. If left in a dark environment for some time. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. yellow. fluorite. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. aegirine. in Canada. West Greenland. and Magnet Cove. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. the violet will fade again. Quebec. sanidine. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. [3] titanian andradite. The Ice River [5] complex. sodalite may also be grey. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. Arkansas. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. albite. contains sodalite. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. cancrinite and natrolite. Well known for its blue color. Maine. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. Other associated minerals include nepheline. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. Smaller deposits are found in South .ankerite and baryte.

FB. violet. Romania.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Euhedral. green. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. yellow.876(6) Å.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Italy. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Portugal. white veining common . Burma and Russia.

5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.1.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.483 .27-2. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. sodium . with yellowishphosphorescence. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.Crystal habit Massive.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. Magnesium.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. mostly opaque. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.OH)2. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .

and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. called penetration twinning. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. Virginia. New Mexico. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. kyanite. Kola Peninsula.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. Keivy Mountains. micas. Samples are also found in Taos. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. as well as albite. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. It is the official state mineral of the U. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. depth. Norway. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. In handsamples. biotite. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character.S. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. . The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. It occurs with almandine garnet.

yellowish brown.65 Å. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.AF. rarely blue. Russia.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . 2.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.Murmanskaja Oblast'.86 Å.45°. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. c = 5.5 x 2.6 Å. Northern Region. β = 90. b = 16.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.

Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .754 nγ = 1.7.0. 3.1.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.009 . Y = pale yellow. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.3.686 calc.83 meas.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.745 . Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1.762 Birefringence δ = 0.747 nβ = 1.74 .740 . weak .1.736 .


TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.5– 2. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. It has a specific gravity of 2. [edit]Formation . Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. and is translucent to opaque.8. a clear or dusty luster. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. Its streak is white. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. although slightly flexible. Talc is not soluble in water. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. and the folia are non-elastic. In loose form. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form.

garnet. amphibole. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. This is typically associated with high-pressure.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. pyroxene. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. friable. Such rocks are typically white. olivine. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. and fibrous. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. and are known as whiteschist. [edit]Occurrence . Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water.

Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. the Guiana Shield. India. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. the western European Alps especially in Italy.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Nepal and Bhutan. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. from Brazil. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). Western Australia. representing 8% of world production. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. layered ultramafic intrusion. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . eastern Australia. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. Oman and the Middle East. formed upon a polydeformed. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400.

173 Å.290 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.3°.287 Å. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.68°. β = 99. Z = 2 or a = 5. c = 18. γ = 90. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.90°. α = 98. b = 9. β = 119.95 Å. b = 9. c = 5. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.291 Å. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). brown.158 Å.EC.09°.

538 – 1.594 nγ = 1.58 to 2. long UV=yellow .589 – 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.600 Birefringence δ = 0.550 nβ = 1.589 – 1.

OH)2. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

Japan.5 carats.892. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Norway. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. if natural) or pink-orange. also known as precious topaz. Italy. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. pink or violet colored. pale green. pale gray. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. yellow. sometimes even violet. The American Golden Topaz. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Sri Lanka. is the traditional November birthstone. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.75 carats. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . Nigeria and the United States. Australia. Typically. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. Mexico. Czech Republic. colorless. typical topaz is wine. Flinders Island. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. It can also be made white. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah.Sweden. gold. measured a massive 22. Germany. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Imperial topaz is yellow. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Pakistan. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. the symbol of [5] friendship. blue. Brazil. pink (rare. gold. in Afghanistan. pink (rare). The Topaz of Aurangzeb. reddish-orange. a more recent gem.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. or blue brown. Orange topaz.

the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. both of which predate the Greek word. [edit]History Nicols. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". Minas Gerais. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. [edit]Biblical background. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. etymology. some scholars think it is related to . a topaz. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. In the Middle Ages. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz." However.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. the ancient name of St.

[citation needed] More likely.OH)2 Strunz classification 9.4 Å. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). b = 8. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. "fiery".65 Å.AF.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. metaphorically. Z = 4 . c = 8.8 Å. meaning "yellow burn" Assyrian word meaning "flashed". = yellow.

green. orange.49–3.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. also columnar. compact.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.606–1. brown. gray. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. blue.638 .631 nγ = 1.629 nβ = 1.616–1. yellow.609–1.

