BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. also known incorrectly as almandite. It is frequently cut with a convex face.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. or en cabochon. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. and is then known as carbuncle. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. of deep red color. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. inclining to purple. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7.512 Å at 100 K.: /ˈælməndɪn/).5 K.

Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. in Tyrol. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. a name said to be taken from Syriam. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. and are sometimes cut and polished.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. When the color inclines to a violet tint. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Almandine is widely distributed. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. some years ago.

5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.AD.05 (+.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .25.7. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1. -.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red..Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.790 (+/. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 .024 [1] .

and 573nm.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. may also have faint lines at 423. 520. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . 460.

Because of its bright green color when polished. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. More recently. El Paso County. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. although it is easily fractured. orthoclase. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Russia. where it occurs in granitic rocks. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. For many years. . Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. Naturally. Virginia. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Colorado. Colorado. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite.

Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. or green. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. white. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. pale-yellow. . it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. or amazonite. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. brick-red. It is common in granite and pegmatites.Colorado. Amazon stone. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. viewed under a polarizing microscope. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. Microcline may be clear. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. however. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin.

also known as hydroxylapatite. named for high concentrations of OH . Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Cl or ions.Cl)2. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems.F . fluorapatite and chlorapatite. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. in the mid-20th century. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH.F. Hydroxyapatite. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. in the crystal. Similarly. sodium . A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries.g. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. respectively.

Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. pink. compact or granular . less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. massive. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. brown. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.BN. prismatic crystals. usually green. yellow. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. less often colorless.[1] Crystal habit Tabular.Cl. sodium monofluorophosphate).fluoride.OH) Strunz classification 08.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. blue to violet. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.

green stones – greenish yellow . [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.638 (+0.16–3. blue and yellow to colorless.634–1. −0.006)[1] Birefringence 0.002–0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.012.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.[1] Dispersion 0. Other colors are weak to very weak.

violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.which is stronger in long wave.[1] . light purple in short wave.


aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. naturally occurring. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Spain). some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. [citation Aragonite . The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. In the USA. in others. resulting in a different crystal shape. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. the entire shell is aragonite. The mineral vaterite. [edit]Uses In aquaria. An aragonite cave. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. also known as μ-CaCO3. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. respectively. It is formed by biological and physical processes. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. one of the two common. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). is situated in Slovakia. In some mollusks.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines.

15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . internally banded . columnar. acicular. stalactitic. globular. prismatic crystals. reniform. green . Z = 4 Identification Color White.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.96 Å. c = 5. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. orange. yellow. coralloidal. pisolitic. b = 7.AB. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine.95 Å.74 Å. Aude department. red.

5-4 Luster Vitreous.680 .Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.530 nβ = 1.685 .1. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.1.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.529 .686 Birefringence δ = 0.682 nγ = 1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.1. white or . yellow.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.

phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV). yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish.

Na)(Mg. [edit]Characteristics . meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Al.Al)2O6.Ti)(Si.Fe. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. Augite has two prominent cleavages.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca.

It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. Augite . for example. meaning "brightness".0 x 2. brown or [2] black) luster. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. With declining temperature. leucite. titanium. which is from the Greekaugites. but mostly of temperature. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. and sodium and other elements. It is found near the Ken River.4 x 3. labradorite.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. olivine. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. sanidine. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite.

Al.844 Å. brown. violet-brown.DA.97°. b = 8.699 Å. β = 106. greenish. also acicular.272 Å.Augite . dendritic .Ti)(Si. c = 5. in thin section.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. Z=4 Identification Color Black. skeletal.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Na)(Mg.Fe. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.

green.735. violet. pale yellow-green.741.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Y = pale brown.774 Birefringence δ = 0.680 .1. pale brown.1. violet . greenish yellow. nβ = 1. nγ = 1.026 .706 .19 . grayish green.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.3. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. Z = pale green.0.1.684 .


since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. From Tsumeb. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). France. and unknown white crystals. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. has been known since ancient times. a carbonate. . The mineral. With azurite. Namibia.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association.

. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. the other being bright green malachite. Characteristic of a carbonate. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions.5 to 4.77 to 3.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.89. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. and are often stalactitic in form. Azurite is soft. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. carbonate and hydroxide. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. powdery copper(II) oxide.

Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . a similar but much more expensive pigment. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. Ultramarine withstands heat. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. However. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. in the silver mines located there. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. However. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. such as saltwater aquariums. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. it gave a wide range of blues. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). a term applied to many blue pigments. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. and also as an ornamental stone. Heating destroys azurite easily. France. and its basic content of copper carbonate. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media.

the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. dark. General . collectors should use a cool. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. However. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. heat. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. bright light.

b = 5.43°.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue.35 Å. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. β = 92.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. fair on {100}.5 to 4 . Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. Berlin blue. very dark to pale blue. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. c = 10. prismatic. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.01 Å. twin planes {101}. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. stalactitic.85 Å.BA.

838 Birefringence δ = 0.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.730 nβ = 1. 3. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.758 nγ = 1.773 (measured).

recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. the clay mineral kaolinite. . The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. and shale. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. gneiss. syenite. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. In the case of Jamaica. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France.basalt. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone.

will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. India.[edit]Production trends In 2010. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. followed by China. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. . Brazil. and Guinea. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Increased aluminium recycling.

Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.Sr)SO4. or barite. and is the main [1] source of barium.BARITE Baryte. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. celestine. [edit]Names [2] and history . The baryte group consists of baryte.

The American [2][7] spelling is barite. but rather a material that meets that specification. including barytine. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. [2] Heavy associations and locations . flotation. Most baryte is ground to a small. Other names have been used for baryte. [8] barytes. and blanc fixe. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. [2] [3] Spar. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. jigging. [8] schwerspath. such as washing. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). an addition to industrial products. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. tabling.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. heavy media separation. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. tiff. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte.

It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. in hot spring deposits. Scotland. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. . Perthshire. among others. and evaporation. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. hydrothermal. and with hematite ore. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones.

Virginia. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit.2 or greater.600). data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. De Kalb. Liberia. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. UK (Cornwall. the bit passes through various formations. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). Iran (250). either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. New York & Fort Wallace. Morocco. India. Muirshiel [2] Mine. Connecticut. chemically inert. Tennessee. [edit]Paleothermometry . Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. New Mexico. and paint.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Morocco (460). Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). by weight. Canada. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Cumbria. Greece. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black.Perthshire. Chile. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Romania (Baia Sprie). United States (670). Nevada & Missouri. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. Iran.Kentucky. Thailand.000). sound reduction in engine compartments. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Durham. by weight. As a well is drilled. can be less than 6 μm diameter. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. and no more than 30%. India [12] (1. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Turkey. paper. blue. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. It is mined in Arkansas. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. North [2] Carolina. Connecticut. Georgia. China. each with different characteristics. Peru. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. radiation-shielding cement. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. The deeper the hole. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Derbyshire. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100).

Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. . Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. away from continental sources of sediment.

and [5] the English word brilliance. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. and white. also meaning "shine". the Spanish word brillo. yellow. red. possible colors are green. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. from Sanskrit vaidurya-.BERYL In geology. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. blue. [edit]Deposits . veḷiru ( ). theFrench word brille meaning "shine". [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". Pure beryl is colorless. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. Old French: beryl.

It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Espírito Santo. and weighing 380. such as that occurring in Brazil. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. and limestone inColombia. InWyoming. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. neutrons or even X-rays). 18 meters [6] long and 3. North Carolina.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. Mozambique. Maine. Mainewith dimensions 5. though the color returns with irradiation. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . South Dakota and Utah.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Colorado. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. beryl locations are in California. Sweden (especially morganite). and Zambia. Colombia.5 meters in diameter. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. and 2+ 3+ . near Powder River Pass. New Hampshire. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. as well as Brazil. In the United States. South Africa. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Connecticut.5 m by 1. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. Madagascar. Clear yellow beryl. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. the United States. As of 1999. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. Ireland and Russia. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. U. Austria. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. and Bahia. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt.S. In Brazil. Germany.000 kilogrammes. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. Idaho. Madagascar.

