BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. upper mantle and transition zone.5 K. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. also known incorrectly as almandite.512 Å at 100 K. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. [edit]Occurrence 2+ .: /ˈælməndɪn/). inclining to purple. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. of deep red color. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. It is frequently cut with a convex face. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. Almandine. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. or en cabochon.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. and is then known as carbuncle. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope.

some years ago. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. in Tyrol. a name said to be taken from Syriam. When the color inclines to a violet tint. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Almandine is widely distributed. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. and are sometimes cut and polished.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa.

030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion . -.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .790 (+/.05 (+.024 [1] .Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.AD. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.

and 573nm. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . may also have faint lines at 423. 460.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520.

from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. More recently. El Paso County. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Colorado. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Colorado. orthoclase. where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Naturally. although it is easily fractured. For many years. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Russia. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. . but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Because of its bright green color when polished. Virginia.

Amazon stone. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. It is common in granite and pegmatites. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. pale-yellow. however. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. white.Colorado. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. or green. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. Microcline may be clear. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. or amazonite. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. . Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. viewed under a polarizing microscope. brick-red. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region.

toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e.F . in the crystal. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Similarly. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. Cl or ions.Cl)2. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. sodium . Hydroxyapatite. also known as hydroxylapatite. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. in the mid-20th century. respectively. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2.g. named for high concentrations of OH . A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.F.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral.

blue to violet. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. usually green. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. sodium monofluorophosphate). brown.OH) Strunz classification 08. massive. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.fluoride.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. compact or granular .Cl.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. prismatic crystals. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.[1] Crystal habit Tabular.BN. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. less often colorless. pink. yellow.

012.002–0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.638 (+0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.634–1.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.16–3. green stones – greenish yellow . blue and yellow to colorless.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. −0.006)[1] Birefringence stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.[1] Dispersion 0. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1. Other colors are weak to very weak.

[1] . violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.which is stronger in long wave. light purple in short wave.


aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. In the USA. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). is situated in Slovakia. in others. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. It is formed by biological and physical processes. also known as μ-CaCO3. one of the two common. respectively. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. Spain). Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. [edit]Uses In aquaria. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. resulting in a different crystal shape.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. The mineral vaterite. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. the entire shell is aragonite. An aragonite cave. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. [citation Aragonite . 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. naturally occurring. In some mollusks. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). crystal forms of calcium carbonate. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia).

prismatic crystals. yellow.95 Å. coralloidal. Z = 4 Identification Color White. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. pisolitic.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine.AB. internally banded . orange. stalactitic. b = 7. Aude department. columnar. reniform. c = 5.96 Å. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . red. green . acicular. globular.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.74 Å.

1.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.685 .682 nγ = 1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. white or .680 .529 . imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.1.686 Birefringence δ = 0.530 nβ = 1.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.5-4 Luster Vitreous.1. yellow.

phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV). yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish.

Ti)(Si.Al. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. Augite has two prominent cleavages. [edit]Characteristics .Na)(Mg.Al)2O6.Fe.

olivine. With declining temperature. but mostly of temperature. amphibolesand other pyroxenes.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. meaning "brightness". Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group.0 x 2. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. labradorite. leucite. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. brown or [2] black) luster. titanium. for example. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792.4 x 3. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. and sodium and other elements. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. which is from the Greekaugites. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. It is found near the Ken River. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. sanidine. Augite .

Z=4 Identification Color Black. greenish.Na)(Mg. c = 5.DA. β = 106.272 Å.844 Å. in thin section.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.699 Å. brown.Al.97°. b = 8.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9. dendritic . colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. also acicular.Ti)(Si.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. violet-brown.Augite . skeletal.Fe.

5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. Z = pale green. Y = pale brown.19 . greenish yellow. violet.0. grayish green. pale brown.1. nγ = 1.3.774 Birefringence δ = 0. nβ = 1.741.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.706 .1.680 .1.684 . resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. pale yellow-green.026 . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. violet .Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}. green.735.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.


and unknown white crystals. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. The mineral. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. France. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. With azurite. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. a carbonate. . deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. has been known since ancient times. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. Namibia. From Tsumeb.AZURITE Azurite is a soft.

Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. Characteristic of a carbonate. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. and are often stalactitic in form. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. Azurite is destroyed by heat. powdery copper(II) oxide. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. Azurite is soft.5 to 4. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. carbonate and hydroxide.77 to 3. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.89. the other being bright green malachite. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. . specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals.

Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. However. and its basic content of copper carbonate. However. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. such as saltwater aquariums. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. a similar but much more expensive pigment. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. France. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. and also as an ornamental stone.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Heating destroys azurite easily. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. Ultramarine withstands heat. a term applied to many blue pigments. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. in the silver mines located there. it gave a wide range of blues. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses.

[edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. dark. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. However. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. collectors should use a cool. General . bright light. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. heat. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite.

c = 10.5 to 4 . pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. fair on {100}. prismatic.85 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.01 Å. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. twin planes {101}. Berlin blue. b = 5.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. stalactitic. β = 92.BA.35 Å.43°. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. very dark to pale blue.

Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.730 nβ = 1.838 Birefringence δ = 0.758 nγ = 1.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.773 (measured). 3. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .

and shale. . This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). and diaspore α-AlO(OH). where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. gneiss. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. syenite. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. the clay mineral kaolinite.basalt. and small amounts of anataseTiO2.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. In the case of Jamaica. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3.

Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. and Guinea. . which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. followed by China.[edit]Production trends In 2010. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. Brazil. Increased aluminium recycling. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. India.

anglesite and anhydrite.BARITE Baryte. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless.Sr)SO4. The baryte group consists of baryte. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. celestine. and is the main [1] source of barium. [edit]Names [2] and history . (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. or barite.

which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. tiff. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [2] [3] Spar. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. flotation. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. such as washing. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most baryte is ground to a small. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. [8] schwerspath. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . including barytine. tabling. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). but rather a material that meets that specification. [2] Heavy associations and locations . and blanc fixe. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. [8] barytes. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. jigging. Other names have been used for baryte. an addition to industrial products. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. heavy media separation.

USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. Scotland. among others. Perthshire. . Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. and evaporation. It has also been identified in meteorites. hydrothermal.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. in hot spring deposits. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. and with hematite ore. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic.

[edit]Paleothermometry . Turkey.Kentucky. Iran. Liberia. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. New Mexico. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. De Kalb. Canada. Iran (250). and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. North [2] Carolina.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Virginia. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Cumbria. As a well is drilled. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. and no more than 30%. Morocco (460). UK (Cornwall. by weight. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). blue. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics.600). India [12] (1. Durham.000). China. The deeper the hole. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Chile. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. Morocco. Muirshiel [2] Mine. and paint. can be less than 6 μm diameter. Derbyshire.2 or greater. the bit passes through various formations. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium).Perthshire. each with different characteristics. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). Nevada & Missouri. chemically inert. Tennessee. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. sound reduction in engine compartments. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Peru. Connecticut. United States (670). Georgia. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. brown or gray depending on the ore body. by weight. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. India. radiation-shielding cement. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Thailand. paper. New York & Fort Wallace. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). Greece. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Romania (Baia Sprie). Connecticut. It is mined in Arkansas.

. away from continental sources of sediment. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.

The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. and [5] the English word brilliance. and white. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). yellow. red. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". possible colors are green.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". blue. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. veḷiru ( ). [edit]Deposits . also meaning "shine". [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. Old French: beryl. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. Pure beryl is colorless.BERYL In geology. the Spanish word brillo.

The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. and limestone inColombia. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. As of 1999. Mozambique. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . New Hampshire. Sweden (especially morganite). "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. and Bahia. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. Colombia. and 2+ 3+ . and weighing 380. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Ireland and Russia. Clear yellow beryl. such as that occurring in Brazil. Germany. neutrons or even X-rays).5 m by 1. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Idaho. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Austria. Mainewith dimensions 5. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. Colorado. In Brazil. U. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. In the United States.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. the United States. and Zambia. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. Connecticut. South Africa.5 meters in diameter. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. InWyoming. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. North Carolina. as well as Brazil.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. though the color returns with irradiation.S. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . Madagascar. South Dakota and Utah. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. Madagascar. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. near Powder River Pass. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Maine.000 kilogrammes. Espírito Santo. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. beryl locations are in California.

Minas Gerais. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. The mines of Colombia. Zimbabwe. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. India. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Brazil. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Pakistan. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. It is named for the trapiche. North Carolina. marakata (म कन). [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Madagascar.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. In the US. Malawi. as such. Most emeralds are highly included.. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Coscuez. which has been on the market since 1964. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. In 1998. Madagascar. It weighed over 110 kg. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. Afghanistan and Russia. meaning "green". The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. and Chivor. and its dimensions were 48. [15] [7][14] . Brazil.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Zambia. in 1910. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. such as Zambia. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon.