010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. reddish. bluish. Z = violet.Birefringence δ = 0. long UV=cream . yellow. short UV=golden yellow. violet. Y = yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent.

[edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. iron. sodium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). or potassium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. magnesium. lithium. Italy . Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.

meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". Carinthia. Beginning in the 18th century. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. In English. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. for the Drava river area. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). The word tourmaline has two etymologies. schörl. Austro-Hungarian Empire. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. In the 19th century the names common schorl. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. "Schörle". both from the Sinhalese word turamali. in addition to cassiterite. . Up to about 1600. This village had a nearby tin mine where.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. black tourmaline was found. and "Schurl". Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area.Drava river area.

which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Zn. Tuscany. Czech Republic. O W = OH.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Province of [5] Livorno.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. sodium-. where: [6] X = Ca. California. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. Na. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Elba Island. Ti . V T = Si. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite.5Al1. with the simplified formula (Li. B B = B. San Piero in Campo. Fe . Mn . Fe .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. Al. F. K. Mg. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. Cr . vacancy V = OH. Italy. vacancy Z = Mg. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Al. Sweden. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Italy. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Elba Island. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Cr . O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ .Campo nell'Elba. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. Fe . vacancy Y = Li. Al. Italy. United States. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. V .

Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. Cryo-Genie Mine. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . San Diego Co.Al1.. US.5. California.

. San Diego Co.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. US [edit]Physical properties . Himalaya Mine. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. California.

currently. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. yellow. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. no other common mineral has three sides. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. it is colorless. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. impact the value. and are often pyroelectric as well. but is now exhausted. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. Rarely.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. green. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. [edit]Geology . pink. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. red. in western Australia. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. etc. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. and does not. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. especially pink to red colored stones. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. Usually. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. Heavily-included tourmalines. or green on the outside and pink inside. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. called hemimorphism. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. During their 2+ growth. are altered by irradiation to improve their color.

Mn)3(Al.[])(Al. dravites.Li. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.K.Mg. but can range from brown. sometimes radiating. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Fe. pink. or in a dual-colored pink and green.Al. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.Na. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate.Cr.B)6O18(OH. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. are generally restricted to schists and marble. Acicular prisms.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. green. Massive. violet. Scattered grains (in granite). . Fe.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black.

small conchoidal.610–1. dark green. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.650 Birefringence -0. typically about . sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.675. dark brown.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.5 Luster Vitreous.82–3. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.06 (+.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. nε=1.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.06)[1] Density 2.040. light blue . brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.020 but in dark stones it may reach .20 -.018 to -0. dark blue. dark red. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.635–1.

red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.

chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. is a green variety of tremolite. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. [edit]Occurrence . Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Nephrite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content.

[edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Piumogna [1] Valley. Associated minerals include calcite. Leventina. forsterite.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Approximately 36.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic .2 x 6.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.Ticino (Tessin). French Pyrenees (size: 8.diopside. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. Switzerland. dolomite. grossular. cummingtonite. talc. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.Tremolite from the Aure Valley.DE. wollastonite.

84 Å. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. b = 18.95°.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) .02 Å. common parallel to {100}. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. β = 104.99 – 3. lavender to pink. or flattened crystals.27 Å. gray.Unit cell a = 9. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. Z = 2 Identification Color White. also as fibrous. c = 5. light green. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.

1.626 nγ = 1. Long UV=range pink .1.625 .612 nβ = 1.Refractive index nα = 1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.599 .637 Birefringence δ = 0.613 .1.

They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. water. hydroboracite. and Kazakhstan. USA. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. meyerhofferite. mirabilite. borax. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. trona.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. glauberite. by internal reflection. It is found principally in California and Nevada. water and hydroxide octahedra. probertite. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. The chains are linked together by calcium. calcite. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. Tarapacá Region in Chile. . hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. sometimes known as TV rock. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. gyps [1] um and halite. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes.

when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. Ulexite . two of which are polarized. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection.

1°. b = 12.12°.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. α = 90. Z =2 Identification .25°.9 x 5 x 3.816(3) Å.Ulexite from California(size: 6.11.25 Dana classification 26.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.678(1) Å.05. β = 109.EA. c = 6.87Å. γ = 105.

