BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

The name is a corruption of alabandicus. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light.5 K. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. inclining to purple. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. upper mantle and transition zone. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. of deep red color. or en cabochon. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series.512 Å at 100 K. It is frequently cut with a convex face. also known incorrectly as almandite. and is then known as carbuncle.: /ˈælməndɪn/).

a name said to be taken from Syriam.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. and are sometimes cut and polished. some years ago. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. in Tyrol. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. When the color inclines to a violet tint. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. Almandine is widely distributed. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate .

25. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .AD.05 (+.7.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red..5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.790 (+/.024 [1] . -.Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.

Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 460. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . may also have faint lines at 423. 520. and 573nm.

Because of its bright green color when polished. El Paso County. Colorado. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Virginia. orthoclase. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. . although it is easily fractured. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. Colorado. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. where it occurs in granitic rocks. Naturally. For many years. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. More recently. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Russia. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia.

or green.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. It is common in granite and pegmatites. brick-red. viewed under a polarizing microscope. however. Microcline may be clear. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. . or amazonite. Amazon stone. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase.Colorado. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. pale-yellow. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. white. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase.

Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. named for high concentrations of OH . in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH.F . Similarly. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2.g. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.F. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. respectively. Hydroxyapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Cl or ions. in the mid-20th century. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. sodium . also known as hydroxylapatite. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e.Cl)2.

The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. sodium monofluorophosphate).fluoride.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. yellow.Cl. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.BN. compact or granular .05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. massive. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.OH) Strunz classification 08. prismatic crystals. pink. usually green. brown. blue to violet. less often colorless.

012. blue and yellow to colorless. green stones – greenish yellow .013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.006)[1] Birefringence 0.16–3. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.634–1.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.638 (+0.[1] Dispersion 0. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. −0.002–0. Other colors are weak to very weak.

[1] . light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.which is stronger in long wave.


25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. [edit]Uses In aquaria. is situated in Slovakia. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. resulting in a different crystal shape. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). In the USA. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. respectively. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. crystal forms of calcium carbonate.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. the entire shell is aragonite. It is formed by biological and physical processes. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Spain). An aragonite cave. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. naturally occurring. also known as μ-CaCO3. The mineral vaterite. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). In some mollusks. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. in others. [citation Aragonite . including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. one of the two common. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm.

red. prismatic crystals.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) .AB. coralloidal. pisolitic. reniform. stalactitic. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. internally banded . Aude department.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. c = 5. orange. Z = 4 Identification Color White. globular.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. yellow.74 Å. columnar. acicular. green .95 Å.96 Å. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. b = 7.

95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.685 .5-4 Luster Vitreous.1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. yellow.1.682 nγ = 1.1. white or .530 nβ = 1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.680 . imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.686 Birefringence δ = 0.529 .

yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish.

meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Na)(Mg.Fe. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Al.Al)2O6. Augite has two prominent cleavages.Ti)(Si. [edit]Characteristics .AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.

titanium.4 x 3. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. but mostly of temperature. leucite. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. It is found near the Ken River. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. labradorite. and sodium and other elements. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. sanidine. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. meaning "brightness". [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. which is from the Greekaugites. olivine. brown or [2] black) luster. for example. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. Augite .0 x 2.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. With declining temperature. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name.

Ti)(Si. in thin section.Na)(Mg.Augite .97°. skeletal. violet-brown. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. also acicular. Z=4 Identification Color Black.699 Å. brown. dendritic .Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.Al.Fe. β = 106.272 Å.844 Å. greenish.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9. c = 5.DA. b = 8.

1.706 . violet . greenish yellow. Z = pale green.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.026 . nγ = 1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.684 .5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.19 . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.1.0. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. grayish green.741.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. nβ = 1. green. pale yellow-green. Y = pale brown.3.774 Birefringence δ = 0. violet.735.1. pale brown.680 .


AZURITE Azurite is a soft. Namibia. With azurite. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. From Tsumeb. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. France. and unknown white crystals. a carbonate. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The mineral. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. . and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. has been known since ancient times.

specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid.89. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. carbonate and hydroxide. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Azurite is soft. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. Characteristic of a carbonate. powdery copper(II) oxide. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. and are often stalactitic in form. . with a Mohs hardness of only 3. the other being bright green malachite. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight.77 to 3.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black.5 to 4. Azurite crystals are monoclinic.

azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. However. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). France. it gave a wide range of blues. in the silver mines located there. Ultramarine withstands heat. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. However. Heating destroys azurite easily. a similar but much more expensive pigment. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. a term applied to many blue pigments. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. such as saltwater aquariums. and also as an ornamental stone. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. and its basic content of copper carbonate. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue.

producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. heat. dark. General . To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. However. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. collectors should use a cool.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. bright light.

Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. β = 92.85 Å. prismatic.BA. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.43°. c = 10. twin planes {101}. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. fair on {100}.5 to 4 .67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. very dark to pale blue. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. stalactitic.01 Å. Berlin blue. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. b = 5.35 Å. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.

78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.773 (measured). calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .838 Birefringence δ = 0. 3.730 nβ = 1.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.758 nγ = 1.

. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. and small amounts of anataseTiO2.basalt. gneiss. syenite.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. and shale. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. In the case of Jamaica. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). the clay mineral kaolinite.

Increased aluminium recycling. followed by China. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. Brazil. India. and Guinea. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium.[edit]Production trends In 2010. . Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries.

or barite. and is the main [1] source of barium.Sr)SO4. The baryte group consists of baryte. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. anglesite and anhydrite.BARITE Baryte. [edit]Names [2] and history . celestine. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.

The unit cell of barite The radiating form. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. Most baryte is ground to a small. [8] barytes. and blanc fixe. [2] [3] Spar. such as washing. including barytine. [2] Heavy associations and locations . The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). tiff. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. heavy media separation. Other names have been used for baryte. flotation. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [8] schwerspath. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. tabling. jigging. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. an addition to industrial products. but rather a material that meets that specification. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone.

Perthshire. Scotland. hydrothermal.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. among others. and with hematite ore. in hot spring deposits. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. and evaporation. . Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones.

Peru.2 or greater. Derbyshire. and no more than 30%. Virginia. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. New York & Fort Wallace. radiation-shielding cement. Georgia. North [2] Carolina. [edit]Paleothermometry . Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. the bit passes through various formations. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. India [12] (1. The deeper the hole. Thailand. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. sound reduction in engine compartments. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. Turkey. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Tennessee. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole.Perthshire. by weight. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. Connecticut. each with different characteristics. Connecticut.Kentucky. Iran (250). chemically inert. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). As a well is drilled. Muirshiel [2] Mine. Morocco (460).Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil.000). China. United States (670). Liberia. New Mexico. Morocco. Iran. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. blue. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Cumbria. Nevada & Missouri. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). paper. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. and paint. can be less than 6 μm diameter. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. Canada. India. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Romania (Baia Sprie). Greece. Chile. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ).600). and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. by weight. UK (Cornwall. De Kalb. It is mined in Arkansas. Durham.

Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. away from continental sources of sediment. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. Since baryte has oxygen. .

yellow. also meaning "shine". and white.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". veḷiru ( ). red. [edit]Deposits . possible colors are green. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. Old French: beryl. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus.BERYL In geology. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. Pure beryl is colorless. blue. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. the Spanish word brillo. and [5] the English word brilliance. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill.

New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. Espírito Santo. the United States. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays.000 kilogrammes. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Maine. Colorado. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe.5 m by 1. Idaho. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. and Bahia. and 2+ 3+ .2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. and limestone inColombia. U. 18 meters [6] long and 3. and weighing 380. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. InWyoming. Mainewith dimensions 5. Germany. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. Colombia. Madagascar. such as that occurring in Brazil. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. North Carolina. neutrons or even X-rays). beryl locations are in California. Connecticut. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. South Dakota and Utah. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. South Africa. Clear yellow beryl. Ireland and Russia.S. Mozambique. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. as well as Brazil. In Brazil. As of 1999. Sweden (especially morganite). The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. New Hampshire. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. and Zambia.5 meters in diameter. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. Austria. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. near Powder River Pass. though the color returns with irradiation. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. In the United States. Madagascar.

Pakistan. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. Zimbabwe. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. It weighed over 110 kg.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Coscuez. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. and Chivor.. meaning "green". [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. It is named for the trapiche. Madagascar. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. India. Minas Gerais. [15] [7][14] . In 1998. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Brazil. Afghanistan and Russia. Most emeralds are highly included. Zambia. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. in 1910. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. The mines of Colombia. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Madagascar. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Malawi. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. as such. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. North Carolina. Brazil. In the US. such as Zambia. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. and its dimensions were 48. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. which has been on the market since 1964. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. marakata (म कन). colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo.

D. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. In the past. The name originates from Goshen. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Unlike emerald. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. However. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. golden beryl has very few flaws. Nowadays. . Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions.C. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. Washington. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems.

P. It was also known. California. "pink emerald". 1989.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. goshenite can be colored yellow. Thomas [26][27] Range. In December 1910. and Co impurities. with other gemstone minerals. On October 7. because of the . and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". However. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. V. Utah. originally somewhat orange in hue. USA. at Pala. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. green. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. Morgan. pink. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. also known as "pink beryl". Fe. Juab County. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. The crystal. Ti. and color banding is common." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. Sc. such astourmaline and kunzite. "rose beryl". Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. its type locality. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered.Maine. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg).

topaz. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. pseudobrookite and hematite. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. while he was prospecting for uranium. [28] of Fillmore. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Utah. Utah.Sierra County.CJ. Beaver County.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). and Juab County. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". Utah. spessartine. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. New [1] Mexico. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite.05 . quartz.orthoclase. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10.000 per carat for faceted stones.

Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. columnar. yellow.21 Å.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . c = 9. blue.19 Å. colorless.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.50 Color Green. radial.

but the stone itself does not) .0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.Specific gravity Average 2.568–1.564–1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.595 nε = 1.0040–0.

silicon. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. Biotite was named by J. More generally. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite.OH)2. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. researched the optical properties of mica. oxygen. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite.L. Iron.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group.F. Biotite is a sheet silicate. [4] discovering many unique properties. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. who. magnesium. in 1816. it refers to the dark mica series. aluminium. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F.

Norway.than phlogopite. which easily flake off. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. as in New England. When biotite is found in large chunks. Virginia and North Carolina. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. It can be transparent to opaque. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. It has amonoclinic crystal system. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. and even yellow when weathered. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. and a grey-white streak. Ontario. especially in pegmatite veins. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. in some instances side-by-side. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. and consists of flexible sheets. or lamellae. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. fracture is uneven. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. . It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. It appears greenish to brown or black. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. For instance. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. has a vitreous to pearly luster. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets.

Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. yellow. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].53 g Color Dark brown.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. less common on the {001} . greenish brown. blackish brown.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F.

8–3.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.1 Density 2.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.7–3. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.565–1.605–1.675 nγ = 1.625 nβ = 1.03–0.5–3.605–1.675 Birefringence δ = 0.

also known as peacock ore. is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .

Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks.Connecticut in the U. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Kazakhstan. Zimbabwe. the Mangula mine.Lomagundi district. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Karlovy Vary Region. Illogan. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791).England.3 x 3. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. and elsewhere in Cornwall. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. eastern Tirol. from the N’ouva mine. Morocco. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Austria. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.5 x 4.Mexico (size: 7. Montana and at Bristol. Talate.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. . S.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

Crystal Cave. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. Ohio. usually in small quantities. The world's largest known geode. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.The mineral is found worldwide. Celestine . The geode has been converted into a viewing cave.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. In carbonate marine sediments. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes.

black . pale blue.AD. b = 5. pink.352 Å.359 Å. white.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. pale green.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. c = 6. pale brown.866 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.

622 nβ = 1.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.3.630 . pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.619 . also fibrous.95 .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .622 . lamellar.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1.632 Birefringence δ = 0.5 Luster Vitreous.1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.3. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .624 nγ = 1.1. good on {210}. earthy.

long UV=yellow. white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue .

On exposure to air. . Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. covellite (CuS).: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. digenite (Cu9S5). chalcocite (Cu2S). Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4).CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. hydroxides and sulfates. Copper is shown in pink. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite.

[edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes.8 x 6. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Ontario. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. etc. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. molybdenite representing Mo. Se. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. Ni. and Sb are reported. Pb. In. and trace amounts of Ag. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. Au. V. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Pd.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. . Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. the American cordillera and the Andes. from huge masses as at Timmins. Mn. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits.3 x 4. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. However. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Pt. Cr.

Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02.CB.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Ouray County. Colorado.

Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183. and sometimes botryoidal. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.3 .54 Color Brass yellow. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.423 Å. c = 10. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.289 Å. commonly massive.Unit cell a = 5.1 – 4.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

muscle and bone. Decorative art prominently features copper. Characteristics . hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. fungicides. needed] In sufficient concentration.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. and a constituent of various metal alloys. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. later shortened to сuprum. a building material. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. and wood preservatives. In the Roman era. both by itself and as part of pigments. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. Pure copper is soft and malleable. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity.

The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. such as grain boundaries. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature.Physical A copper disc (99. At the macroscopic scale. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. galvanic corrosion will occur. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. For this reason. Copper. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. and osmium (bluish). Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. above which it begins to heat excessively. As with other metals.

this oxide layer stops the further. Edinburgh. It does not react with water. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). such as the Statue of Liberty. respectively. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. bulk corrosion. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing.

with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. they both have a spin of 3/2.7 hours.83 hours. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. The other isotopes are radioactive. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .There are 29 isotopes of copper. Cu and Cu are stable. Cu. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. decays both ways. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm).4×3. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . Native copper is a polycrystal. US. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61.2×3. [15] .2 cm. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. which has [13] a half-life of 12.8 minutes.

e.02 g/cm .g. but can have different colors when impurities are present. it can scratch almost every other mineral. plastics. titanium and chromium. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. and the mix is less abrasive.0 Mohs). All other colors are called sapphire. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. It is commonly used as anabrasive.0. It is a rock-forming mineral. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. Transparent specimens are used as gems. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. and wood.. In addition to its hardness. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. with an average hardness near 8. "green sapphire" for a green specimen.

silicon carbide. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. In 1847. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. [4] Ontario. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. In 1903. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Russia. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. New York. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837.000 °C (3.Corundum from Brazil. [4] USA. gneiss. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). . It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. Sri Lanka and India. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe.632 °F). size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.8 in × 1 in).

Apart from ornamental uses. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. scratchresistant optics. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis.1 . scratch-resistant watch crystals.3. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires.05 Dana classification 4. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.CB. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.1. and laser components. and other machined parts). bearings. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). rods.

Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. brown.982 Å. gray. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. violet. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. c = 12.75 Å. prismatic. green. rhombohedral crystals. blue to cornflower blue. tabular. yellow. translucent toopaque . Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. may be color zoned. orange. pink to pigeon-blood-red.

772 nε = 1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.95–4. or hercynite .hematite.Specific gravity 3.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.767–1.759–1.

10a Identification Formula mass 12.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. Less often blue. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. black. translucent white. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. . violet. purple and red.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. brown or gray to colorless. pink. orange. green.CB.

53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.5–3.044 .52±0.01 Density 3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

or in old U. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). often as a result of diagenesis. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.S. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. [edit]Properties . which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. In 1791. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist.

dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis).e. Arkansas. Crystal twinning is common. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. . Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. gray to pink. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint.g. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. In the 1950s and 60s. namely. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. i. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. having a different structural arrangement. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. where organic matter content is high. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. It forms white. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. although it is usually massive. Unlike calcite. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. dolomite is a double carbonate.

However. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. . Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. California. White Mountains. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. in a 1999 study. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record.Dolomite. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. textural and chemical characteristics. The specific mechanism of dolomitization.

Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Cherokee County. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. a concrete aggregate. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Dolomite . Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. and copper. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district.4×7. zinc.2×4. In horticulture. Kansas(size: 11.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone.

gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. often with curved faces. massive. Z = 3 Identification Color White. 3 Unit cell a = 4.AB. also columnar. granular. stalactitic. c = 16. Crystal system Trigonal .10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05.8012(1) Å.002 Å.

rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.179–0. .500 Birefringence δ = 0.84–2.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.679–1. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered. triboluminescent.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.681 nε = 1.

It displays strong pleochroism. Ca2Al2(Fe . The color is green.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). the optical constants. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. the pleochroic colors being usually green. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. yellow and brown. grey. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. brown or nearly black. the color.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. and the specific gravity. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry." 3+ . Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. crystallizing in the monoclinic system.

as magnificent. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. withasbestos. garnets. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. amphiboles. and apatite. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. Haddam inConnecticut. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. The perfectly transparent. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. pyroxenes. dark green. . micas. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. adularia. and others) composing igneous rocks. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. here as large. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. but one of secondary origin. Arendal in Norway. calcite.

and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. and others. near Ivrea in Piedmont. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. and greenish-brown colors. Although not a common mineral. and many different names applied. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. there is little or no cleavage. Dollaseite is less common. near Falun in Sweden. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. further. being black or dark brown in color. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. Piemontite occurs as small. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. Epidote . monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. pitchy in lustre. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. gneiss. and opaque in the mass. after whom the species was named. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. and well-developed crystals are rare. granite. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. at Finbo. rhyolite. reddish-black. andesite. yellowish-. sometimes a foot in length. syenite.

Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green.6 . greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. yellow-green. fibrous.3–3. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.

751 nβ = 1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.019–0.734–1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.046 Pleochroism Strong .725–1.784 nγ = 1.

the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). While slowly cooling within the earth. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. . of plagioclase. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. Typically.

Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Germany. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. some ceramics. and as a constituent of scouring powder.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. In gemology. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. It is the state gem of Florida. Russia. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. Most moonstones are translucent and white.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. It measured ~10×10×0. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. such as porcelain.

Greenish. 2V = 65–75 . Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Cleavages intersect at 90°.63 Optical Biaxial (-). White. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Greyish yellow. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}.55–2.

525 Birefringence 0.522–1.522–1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron Refractive index nα = 1.518–1.524 nγ = 1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .520 nβ = 1.0050–0.

It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It is the most important lead ore mineral. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .

the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia.S. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. In the United States. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena.1×3. Missouri. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. the former mining town of Galena. Of the latter. In addition zinc. . states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Somerset. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Broken Hill.2×2. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). antimony. cadmium. Idaho. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Saxony. Derbyshire. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. and Cumberland.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. USA (size: 5. The Mendips. Iowa and Wisconsin. Utah and Montana. Illinois.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. England. Cornwall. Smolyan Province. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Bulgaria. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Rhodope Mountains. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. the Madan. in a process similar to bioleaching. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg.

the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). Isle of [5] Man. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. U. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. which were a potential source of disease. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. in Ancient Egypt.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. which was known as a "cat's whisker". was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies.K. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. For example. however. which. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. In modern wireless communication systems.g. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose.

75 . tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. No. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].936 Å.1.CD. 225 Twinning Contact.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.10 Dana classification 2.8.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.5–2. space group Fm3m. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.2–7.

in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών).5 range. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O.5. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. but generally in the 4 . among them goethite.akaganeite. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore.7 to 4. the other being hematite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.3. and jarosite. lepidocrocite. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. Although originally defined as a single mineral. although specimens may show a [6] . In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. but limonite does not. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. The hardness is variable.

and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. producing red ochres. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. hematite and magnetite. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. pyroxene. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. sometimes mammillary. Because of its amorphous nature. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. [12] notably in Tanzania. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. in Africa. and biotite. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. Before smelting. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. amphibole. burnt umbers and siennas. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations.botryoidal. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. Nonetheless. [10] California mining district. Main article: Ochre#History . The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. reniform or stalactitic. to process limonite. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. Complex systems developed. and hematite was far easier to smelt. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore.

it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .5½ . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.

7 .4.3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .4.9 .

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. . Gold resists attacks by individual acids. malleable and ductile metal. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. as nuggets or grains in rocks. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. which dissolves silver and base metals. giving rise to the term theacid test. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). jewelry. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. shiny.S. in veins and in alluvial deposits. Chemically. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. in 1932. forming amalgam alloys. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. soft. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. which have been used in mining.GOLD Gold is a dense. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. In Europe. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. usually with tellurium. It dissolves in mercury. Less commonly. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. with huge war debts. is insoluble in nitric acid. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. so named because it dissolves gold.

and other fields. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. colored-glass production and gold leafing. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Its highmalleability.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. This is roughly equivalent to 5. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. or a cube 20. and 10% in industry. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. 40% in [3] investments. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. electronics. ductility.5 billion troy ounces or. in terms of volume.A total of 171. .7 m on a side. about 8876 m . according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. includingelectric wiring.

It is. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. "to draw/write". each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. 3. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. 2. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. There are three principal types of natural graphite. flat. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). consequently. graphite is an electrical conductor. a semimetal. .: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. the last stage of coalification. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). and is probably hydrothermal in origin. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. for its use in pencils. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Therefore. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite.

graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Graphite is not mined in the United States. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. India (130 kt). Graphite . in particular. micas and tourmaline.S.S. Brazil (76 kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. China is the largest producer of graphite. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. calcite. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. but U. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). respectively.110 thousand tonnes (kt).18 billion. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. U. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz.

otherwise rough when not on cleavage . Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.461 Å. c = 6. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. six-sided foliatedmasses.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.CB.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2.708 Å. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.

transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.09–2.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.

resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. cleavable masses called selenite. In hand-sized samples. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. typically opaque. Selenite contains no significantselenium. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. As foranhydrite. As a mineral. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. and transparent. Selenite may also occur in a silky. it is alabaster. rather. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. and in the early 19th century.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. in the form of selenite. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. (Thus. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. When the crystal lattice is heated. referring to its crystalline projections. [edit]Occurrence . causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. Upon addition of water. "chalk" or "plaster". It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. Finally. in contrast to most other salts. In arid areas. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined.5 g/l at 25°C) and. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. called alabaster. it may also be granular or quite compact. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. fibrous form. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. It can be used as afertilizer. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts.0–2. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". "spear stone". gypsum can occur in a flower-like form.

as well as in hot springs. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. However. . but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits.000 years. Wyoming. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. strongly opposed by area residents. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Under reducing conditions. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. UK. Blue Anchor. Somerset. Commercial exploitation of the area. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. and sulfate solutions inveins. Gypsum is a common mineral. from volcanic vapors. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Pure gypsum is white. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures.

CD.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. pink. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. may be yellow.679(5) Å.202(14) Å. brown.522(6) Å. reddish brown or gray . β = 118.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. blue. tan.43°. b = 15. c = 6.

5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. Mohs scalehardness 1.530 Birefringence δ = 0.529–1. flat.519–1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.31–2. pearly. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}. inelastic.010 . Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.523 nγ = 1.521 nβ = 1.522–1. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. It is mined as the main ore of iron. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Hematite is harder than pure iron. . Varieties includekidney ore. or red. Hematite can also occur without water. also spelled as haematite. Maghemite is a hematite. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. colored black to steel or silver-gray. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. they all have a rust-red streak. however.HEMATITE Hematite. Hematite is a mineral. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. one of several iron oxides. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). usually as the result of volcanic activity. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. or other standing water. but much more brittle. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. ancient. or otherwise highly weathered soils. While the forms of hematite vary. spring. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite).and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. brown to reddish brown.

α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.CB.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. Fe2O3. c = 13.038(2) Å.772(12) Å. dull to bright red .Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.

micaceous or platy. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.870–2.5–6.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. earthy. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.940 Birefringence δ = 0. reniform.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. commonly in rosettes. granular.150–3. radiating fibrous. columnar. nε = 2. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.280 .220.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

F)2.9–3. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. but the name is used as a general or field term. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. to refer to a dark amphibole. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. a specific gravity of 2. .Si)8O22(OH.Al)5(Al. brown or black color. and an iron-magnesium silicate.Na)2–3(Mg. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Fe. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. The general formula can be given as (Ca. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).4 and is typically an opaque green.

Orange County. gabbro. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . is gray to white in color. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. diorite. New York. andesite. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Al)5 (Al. andschist. syenite. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. basalt. Fe. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. and named edenite. from its locality in Edenville. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. gneiss.

9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. a village near Jingdezhen. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. [edit]Chemistry [6] . pinyin: Gaoling). it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. In many parts of the world. It is a layered silicate mineral. It is a soft. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". yellow or light orange colors. United States. Jiangxi province. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. Lighter concentrations yield white. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. Alternating layers are sometimes found. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. giving it a distinct rust hue. calaba. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. China. In Africa. earthy. part of the group of industrial minerals. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay).

Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. Si3Al4O12. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). S = SiO2. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. [edit]Occurrence . Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. H = H2O. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. and highly crystalline cristobalite. however. Al2Si2O7. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides.

it is mined. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Iran. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. India. in Brazil. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil).5 million tonnes. the Czech Republic and the United States. United Kingdom. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. as kaolin. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. Kaolinite . Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5.Korea. Germany. [1] the People's Republic of China. Bulgaria.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. Australia. France. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot.

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. sometimes red. β = 104. γ = 89.8°. Z = 2 Identification Color White. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.ED.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.13 Å. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. c = 7. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .89 Å. b = 8. aggregated into compact. α = 90°.25 Å. thin plates or stacked.5°.

569. nγ = 1.569–1. Calculated: 44° .565.553–1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.559–1. nβ = 1.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.16–2.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.