The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. However. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Unlike emerald. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. Nowadays. . In the past. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold.C. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. golden beryl has very few flaws. Washington. D. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. The name originates from Goshen.

and color banding is common. green. Juab County. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. its type locality. goshenite can be colored yellow. Morgan. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. It was also known. Sc. Ti. In December 1910. 1989. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. with other gemstone minerals. Fe. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. On October 7. also known as "pink beryl". P. and Co impurities. "rose beryl". at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. The crystal. originally somewhat orange in hue. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. at Pala." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. California. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). pink. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered.Maine. V. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. Utah.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. However. such astourmaline and kunzite. "pink emerald". USA. Thomas [26][27] Range. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. because of the . It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color.

Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. New [1] Mexico.000 per carat for faceted stones. Utah. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". while he was prospecting for uranium. Utah.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). [28] of Fillmore. quartz.CJ. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites.Sierra County. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. Utah. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Beaver County. spessartine. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. and Juab County.05 . a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. topaz. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. pseudobrookite and hematite. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9.orthoclase.

yellow. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.50 Color Green. c = 9.21 Å. blue. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . columnar.19 Å. radial. colorless.

0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.564–1.0040–0.Specific gravity Average 2. but the stone itself does not) .595 nε = 1.568–1.

in 1816. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite.F. oxygen. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. Biotite is a sheet silicate.L. researched the optical properties of mica.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F.OH)2. Biotite was named by J. aluminium. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. it refers to the dark mica series. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. Iron. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . [4] discovering many unique properties. silicon. magnesium.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. who. More generally.

or lamellae. and a grey-white streak. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. especially in pegmatite veins. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. fracture is uneven. . and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. When biotite is found in large chunks. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. It appears greenish to brown or black. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. Ontario. as in New England. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. which easily flake off. Norway. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. and even yellow when weathered. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre.than phlogopite. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. It has amonoclinic crystal system. It can be transparent to opaque. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. has a vitreous to pearly luster. For instance. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. Virginia and North Carolina. in some instances side-by-side. and consists of flexible sheets. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets.

Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.53 g Color Dark brown.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. less common on the {001} .Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. yellow. blackish brown. greenish brown.

5–3.675 nγ = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.03–0. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.625 nβ = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .565–1.7–3.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).675 Birefringence δ = 0.605–1.1 Density 2.8–3.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.605–1.

also known as peacock ore. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite.

5 x 4. Austria. Karlovy Vary Region. Talate. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite.England. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. Illogan.Connecticut in the U. from the N’ouva mine. Montana and at Bristol. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.Mexico (size: 7. .4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. the Mangula mine. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. eastern Tirol. Kazakhstan. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Zimbabwe. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. Morocco. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.Lomagundi district. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. S.3 x 3. and elsewhere in Cornwall. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

The mineral is found worldwide. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. Celestine . The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. Crystal Cave. usually in small quantities. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. In carbonate marine sediments. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. Ohio. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. The world's largest known geode.7 m) in diameter at its widest point.

35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. b = 5. c = 6. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. pale brown. white.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. pink.352 Å.866 Å. black . pale blue.359 Å.AD. pale green.

5 Luster Vitreous.3. earthy.3.632 Birefringence δ = 0.95 . pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.622 nβ = 1. good on {210}.1. lamellar. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .624 nγ = 1.1.1.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .619 .622 .630 . also fibrous.

white blue. white blue .Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. long UV=yellow.

[edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. covellite (CuS).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Copper is shown in pink.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. On exposure to air. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. hydroxides and sulfates. digenite (Cu9S5). . chalcocite (Cu2S). iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). carbonates such as malachite and azurite. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.

and Sb are reported. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. V.8 x 6. Ni. Se. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. molybdenite representing Mo. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. etc. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Ontario. the American cordillera and the Andes.3 x 4. Pt.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. . In. Mn. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Au. from huge masses as at Timmins. Pd. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. Pb. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Cr. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. and trace amounts of Ag. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. However.

10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. Ouray County. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. Colorado.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite).CB. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs.

Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. c = 10. commonly massive. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.54 Color Brass yellow. and sometimes botryoidal.Unit cell a = 5.3 .1 – 4.423 Å.289 Å. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). fungicides. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). muscle and bone. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. later shortened to сuprum. Characteristics . and wood preservatives. a building material. and a constituent of various metal alloys. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. Pure copper is soft and malleable. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. both by itself and as part of pigments. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. needed] In sufficient concentration. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. Decorative art prominently features copper. In the Roman era.

For this reason. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . if copper is placed [6] against another metal. such as grain boundaries. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59.Physical A copper disc (99. At the macroscopic scale. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. As with other metals. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. above which it begins to heat excessively. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. Copper.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. and osmium (bluish). which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. galvanic corrosion will occur. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.

The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. such as the Statue of Liberty. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Edinburgh. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. It does not react with water. respectively. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. this oxide layer stops the further. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . bulk corrosion. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts.

whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . which has [13] a half-life of 12. The other isotopes are radioactive. Native copper is a polycrystal.2×3. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .There are 29 isotopes of copper. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper.2 cm.4×3. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. [15] . US.83 hours. Cu.7 hours. decays both ways. they both have a spin of 3/2. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. Cu and Cu are stable.8 minutes. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61.

CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. but can have different colors when impurities are present. with an average hardness near 8. e. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. and wood. and the mix is less abrasive.g. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". corundum is unusual for its density of 4. It is a rock-forming mineral. Transparent specimens are used as gems. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. it can scratch almost every other mineral.02 g/cm .0. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. It is commonly used as anabrasive. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. In addition to its hardness. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals.0 Mohs). calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange.. All other colors are called sapphire. plastics. titanium and chromium. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence .

Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. silicon carbide. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. [4] Ontario.632 °F).000 °C (3. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Russia. gneiss. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2.8 in × 1 in). New York. In 1903. [4] USA. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives.Corundum from Brazil. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Sri Lanka and India. In 1847. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. . and some marbles in metamorphic terranes.

scratch-resistant watch crystals.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis.1.1 . large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. rods.3. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. Apart from ornamental uses. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. and other machined parts). scratchresistant optics. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.05 Dana classification 4. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis.CB. and laser components. bearings.

tabular. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. c = 12. rhombohedral crystals. gray. may be color zoned. orange. prismatic.982 Å. translucent toopaque . green. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. brown.75 Å. blue to cornflower blue. yellow. violet. pink to pigeon-blood-red. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless.

763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.772 nε = 1. or hercynite .759–1.767–1.Specific gravity 3.95–4.hematite.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.

brown or gray to colorless. pink. translucent white.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral.CB. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. Less often blue. black. green. purple and red. . violet. orange. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.10a Identification Formula mass 12.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow.

044 .418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.01 Density 3.5–3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.52±0.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

often as a result of diagenesis.S. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. In 1791.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. or in old U. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. [edit]Properties . Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium.

but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. gray to pink. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. . It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. where organic matter content is high. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis).The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. In the 1950s and 60s.e. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. although it is usually massive. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Unlike calcite. namely. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. having a different structural arrangement. i. dolomite is a double carbonate.g. It forms white. Arkansas. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. Crystal twinning is common. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions.

textural and chemical characteristics. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine.Dolomite. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. However. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. White Mountains. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. . California. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". in a 1999 study. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated.

dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. and copper.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Cherokee County. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. In horticulture. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials.2×4. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles.4×7. a concrete aggregate. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Kansas(size: 11. Dolomite . Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. zinc.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock.

Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. massive. often with curved faces. c = 16. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. Z = 3 Identification Color White. 3 Unit cell a = 4. Crystal system Trigonal .8012(1) Å.AB. granular. also columnar.002 Å.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. stalactitic.

679–1.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. .681 nε = 1.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.179–0. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.500 Birefringence δ = 0. triboluminescent.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.84–2.

but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. and the specific gravity." 3+ . [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. the color.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. the pleochroic colors being usually green. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. yellow and brown. grey. Ca2Al2(Fe . It displays strong pleochroism. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. brown or nearly black. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. The color is green. the optical constants. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite.

calcite. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. The perfectly transparent. adularia. garnets. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. withasbestos. . amphiboles. micas. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. but one of secondary origin. and others) composing igneous rocks. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. Haddam inConnecticut.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. dark green. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. as magnificent. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. and apatite. pyroxenes. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. Arendal in Norway. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. here as large.