496 nβ = 1.95 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.491 – 1.028 . silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.504 – 1.519 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous.520 Birefringence δ = 0.

cream. greenish yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow.

chlorite or other platyminerals. Depending on their composition. rotten or possibly worthless material. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. albite gneiss. so called because the rock glitters). they may also be called garnet coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. diorite gneisses. etc. biotite gneiss.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. . It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. etc. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals.

The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. Italian marmo. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. "to flash.German.g. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. sand. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Portuguese mármore. meaning "marble-like. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Armenian marmar. silt. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. most other European languages (e. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Turkish mermer. Norwegian. Spanish mármol. [3][4] "crystalline rock". [5] gleam". [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Polish marmur. however. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. sparkle. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. "shining stone"." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Danish and Swedish ma rmor. Dutch marmer. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. . This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. iron oxides. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone.


and chlorite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. sericite. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. Minute crystals of graphite. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. sericite mica.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. . or chlorite impart a silky. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity).

such as yellow and orange. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. rutile and magnetite. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. and both usages are found in the literature. Although few fossils are normally present. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. therefore. Other colors. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. carbonate and clay. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). silica. not around them. Canada . non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. British Columbia. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. iron oxide. diagenetically altered. are due to other mineral impurities. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism.

Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. Central Texas. In the United Kingdom. several mountains (e. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. pale grey. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. silicon and silicon carbide. southwestMinnesota. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. and stair steps. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. [4] . the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. Monte Binga (2436 m).g. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. as roofing tiles. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. In Wales. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. the Wasatch Range in Utah. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. industrial silica sand. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. as flooring. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. precambrian quartzite. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. near Salt Lake City. Foinaven.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. The highest mountain in Mozambique. In the Scottish Highlands. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. In Canada.


occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. etc. chlorite. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. and others. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. the terms slate. for example. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. for example. A quartz-porphyry. can be seen by the naked eye. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. tourmaline schist. In other . chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas.talc. The individual mineral grains in schist. glaucophane schist. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. In the [2] context of underground coal mining.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. however. Usually. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. graphite.clastic structure. By definition. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. such as garnet schist. If the whole district. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. Most schists are mica schists. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. hornblende. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. Schist is oftengarnetiferous.

The last appeal is often to the chemistry. contain silicate minerals such as mica. with crystalline dolomites.cases intrusive junctions. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. foliated. A subgroup is the andalusite. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. zoisite and hornblende. dolomites. for example. as limestones. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. feldspar. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. schistose character. which have been derived from rhyolites. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. marbles. For example. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. however. while others are found only among igneous masses. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). The majority of mica-schists. chilled edges. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. are alteredclaystones and shales. tremolite. diopside. scapolite. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. Such rocks. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. with variable amounts of white and black mica. garnet. and calc-schists. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. many metamorphic limestones. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. staurolite. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. quartz and feldspar. . and the white mica-schists.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. kaolinite. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. tourmaline. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. Slate is frequently grey in color. the terms slate. as in the purple slates of North Wales. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. apatite. However. and pyrite and. In the context of underground coal mining. hematite. less frequently. often framed in wood. magnetite. green or cyan. leaving a light green spotted texture. or zirconas well as feldspar. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. from pale to dark. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. foliated. Occasionally. chlorite. for example. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. or schist. For example. It may mean a single roofing slate. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. and may also be purple. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use.. or a writing slate. . shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. especially when seen. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. covering roofs. from which it may be formed. Slate is not to be confused with shale. en masse. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. traditionally a small piece of slate. graphite. often along with biotite. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality.Slate Slate is a fine-grained.


leading to metamorphism. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. of intermediate composition. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. apatite.. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. volcanic rock. In a general sense. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. biotite. [5] sediment. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. During subduction. ilmenite. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. anhydrous forms. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. chlorite etc. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. potassium (K). Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. zeolites. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Partial melting of crustal material. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. barium(Ba). and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. but most . releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts.e.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska.g. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. Characteristic of subduction zones. 3. Magnetite. zircon. 2.

magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. creating a layer of molten material at its base. its intermediate phase. however.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. If it underplates the crust. Once there. therefore. Basalt can. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. In order to remain active. however. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. As this process continues. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. however. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. . Models of heat transfer. Without continued addition of mafic material. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. forming mafic cumulates. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. the composition is returned to andesite. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. such as the Andes. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. these reservoirs cool. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock.


but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. Venus. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle.BASALT Basalt (pron. Mars. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. (In comparison. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. the third largest moon of Jupiter.. /ˈbæsɒlt/. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. On Earth. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. By definition. and even on the asteroid Vesta.. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. Hungary . granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. Sobolev et al. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. /ˈbæsɔːlt/.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. and has also formed on Earth's Moon.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill.g. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. 2007). basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume.

US quarter for scale. Arizona. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. from βάζανος (basanos. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. . making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". as building blocks or in the groundwork). Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. basanites "very hard stone. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. an excellent thermal insulator.g." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. misspelling of L. libri XII.

alkali feldspar and phlogopite. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids.     . distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. most large oceanic islands. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt.

also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. apatite. Basin and Range province. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. sphene. Romania. Its hardness. the Darrans range of New Zealand. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. . It can also be black or bluish-grey. Sondrio. however. magnetite. microcline and olivine. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. making it difficult to carve and work with. the Isle of Guernsey. and frequently has a greenish cast. Scotland. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. central Sweden. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. and/or pyroxene. occasionally with porphyry. hornblende. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. which is transitional togabbro. Zircon.DIORITE Diorite (pron. source localities include Leicestershire. Italy.biotite. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. into which they may subtly merge.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). and Idahet in Egypt. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. Minnesota in theUSA. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. and to provide a durable finished work. Finland. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. Northeastern Turkey. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. the Andes Mountains.

etc. Guernsey and Scotland. London.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. Paul's Cathedral. weaponry. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. but mostly for fortress walls. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. inscribed upon a 2.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. Babylonia. . Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. In later times. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. Assyria and Sumer.

small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. coarse-grained. typically a few percent.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. Scotland. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. The rocks areplutonic. ilmenite. plagioclase. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). California. the rock is then a norite. Rock Creek Canyon.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. Gabbros contain minor amounts. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Isle of Skye. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. easternSierra Nevada. amphibole. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . Gabbro is dense. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). and ulvospinel.

[edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones.extra descriptiveness is desired. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. although it may be porphyritic at times. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. intruding into the rift flanks. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. cobalt. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. nickel. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. US. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. silver. Massachusetts. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). and copper sulfides. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. . although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. gold. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. platinum. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase.


its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. mica. and feldspar. Melting temperature is 1215 . By definition. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. Granitoid is a general. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. descriptive field term for light-colored. near the town of Caldera. a grain.75 3 g/cm .: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. The average density of granite is between 2. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. an unusual type of granite. Granites can be pink to gray in color. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks.GRANITE Granite (pron. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. hard and tough. northern Chile . it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. felsic.1260 °C. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone.65 and 2. This rock consists mainly of quartz. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India.

valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall .

05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.12% Na2O — 3. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. it is called tonalite.22% MgO — 0.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.The Cheesewring. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges.69% CaO — 1. where it forms a major part of continental crust.82% FeO — 1. sanidine. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. In some locations.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.71% TiO2 — 0. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.12% MnO — 0. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.30% P2O5 — 0. Granite often occurs as relatively small. . although much of it is of Precambrian age. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.68% Fe2O3 — 1.


Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. Obsidian is mineral-like. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis).. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. which is the parent material. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. [9][10][11] . usually 70% or more. Obsidian is hard and brittle. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. forming perlite. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. in addition.. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals).OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. California .

white. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. New [13] [14] Mexico.Greece. . It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. Canada. Texas. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian).Utah. Chile. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. the inclusion of small. Kenya.S. and deposits can be found in many other western U. states of Virginia. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Iceland. Italy. Guatemala. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). Colorado. Japan.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. as well as Pennsylvania. In some stones. Peru. El Salvador. Very few samples are nearly colorless. states including Arizona. Scotland and the United States. Pantelleria. It can be found in Argentina. Oregon and Idaho. Mexico. Azerbaijan.S. New Zealand. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Washington. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Armenia. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.


Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. pyroxene and other minerals are known. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. For this reason. Similarly. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. macroscale graphic texture is known. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. Therefore.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Theory Theory . crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. in essence a granite.5 cm in size. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. exsolution lamellae. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. feldspar and mica. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2.

often with mica and usually with quartz. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. in a few cases. with bulk chemical and textural change. Metamorphic particularly felsic pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. to liberate the right constituents and water. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. for example greisens. and are usually granitic in character. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. . Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. being altogether "granitic" in character. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. California. granite-associated mineralisation styles. eastern Sierra Nevada. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. Beyond that. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. Rock Creek Canyon. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems.

tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. cesium. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". orange and brown almandine garnet. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. Occasionally. tourmaline. Queensland. zinnwaldite and so forth. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. orientation. Hence. topaz. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. Bismuth. apatite and corundum. . thorium. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. tantalite. beryllium. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. among others. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. Tantalum. Often. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. Australia). In most cases. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. fluorite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. say. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. columbite. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. potassium and lithium. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. niobium. boron. commonly almandine or spessartine. tourmaline. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. uranium. aluminium. such as aquamarine. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. et cetera.Garnet. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. tourmaline. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Geochemically. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. accessory minerals and timing. lepidolite. tantalite. however.

Similarly. "granitic" or "metasomatic". based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. Within the metamorphic belts. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. However.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. . for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. transitional with some greisens. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic".

Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. Pumice is created when super-heated. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. . The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. uncompressed with pumice on left. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava.PUMICE Pumice pron. It is typically light colored. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). compressed with fiamme on right. which may or may not contain crystals.

A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. ranging from white. It is commonly. blue or grey. Pumice is commonly pale in color. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. . underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. and initially floats on water. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. phonolite. andesite. In 1979. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. to green-brown or black. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. In [4] fact. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. pantellerite. cream. dacitic. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. many samples float in water. but basaltic and other compositions are known. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. with tree trunks floating among them. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. it sinks rapidly. 1984 and 2006.. When larger amounts of gas are present. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. rhyolitic.g.S. trachyte). Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. After the explosion of Krakatoa.

pencil erasers. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. especially in polishes. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. It is also used as an abrasive.There are two main forms of vesicles. in the case of pumiceous lavas. and the production of stone-washed jeans. smooth. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. cosmetic exfoliants. during flow. . plaster-like concrete. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. When used as an additive for cement.

rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. also called obsidian. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. volcanic (extrusive) rock.nodular. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. the eruptions were at the St. . They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. and consequently. below:pumice. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. spherulitic. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. and lithophysal structures.


instead they open into one another with little distortion. creating bubbles in the molten rock. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. a unique form of Scoria. black or purplish red). and may contain phenocrysts. and sinks in water. An old name for scoria is cinder. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. and hence is denser. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. Vesicles are usually small. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. Australia. coalescence. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Auckland in New Zealand. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. Quincan. and bursting. skōria. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. . but in contrast to pumice. bubble growth. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. another vesicular volcanic rock. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. blocks and bombs). [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. An example is Mount Wellington. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. typically near its surface. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. rust. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies.

It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. . and to carve some moai from. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and often has striking colours. It is somewhat porous. has high surface area and strength for its weight. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues.

coal) is a hard. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. its higher relative density of 1. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. as opposed to lignite." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. the UK. and lustre. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. which is softer). is known as culm. It has the highest carbon content. the fewest impurities. which is used as a pigment. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. hard coal. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. "coal-like. [5] Vietnam. blue. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. Australia and the US.1% and 98%. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection.4. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. blind coal (in Scotland). and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG).S. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. In America. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. North Korea. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. and black diamond. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. mineral-matter-free basis. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. and smokeless flame. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. which is used mainly in power generation. Ukraine.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. other producers are Russia. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . which also include bituminous coal and lignite. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector.3– 1.

anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. circa 1935 . Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Pennsylvania. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. on the as-received basis (i. New Mexico. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). In [6] June 2008. For example. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. The thermal conductivity is also higher.e. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. and Western Pennsylvania. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. By 1795. Since the 1980s. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli.MJ/kg). mined near Saundersfoot. In southwest Wales. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. coking coal and domestic house coals.. [7] It was In the United States. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. Structurally. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal.

making it ideal for this purpose. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. Of that. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. In spring 1808. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. such as schools. about 1. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. From that first mine. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Many large public buildings.S. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). In the early 20th century United States. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Pennsylvania. the Delaware. Current U. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. on an open grate in a fireplace. placed in descending order. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . Group of breaker boys. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot.

as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. Formerly.Anthracite". Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". Switzerland and parts of Germany. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. [10] . anthracite was largely used. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Commercial mining has now ceased. Similarly. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. both in America and South Wales. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . "poor". or less.