Minas Gerais. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. Brazil. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Madagascar. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). In the US. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. Malawi. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. which has been on the market since 1964. Zambia. as such.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. and Chivor. Afghanistan and Russia. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. such as Zambia. Zimbabwe. [15] [7][14] . emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Most emeralds are highly included. Pakistan. and its dimensions were 48. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. The mines of Colombia. meaning "green". Madagascar. in 1910. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Coscuez. It weighed over 110 kg. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. It is named for the trapiche.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. In 1998. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Brazil.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. marakata (म कन). The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.. North Carolina. India. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan.

D.C. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. The name originates from Goshen. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. Washington. However. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. In the past. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. golden beryl has very few flaws.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Nowadays. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. . Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. Unlike emerald. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions.

California. However. "pink emerald". Sc. and Co impurities. because of the . Fe.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. Thomas [26][27] Range. "rose beryl". The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. Morgan. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. V. also known as "pink beryl"." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. at Pala. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. 1989. its type locality. and color banding is common. On October 7. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. green.Maine. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. Utah. Juab County. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. with other gemstone minerals. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. P. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. The crystal. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. such astourmaline and kunzite. Ti. goshenite can be colored yellow. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. USA. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. In December 1910. originally somewhat orange in hue. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). It was also known. pink.

aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain.orthoclase.Sierra County.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. topaz.CJ. quartz. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. pseudobrookite and hematite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Utah. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. New [1] Mexico. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. spessartine.000 per carat for faceted stones. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". [28] of Fillmore. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. while he was prospecting for uranium.05 . Beaver County. Utah. Utah. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. and Juab County.

colorless.50 Color Green. columnar. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. c = 9. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.19 Å. radial. yellow. blue.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent .Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7.21 Å.

602 Birefringence δ = 0.564–1.595 nε = 1.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.0040–0.568–1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce. but the stone itself does not) .Specific gravity Average 2.

and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. More generally. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot.L. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. aluminium. silicon. [4] discovering many unique properties. Iron. oxygen. Biotite is a sheet silicate. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . magnesium. Biotite was named by J.OH)2. who.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. it refers to the dark mica series. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. in 1816.F.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. researched the optical properties of mica.

It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. and a grey-white streak. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. especially in pegmatite veins. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. fracture is uneven. or lamellae. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. and consists of flexible sheets. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. Ontario. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. which easily flake off. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. and even yellow when weathered. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. It can be transparent to opaque. as in New England. in some instances side-by-side. has a vitreous to pearly luster. For instance.than phlogopite. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. . The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. When biotite is found in large chunks. It appears greenish to brown or black. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. Norway. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Virginia and North Carolina. It has amonoclinic crystal system.

blackish brown. yellow. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. less common on the {001} .5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. greenish brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.53 g Color Dark brown.

8–3.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.625 nβ = 1.675 nγ = 1.565–1.605–1.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.605–1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.03–0.5–3.7–3. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .1 Density 2.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).675 Birefringence δ = 0.

[edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. also known as peacock ore.

. Zimbabwe. eastern Tirol. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Karlovy Vary Region. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Talate. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. the Mangula mine.Lomagundi district. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Illogan. Austria. from the N’ouva mine. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.3 x 3. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. S. and elsewhere in Cornwall.Connecticut in the U.Mexico (size: 7. Kazakhstan. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.England. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales.5 x 4. Montana and at Bristol. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Morocco. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

The world's largest known geode. In carbonate marine sediments. Crystal Cave.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. Ohio. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed.The mineral is found worldwide. Celestine . unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. usually in small quantities. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.

Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. white.866 Å. black .359 Å. pale blue. pale green. pink. c = 6.AD.352 Å. pale brown. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. b = 5.

poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .3. earthy.1. lamellar. also fibrous.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.95 . good on {210}.624 nγ = 1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.622 .619 .632 Birefringence δ = 0.622 nβ = 1.5 Luster Vitreous.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.630 .1.3.1.

long UV=yellow. white blue . white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.

. On exposure to air.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. chalcocite (Cu2S).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. digenite (Cu9S5). covellite (CuS). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. Copper is shown in pink. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. hydroxides and sulfates.

etc. Mn. Se. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal.8 x 6. Ontario.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. . Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. molybdenite representing Mo. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Cr. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Pd. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. the American cordillera and the Andes. Pb. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Ni. However.3 x 4. In. and trace amounts of Ag. V. Au.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. and Sb are reported. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Pt. from huge masses as at Timmins.

Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Colorado. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Ouray County. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine.CB.

289 Å.1 – 4. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. c = 10.Unit cell a = 5. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.3 . commonly massive.54 Color Brass yellow.423 Å. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. and sometimes botryoidal.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. a building material. fungicides. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. Characteristics . a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. needed] In sufficient concentration. Decorative art prominently features copper. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. In the Roman era. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. both by itself and as part of pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. and wood preservatives. Pure copper is soft and malleable. later shortened to сuprum. and a constituent of various metal alloys. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. muscle and bone.

At the macroscopic scale. For this reason. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. Copper. galvanic corrosion will occur. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. and osmium (bluish). if copper is placed [6] against another metal. such as grain boundaries. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. As with other metals. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice.Physical A copper disc (99. above which it begins to heat excessively. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow).6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature.

Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Edinburgh. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. bulk corrosion. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. It does not react with water. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. such as the Statue of Liberty. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. this oxide layer stops the further. respectively.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light.

where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. Cu and Cu are stable.83 hours.7 hours. which has [13] a half-life of 12. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61.2×3.4×3. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4.There are 29 isotopes of copper. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. US. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. they both have a spin of 3/2. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. [15] . The other isotopes are radioactive. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. Cu.8 minutes. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications.2 cm. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. Native copper is a polycrystal. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. decays both ways.

and wood. Transparent specimens are used as gems. titanium and chromium. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. with an average hardness near 8. but can have different colors when impurities are present.. and the mix is less abrasive. It is a rock-forming mineral. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen.0. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. plastics.02 g/cm . [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. e. It is commonly used as anabrasive. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. it can scratch almost every other mineral. All other colors are called sapphire.0 Mohs). The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. In addition to its hardness.g.

Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. New York. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Russia.000 °C (3. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. In 1847.8 in × 1 in). In 1903. gneiss.Corundum from Brazil. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. . [4] Ontario. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. [4] USA. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite.632 °F). silicon carbide. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. Sri Lanka and India.

3. and laser components.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. Apart from ornamental uses. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes.1. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. scratch-resistant watch crystals. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). and other machined parts). Al2O3 Strunz classification 04.05 Dana classification 4. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. rods.1 . bearings. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. scratchresistant optics.CB.

blue to cornflower blue. violet.982 Å. rhombohedral crystals. tabular. brown. prismatic. gray. pink to pigeon-blood-red. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. may be color zoned. translucent toopaque . asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. orange.75 Å.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. yellow. c = 12. green.

Specific gravity 3.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.772 nε = 1.759–1.hematite.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.95–4.767–1. or hercynite .

green. black. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. orange. . pink. brown or gray to colorless.CB.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. translucent white.10a Identification Formula mass 12. Less often blue. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. purple and red. violet.

5–3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.52±0.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.044 .01 Density 3.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

often as a result of diagenesis.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. In 1791. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. [edit]Properties . Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone.S. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. or in old U.

due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. It forms white. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. where organic matter content is high. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. Unlike calcite. although it is usually massive. namely. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. gray to pink. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. Arkansas.e. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. . having a different structural arrangement.g. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. i. In the 1950s and 60s. dolomite is a double carbonate. Crystal twinning is common. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog.