Notable occurrences include Brazil. It occurs in granite pegmatites. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. Ural Mountains. cassiterite. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. Russia. Lepidolite . feldspar. greisens and granites. Manitoba. tourmaline. in some high-temperature quartz veins.Si)3O10(F. topaz and beryl. Tanco Mine.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. Bernic Lake. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. amblygonite. andMadagascar.spodumene. columbite. California. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. Canada. United States.

violet-gray.209(2) Å b = 9.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.011(5) Å c = 10. Minas Gerais.Cm Unit cell a = 5.1 x 0.EC.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. Virgem da Lapa. white.4 x 2. yellowish. rose-red.Lepidolite.Si)3O10(F.149(5) Å. purple. β = 100:77(4)°. Brazil (size 2. colorless . Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.

scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.8–2. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.525–1.586 Birefringence 0. Y = Z = pink.548. nγ=1.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.58.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.551–1.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. pale violet 2V angle 0° .58° measured .0290–0. nβ=1.554– 1.

one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. called lodestone. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass.e. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. will attract small pieces of iron. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. Commonly.. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. hematite. and ulvospinel have been much studied. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral.

The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Z=8 Identification Color Black. 1. In many igneous rocks.397 Å.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.BB. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.085 °F). Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. including banded iron formations.III) oxide. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .

5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid . very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.17–5. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. the spinel law.Crystal habit Octahedral. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.5–6. parting on {Ill}.

deep underground. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. Since then. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. This opaque. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. "mallow". green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Middle French: melochite. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur.000 years. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. "mallow-green stone". which features a huge malachite vase. . variant of καιάχε malāchē. It is also used for decorative purposes. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. or stalagmitic masses. "The Tazza". in fractures and spaces. fibrous. and most often forms botryoidal. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. a large malachite vase. The pigment is moderately lightfast. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color.

[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Namibia. Gabon. and calcite. New South [7] Wales.Zambia. Broken Hill.1 g/mol Color Bright green. . Tsumeb.BA. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. dark green. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Timna valley. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. goethite.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Mexico. blackish green. France. Lyon. Russia. Except for its vibrant green color. Israel. the source of the carbonate.

Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. botryoidal.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.commonly banded in masses.875 nγ = 1. Polysynthetic twinning also present. stalactitic.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.655 nβ = 1. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.254 . green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. silky if fibrous. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.5–4.909 Birefringence δ = 0.

It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). Its crystal system is monoclinic.OH)2. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.76–3. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. The green. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. browns. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. yellows. and can be transparent or translucent.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. isinglass. or (rarely) violet or red. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. [4] .25 parallel to the [001] face. greens. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. India. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore.

it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. morganite) from Paprok. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. found in granites. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. etc.02a. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.kyanite.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. In pegmatites.15 Dana classification 71.3×3. feldspar. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. Minas Gerais.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . pegmatites.02. gneisses.8×3. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.9×4. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.EC.Muscovite with beryl (var. and schists.

576 .76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. b = 9. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.552–1. β = 95.106 Å. c = 20.027 Å. grey. silky. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. Z = 4 Identification Color White.199 Å.78°.Unit cell a = 5.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.

615 nγ = 1.587–1.035 – 0.nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .582–1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.

It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Fo 70Fa30).Fe)2SiO4. silicon. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality.. almost 1900 °C.g. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. as do other properties. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). magnesium and iron.

. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). USA. Gila Co.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Arizona. .

Such meteorites include chondrites. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. andpallasites. or forsterite. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. moreover. from the Greek words for gold and stone). but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. 12 GPa. October 17. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine.g. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Mars. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa.Fe)2Si2O6). as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". First X-ray view of Martian soil . falling into infant stars. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1.feldspar.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. the French word for olivine). Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. 2012). Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. pyroxenes. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. in the dust of comet Wild 2. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. and .Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. because olivine is so abundant. In contrast. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. the Moon. collections of debris from the early solar system. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.

two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. while M1 exists on an inversion center. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. Olivine . O2 and O3 in figure 1). O1. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. O2. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O3 lies in a general position. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. Oxygen is shown in red. and magnesium/iron in blue. silicon in pink. In an alternative view. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions.

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.

670–1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.650 nβ = 1.630–1.27–3.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670 nγ = 1.650–1.040 .690 Birefringence δ = 0.

3% to 21% of the total weight is water. For gemstone use. red. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. pink. blue. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. not a mineral. yellow. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. magenta. green. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. olive. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. rhyolite. slate. the reds against black are the most rare. orange.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . brown. a mineraloid form. like basalt. being most commonly found withlimonite. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. Opal ranges from clear through white. and black. gray. rose. whereas white and greens are the most common. [edit]Precious opal . marl and basalt. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. Of these hues. sandstone.

Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. .Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. or obsidian. . Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. Contrarily. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. and are not classed as precious opal. it has an internal structure.Australian Opal Doublet. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. In addition. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. unlike triplet opals. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. of which opal is the best known natural example. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. Potch does not show a play of color. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. basalt. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. which is correctly termed play of color. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. which is often of lower quality.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

or star . This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. hyalite. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. They do not usually show any play of color. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. orange-yellow or red. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. orange. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. also called siliceous sinter. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. resin opal. menilite. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. which is brown or grey. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. wood opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. geyserite. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow.

Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Queensland . needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Queensland. when cut properly. Boulder Opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. It does not display pleochroism. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. It weighs 17.effect. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. However. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]).

Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. crystal opal. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Royal Peacock. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. and marine creatures in South Australia. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. and black opal. Nevada. bones. fire. Opal Queen. weighing 160 carats. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. known as the "Black Peacock. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. from Kynuna in the north." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. Bonanza. white. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. [citation needed] [12] A . The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. crystal. Idaho. and lemon opal. closely related to boulder opal." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Another Australian town. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal.585 carats. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Miocene age opalised teeth. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. and a snake head have been found. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. and weighs 2. fish. is the main source of black opal. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales.

[19] Slovakia. green. Turkey. Honduras. orange.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. Piauí ). NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. yellow. in masses. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. Brazil (inPedro II. white.7 by 0. Nicaragua and Ethiopia.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. red. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . black. Hungary. Guatemala. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. In late 2008. Indonesia. brown.

90)[1] Density 2. or yellow in long and short wave.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.15 (+.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. green.42–1. may phosphoresce.Mohs scalehardness 5. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. May also phosphoresce. translucent. but typically reads 1. -. -.020.08.[1] .43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. transparent Specific gravity 2. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.450 (+. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. may phosphoresce.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.37.

methanol. bases.humic acid.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. hydrofluoric acid .

the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. [edit]Uses . The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. By Georgius Agricola's time. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. brazzle and Brazil. and metamorphic rock. sedimentary rock. as well as in coal beds. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. "of fire" or "in fire". The color has also led to the nicknames brass.37 wt% gold. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. or iron pyrite. in turn from πύρ (pur).PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. In ancient Roman times. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. "fire". This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite.

Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite.95 eV. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). most notably the wheellock. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. was popular in the Victorian era. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. Marcasite jewelry. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. it had become the [12] dominant method. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Navajún.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. In the 15th century. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. .with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. By the 19th century. iron(II) sulfate. often set in silver. Until the vacuum tube matured. La Rioja. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. that is. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C.

Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.1.05a Dana classification 2.EB.417 Å. Z=4 . 512 g.12. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5. Rioja.

Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. globular and stalactitic. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6.95–5. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. Often inter-grown. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. radiated.5 Luster Metallic. faces may be striated. granular. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5–3 to a magnetic globule . Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. massive.10 Fusibility 2. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). space group P6221 and P6421. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". giving an overall formula SiO2. Polish twardy ("hard")). α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. only one termination pyramid is present. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. The . respectively. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. distorted. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. There are many different varieties of quartz. after feldspar.

smoky quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. such as the Lothair Crystal. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). onyx. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. or mixed rocks including quartz. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent.transformation between α. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. Common colored varieties include citrine. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). without change in the way they are linked. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. and is rarely found naturally. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. see Citrine (disambiguation). most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. and others. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. milky quartz. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. but they differ in hardness. amethyst. heliotrope. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. Natural citrines are rare. and has often been used for hardstone carvings.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. and jasper. rose quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. are agate. . Citrine has ferric impurities. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. Quartz goes by an array of different names. sard. For other uses. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. carnelian. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Magaliesburg. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. Brazil. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. or manganese. USA. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Maine. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. . iron. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. in the massive material. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz.

translucent version of quartz.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. Some can also be black. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.

Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. colorless Amethyst Purple. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. liquid. trapped during the crystal formation. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. Otherwise more specific names are used. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. This does not always hold true. banded chalcedony. transparent . or both. exhibiting chatoyancy. parallel and consistent in size. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. Rock crystal Clear. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Agate Multi-colored.

Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . transparent Rose quartz Pink. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. translucent to opaque.

β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.9133 Å. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.01.03.DA. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.05 Dana classification 75. c = 5. drusy. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.4053 Å. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . fine-grained to microcrystalline.

variable 2. may betriboluminescent.552–1.554 Birefringence +0. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .543–1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.545 nε = 1. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.65.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.59–2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.3.751 Birefringence δ = 0.5 .724 . Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1.738 nβ = 1.711 .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.57 .714 .1.6.741 nγ = 1.1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.

Today. Latin: argentum. as an alloy with gold and other metals. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. gold. and zinc refining. high-value tableware. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. . both from the Indo-European root*arg.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. to make ornaments. A soft. lustrous transition metal. Its compounds are used in photographic film. jewelry. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. free form (native silver). and is used as an investment. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. further research into clinical potential continues. and currency coins. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. lead. white. utensils (hence the term silverware).

Canada.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. lazurite and tugtupite. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. with a polished rock surface. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. nosean. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. . Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne.

Occurring typically in massive form. in the USA. and Mont-SaintHilaire. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. British Columbia. microcline. sanidine. aegirine. If left in a dark environment for some time. shortwave ultraviolet light. fluorite. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. cancrinite and natrolite. sodalite is named after its sodium content. near Golden. the violet will fade again. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. calcite. and Litchfield. sodalite may also be grey. Quebec. particularly. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white.ankerite and baryte. and Magnet Cove. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. Conversely. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or.A light. The Ice River [5] complex. Well known for its blue color. Maine. [3] titanian andradite. West Greenland. albite. namelyleucite. Ontario. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Smaller deposits are found in South . in Canada. green. yellow. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. [1] Narsaq. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. contains sodalite. Arkansas. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Other associated minerals include nepheline. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence.

yellow. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. white veining common .876(6) Å. Burma and Russia.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Euhedral. Portugal. green.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. violet. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Romania.FB. Italy. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland.

27-2.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV. with yellowishphosphorescence. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass. sodium . rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.483 .Crystal habit Massive.1.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

OH)2.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. mostly opaque. Magnesium.

kyanite. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. as well as albite. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. Samples are also found in Taos. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area.S. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. Keivy Mountains. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. It is the official state mineral of the U. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. micas. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. Virginia. New Mexico. depth. It occurs with almandine garnet. . In handsamples. called penetration twinning. Kola Peninsula. biotite. Norway.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy.

AF.5 x 2.Murmanskaja Oblast'.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. b = 16. Russia. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. β = 90.86 Å.45°.65 Å. c = 5. rarely blue. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. Northern Region.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.6 Å. yellowish brown. 2.

5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.745 . Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. 3.83 meas.1.009 . Y = pale yellow. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.736 .7.1.74 .762 Birefringence δ = 0.740 .0.1.686 calc. weak .754 nγ = 1.747 nβ = 1. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .3.


5– 2. although slightly flexible. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. It has a specific gravity of 2.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. a clear or dusty luster. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form.8. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). Its streak is white. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. [edit]Formation . and the folia are non-elastic. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. Talc is not soluble in water. and is translucent to opaque. It has a perfect basal cleavage. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.

which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. and fibrous. friable. garnet. [edit]Occurrence .A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. pyroxene. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. olivine. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. amphibole. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. Such rocks are typically white. This is typically associated with high-pressure. and are known as whiteschist. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction.

such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. Oman and the Middle East. from Brazil. the Guiana Shield. formed upon a polydeformed. Nepal and Bhutan. Western Australia. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . certain areas of the Musgrave Block. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. India.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. the western European Alps especially in Italy. layered ultramafic intrusion. eastern Australia. representing 8% of world production. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine.

05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.158 Å. γ = 90. c = 5. α = 98. β = 119.90°.290 Å.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . b = 9.291 Å. β = 99.173 Å.EC. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.3°. Z = 2 or a = 5. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).09°. brown.95 Å. b = 9.68°. c = 18.287 Å.

589 – 1.589 – 1.538 – 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow. long UV=yellow .83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.600 Birefringence δ = 0.550 nβ = 1.594 nγ = 1.58 to 2.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.

OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F.

Italy. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. sometimes even violet. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. gold. Nigeria and the United States. typical topaz is wine. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. pale green. pale gray. Brazil. It can also be made white. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Typically. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Mexico. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. pink or violet colored. Czech Republic. also known as precious topaz. blue. Orange topaz. yellow. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. reddish-orange. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. a more recent gem. Imperial topaz is yellow. if natural) or pink-orange.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage .75 carats. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. in Afghanistan. Germany.892. Flinders Island. colorless. The American Golden Topaz. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. the symbol of [5] friendship.Sweden. pink (rare). Sri Lanka. Australia. gold. or blue brown.5 carats. pink (rare. measured a massive 22. Japan. Pakistan. Norway. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. is the traditional November birthstone.

In the Middle Ages. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire"." However. both of which predate the Greek word. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. the ancient name of St. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. etymology. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. Minas Gerais. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. a topaz. [edit]Biblical background. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. some scholars think it is related to . [edit]History Nicols. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz.

= yellow.65 Å. Z = 4 . Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. "fiery".4 Å.AF. b = 8.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.8 Å. [citation needed] More likely. metaphorically. meaning "yellow burn" Assyrian word meaning "flashed". c = 8.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn).

pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. orange.638 . also columnar. yellow. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. compact.606–1.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).629 nβ = 1.609–1.631 nγ = 1. blue. gray. green.49–3.616–1. brown.

yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. reddish. bluish. Z = violet. long UV=cream . Y = yellow.Birefringence δ = 0.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. short UV=golden yellow. violet.

Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. lithium. iron. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. Italy . magnesium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. or potassium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. sodium.

Beginning in the 18th century. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. schörl. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. In the 19th century the names common schorl. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Up to about 1600. This village had a nearby tin mine where. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. Carinthia. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". in addition to cassiterite. black tourmaline was found.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). "Schörle". Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. . and "Schurl". The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al.Drava river area. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". In English. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. Austro-Hungarian Empire. for the Drava river area.

H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. sodium-. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. Mn . O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Fe . San Piero in Campo. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Italy.Campo nell'Elba. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). vacancy Y = Li. Al. Italy. vacancy V = OH. where: [6] X = Ca. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. Na. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). United States.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Zn. with the simplified formula (Li. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Cr . Tuscany. Elba Island. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. K. Italy. V T = Si. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. V . Mg. Elba Island. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. F. Ti . Sweden.5Al1. California. Cr . Al. vacancy Z = Mg. Czech Republic. O W = OH. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. Fe . In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Al. B B = B. Fe . Province of [5] Livorno.

US. California.. San Diego Co.Al1. Cryo-Genie Mine.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.5.

Himalaya Mine.. US [edit]Physical properties . San Diego Co. California.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.

in that they change color when viewed from different directions. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. especially pink to red colored stones. During their 2+ growth. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. it is colorless. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. often forming radial daisy-like patterns.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. green. but is now exhausted.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Rarely. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. yellow. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. Heavily-included tourmalines. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. Usually. in western Australia. or green on the outside and pink inside. red. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. currently. called hemimorphism. and are often pyroelectric as well. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. and does not. impact the value. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. etc. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. [edit]Geology . no other common mineral has three sides. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. pink. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue.

pink.Mg.B)6O18(OH. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. Acicular prisms.[])(Al. or in a dual-colored pink and green. Massive.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. . sometimes radiating.K.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.Fe.Na. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Cr.Al. dravites. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. but can range from brown. Scattered grains (in granite).V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Fe.Li.Mn)3(Al. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. are generally restricted to schists and marble. violet. green. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.

dark green.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.82–3.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. nε=1.06 (+. small conchoidal.20 -. light blue . dark red.06)[1] Density 2.5 Luster Vitreous.040. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.650 Birefringence -0. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.018 to -0. typically about . dark blue. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3.610–1.635–1.020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.675. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7. dark brown.

017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .

Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. [edit]Occurrence . This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. Nephrite. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. is a green variety of tremolite. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.

cummingtonite. grossular. dolomite. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. talc. Associated minerals include calcite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.DE. Approximately 36.2 x 6. French Pyrenees (size: 8.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Piumogna [1] Valley.diopside.Ticino (Tessin).7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. forsterite. Switzerland. wollastonite. Leventina. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos.

Z = 2 Identification Color White. β = 104. common parallel to {100}. c = 5.27 Å. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. or flattened crystals.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) .02 Å. gray. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple.95°.99 – 3. b = 18. light green. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Unit cell a = 9. lavender to pink.84 Å. also as fibrous.