Piemontite occurs as small. being black or dark brown in color. rhyolite. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. yellowish-. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. and many different names applied. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. reddish-black. Dollaseite is less common.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. near Falun in Sweden. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. and opaque in the mass. Although not a common mineral. there is little or no cleavage. sometimes a foot in length. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. gneiss. syenite. further. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. after whom the species was named. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. at Finbo. and others. granite. pitchy in lustre. and greenish-brown colors. and well-developed crystals are rare. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. near Ivrea in Piedmont. Epidote . andesite.

6 . fibrous. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.3–3. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. yellow-green.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green.

019–0.784 nγ = 1.734–1.751 nβ = 1.715–1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.046 Pleochroism Strong .725–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

. Typically. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. While slowly cooling within the earth. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8).ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. of plagioclase.

It is the state gem of Florida. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . such as porcelain. Russia. In gemology. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. It measured ~10×10×0. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. Germany. some ceramics. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. and as a constituent of scouring powder. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Most moonstones are translucent and white. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour.

pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.55–2. Cleavages intersect at 90°. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Greyish yellow. White. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. 2V = 65–75 . Greenish.

525 Birefringence 0.522–1.518–1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.520 nβ = 1.0050–0. Other characteristics Low negative relief .0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.522– Refractive index nα = 1.524 nγ = 1.

[edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . calcite and fluorite. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It is the most important lead ore mineral.

1×3. and Cumberland. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Bulgaria. England. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. the Madan. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. antimony. Missouri. Rhodope Mountains.2×2.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia.S. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Saxony. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. Cornwall. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. The Mendips. Illinois. Somerset. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Idaho. . Derbyshire. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. In addition zinc. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Iowa and Wisconsin. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. in a process similar to bioleaching. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Smolyan Province. Broken Hill. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. In the United States. cadmium. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. the former mining town of Galena. USA (size: 5. Utah and Montana. Of the latter.

in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. which was known as a "cat's whisker". Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. in Ancient Egypt. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. however. Isle of [5] Man. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . which were a potential source of disease. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. which.g. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices.K.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. For example. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. U. In modern wireless communication systems.

10 Dana classification 2. No.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.5–2.75 . Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.CD. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].936 Å.8. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.1. space group Fm3m. 225 Twinning Contact. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.

2–7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

akaganeite. The hardness is variable. and jarosite.5. but limonite does not. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. although specimens may show a [6] .7 to 4. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. lepidocrocite. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.3. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. but generally in the 4 . In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. Although originally defined as a single mineral. among them goethite. the other being hematite.5 range.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores.

while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. Before smelting. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. to process limonite. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. reniform or stalactitic. hematite and magnetite. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. amphibole. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses.botryoidal. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. pyroxene. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. sometimes mammillary. Main article: Ochre#History . [12] notably in Tanzania. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. and hematite was far easier to smelt. burnt umbers and siennas. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. and biotite. producing red ochres. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. in Africa. Nonetheless. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. Because of its amorphous nature. [10] California mining district. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. Complex systems developed. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries.

mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous.5½ . it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.

7 .4.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.3 Density 2.4.9 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

so named because it dissolves gold. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. jewelry. is insoluble in nitric acid. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. Chemically. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. in veins and in alluvial deposits.GOLD Gold is a dense. usually with tellurium. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. shiny. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). which dissolves silver and base metals. . most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. giving rise to the term theacid test. Less commonly. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. In Europe. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. which have been used in mining. malleable and ductile metal. It dissolves in mercury. in 1932. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element.S. soft. as nuggets or grains in rocks. forming amalgam alloys. with huge war debts.

5 billion troy ounces or. and 10% in industry. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. electronics. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. ductility. Its highmalleability. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. in terms of volume.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. . colored-glass production and gold leafing. about 8876 m . or a cube 20. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. and other fields.7 m on a side.A total of 171. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. includingelectric wiring. 40% in [3] investments. This is roughly equivalent to 5.

the last stage of coalification. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). and is probably hydrothermal in origin. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. flat. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. for its use in pencils. Therefore. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. 3. . useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. a semimetal. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. It is. "to draw/write". where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. graphite is an electrical conductor. There are three principal types of natural graphite. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. consequently. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). 2.

Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°.110 thousand tonnes (kt). graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. micas and tourmaline. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).S. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. Graphite . India (130 kt). [7] totaling 73% of all global production. U. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). calcite. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. but U. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. Brazil (76 kt). China is the largest producer of graphite. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. respectively.S. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. in particular. Graphite is not mined in the United States.18 billion. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1.

deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.CB.708 Å.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. six-sided foliatedmasses.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .461 Å. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. c = 6. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.

Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.09–2.

As foranhydrite. Selenite contains no significantselenium. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. "chalk" or "plaster". It can be used as afertilizer. in contrast to most other salts. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. referring to its crystalline projections. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum.0–2. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. and in the early 19th century. In hand-sized samples.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. it is alabaster. Finally. "spear stone". with embedded sand grains called desert rose. In arid areas. Upon addition of water. fibrous form. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. cleavable masses called selenite. As a mineral. rather. Selenite may also occur in a silky. called alabaster. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. When the crystal lattice is heated. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. and transparent. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. it may also be granular or quite compact. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. typically opaque. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. (Thus. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined.5 g/l at 25°C) and. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". in the form of selenite. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. [edit]Occurrence . which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures.

enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Somerset.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. . Gypsum is a common mineral. Commercial exploitation of the area. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand.000 years. as well as in hot springs. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Under reducing conditions. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. from volcanic vapors. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. UK. and sulfate solutions inveins. strongly opposed by area residents. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. Wyoming. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Blue Anchor. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Pure gypsum is white. However. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon.

40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.43°. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. c = 6. reddish brown or gray .Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars.679(5) Å. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. brown.202(14) Å. pink. β = 118. tan.522(6) Å. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. blue. may be yellow. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.CD. b = 15.

530 Birefringence δ = 0. pearly. inelastic.521 nβ = 1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.519–1.523 nγ = 1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.522–1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.529–1.31–2. flat.010 . Mohs scalehardness 1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.

slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster . dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Hematite can also occur without water. Varieties includekidney ore. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary. It is mined as the main ore of iron. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States.HEMATITE Hematite. but much more brittle. colored black to steel or silver-gray. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). or otherwise highly weathered soils. usually as the result of volcanic activity. or other standing water.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. they all have a rust-red streak. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). . Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. brown to reddish brown. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. ancient. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. Hematite is harder than pure iron. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Maghemite is a hematite. Hematite is a mineral. one of several iron oxides. or red. also spelled as haematite. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. however. spring. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations.

Fe2O3. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.CB. dull to bright red .Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.038(2) Å.772(12) Å. c = 13. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.

earthy.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. radiating fibrous.150–3. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. granular. nε = 2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3.5–6. micaceous or platy.280 . oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.870–2. columnar.940 Birefringence δ = 0. commonly in rosettes.220. reniform.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. . greenish-brown. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.Al)5(Al. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules.4 and is typically an opaque green.Si)8O22(OH. brown or black color.Fe. a specific gravity of 2. The general formula can be given as (Ca.F)2.9–3.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). but the name is used as a general or field term. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Na)2–3(Mg. to refer to a dark amphibole. and an iron-magnesium silicate.

diorite. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. gneiss. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . andschist. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Orange County. basalt. andesite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. and named edenite. New York.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. from its locality in Edenville. is gray to white in color. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. gabbro. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. syenite. Al)5 (Al. Fe.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.9 Pleochroism Strong .Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. Alternating layers are sometimes found. pinyin: Gaoling). Jiangxi province. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. calaba. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. It is a layered silicate mineral. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". In Africa. part of the group of industrial minerals. earthy. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). United States. In many parts of the world. [edit]Chemistry [6] . giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. It is a soft. yellow or light orange colors. China. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. a village near Jingdezhen. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder.

Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. Si3Al4O12. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. [edit]Occurrence . [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Al2Si2O7. S = SiO2. and highly crystalline cristobalite. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. H = H2O. however.

in Brazil.Korea. [1] the People's Republic of China. United Kingdom.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. Kaolinite . the Czech Republic and the United States. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. Bulgaria. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. India. it is mined. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. Iran. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. Germany. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. about 100 million to 45 million years ago.5 million tonnes. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. as kaolin. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. France. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. Australia.

89 Å.5°. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.25 Å. sometimes red. thin plates or stacked. c = 7. β = 104. α = 90°.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. aggregated into compact. γ = 89. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.ED.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.8°.13 Å. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . Z = 2 Identification Color White. b = 8.

569.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.16–2. Calculated: 44° .553–1. nγ = 1.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2. nβ = 1.565.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.569–1.559–1.