: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. . sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. Apart from the mineral content. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. rock fragments may also be a significant component.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. due to the depositional processes that form it. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. although bedding is frequently visible. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. and some mica is often present. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. most commonly granitic rocks. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. Fossils are rare in arkose.


Within the coal mining industry. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. hydrogen. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. and sulphur. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). mineral-matter-free basis. which are classified according to either "dull. bright-banded" or "bright. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). .BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. the rest is composed of water. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. These distinctive sequences. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. air. good ventilation and vigilant site management. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. dull-banded". Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. and exinite.

it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. igneous breccia. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. in essence. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. typically in a karst landscape. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. by their relative movements. A conglomerate. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. . Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. In the field. avalanches. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution.079 in) in size. These are.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. lithified colluvium. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. poorly sorted. Technically. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. tectonic breccia. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. by contrast. The word is a loan from Italian. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular.

[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. When particularly intense. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. Lavas. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. granites and kimberlite pipes. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. . [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. This occurs when the thick. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. and these form volcanic breccias. as they slide past each other.g. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. also called pillow breccias. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. Broken. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. both of lava and pyroclastic type. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater.

Impact breccia. steam and boiling water. iridium and osmium anomalies). and are usually found at impact craters. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Nevada. shocked minerals. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones.g. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. In addition. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. impact glass. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. a type of impactite. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. and attrition quickly o . the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards.Pahranagat Range. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. in the rim. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. near Blessington in Ireland. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian.

Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. As a result. as the formational event is brief. in particular CO2. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Washington. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). .rounds angular breccia fragments. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. In the mesothermal regime.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. On their journey. If boiling occurs. at much greater depths. Pend Oreille mine. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Pend Oreille County. silver and gold. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns.


hard chert. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. limestone. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. New York. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. but most often manifests as gray. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. it is usually called flint. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand.CHERT Chert (pron. "chalcedony" and "flint" . (3. [edit]Terminology: "chert".: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. It also occurs in thin beds. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. chalk. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). Buffalo. Oklahoma. brown.

. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. The term does not include quartzite. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). Among petrologists. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Strictly speaking. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert".chert being lower quality than flint. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. Everett. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality .

Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. . [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). which consist of angular clasts.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. South Dakota. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting.

    Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. approximate depth 10. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . In this setting.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.000 ft. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. and are known as basal conglomerates. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict . [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. Alaska.

The matrix is generally fine-grained. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. in Australia's Northern Territory. matrix-supported conglomerates.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . Tillites. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. desert) environments. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. forming structures such aseskers. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. near Barcelona. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. in rapidly eroding (e.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. are typically poorly-sorted. These form the basis of a number of . The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan.g. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). the sediments deposited directly by a glacier.

large oil fields. e. . The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. as different sectors of the fault moved.g. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.

[edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. close packing. or other invertebrates. which compose them.COQUINA Coquina (pron. in the form of seashells or coral. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. often including some phosphate. . [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. shallow submarine raised banks. and sorting of the shells. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. As a result. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. fracturing. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. trilobites. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. brachiopods. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. abraded. swift tidal channels. and barrier bars. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. abrasion.

Because of coquina's softness. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. However. coquina is extremely soft. form. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. but still comparatively soft. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. Saint Augustine. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. The stone makes a very good material for forts. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. rather than shatter or puncture. When first quarried. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments.Close-up of coquina from Florida. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. In order to be used as a building material. . The scale bar is 10 mm. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. cannon balls would sink into.