The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. White Mountains.Dolomite. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". textural and chemical characteristics. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. California. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. . However. in a 1999 study.

6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone.2×4.4×7. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Kansas(size: 11. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Dolomite . Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Cherokee County. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. a concrete aggregate. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. and copper. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. In horticulture. zinc.

gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals.AB. Z = 3 Identification Color White.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05.8012(1) Å. c = 16. often with curved faces. 3 Unit cell a = 4. also columnar. massive. granular. Crystal system Trigonal . stalactitic.002 Å.

5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.179–0. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.681 nε = 1.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. triboluminescent. .84–2.500 Birefringence δ = 0.679–1. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.

Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. the color. It displays strong pleochroism.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). and the specific gravity. grey." 3+ . the optical constants. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. the pleochroic colors being usually green. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. brown or nearly black. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. yellow and brown. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. Ca2Al2(Fe . The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. The color is green.

Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. but one of secondary origin. calcite. as magnificent. and apatite. amphiboles. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. Arendal in Norway. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. withasbestos. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. garnets. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. pyroxenes. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. micas. here as large. The perfectly transparent. dark green. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. Haddam inConnecticut. adularia. and others) composing igneous rocks. . dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist.

granite. and well-developed crystals are rare. yellowish-. sometimes a foot in length. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. after whom the species was named. Piemontite occurs as small. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. Although not a common mineral. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. gneiss. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. and opaque in the mass. being black or dark brown in color. Dollaseite is less common. andesite. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. there is little or no cleavage. further. and many different names applied. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. and others.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. near Falun in Sweden. near Ivrea in Piedmont. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. syenite. and greenish-brown colors. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. at Finbo. rhyolite. Epidote . pitchy in lustre. reddish-black.

greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green.3–3. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3. fibrous.6 . yellow-green.

715–1.725–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.734–1.019–0.784 nγ = 1.751 nβ = 1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.046 Pleochroism Strong .

" because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. of plagioclase. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. . The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. While slowly cooling within the earth. Typically.

their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. and as a constituent of scouring powder. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Russia.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. It measured ~10×10×0. Most moonstones are translucent and white. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . It is the state gem of Florida.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. Germany. In gemology. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. some ceramics. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. such as porcelain.

Cleavages intersect at 90°. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Greyish yellow.63 Optical Biaxial (-).55–2. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. 2V = 65–75 .(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. Greenish. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. White.

properties Refractive index nα = 1.522–1.525 Birefringence 0. Other characteristics Low negative relief . Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.0050–0.522–1.518–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.524 nγ = 1.520 nβ = 1.

It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. It is the most important lead ore mineral. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. calcite and fluorite.

cadmium. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Smolyan Province. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Illinois.1×3. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Iowa and Wisconsin. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Derbyshire. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Saxony. England. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. USA (size: 5. Of the latter. in a process similar to bioleaching. the former mining town of Galena. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. In the United States. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. Cornwall. Utah and Montana. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral.2×2. antimony. Broken Hill.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. Bulgaria. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Rhodope Mountains. and Cumberland. the Madan. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. In addition zinc. Somerset.S.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. .Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. The Mendips. Missouri. Idaho. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois.

The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. in Ancient Egypt. In modern wireless communication systems. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. For example. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. which was known as a "cat's whisker". in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. which were a potential source of disease. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. however. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Isle of [5] Man. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. U. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.g.K. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. which. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices.

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.10 Dana classification 2.8.5–2. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. space group Fm3m. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001]. 225 Twinning Contact.936 Å.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02.CD.75 . No.1.

Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.