It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. Ural Mountains. in some high-temperature quartz veins. greisens and granites.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. andMadagascar. Notable occurrences include Brazil. California. Manitoba. Tanco Mine. amblygonite. It occurs in granite pegmatites. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. tourmaline.spodumene. Canada. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. columbite. cassiterite. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Lepidolite . topaz and beryl. Russia. feldspar. Bernic Lake. United States.Si)3O10(F. Associated minerals [1] include quartz.

Brazil (size 2. colorless . white.149(5) Å.EC.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. β = 100:77(4)°.Lepidolite.Si)3O10(F.1 x 0. Virgem da Lapa.209(2) Å b = 9. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink. purple.011(5) Å c = 10. Minas Gerais. violet-gray.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Cm Unit cell a = 5. rose-red. yellowish.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.4 x 2.

0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.58° measured .5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.0290–0.551–1.58.548.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.525–1.554– 1. pale violet 2V angle 0° .586 Birefringence 0.8–2.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1. Y = Z = pink. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. nβ=1. nγ=1.

The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. and ulvospinel have been much studied.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide.. called lodestone. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite.e. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Commonly. will attract small pieces of iron. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite.

Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. In many igneous rocks.BB.085 °F). The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.397 Å. Z=8 Identification Color Black. including banded iron formations.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. 1. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II.III) oxide. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8.

fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.17–5.5–6. parting on {Ill}.Crystal habit Octahedral. the spinel law.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.

which features a huge malachite vase. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. and most often forms botryoidal. deep underground. Middle French: melochite. . variant of καιάχε malāchē. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. "mallow". Since then. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. "mallow-green stone". It is also used for decorative purposes. or stalagmitic masses. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. "The Tazza". The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. The pigment is moderately lightfast.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms.000 years. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. This opaque. a large malachite vase. in fractures and spaces. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. fibrous. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.

Namibia. New South [7] Wales.Zambia. France. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Israel. Gabon. Lyon. . Tsumeb. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. Broken Hill. Except for its vibrant green color. dark green. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. blackish green. Russia. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. Mexico. goethite.BA.1 g/mol Color Bright green. the source of the carbonate.10 Identification Formula mass 221. and calcite. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Timna valley.

875 nγ = 1. silky if fibrous.909 Birefringence δ = 0.commonly banded in masses. botryoidal. Polysynthetic twinning also present. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.655 nβ = 1.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.254 .5–4. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. stalactitic.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.

or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. [4] . yellows. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. isinglass. browns. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. or (rarely) violet or red.76–3. and can be transparent or translucent. greens. India. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. It can be colorless or tinted through grays.25 parallel to the [001] face. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. The green. Its crystal system is monoclinic. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite.OH)2. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore.

01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .OH)2 Strunz classification 09.3×3. etc.Muscovite with beryl (var.EC. pegmatites. Minas Gerais.02a.02.9×4. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. feldspar. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. gneisses. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. found in granites. morganite) from Paprok.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. and schists.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.kyanite. In pegmatites.8×3. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.15 Dana classification 71.

Z = 4 Identification Color White.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.Unit cell a = 5. silky.199 Å. grey.552–1. b = 9. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.106 Å.027 Å. β = 95.78°. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.576 . c = 20.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .618 Birefringence δ = 0.582–1.035 – 0.615 nγ = 1.nβ = 1.

[edit]Identification and paragenesis . is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.Fe)2SiO4.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4).g. almost 1900 °C. magnesium and iron. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). silicon. Fo 70Fa30). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. as do other properties. it is also called peridot and chrysolite).. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.

Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Gila Co. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation.. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. . Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. Arizona. USA. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel).

feldspar.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. the French word for olivine). or forsterite. and . October 17. Such meteorites include chondrites. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. in the dust of comet Wild 2. andpallasites. collections of debris from the early solar system. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. 12 GPa. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. Mars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. falling into infant stars. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. In contrast. because olivine is so abundant. moreover. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. 2012). from the Greek words for gold and stone).Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. First X-ray view of Martian soil . Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.Fe)2Si2O6).g. pyroxenes. the Moon. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow.

two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. Oxygen is shown in red. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O3 lies in a general position. silicon in pink. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. In an alternative view. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. O2. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O1. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. Olivine . and magnesium/iron in blue.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. while M1 exists on an inversion center. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. O2 and O3 in figure 1).

General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.

690 Birefringence δ = 0.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.630–1.670–1.650 nβ = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670 nγ = 1.040 .27–3.650–1.

the reds against black are the most rare. marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. a mineraloid form. brown. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. red. being most commonly found withlimonite.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . Opal ranges from clear through white. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. gray. slate. Of these hues. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. [edit]Precious opal . For gemstone use. like basalt. pink. and black. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. sandstone. orange. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. whereas white and greens are the most common. not a mineral. magenta. rose. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. olive. green. yellow. rhyolite. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. blue.

.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.

Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. which is often of lower quality. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. it has an internal structure. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. which is correctly termed play of color. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. Contrarily. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. and are not classed as precious opal. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. Potch does not show a play of color. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. In addition. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price.Australian Opal Doublet. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. of which opal is the best known natural example. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. basalt. or obsidian. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. unlike triplet opals. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. . Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. hyalite. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. resin opal. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. wood opal. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. orange-yellow or red. which is brown or grey. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. orange. also called siliceous sinter. or star . geyserite. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. menilite. They do not usually show any play of color. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality).

Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced.effect. Queensland . The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Queensland. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. when cut properly. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. It does not display pleochroism. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. However. It weighs 17. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Boulder Opal. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy.

weighing 160 carats. [citation needed] [12] A . fire. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. known as the "Black Peacock.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. crystal. from Kynuna in the north. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. and weighs 2.585 carats. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. fish." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. and marine creatures in South Australia. Royal Peacock. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. and black opal. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. and a snake head have been found. Miocene age opalised teeth. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Bonanza. closely related to boulder opal." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. crystal opal. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. is the main source of black opal. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. white. Another Australian town. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. Nevada. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. Opal Queen. bones. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Idaho. and lemon opal. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley.

Piauí ). SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . orange. white.7 by 0. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. green. [19] Slovakia. Indonesia. In late 2008. red. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. Turkey. Brazil (inPedro II. brown. Hungary. Honduras. in masses. black. Guatemala.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. yellow.

[1] .450 (+. green. may phosphoresce.Mohs scalehardness 5. or yellow in long and short wave. translucent. but typically reads 1. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. transparent Specific gravity 2. -.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.020.90)[1] Density 2.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.15 (+. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.08. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. may phosphoresce.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. May also phosphoresce. -.37.42–1.

humic acid. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. bases.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. methanol. hydrofluoric acid .

[11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. By Georgius Agricola's time. brazzle and Brazil. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. as well as in coal beds. in turn from πύρ (pur). "fire". In the Carlin–type gold deposits. or iron pyrite. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2.37 wt% gold. "of fire" or "in fire". and metamorphic rock. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. In ancient Roman times. [edit]Uses . almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. sedimentary rock.

often set in silver. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. that is. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. La Rioja. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). In the 15th century. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. was popular in the Victorian era. By the 19th century. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. it had become the [12] dominant method. most notably the wheellock. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. Until the vacuum tube matured. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. iron(II) sulfate. Navajún. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. Marcasite jewelry.95 eV. .

05a Dana classification 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5. Rioja. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. 512 g. Z=4 .1.417 Å.12. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.EB.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.

10 Fusibility 2. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. Often inter-grown.5–3 to a magnetic globule .95–5. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. globular and stalactitic. massive. faces may be striated. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5 Luster Metallic. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. granular. radiated.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

distorted. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". The . with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. space group P6221 and P6421. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. respectively. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. giving an overall formula SiO2. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). There are many different varieties of quartz. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Polish twardy ("hard")). space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. only one termination pyramid is present. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. Czech tvrdy ("hard").

Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. Common colored varieties include citrine." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. rose quartz. and is rarely found naturally. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. without change in the way they are linked. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Citrine has ferric impurities. smoky quartz. but they differ in hardness. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. such as the Lothair Crystal. Natural citrines are rare. or mixed rocks including quartz. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. see Citrine (disambiguation). For other uses. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. are agate. amethyst. milky quartz. onyx. carnelian. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. and jasper. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. sard. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. . It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly.transformation between α. heliotrope. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. and others. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes.

in the massive material. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. . In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. or manganese. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. iron. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Maine. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. USA. Brazil. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Magaliesburg. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.

[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. translucent version of quartz. Some can also be black. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .

Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. Agate Multi-colored. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. parallel and consistent in size. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. banded chalcedony. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. Rock crystal Clear. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. or both. This does not always hold true. exhibiting chatoyancy. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. liquid. trapped during the crystal formation. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. Otherwise more specific names are used. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. colorless Amethyst Purple.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. transparent . Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer.

transparent Rose quartz Pink.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent to opaque. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . translucent. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony.