69 mm. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. anti-block in plastic films. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . and athermal insulator..E. is a naturally occurring. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. the peasant and goods waggoner. Wilhelm Berkefeld.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. activator in blood clotting studies. diatomite.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. TheCelle engineer. similar to pumice powder. cat litter. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1.: /ˌdaɪ.5 to 2% iron oxide. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. recognized its ability to filter. It is used as a filtration aid.236 pixels/ μm. which could be used as fertilizer. absorbent for liquids. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. and is very light as a result of its high porosity.13 by 0. Initially. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. matting agent for coatings. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. porous support for chemical catalysts. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. This powder has an abrasive feel. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. mechanical insecticide. soft. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. a stabilizing component of dynamite. it was thought that limestone had been found. a type of hard-shelled algae. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. Peter Kasten.

from diatomaceous earth. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. . another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. used successfully.  ca.

The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Washington and California. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. France. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Nevada (USA). The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. In Colorado and in Clark. such as this one for swimming pools . [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. but are of low quality. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt).Virginia. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Oregon.

It has a high porosity. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. causing them to [9] dehydrate. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. especially for swimming pools. . it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. because it is composed of microscopically small. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. such as beer and wine. However. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. with questionable efficacy. or nutritional properties. hollow particles. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. as well as in some facial scrubs. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867.e. and honey without removing or altering their color. coffin-like.. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.e. due to its physico-sorptive properties.. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. sugar. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. It is also used to filter water. but this method may take weeks to work. It can also filter syrups. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. and other liquids. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. for this purpose. efficacy is very low. [7] taste. In order to be effective as an insecticide. since slugs inhabit humid environments. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. based on Fick's law of diffusion. foodgrade— see below). It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness.

vermiculite. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. including water. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. as [20] well as an insecticide. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. Like perlite. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. Fungicide. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. As with other silicates. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. particularly as bonsai soil. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. . These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes.

Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. while draining fast and freely. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. as feed supplement.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. which is used as an indigestible marker. the largest single . Libya. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. and has a high silica content (>60%). is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. For instance. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). it retains water and nutrients. It is produced uncalcinated. has a very fine particle size.and expanded clay. which has been widely used for the same purpose. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. and as an insecticide. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium.

.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.

The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. . publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. It is. however. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. but it can still develop solution features over time. used in some geological publications. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded.S.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite.G. In old U.S. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute.

is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. often referred to as brown coal. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). ca. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms.e.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. Poland. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Germany. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. Australia averages 8.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. it is mined in Greece. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . India. the United States.5 million BTU/ton). on the as-received basis (i. mineral-matter-free basis. Serbia. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%.4 MJ/kg (6. When reacted with quaternary amine. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. Russia.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.

The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid.than for comparable black-coal plants. particularly in combination with strip mining. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. [4] Victoria. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. .

[1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. as aggregate for the base of roads. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. and as a chemical feedstock. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. Virginia. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. USA . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3).

silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. depending on the method of formation. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. When conditions are right for precipitation. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. granular. and varying amounts of clay. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. quartz. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). Travertine is a banded.e. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. radiolarians). and extraclasts. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. This produces speleothems. flint. such as stalagmites and stalactites. clastic. Because of impurities. most limestone is composed of grains. Below about 3. Limestone may be crystalline. building upon past generations. organic remains.travertine. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. including the water temperature. or it can fill fractures. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). iron oxide and other materials. etc. and around hot or cold springs. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. such as clay. diatoms. or massive.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. limestone recrystallizes into marble. many limestones exhibit different colors. pH. peloids. Like most other sedimentary rocks. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. intraclasts. Crystals of calcite. particularly where there are waterfalls. i. jasper. the Folk and the Dunham. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. . especially onweathered surfaces. Romania. sand. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly.000 meters. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Classification Two major classification schemes. depending on several factors. is found near waterfalls. Tufa.

caves and gorges. especially in acid. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Unlike the Folk scheme. Robert J. Based on composition. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. These include limestone pavements. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. pot holes. matrix (mostly micrite). Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. not the grains in the sample. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. The Folk system uses two-part names. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. and cement (sparite). the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. there are three main components: allochems (grains). Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. Such erosion landscapes are known . Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. cenotes. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. and therefore self-supporting.