1.1. Long UV=range pink .026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.637 Birefringence δ = 0.599 .1.626 nγ = 1.625 .613 .Refractive index nα = 1.612 nβ = 1.

water. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. glauberite. mirabilite. calcite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. USA. hydroboracite. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. sometimes known as TV rock. meyerhofferite. probertite. by internal reflection. The chains are linked together by calcium. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. water and hydroxide octahedra. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. trona. Tarapacá Region in Chile. . and Kazakhstan. gyps [1] um and halite. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. It is found principally in California and Nevada. borax.

These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. two of which are polarized. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. Ulexite .A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber.

b = 12.678(1) Å.1°.11.12°.816(3) Å. α = 90. γ = 105.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.05.9 x 5 x 3.25°. c = 6. Z =2 Identification . β = 109.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.Ulexite from California(size: 6.EA.25 Dana classification 26.87Å.

506 br/>nγ = 1.519 – 1.95 – 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.504 – 1.491 – 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.496 nβ = 1.028 .Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.5 Luster Vitreous.

2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . greenish yellow. cream.

: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. diorite gneisses. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. . [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. rotten or possibly worthless material. albite gneiss. It has occurred in English since at least [1] coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. chlorite or other platyminerals. they may also be called garnet gneiss. etc. so called because the rock glitters).GNEISS Gneiss (pron. biotite gneiss. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. etc. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. Depending on their composition.

Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains.g. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. however. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. . The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. [3][4] "crystalline rock". [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). sparkle. most commonly calcite or dolomite." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Spanish mármol.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. "shining stone". silt. meaning "marble-like. Dutch marmer.German. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. Polish marmur. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. [5] gleam". Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Norwegian. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. "to flash. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. iron oxides. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. Portuguese mármore. most other European languages (e. Armenian marmar. sand. Turkish mermer. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Italian marmo. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal.


Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. . The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. sericite. or chlorite impart a silky. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). and chlorite. sericite mica.

[edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. British Columbia. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). diagenetically altered. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. and both usages are found in the literature. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. such as yellow and orange. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. carbonate and clay. Canada . non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. not around them. silica. therefore. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. Although few fossils are normally present. rutile and magnetite. iron oxide. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. are due to other mineral impurities. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. Other colors.

the Wasatch Range in Utah. pale grey. In the Scottish Highlands. as roofing tiles. southwestMinnesota. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. near Salt Lake City. as flooring. Central Texas. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. precambrian quartzite. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye.g. industrial silica sand. and stair steps. Monte Binga (2436 m). [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. Foinaven. [4] . the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. several mountains (e. The highest mountain in Mozambique. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. In Wales. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). In the United Kingdom. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. silicon and silicon carbide. In Canada.


for example. tourmaline schist. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common.talc. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. for example. chlorite. glaucophane schist. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. and others. graphite. A quartz-porphyry. If the whole district. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. such as garnet schist. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. Most schists are mica schists.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. however. By definition. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. the terms slate. can be seen by the naked eye. In other . hornblende. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. Usually. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. etc.clastic structure. The individual mineral grains in schist.

for example. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. chilled edges. schistose character. while others are found only among igneous masses. foliated. as limestones. Such rocks. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. A subgroup is the andalusite. and calc-schists. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. marbles. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism.cases intrusive junctions. with variable amounts of white and black mica. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. are alteredclaystones and shales. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. with crystalline dolomites. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. . quartz and feldspar. scapolite. For example. The majority of mica-schists. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. zoisite and hornblende. feldspar. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. dolomites. staurolite. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. and the white mica-schists. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. garnet. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. which have been derived from rhyolites. many metamorphic limestones. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. however. diopside. tremolite. contain silicate minerals such as mica. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


covering roofs. and pyrite and. often framed in wood.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. graphite. In the context of underground coal mining. or a writing slate. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. for example. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. apatite. However. green or cyan. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. For example.. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. traditionally a small piece of slate. tourmaline. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. chlorite. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. It may mean a single roofing slate. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. Slate is not to be confused with shale. leaving a light green spotted texture. or zirconas well as feldspar. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. from which it may be formed. en masse. as in the purple slates of North Wales. magnetite. Occasionally. less frequently. kaolinite. the terms slate. often along with biotite. from pale to dark. especially when seen. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. or schist. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. . Slate is frequently grey in color. and may also be purple. hematite. foliated.


[1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. of intermediate composition. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. During subduction. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. [5] sediment. zeolites.e. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. apatite.g. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. but most . the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. volcanic rock. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. In a general sense. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. Characteristic of subduction zones. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. 2. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. leading to metamorphism. Magnetite. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. chlorite etc. zircon. 3. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. ilmenite. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. biotite. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. barium(Ba). Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. anhydrous forms. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Partial melting of crustal material. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. potassium (K).. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range.

the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. Basalt can. however.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. therefore. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. such as the Andes. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. its intermediate phase. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. As this process continues.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. these reservoirs cool. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. . creating a layer of molten material at its base. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. Models of heat transfer. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. If it underplates the crust. Once there. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. forming mafic cumulates. the composition is returned to andesite. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Without continued addition of mafic material. however. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. however. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. In order to remain active.


(In comparison. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. Mars. and even on the asteroid Vesta.g. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. 2007). It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. although it can sometimes be porphyritic.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle.. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. the third largest moon of Jupiter. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. Sobolev et al. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. On Earth. Venus. Hungary .. /ˈbæsɒlt/. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. By definition.BASALT Basalt (pron. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface.

Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. an excellent thermal insulator. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. misspelling of L. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. from βάζανος (basanos. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. libri XII." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone".g. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. Arizona. .Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. US quarter for scale. basanites "very hard stone. as building blocks or in the groundwork).

distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). is characteristically low in incompatible elements. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase.     . It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). alkali feldspar and phlogopite. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. most large oceanic islands. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium.

into which they may subtly merge. occasionally with porphyry. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. and frequently has a greenish cast. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. the Darrans range of New Zealand. source localities include Leicestershire. and Idahet in Egypt.biotite. and to provide a durable finished work. Its hardness. Italy. and/or pyroxene. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Basin and Range province. microcline and olivine. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Scotland. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). sphene. . Romania. the Andes Mountains. Zircon.DIORITE Diorite (pron. central Sweden. which is transitional togabbro. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. Northeastern Turkey. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. hornblende. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Minnesota in theUSA. apatite. magnetite. Finland. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. making it difficult to carve and work with. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. It can also be black or bluish-grey. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). the Isle of Guernsey. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). Sondrio. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. however. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths.

The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. but mostly for fortress walls. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. Babylonia. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. Guernsey and Scotland. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Paul's Cathedral. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. etc.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. In later times. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. . today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. inscribed upon a 2. Assyria and Sumer. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. weaponry. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. London. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt.

coarse-grained. California. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. The rocks areplutonic. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. ilmenite. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. plagioclase. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. and ulvospinel. amphibole. Scotland. Gabbro is dense. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Gabbros contain minor amounts. Isle of Skye. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. Rock Creek Canyon. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. easternSierra Nevada. the rock is then a norite. typically a few percent. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater.

Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. cobalt. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. nickel. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). although it may be porphyritic at times. and copper sulfides. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. platinum. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. Massachusetts. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. intruding into the rift flanks. silver. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. gold. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic.extra descriptiveness is desired. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. . Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. US.


it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. By definition. This rock consists mainly of quartz. Melting temperature is 1215 . depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks.1260 °C. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. and feldspar. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. northern Chile . a grain. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. near the town of Caldera. hard and tough.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. descriptive field term for light-colored. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs.75 3 g/cm . and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s.65 and 2. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). Granitoid is a general. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry.GRANITE Granite (pron. felsic. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. The average density of granite is between 2. an unusual type of granite. mica. Granites can be pink to gray in color. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India.

valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall .

although much of it is of Precambrian age. it is called tonalite.22% MgO — 0. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. where it forms a major part of continental crust. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.30% P2O5 — 0. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.71% TiO2 — 0.68% Fe2O3 — 1. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. Granite often occurs as relatively small. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. sanidine.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.12% Na2O — 3. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase.69% CaO — 1. In some locations.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.The Cheesewring. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.82% FeO — 1. .12% MnO — 0. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.


usually 70% or more. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. forming perlite. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. in addition. Obsidian is mineral-like. California .. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Obsidian is hard and brittle. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic.. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. [9][10][11] . It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. which is the parent material. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight.

Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Oregon and Idaho. Japan. as well as Pennsylvania. Mexico. states of Virginia. Scotland and the United States. Armenia. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Kenya. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions.Utah. Colorado. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). . Italy. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Iceland.Greece. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.S. Chile. New Zealand. the inclusion of small. In some stones. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. New [13] [14] Mexico. Texas. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. El Salvador. Azerbaijan. Guatemala. It can be found in Argentina. Pantelleria. Washington. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Canada. white. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. and deposits can be found in many other western U. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. states including Arizona. Peru.S. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U.


Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. feldspar and mica. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. in essence a granite. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions.5 cm in size. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. Theory Theory . Therefore. pyroxene and other minerals are known. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. For this reason. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. exsolution lamellae. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. macroscale graphic texture is known. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Similarly.

Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. and are usually granitic in character. granite-associated mineralisation styles. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. Rock Creek Canyon. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. for example greisens. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. eastern Sierra Nevada. in a few pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. to liberate the right constituents and water. often with mica and usually with quartz. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. with bulk chemical and textural change. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Beyond that. California. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. being altogether "granitic" in character. .

There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. Hence. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. tantalite. . Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. In most cases. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. commonly almandine or spessartine. however. beryllium. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. Geochemically. cesium. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. Occasionally. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. thorium. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences.Garnet. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. potassium and lithium. niobium. among others. aluminium. fluorite. Queensland. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. topaz. et cetera. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. columbite. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. such as aquamarine. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. uranium. lepidolite. Bismuth. tourmaline. zinnwaldite and so forth. orientation. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. orange and brown almandine garnet. tourmaline. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. tourmaline. tantalite. Often. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. accessory minerals and timing. say. boron. Tantalum. apatite and corundum. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. Australia).

often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Within the metamorphic belts. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. "granitic" or "metasomatic". [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. However. . notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. transitional with some greisens. Similarly.

causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). uncompressed with pumice on left. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava.PUMICE Pumice pron. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. compressed with fiamme on right.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. . It is typically light colored. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. which may or may not contain crystals. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. Pumice is created when super-heated. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.

A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. many samples float in water.g. but basaltic and other compositions are known. to green-brown or black. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. phonolite. pantellerite. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. In 1979. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock.S. trachyte). rhyolitic. blue or grey. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. andesite. After the explosion of Krakatoa. ranging from white. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. with tree trunks floating among them. Pumice is commonly pale in color. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. cream. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. and initially floats on water. it sinks rapidly. It is commonly. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. . When larger amounts of gas are present. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls.. dacitic. 1984 and 2006. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. In [4] fact.

during flow. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. cosmetic exfoliants. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. When used as an additive for cement. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. in the case of pumiceous lavas. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. It is also used as an abrasive. pencil erasers. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. and the production of stone-washed jeans. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. especially in polishes. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. smooth. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. plaster-like concrete. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. .There are two main forms of vesicles.

Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. and consequently. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). also called obsidian. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. below:pumice. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. volcanic (extrusive) rock. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre.nodular. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. the eruptions were at the St. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. and lithophysal structures. . spherulitic.


coalescence. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. An example is Mount Wellington. rust. and hence is denser. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. bubble growth. . The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. typically near its surface. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. Auckland in New Zealand. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. and sinks in water. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. and bursting. skōria. a unique form of Scoria. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. Vesicles are usually small. Quincan. another vesicular volcanic rock. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. but in contrast to pumice. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. instead they open into one another with little distortion. and may contain phenocrysts. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. An old name for scoria is cinder. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). black or purplish red). [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. creating bubbles in the molten rock. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. Australia. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. blocks and bombs). Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments.

The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. . and to carve some moai from. and often has striking colours. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. has high surface area and strength for its weight. It is somewhat porous. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills.

culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. is known as culm. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. coal) is a hard. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Australia and the US. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. which is softer). its higher relative density of 1. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. Ukraine. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. which is used mainly in power generation. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. and smokeless flame. the fewest impurities. In America.3– 1. markets to distinguish it from its competitors.1% and 98%. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. and black diamond. "coal-like. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. other producers are Russia. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. blind coal (in Scotland). hard coal. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. the UK. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. which is used as a pigment. as opposed to lignite. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. and lustre. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. [5] Vietnam." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. mineral-matter-free basis. China accounts for the lion’s share of production.4. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. It has the highest carbon content. North Korea.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes).S. blue. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources.

In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. circa 1935 . [7] It was In the United States. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia.MJ/kg). For example. New Mexico. By 1795.. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River.e. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The thermal conductivity is also higher. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. Since the 1980s. Structurally. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. and Western Pennsylvania. on the as-received basis (i. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. In [6] June 2008. coking coal and domestic house coals. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. mined near Saundersfoot. Pennsylvania. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. In southwest Wales. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks.

8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. placed in descending order. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Of that. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. Pennsylvania. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Pennsylvania. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media.S. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. the Delaware. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. about 1. From that first mine. on an open grate in a fireplace. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Many large public buildings. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. making it ideal for this purpose. In spring 1808. such as schools. Group of breaker boys. In the early 20th century United States. Current U.

Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. "poor". Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. Similarly. Switzerland and parts of Germany. Commercial mining has now ceased. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. or less.Anthracite". "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. both in America and South Wales.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. anthracite was largely used. [10] . Formerly.

Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. Apart from the mineral content. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. most commonly granitic rocks. Fossils are rare in arkose. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. and some mica is often present. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. . Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. due to the depositional processes that form it. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. although bedding is frequently visible. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. rock fragments may also be a significant component.


Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. Within the coal mining industry. the rest is composed of water. These distinctive sequences. air. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. which are classified according to either "dull. mineral-matter-free basis. hydrogen. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. which have not been driven off from the macerals. and sulphur. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. . good ventilation and vigilant site management. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. and exinite. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). dull-banded".BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. bright-banded" or "bright. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite.

Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. These are. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. The word is a loan from Italian. avalanches. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. . by their relative movements. A conglomerate. poorly sorted. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. typically in a karst landscape. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. tectonic breccia. lithified colluvium. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. igneous breccia.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. In the field. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. Technically. by contrast. in essence. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion.079 in) in size.

where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. also called pillow breccias. This occurs when the thick. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. as they slide past each other. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. both of lava and pyroclastic type. and these form volcanic breccias. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. Lavas. When particularly intense. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition.g. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. granites and kimberlite pipes.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. Broken. . or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks.

in the rim.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock.g. Impact breccia. In addition. shocked minerals. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. impact glass. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. and are usually found at impact craters. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. steam and boiling water. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. iridium and osmium anomalies). near Blessington in Ireland. and attrition quickly o . Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. Nevada. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. a type of impactite. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops.Pahranagat Range.

in particular CO2. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. at much greater depths. Pend Oreille County. as the formational event is brief. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. If boiling occurs. In the mesothermal regime. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates.rounds angular breccia fragments. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. As a result. On their journey. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. . Washington. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. silver and gold. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. Pend Oreille mine.


Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. New York.CHERT Chert (pron. chalk. grayish brown and light green to rusty red.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. but most often manifests as gray. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Buffalo. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. brown. It also occurs in thin beds. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. [edit]Terminology: "chert". hard chert. Oklahoma. it is usually called flint. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). "chalcedony" and "flint" . [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. limestone.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. (3.

In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. . Everett. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations).chert being lower quality than flint. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. Among petrologists. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . Strictly speaking. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). The term does not include quartzite.

Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. South Dakota. .: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. which consist of angular clasts.

clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . Alaska. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. and are known as basal conglomerates. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . approximate depth 10. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. In this setting.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational .000 ft.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .

a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. The matrix is generally fine-grained.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. in Australia's Northern Territory. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. matrix-supported conglomerates.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. are typically poorly-sorted. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. desert) environments. These form the basis of a number of . The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. Tillites. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. in rapidly eroding (e.g. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. forming structures such aseskers. near Barcelona. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate.

which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile.large oil fields. as different sectors of the fault moved. e.g. . These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.

The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. often including some phosphate.COQUINA Coquina (pron. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. abraded. As a result. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. close packing. swift tidal channels. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. trilobites. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. brachiopods. fracturing. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. abrasion. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. . in the form of seashells or coral. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. and sorting of the shells. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. or other invertebrates. shallow submarine raised banks. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. which compose them. and barrier bars.