9133 Å.03. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.01. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). c = 5.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.DA. drusy.4053 Å.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.05 Dana classification 75. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. fine-grained to microcrystalline.

59–2.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .545 nε = 1.65.552–1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. variable 2. may betriboluminescent.543–1.554 Birefringence +0.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

741 nγ = 1.714 . .5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .751 Birefringence δ = 0.738 nβ = 1.1.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.57 .724 .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.6.5 .

lustrous transition metal. utensils (hence the term silverware). . and currency coins. as an alloy with gold and other metals. Its compounds are used in photographic film. both from the Indo-European root*arg. gold. jewelry.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. free form (native silver). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. A soft. high-value tableware. white. Latin: argentum. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. further research into clinical potential continues. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. and zinc refining. to make ornaments. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Today. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). lead.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. and is used as an investment.

Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. . sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. nosean. Canada. lazurite and tugtupite.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. with a polished rock surface. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland.

Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Quebec. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. [3] titanian andradite. Conversely. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. cancrinite and natrolite. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. Smaller deposits are found in South . green. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or.ankerite and baryte. shortwave ultraviolet light. Well known for its blue color. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. Ontario. sanidine. West Greenland. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. and Mont-SaintHilaire. the violet will fade again. The Ice River [5] complex. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. calcite. in Canada. aegirine. contains sodalite. fluorite. and Magnet Cove. near Golden. namelyleucite. British Columbia. Other associated minerals include nepheline. albite. yellow. Occurring typically in massive form. sodalite is named after its sodium content. and Litchfield. Arkansas. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. particularly. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. microcline. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. [1] Narsaq. sodalite may also be grey. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Maine.A light. If left in a dark environment for some time. in the USA. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. relatively hard yet fragile mineral.

white veining common . Portugal. yellow.876(6) Å. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. green. Italy. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Romania. Euhedral.FB. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. violet. Burma and Russia.America (Brazil and Bolivia).

1.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. sodium . rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.483 .33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.27-2. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.Crystal habit Massive. with yellowishphosphorescence.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. Magnesium. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. mostly opaque. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black.

Samples are also found in Taos. It occurs with almandine garnet. Keivy Mountains. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. as well as albite. Virginia. New Mexico. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks.S. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. depth. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. micas. kyanite. In handsamples. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. It is the official state mineral of the U. . Kola Peninsula. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Norway. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. biotite. called penetration twinning. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade.

pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.Murmanskaja Oblast'. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . c = 5. b = 16.AF. rarely blue. yellowish brown. Russia. Northern Region.86 Å.5 x 2. β = 90.6 Å.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.65 Å.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.45°. 2.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.

3.762 Birefringence δ = 0. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.7. weak .1.74 . Y = pale yellow.83 meas. 3.754 nγ = 1.1. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .0.740 .009 .686 calc.745 .1.736 .747 nβ = 1. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.


Its streak is white. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It has a specific gravity of 2. although slightly flexible. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. and is translucent to opaque. a clear or dusty luster. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It has a perfect basal cleavage. In loose form.8.5– 2. [edit]Formation . Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. and the folia are non-elastic. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. Talc is not soluble in water. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale.

low-temperature minerals such as phengite. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. friable. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. olivine. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. and are known as whiteschist. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. [edit]Occurrence . and fibrous. garnet. pyroxene. Such rocks are typically white. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. amphibole. This is typically associated with high-pressure. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction.

and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. India.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. the Guiana Shield. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). the western European Alps especially in Italy. eastern Australia.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . representing 8% of world production. formed upon a polydeformed. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. from Brazil. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. layered ultramafic intrusion. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. Western Australia. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. Oman and the Middle East. Nepal and Bhutan. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt.

09°. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. brown.290 Å.EC. b = 9. c = 5. c = 18. β = 99.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.287 Å. b = 9.95 Å. α = 98.158 Å. β = 119. γ = 90. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.3°.173 Å. Z = 2 or a = 5.68°.291 Å.90°. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .

600 Birefringence δ = 0.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow. long UV=yellow .589 – 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.589 – 1.594 nγ = 1.58 to 2.538 – 1.550 nβ = 1.

OH)2. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

in Afghanistan. pink or violet colored. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. or blue brown. sometimes even violet. blue. measured a massive 22.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. yellow. The American Golden Topaz.5 carats. It can also be made white. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. is the traditional November birthstone. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. typical topaz is wine. Japan. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Pakistan. Czech Republic.75 carats. a more recent gem. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Brazil. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . reddish-orange. gold. Orange topaz. if natural) or pink-orange. colorless. Imperial topaz is yellow. Italy. the symbol of [5] friendship. Typically. pink (rare). gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. pale green. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. pink (rare. Mexico. pale gray. Sri Lanka. Flinders Island. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Norway.Sweden. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. gold. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. also known as precious topaz. Australia. Germany. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. Nigeria and the United States.892.

which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. both of which predate the Greek word. a topaz. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. [edit]History Nicols. some scholars think it is related to . including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. etymology. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. In the Middle Ages. Minas Gerais. [edit]Biblical background. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. the ancient name of St. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652." However. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above.

Z = 4 .35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. b = 8.AF.65 Å. = yellow. meaning "yellow burn" or. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.4 Å.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. c = Assyrian word meaning "flashed". [citation needed] More likely. "fiery".8 Å. metaphorically.

orange.49–3.616–1.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). also columnar. green. brown.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.629 nβ = 1. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. compact. yellow. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.631 nγ = 1. blue.606–1.609–1.638 . gray.

010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. bluish. violet. Z = violet. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. long UV=cream . short UV=golden yellow. reddish. Y = yellow.

[edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. lithium. sodium. iron. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Italy . Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. magnesium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. or potassium. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral.

In the 19th century the names common schorl. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". The word tourmaline has two etymologies. . the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. Up to about 1600. in addition to cassiterite. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. Beginning in the 18th century. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". "Schörle". It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. black tourmaline was found. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. In English. and "Schurl". This village had a nearby tin mine where. schörl. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. Austro-Hungarian Empire. Carinthia. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite.Drava river area. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. for the Drava river area. both from the Sinhalese word turamali.

Cr . Na. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. B B = B. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. F. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Province of [5] Livorno. Mg. Ti . and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Fe . which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Italy. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. Mn . Al. Elba Island. Zn. Fe . Czech Republic. V T = Si. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Sweden. Fe . Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). San Piero in Campo.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). V . sodium-. Italy. Cr . vacancy V = OH. Al. California. K. United States.Campo nell'Elba. Italy. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Elba Island.5Al1. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. where: [6] X = Ca. Al. vacancy Z = Mg. O W = OH. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. with the simplified formula (Li. Tuscany. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. vacancy Y = Li.

The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. California.5. San Diego Co. US.. Cryo-Genie Mine.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F .Al1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.

California. San Diego Co. Himalaya Mine.. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. US [edit]Physical properties .Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011.

these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. or green on the outside and pink inside. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. Rarely. and does not. Usually. no other common mineral has three sides. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. yellow. green. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. called hemimorphism. etc. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. impact the value. it is colorless. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. but is now exhausted. pink. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . often forming radial daisy-like patterns. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. especially pink to red colored stones. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. currently. red. During their 2+ growth. Heavily-included tourmalines. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. [edit]Geology .[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. and are often pyroelectric as well. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. in western Australia. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown.

Massive.Fe.Mg. are generally restricted to schists and marble.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Fe. or in a dual-colored pink and green.B)6O18(OH.Li.K. violet.[])(Al. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Al. Scattered grains (in granite). Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. dravites. .V)6 (BO3)3(Si.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Mn)3(Al. green. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. but can range from brown.Cr.Na. sometimes radiating. pink. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. Acicular prisms.

040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.650 Birefringence -0. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.82–3.040.06 (+.5 Luster Vitreous.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive. dark blue.675. light blue .635–1.020 but in dark stones it may reach . dark green.610–1. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.018 to -0.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven. typically about . small conchoidal.06)[1] Density 2. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7. dark brown. nε=1.20 -. dark red.

017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.Dispersion . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .

The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Nephrite. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. is a green variety of tremolite. [edit]Occurrence . This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis.

[edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos.Ticino (Tessin). wollastonite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside.DE. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Leventina. forsterite. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. dolomite.diopside. Switzerland. Piumogna [1] Valley. cummingtonite. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Associated minerals include calcite. talc.2 x 6. Approximately 36. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. grossular. French Pyrenees (size: 8.

27 Å. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple.02 Å. lavender to pink. gray.99 – 3. Z = 2 Identification Color White. c = 5.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . β = 104. or flattened crystals. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. light green. common parallel to {100}.95°.Unit cell a = 9. b = 18. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. also as fibrous.84 Å.