The Florida Keys. Egypt. 2003). for a long time. This process is known as bioerosion. While draining. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. and relatively expensive as a building material. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). the only building material available. Many landmarks across the world. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. islands off the south coast of Florida. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. theVerdon Gorge in France. Examples include the Burren in Co. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. it is a very heavy material. It is most common in the tropics. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Ontario. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. So many buildings in Kingston. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Notch Peak in Utah. are made of limestone. On the island of Malta. Clare. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. making it impractical for tall buildings. . Sweden. [9] Michigan. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). However. Unique habitats are found on alvars. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. especially in Europe and North America. Sweden. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at karsts. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. Ireland. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. typically clays. England. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza.

Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.

As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Indiana. limestone extracts iron from its ore. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. tiles. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. since it is hard.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. rather than solid blocks. paper. In the United States. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. uses limestone. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. but only in thin plates for covering. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. such as for poultry (when ground up). It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. [11] . it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Purified. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is added to toothpaste. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Used in blast furnaces. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Train stations. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. durable. Glass making. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. called Indiana limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. plastics. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. cement and mortar. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. most notably the Bloomington area. in some circumstances. paint. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

France.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. such as sandstones. gray. brown. [edit]Uses 17. pink. yellow. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). In the western United States and incentral Australia. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. but the most common colours are tan. Like sand. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. Fine-grained aquifers. sandstone may be any colour.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. most [1] sandstone is red. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. white and black. red. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. .

. around 1770.Germany. in Freiburg.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer.

Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. These are sandstone beverage coasters. . It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. It is relatively soft. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. homes.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. cathedrals. making it easy to carve. and continues to be used. and other buildings.

some that have been used in the past. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. clays. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material.. Utah. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. e. like chalk and coal.002–0. However. [3] like gypsum and jasper). They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. have been found less resistant. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park.g. rocks with greater grain sizes.0 mm. or chemical. for sharpening blades and other implements. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. and silica. Because of the hardness of individual grains. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. gritstone. are typically called argillaceous sediments. Scale bar is 1. yet are easy to work. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. including siltstones and shales. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. . Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye.079 inches).

. Finally. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon.e. Typically. and composition and. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. in more general detail. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Arizona. either from water (as in a stream. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide.. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. i. in finer detail. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . once it has accumulated. over other construction. in a desert or erg). Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.g. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. include its grain size. which. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. lake. First.sorting.

Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Alluvial fans 3. Offshore bars and sand waves 5.1. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Deltas 2. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. point bars.  . which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Tidal flats 4. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. such as hardness and chemical stability. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Glacial outwash 4. Lakes 5. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. channel sands) 2. Rivers (levees.

Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. metamorphic. or sedimentary rock. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. One is to call the . and corundum. upper picture is plane-polarized light. tourmaline. rutile (hence ZTR).  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. this represents a complete solid solution. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. olivine.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. Common heavy minerals include zircon. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. called lithic fragments or clasts. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.garnet. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. scale box at left-center is 0. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). pyroxene. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. Although. magnetite. or other dense.25 millimeter.

The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. and the other is to call it a wacke. limonite. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. clay minerals. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. barite. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. and very rarely is in other sandstones. [6] gypsum. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. such as calcite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. feldspars.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials.sandstone an arenite. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. anhydrite. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. and zeolite minerals.  . Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil.


clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. sodium. Sand grain = 2 mm. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. called fissility.greens). biotite and illite . often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. on the other hand. especially quartz and calcite. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). the terms slate. iron . montmorillonite and illite. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining.reds). Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. calcium. magnesium. Red. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. iron hydroxide (goethite . Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.browns and limonite [1] yellow). in dia. Mudstones. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite .

in river deltas. However. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. The enriched values are of controversial origin.Cumberland Plateau. reducing environments. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. quiet water. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction.chert. uranium. These released elements form authigenic quartz.and water. black shales were deposited in anoxic.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. 'Black shales' are dark. such as in stagnant water columns. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. and zinc. dolomite. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. vanadium. in relatively deep. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. hematite and albite. . ankerite. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. calcite. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks.

apatite. The Flintstones. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. metamorphic rockknown as slate.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. fissile. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. 1961. "Flintstone of Princestone". As a prehistoric version of Yale University. then schist and finally to gneiss. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). . or various carbonate minerals. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. which originally aired on November 3. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale".

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