It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. coquina is extremely soft. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. When first quarried. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. . it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. The scale bar is 10 mm. The stone makes a very good material for forts. In order to be used as a building material. cannon balls would sink into. but still comparatively soft. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. However. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. rather than shatter or puncture. Saint Augustine.Close-up of coquina from Florida. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. form. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. Because of coquina's softness.


anti-block in plastic films. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid.69 mm. cat litter. Wilhelm Berkefeld. is a naturally occurring. recognized its ability to filter. soft. Peter Kasten. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] .13 by 0. it was thought that limestone had been found. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. mechanical insecticide. absorbent for liquids. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. matting agent for coatings. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. the peasant and goods waggoner. a stabilizing component of dynamite. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms.5 to 2% iron oxide. and athermal insulator. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. porous support for chemical catalysts. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. similar to pumice powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. This powder has an abrasive feel. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. diatomite. a type of hard-shelled algae..236 pixels/ μm.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. which could be used as fertilizer. It is used as a filtration aid. activator in blood clotting studies. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron.E. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite.: /ˌdaɪ. Initially. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. TheCelle engineer.

1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. .  ca. used successfully. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca.from diatomaceous earth.

[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. but are of low quality. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast.Virginia. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Oregon. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Denmark and the Czech Republic. France. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Washington and California. In Colorado and in Clark. Nevada (USA). Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. such as this one for swimming pools .

especially for swimming pools. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. sugar. or nutritional properties. for this purpose. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. such as beer and wine. It is also used to filter water. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. foodgrade— see below). as well as in some facial scrubs.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. with questionable efficacy. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. based on Fick's law of diffusion. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. It has a high porosity. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. hollow particles. and honey without removing or altering their color. In order to be effective as an insecticide. due to its physico-sorptive properties. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper.e. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. [7] taste. It can also filter syrups... coffin-like. because it is composed of microscopically small. . [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid.e. causing them to [9] dehydrate. However. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. and other liquids. efficacy is very low. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. but this method may take weeks to work. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. since slugs inhabit humid environments. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867.

vermiculite. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. As with other silicates. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. Like perlite. including water. as [20] well as an insecticide. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. Fungicide. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. . Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent.S. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. particularly as bonsai soil.

is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. It is produced uncalcinated. For instance. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. Libya. the largest single . and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. it retains water and nutrients. while draining fast and freely. and as an insecticide. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. and has a high silica content (>60%). which has been widely used for the same purpose. as feed supplement. has a very fine particle size. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. which is used as an indigestible marker. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried.and expanded clay. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli.

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. . generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad.

S. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. It is. . In old U.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. however. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. but it can still develop solution features over time. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute.G. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater.S. used in some geological publications.

or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . Poland. Serbia. the United States. Germany. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. often referred to as brown coal. it is mined in Greece.5 million BTU/ton). India. on the as-received basis (i. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. Russia. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 .. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.e. ca. When reacted with quaternary amine. Australia averages 8.4 MJ/kg (6. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. mineral-matter-free basis.LIGNITE COAL Lignite.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). It is considered the lowest rank of coal. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content.

[edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. particularly in combination with strip mining. . The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. [4] Victoria. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite.than for comparable black-coal plants. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants.

and as a chemical feedstock. USA . Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. as aggregate for the base of roads. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Virginia. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.

and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. Crystals of calcite. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. clastic. radiolarians). During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). such as clay. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. including the water temperature. depending on several factors. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Limestone may be crystalline. iron oxide and other materials. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. This produces speleothems. Because of impurities. organic remains. intraclasts. many limestones exhibit different colors.e. peloids. building upon past generations.travertine. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. and extraclasts. Tufa. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). the Folk and the Dunham. flint. and dissolved ionconcentrations. granular. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Romania. most limestone is composed of grains. depending on the method of formation. and varying amounts of clay. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. or massive. sand. diatoms. . Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). and around hot or cold springs. particularly where there are waterfalls. jasper.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. When conditions are right for precipitation. pH. i. quartz. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. or it can fill fractures. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. Travertine is a banded. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. such as stalagmites and stalactites. Classification Two major classification schemes.000 meters. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. especially onweathered surfaces. is found near waterfalls. limestone recrystallizes into marble. Below about 3. etc. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly.

matrix (mostly micrite). caves and gorges. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. The Folk system uses two-part names. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. and therefore self-supporting. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. These include limestone pavements. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Based on composition. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. not the grains in the sample. pot holes. and cement (sparite). Robert J. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. Such erosion landscapes are known . Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. especially in acid. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. there are three main components: allochems (grains). cenotes. Dunham names are essentially for rock families.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Unlike the Folk scheme.

Sweden. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. [9] Michigan. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. it is a very heavy material. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. the only building material available. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. Ireland. It is most common in the tropics. making it impractical for tall buildings. . Sweden. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. On the island of Malta. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. islands off the south coast of Florida. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. 2003). such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). Notch Peak in Utah. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Unique habitats are found on alvars. England. So many buildings in Kingston. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Examples include the Burren in Co. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. and relatively expensive as a building material. This process is known as bioerosion. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. theVerdon Gorge in France. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. However. Ontario. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. for a long time. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. typically clays. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. are made of limestone. Egypt. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Clare. While draining. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. especially in Europe and North karsts. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). Many landmarks across the world. The Florida Keys. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks.

Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.

most notably the Bloomington area. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. limestone extracts iron from its ore. but only in thin plates for covering. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. called Indiana limestone. paper. It is added to toothpaste. plastics. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Purified. In the United States. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. paint. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. cement and mortar. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. durable. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. tiles. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. such as for poultry (when ground up). Indiana. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. since it is hard. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. rather than solid blocks. Used in blast furnaces. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Train stations. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. in some circumstances. [11] .A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. Glass making. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. uses limestone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

Fine-grained aquifers. . Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. white and black. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. Like sand.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. brown. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. In the western United States and incentral Australia. gray. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. such as sandstones. but the most common colours are tan. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). yellow.France.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. red. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. most [1] sandstone is red. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. sandstone may be any colour. pink. [edit]Uses 17.

Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer.Germany. in Freiburg. around 1770. .

homes.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. These are sandstone beverage coasters. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. and continues to be used. It is relatively soft. making it easy to carve.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. . and other buildings. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. cathedrals. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues.

Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. Utah.g. are typically called argillaceous sediments. .002–0. Scale bar is 1.079 inches). They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. Because of the hardness of individual grains. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. or chemical. and silica. [3] like gypsum and jasper).. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. e. have been found less resistant. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. some that have been used in the past. clays.0 mm. for sharpening blades and other implements. like chalk and coal. rocks with greater grain sizes. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. gritstone. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. including siltstones and shales. yet are easy to work. However. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England.

either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. i. in more general detail. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. Finally. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. in a desert or erg).. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. First. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. in finer detail. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. over other construction. Typically. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension.e. which. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. Arizona. include its grain size. once it has accumulated. and composition and. or sea) or from air (as in a desert).Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages.sorting. lake. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. either from water (as in a stream. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand).g.

Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Offshore bars and sand waves 5.1. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. channel sands) 2. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Beach and shoreface sands 3. point bars. such as hardness and chemical stability. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Deltas 2. Rivers (levees. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Glacial outwash 4.  . Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Alluvial fans 3. Lakes 5. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Tidal flats 4. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding.

metamorphic. scale box at left-center is 0. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. One is to call the . tourmaline. magnetite. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. and corundum.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. called lithic fragments or clasts. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. or other dense. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone.garnet. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. Although. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. or sedimentary rock. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. olivine. rutile (hence ZTR). this represents a complete solid solution. Common heavy minerals include zircon. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. pyroxene. upper picture is plane-polarized light.25 millimeter.

These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. feldspars. limonite.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. barite. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. and the other is to call it a wacke. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. such as calcite.sandstone an arenite.  . and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. clay minerals. anhydrite. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and zeolite minerals. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. and very rarely is in other sandstones. [6] gypsum. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth.


Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. on the other hand. Mudstones. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. magnesium. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Red. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray.greens). or micaceous minerals (chlorite. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness.reds). biotite and illite . Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. in dia. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. the terms slate. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. montmorillonite and illite. called fissility. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite .SHALE Shale is a fine-grained.browns and limonite [1] yellow). sodium. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. iron hydroxide (goethite . especially quartz and calcite. iron . calcium. Sand grain = 2 mm. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal.

Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). black shales were deposited in anoxic. uranium. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. such as in stagnant water columns. in relatively deep.Cumberland Plateau. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. quiet water. The enriched values are of controversial origin. in river deltas. reducing environments. . calcite. and zinc. These released elements form authigenic quartz.chert. ankerite. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. hematite and albite. However.and water. dolomite. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. vanadium. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. 'Black shales' are dark. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction.

it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. 1961. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". then schist and finally to gneiss. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. or various carbonate minerals. which originally aired on November 3. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). The Flintstones. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. "Flintstone of Princestone". fissile. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. apatite. . metamorphic rockknown as slate. in keeping with the Stone Age puns.

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