599 .626 nγ = 1.1. Long UV=range pink .625 .1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.612 nβ = 1.1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.Refractive index nα = 1.613 .

Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. borax. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. meyerhofferite. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. Tarapacá Region in Chile. The chains are linked together by calcium. glauberite. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. gyps [1] um and halite. . is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. calcite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. by internal reflection. probertite. USA. sometimes known as TV rock. It is found principally in California and Nevada. trona. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. mirabilite. water. and Kazakhstan. water and hydroxide octahedra. hydroboracite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide).

the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. Ulexite . The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. two of which are polarized. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers.

816(3) Å.EA. α = 90.11. Z =2 Identification .01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. γ = 105.87Å.678(1) Å. b = 12.25°.12°.1°.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.Ulexite from California(size: 6.05.25 Dana classification 26. c = 6.9 x 5 x 3. β = 109.

028 .95 – 1.519 – 1.504 – 1.496 nβ = 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.5 Luster Vitreous.491 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.

cream. greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .

rotten or possibly worthless material. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. Depending on their composition. chlorite or other platyminerals. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. biotite gneiss. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. etc. . etc. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark.GNEISS Gneiss ( coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. diorite gneisses. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. they may also be called garnet gneiss. albite gneiss. so called because the rock glitters).

most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. however. most other European languages (e. Italian marmo. Dutch marmer.German. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Armenian marmar. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. silt.g. Polish marmur. Turkish mermer. [5] gleam". Spanish mármol. Norwegian. sand. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. . meaning "marble-like." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Portuguese mármore. sparkle. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. iron oxides. [3][4] "crystalline rock". "to flash. "shining stone".MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.


Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. and chlorite. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). sericite.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Minute crystals of graphite. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. sericite mica. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. or chlorite impart a silky. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. .

British Columbia. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. iron oxide. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. are due to other mineral impurities. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. diagenetically altered. not around them. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. therefore. Although few fossils are normally present. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. Other colors. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. rutile and magnetite. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Canada . carbonate and clay. and both usages are found in the literature. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. silica. such as yellow and orange. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis.

In Canada. The highest mountain in Mozambique. as flooring. as roofing tiles. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. industrial silica sand. silicon and silicon carbide. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. In the United Kingdom. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. several mountains (e. southwestMinnesota. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. pale grey. the Wasatch Range in Utah. In Wales. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). near Salt Lake City. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. Foinaven.g. Monte Binga (2436 m). precambrian quartzite. In the Scottish Highlands. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. [4] . Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. and stair steps.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. Central Texas. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona.


[edit]Formation During metamorphism. The individual mineral grains in schist. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Usually. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. can be seen by the naked eye. hornblende.clastic structure.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. In other . such as garnet schist. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. and others. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. By definition. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. If the whole district. glaucophane schist. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. however. tourmaline schist. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Most schists are mica schists. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar.talc. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. etc. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. for example. the terms slate. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. for example. graphite. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. A quartz-porphyry. chlorite.

kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. chilled edges. many metamorphic limestones. staurolite. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. Such rocks. and the white mica-schists. as limestones. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. marbles. which have been derived from rhyolites. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. feldspar. with variable amounts of white and black mica. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. scapolite. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). . some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. dolomites. contain silicate minerals such as mica. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. and calc-schists. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. zoisite and hornblende. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains.cases intrusive junctions. while others are found only among igneous masses. quartz and feldspar. for example. tremolite. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. are alteredclaystones and shales. with crystalline dolomites. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). foliated. schistose character. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. For example. however. The majority of mica-schists. A subgroup is the andalusite. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. garnet. diopside. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


en masse. from which it may be formed. and may also be purple. leaving a light green spotted texture. It may mean a single roofing slate. green or cyan. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. traditionally a small piece of slate. Slate is frequently grey in color. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. the terms slate. . the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. foliated. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. Occasionally. or zirconas well as feldspar. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. Slate is not to be confused with shale. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. as in the purple slates of North Wales. In the context of underground coal mining. covering roofs. from pale to dark. graphite. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. apatite. magnetite. kaolinite. tourmaline. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. chlorite. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. For example. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. for example. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. or schist. often framed in wood. less frequently. and pyrite and. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. or a writing slate. However.. hematite. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. often along with biotite. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. especially when seen.


The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. potassium (K). During subduction. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Magnetite. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. zeolites. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. biotite. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs.g. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. barium(Ba). and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. apatite. Characteristic of subduction zones. 3. the relative contribution of the three components (crust.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. ilmenite. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. zircon.e. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. 2. In a general sense. anhydrous forms. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. [5] sediment. chlorite etc. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. of intermediate composition. volcanic rock. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. Partial melting of crustal material. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma.. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. but most . but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. leading to metamorphism. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite.

or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. If it underplates the crust. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. . Once there. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. these reservoirs cool. the composition is returned to andesite. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. As this process continues. its intermediate phase.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Without continued addition of mafic material. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. creating a layer of molten material at its base. therefore. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. however. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. In order to remain active. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. forming mafic cumulates. however. however. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. such as the Andes. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. Models of heat transfer. Basalt can. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition.


) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. 2007). It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. Mars. Venus.. Sobolev et al. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Basalt commonly erupts on Io.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. (In comparison. and even on the asteroid Vesta. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. /ˈbæsɒlt/. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. By definition. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. Hungary . although it can sometimes be porphyritic. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. On Earth. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. the third largest moon of Jupiter. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume.BASALT Basalt (pron..g.

believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. misspelling of L. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". an excellent thermal insulator. basanites "very hard stone. libri XII. US quarter for scale. as building blocks or in the groundwork). Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. from βάζανος (basanos. Arizona. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). . Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues.g.

Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. most large oceanic islands. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt.     . Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins.

the rock grades into ferrodiorite. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. Sondrio. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. apatite. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. Scotland. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. the Andes Mountains. source localities include Leicestershire. Finland. the Isle of Guernsey. central Sweden.DIORITE Diorite (pron.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). hornblende. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. magnetite.biotite. into which they may subtly merge. however. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. making it difficult to carve and work with. Romania. Basin and Range province. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). It may contain small amounts of quartz. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. It can also be black or bluish-grey. sphene. Zircon. microcline and olivine. and frequently has a greenish cast. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. and/or pyroxene. Italy. and Idahet in Egypt. . UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). Minnesota in theUSA. and to provide a durable finished work. Northeastern Turkey. Its hardness. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. which is transitional togabbro. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. the Darrans range of New Zealand. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. occasionally with porphyry.

London. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. but mostly for fortress walls. etc. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. In later times. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. weaponry. Paul's Cathedral. Babylonia. Guernsey and Scotland. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. Assyria and Sumer. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. inscribed upon a 2. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. .

California. easternSierra Nevada. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. typically a few percent. The rocks areplutonic. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. the rock is then a norite. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Isle of Skye. plagioclase. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. Rock Creek Canyon. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. Gabbros contain minor amounts. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). amphibole. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). coarse-grained.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. ilmenite. Gabbro is dense. and ulvospinel. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Scotland.

US. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. silver. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. and copper sulfides. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. although it may be porphyritic at times. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. intruding into the rift flanks.extra descriptiveness is desired. Massachusetts. platinum. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. . although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. gold. nickel. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. cobalt.


Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy.1260 °C. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s.65 and 2. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills.GRANITE Granite (pron. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. and feldspar. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. The average density of granite is between 2.75 3 g/cm . near the town of Caldera. descriptive field term for light-colored. mica. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. a grain. felsic. an unusual type of granite. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. This rock consists mainly of quartz. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. By definition. Melting temperature is 1215 . northern Chile . igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. hard and tough.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. Granitoid is a general. Granites can be pink to gray in color.

India. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai.

valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall .

where it forms a major part of continental crust.The Cheesewring. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.82% FeO — 1.12% MnO — 0. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods.69% CaO — 1. it is called tonalite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase.12% Na2O — 3. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.22% MgO — 0. In some locations. Granite often occurs as relatively small. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. .42% (alumina) K2O — 4. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite.30% P2O5 — 0. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. although much of it is of Precambrian age. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor.71% TiO2 — 0.68% Fe2O3 — 1. sanidine. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase.


Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. forming perlite. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Obsidian is mineral-like. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. usually 70% or more. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. California . [9][10][11] . Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. which is the parent material.. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass.. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. in addition. Obsidian is hard and brittle. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth.

Scotland and the United States. states of Virginia. Armenia. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Canada. Pantelleria. Guatemala. as well as Pennsylvania. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Iceland. states including Arizona. and deposits can be found in many other western U.S. Washington. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Kenya. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. In some stones. .Utah. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California.Greece. Occurrence Glass Mountain. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. Colorado. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. It can be found in Argentina.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Peru. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. El Salvador. Texas. the inclusion of small. Japan. Azerbaijan. Mexico. New [13] [14] Mexico. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia.S. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. New Zealand. Chile. Oregon and Idaho. Italy. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. white.


Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Therefore. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. macroscale graphic texture is known. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. feldspar and mica. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks.5 cm in size. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. For this reason. in essence a granite. exsolution lamellae. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. Theory Theory . crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Similarly.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. pyroxene and other minerals are known. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2.

pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. eastern Sierra Nevada. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. in a few cases. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. and are usually granitic in character. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Beyond that. granite-associated mineralisation styles. being altogether "granitic" in pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. . often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. often with mica and usually with quartz. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. with bulk chemical and textural change. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. Rock Creek Canyon. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. California. for example greisens. to liberate the right constituents and water. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount.

tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. Queensland. potassium and lithium. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. Tantalum. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. zinnwaldite and so forth. orange and brown almandine garnet. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. aluminium. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. cesium. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. however. Often. orientation. Geochemically. thorium. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. apatite and corundum. boron. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. tantalite. niobium. commonly almandine or spessartine. say. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. et cetera. columbite. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. fluorite. Bismuth. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. In most cases. tantalite. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". accessory minerals and timing. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. among others. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. such as aquamarine. tourmaline. . bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. Australia). Hence. topaz. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. Occasionally. tourmaline. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. beryllium. uranium. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. tourmaline. lepidolite. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite.Garnet.

Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. Similarly. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. "granitic" or "metasomatic". for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. . creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. transitional with some greisens. However. Within the metamorphic belts.

Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). which may or may not contain crystals. . Rocks from the Bishop tuff.PUMICE Pumice pron. Pumice is created when super-heated. compressed with fiamme on right. uncompressed with pumice on left. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. It is typically light colored.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass.

the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. andesite. 1984 and 2006.g. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. and initially floats on water. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. trachyte). it sinks rapidly. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. rhyolitic. In [4] fact. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. In 1979. but basaltic and other compositions are known.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. . Pumice is commonly pale in color. dacitic. ranging from white. to green-brown or black. phonolite. It is commonly. blue or grey. many samples float in water. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas.S. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. cream. with tree trunks floating among them. When larger amounts of gas are present.. After the explosion of Krakatoa. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. pantellerite. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag.

Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. especially in polishes. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. in the case of pumiceous lavas. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. cosmetic exfoliants. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. smooth.There are two main forms of vesicles. When used as an additive for cement. It is also used as an abrasive. plaster-like concrete. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. . Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. during flow. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. pencil erasers. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. and the production of stone-washed jeans. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice.

Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. below:pumice. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. . lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. also called obsidian. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. and consequently.nodular. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. and lithophysal structures. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. the eruptions were at the St. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. volcanic (extrusive) rock. spherulitic. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County.


skōria. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. bubble growth. black or purplish red). Vesicles are usually small. instead they open into one another with little distortion. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. rust. Auckland in New Zealand. typically near its surface. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Quincan. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). allowing rapid volatile diffusion. coalescence. a unique form of Scoria. An old name for scoria is cinder. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. and bursting. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. and may contain phenocrysts. . creating bubbles in the molten rock. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . An example is Mount Wellington. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. and hence is denser. another vesicular volcanic rock. Australia. but in contrast to pumice. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. and sinks in water. blocks and bombs). is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies.

and to carve some moai from. It is somewhat porous. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. and often has striking colours. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. has high surface area and strength for its weight. . It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used.

The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. Ukraine. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. North Korea. as opposed to lignite. its higher relative density of 1. It has the highest carbon content. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). coal) is a hard. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). markets to distinguish it from its competitors. and black diamond. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and smokeless flame. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. the fewest impurities. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.4. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. blue. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. the UK. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. which is softer). crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). and lustre. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. which is used mainly in power generation. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. blind coal (in Scotland). [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. Australia and the US. which is used as a pigment. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent.3– 1. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining.S.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). [5] Vietnam. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U.1% and 98%. mineral-matter-free basis. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. is known as culm. In America. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). other producers are Russia. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. "coal-like. hard coal. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition.

anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. mined near Saundersfoot. For example. coking coal and domestic house coals. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. The thermal conductivity is also higher. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. By 1795. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. [7] It was In the United States. Structurally. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. on the as-received basis (i. New Mexico.. Since the 1980s. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings.MJ/kg). In [6] June 2008. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. Pennsylvania. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. In southwest Wales. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature.e. circa 1935 . anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. and Western Pennsylvania. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region.

Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. From the late 19th century until the 1950s.S. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. From that first mine. placed in descending order. In the early 20th century United States. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Group of breaker boys. on an open grate in a fireplace. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Pennsylvania. making it ideal for this purpose. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. Many large public buildings. Current U. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. Of that. such as schools.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. the Delaware. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. In spring 1808. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. Pennsylvania. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. about 1.

or less. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. both in America and South Wales. Switzerland and parts of Germany. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". Similarly. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting.Anthracite". Formerly. "poor".consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Commercial mining has now ceased. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. [10] . anthracite was largely used.

although bedding is frequently visible. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. and some mica is often present. . therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Fossils are rare in arkose. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. most commonly granitic rocks. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. due to the depositional processes that form it. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. Apart from the mineral content.


The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. good ventilation and vigilant site management. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). mineral-matter-free basis. air. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Within the coal mining industry. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. dull-banded". These distinctive sequences.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. which are classified according to either "dull. . Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. the rest is composed of water. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. bright-banded" or "bright. and sulphur. hydrogen. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. and exinite. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.

These are. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. by their relative movements. poorly sorted. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. typically in a karst landscape. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. A conglomerate. lithified colluvium. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. tectonic breccia. Technically. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. The word is a loan from Italian. igneous breccia. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. . by contrast.079 in) in size. avalanches. in essence. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. They are formed by either submarine debris flows.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. In the field. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks.

fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. as they slide past each other. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. granites and kimberlite pipes. and these form volcanic breccias. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. When particularly intense. This occurs when the thick.g. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. both of lava and pyroclastic type. Broken. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. also called pillow breccias. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. . usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. Lavas. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia.

forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. a type of impactite. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. and attrition quickly o .[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. Impact breccia. Nevada. and are usually found at impact craters. iridium and osmium anomalies). near Blessington in Ireland. In addition. shocked minerals. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C.g. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser.Pahranagat Range. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. impact glass. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. steam and boiling water. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. in the rim. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit.

silver and gold. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Washington. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. as the formational event is brief.rounds angular breccia fragments. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. On their journey. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). at much greater depths. Pend Oreille County. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. Pend Oreille mine. . or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. In the mesothermal regime. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. If boiling occurs. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. in particular CO2. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. As a result. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata.


Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. It also occurs in thin beds. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Oklahoma. Buffalo. "chalcedony" and "flint" . It varies greatly in color (from white to black). hard chert. New York. but most often manifests as gray. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. limestone. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively).CHERT Chert (pron. brown. [edit]Terminology: "chert". it is usually called flint. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. (3. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. chalk. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Where it occurs in chalk or marl.

Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert.chert being lower quality than flint. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. . chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Strictly speaking. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). The term does not include quartzite. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". Among petrologists. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Everett.

Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). which consist of angular clasts.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. . South Dakota.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes.

clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . and are known as basal conglomerates. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational .     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. Alaska. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. In this setting.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict . approximate depth 10. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.000 ft. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. conglomerates are normally very well sorted.

g. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. forming structures such aseskers. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. The matrix is generally fine-grained. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. desert) environments.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. Tillites. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. are typically poorly-sorted. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. in rapidly eroding (e. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. matrix-supported conglomerates. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . near Barcelona. These form the basis of a number of . Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. in Australia's Northern Territory.

These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line. . the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.g. as different sectors of the fault moved. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. e.large oil fields.

The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. shallow submarine raised banks. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. brachiopods. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida.COQUINA Coquina (pron. in the form of seashells or coral. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. or other invertebrates. As a result. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. which compose them. swift tidal channels. abraded. trilobites. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. abrasion. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. and sorting of the shells. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. close packing. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. and barrier bars. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. fracturing. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. often including some phosphate. .

The scale bar is 10 mm. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. but still comparatively soft. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. The stone makes a very good material for forts. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. When first quarried. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. In order to be used as a building material. rather than shatter or puncture. However. cannon balls would sink into. Saint Augustine. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. coquina is extremely soft. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Because of coquina's softness. . the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. form.Close-up of coquina from Florida. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos.


silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. and athermal insulator. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. and is very light as a result of its high porosity.5 to 2% iron oxide. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms.13 by 0. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany.69 mm. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. diatomite.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. activator in blood clotting studies. soft. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. It is used as a filtration aid. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. porous support for chemical catalysts. it was thought that limestone had been found. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. Initially. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . which could be used as fertilizer.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.: /ˌdaɪ. is a naturally occurring. Peter Kasten. recognized its ability to filter. Wilhelm Berkefeld..236 pixels/ μm. mechanical insecticide. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. the peasant and goods waggoner. similar to pumice powder. a stabilizing component of dynamite. absorbent for liquids.E. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. TheCelle engineer. anti-block in plastic films. cat litter. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. a type of hard-shelled algae. This powder has an abrasive feel. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. matting agent for coatings.

[edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. .1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. used successfully.from diatomaceous earth.  ca. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory.

In Colorado and in Clark. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark.Virginia. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Washington and California. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Nevada (USA). The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). such as this one for swimming pools . [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. but are of low quality. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Oregon. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. France. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods.

due to its physico-sorptive properties. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. sugar. hollow particles. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. [7] taste. with questionable efficacy. as well as in some facial scrubs. In order to be effective as an insecticide. It has a high porosity. especially for swimming pools. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. based on Fick's law of diffusion. foodgrade— see below). [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. since slugs inhabit humid environments. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. causing them to [9] dehydrate. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. or nutritional properties.e.. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. such as beer and wine. for this purpose. and honey without removing or altering their color. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. because it is composed of microscopically small. efficacy is very low. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. and other liquids. It can also filter syrups. It is also used to filter water.. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. However.e. but this method may take weeks to work. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. . [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. coffin-like.

particularly as bonsai soil.S. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. Like perlite. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.vermiculite. including water. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. Fungicide. as [20] well as an insecticide. . As with other silicates. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate.

and has a high silica content (>60%). Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. has a very fine particle size. while draining fast and freely. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Libya. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. it retains water and nutrients. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. which has been widely used for the same purpose. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. and as an insecticide. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. It is produced uncalcinated. which is used as an indigestible marker.and expanded clay. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. For instance. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). the largest single . Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. as feed supplement. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA).

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. .

S. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite.G. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. but it can still develop solution features over time. however. . It is. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite.S. used in some geological publications. In old U. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.

Australia averages 8.e. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. ca. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. India. It is considered the lowest rank of coal.. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. mineral-matter-free basis. often referred to as brown coal.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Russia. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. on the as-received basis (i. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. the United States.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Germany. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. Serbia.5 million BTU/ton). Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. it is mined in Greece.4 MJ/kg (6. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. When reacted with quaternary amine. Poland.

than for comparable black-coal plants. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. particularly in combination with strip mining. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. . The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). [4] Victoria. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification.

which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. Virginia. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. and as a chemical feedstock. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. USA . in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. as aggregate for the base of roads.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite.

During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone may be crystalline. radiolarians). is found near waterfalls. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. diatoms. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. such as stalagmites and stalactites. i. sand. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. such as clay. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. jasper. Tufa. quartz. Crystals of calcite. etc. many limestones exhibit different colors. particularly where there are waterfalls. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). and dissolved ionconcentrations. granular. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. or massive.000 meters. peloids. building upon past generations. organic remains. Like most other sedimentary rocks. limestone recrystallizes into marble. Romania. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Classification Two major classification schemes. iron oxide and other materials. a porous or cellular variety of travertine.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. intraclasts. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. and extraclasts. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Travertine is a banded. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. or it can fill fractures. Because of impurities.e. This produces speleothems. most limestone is composed of grains. flint. including the water temperature. When conditions are right for precipitation. clastic. depending on several factors. and around hot or cold springs.travertine. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. the Folk and the Dunham. depending on the method of formation. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. and varying amounts of clay. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. Below about 3. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. especially onweathered surfaces. pH. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. .

Robert J. and cement (sparite). pot holes. Based on composition. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. The Folk system uses two-part names. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. especially in acid. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. and therefore self-supporting. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Unlike the Folk scheme. matrix (mostly micrite). Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. cenotes. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. These include limestone pavements. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. there are three main components: allochems (grains). Such erosion landscapes are known . the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. not the grains in the sample. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. caves and gorges.

as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. Unique habitats are found on alvars. [9] Michigan. So many buildings in Kingston. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. typically clays. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. While draining. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. England. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). for a long time. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. making it impractical for tall buildings. The Florida Keys. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Ireland. theVerdon Gorge in France. are made of limestone. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Many landmarks across the world. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Examples include the Burren in Co. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. Clare. the only building material available. Sweden. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. and relatively expensive as a building material. Egypt. 2003). Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Ontario. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. islands off the south coast of Florida. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. It is most common in the karsts. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. it is a very heavy material. Notch Peak in Utah. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). . Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. However. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. On the island of Malta. This process is known as bioerosion. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. especially in Europe and North America. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Sweden. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks.

The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. Kansas .

which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. uses limestone. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. in some circumstances. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Train stations. paint. but only in thin plates for covering. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. In the United States. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Glass making. Indiana. plastics. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. since it is hard. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). most notably the Bloomington area. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. such as for poultry (when ground up). rather than solid blocks. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. Used in blast furnaces. paper. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. It is added to toothpaste.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Purified. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. cement and mortar. called Indiana limestone. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. [11] . tiles. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). durable. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. white and black. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. red. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. but the most common colours are tan. pink. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. In the western United States and incentral Australia. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). most [1] sandstone is red. [edit]Uses 17. brown. such as sandstones. . making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. gray. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. Like sand.France. Fine-grained aquifers.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. sandstone may be any colour. yellow.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.

Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. . around 1770. in Freiburg.Germany.

homes. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. It is relatively soft.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. cathedrals. making it easy to carve. and other buildings. and continues to be used. .Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. These are sandstone beverage coasters.

0 mm. clays. Because of the hardness of individual grains. [3] like gypsum and jasper). uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. including siltstones and shales. gritstone. have been found less resistant. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. e. rocks with greater grain sizes.002–0. for sharpening blades and other implements. .0625 mm to 2 mm (0. or chemical. However. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. and silica. some that have been used in the past. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. Utah. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. like chalk and coal. are typically called argillaceous sediments. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England.079 inches). Scale bar is 1.g. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments.. yet are easy to work. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite.

or sea) or from air (as in a desert). as well as central Europe and Mongolia. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. which. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. lake.e. over other construction. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. in a desert or erg).. include its grain size. either from water (as in a stream. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). Typically. First. in finer detail. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. and composition and.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon.g. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages.sorting.. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. Finally. in more general detail. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. i. once it has accumulated. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. Arizona.

Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope.  . Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Deltas 2. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. channel sands) 2. such as hardness and chemical stability. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Alluvial fans 3. Lakes 5. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Offshore bars and sand waves 5.1. point bars. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Rivers (levees. Tidal flats 4. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Glacial outwash 4. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events.

[6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. or other dense. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. and corundum. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. or sedimentary rock. Although. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. magnetite.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. rutile (hence ZTR). The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. scale box at left-center is 0. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. bottom picture is cross-polarized light.25 millimeter. One is to call the . olivine. Common heavy minerals include zircon. metamorphic. upper picture is plane-polarized light. this represents a complete solid solution. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). tourmaline. called lithic fragments or clasts.garnet. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. pyroxene.

such as calcite. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. feldspars. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. and the other is to call it a wacke. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together.  . Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. limonite. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. barite. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock.sandstone an arenite. [6] gypsum. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. and very rarely is in other sandstones. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. anhydrite. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. clay minerals.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. and zeolite minerals.


Mudstones. calcium. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. iron hydroxide (goethite . The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. biotite and illite . iron . magnesium. montmorillonite and illite.greens). Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. in dia. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. especially quartz and calcite. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. Sand grain = 2 mm. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment.browns and limonite [1] yellow). Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. the terms slate.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. called fissility. on the other hand. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals.reds). or micaceous minerals (chlorite. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. sodium. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. Red.

this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. However. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. 'Black shales' are dark.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. in river deltas. uranium. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits.chert. such as in stagnant water columns. dolomite. hematite and albite. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. The enriched values are of controversial origin.and water. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. vanadium. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. These released elements form authigenic quartz. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. calcite. in relatively deep. quiet water. . and zinc. ankerite. reducing environments. black shales were deposited in anoxic. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction.Cumberland Plateau.

As a prehistoric version of Yale University. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. fissile. "Flintstone of Princestone". metamorphic rockknown as slate. The Flintstones. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones").Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. apatite. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". 1961. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. . which originally aired on November 3. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. or various carbonate minerals. then schist and finally to gneiss. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.