5 range. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore.3. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O.5. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. The hardness is variable. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. and jarosite. Although originally defined as a single mineral. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown.akaganeite. lepidocrocite. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. but limonite does not. but generally in the 4 . although specimens may show a [6] .GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. among them goethite. the other being hematite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.7 to 4.

botryoidal. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. sometimes mammillary. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. Complex systems developed. and biotite. burnt umbers and siennas. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. pyroxene. Before smelting. producing red ochres. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. to process limonite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. amphibole. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. in Africa. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. and hematite was far easier to smelt. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. Because of its amorphous nature. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. reniform or stalactitic. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. [10] California mining district. Nonetheless. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. Main article: Ochre#History . In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. hematite and magnetite. [12] notably in Tanzania. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils.

5½ . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.

9 .3 Density .Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. which have been used in mining. is insoluble in nitric acid. in 1932. giving rise to the term theacid test. which dissolves silver and base metals. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. in veins and in alluvial deposits. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. so named because it dissolves gold. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. soft. usually with tellurium. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. with huge war debts. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. Chemically. In Europe. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. as nuggets or grains in rocks. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. . shiny. malleable and ductile metal. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. jewelry. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). it occurs in minerals as gold compounds.GOLD Gold is a dense. Less commonly.S. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. It dissolves in mercury. forming amalgam alloys.

Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin.7 m on a side. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element.A total of 171. . and other fields. 40% in [3] investments. ductility. in terms of volume. or a cube 20. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Its highmalleability. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. includingelectric wiring. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. electronics. colored-glass production and gold leafing. and 10% in industry.5 billion troy ounces or. This is roughly equivalent to 5.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. about 8876 m . Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold.

and is probably hydrothermal in origin. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. for its use in pencils. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. consequently. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. 3. There are three principal types of natural graphite. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). flat. the last stage of coalification. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. "to draw/write". a semimetal. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. 2. graphite is an electrical conductor. Therefore. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. It is. . useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular.

North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). respectively. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Graphite .18 billion. calcite. in particular. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. China is the largest producer of graphite. [7] totaling 73% of all global production.S. micas and tourmaline. but U. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. U. Brazil (76 kt). Graphite is not mined in the United States.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.S.110 thousand tonnes (kt). as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. India (130 kt). graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite.

c = 6. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.CB.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .708 Å. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.461 Å.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray. six-sided foliatedmasses.

09–2. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.

it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. As foranhydrite. (Thus. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. cleavable masses called selenite. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. referring to its crystalline projections. Selenite may also occur in a silky. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. called alabaster.5 g/l at 25°C) and. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). "spear stone". causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. [edit]Occurrence . it may also be granular or quite compact. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. Upon addition of water. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. Selenite contains no significantselenium. and transparent. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. Finally. it is alabaster. When the crystal lattice is heated. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. in the form of selenite. In arid areas. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. in contrast to most other salts. It can be used as afertilizer. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. and in the early 19th century. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. typically opaque. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O.0–2. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. As a mineral. rather. with embedded sand grains called desert rose.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. "chalk" or "plaster". which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. In hand-sized samples. fibrous form. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it exhibits a retrograde solubility.

was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Under reducing conditions. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Blue Anchor. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. UK.000 years. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is a common mineral. as well as in hot springs. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. . and sulfate solutions inveins. Pure gypsum is white. from volcanic vapors. strongly opposed by area residents. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. Somerset. However. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. Wyoming. Commercial exploitation of the area. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers.

522(6) Å. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. blue.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. β = 118.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty.CD. c = 6. tan.43°. pink. b = 15. brown. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. may be yellow.202(14) Å. reddish brown or gray .679(5) Å.

inelastic. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. pearly.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.519–1.530 Birefringence δ = 0.522–1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. flat.529–1.523 nγ = 1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.31–2. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.010 .5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.521 nβ = 1. Mohs scalehardness 1.

slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. one of several iron oxides. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). but much more brittle. or other standing water. or red. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Hematite is a mineral.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. brown to reddish brown. . also spelled as haematite. spring. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. usually as the result of volcanic activity. Varieties includekidney ore. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). Hematite is harder than pure iron. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Maghemite is a hematite. or otherwise highly weathered soils. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Hematite can also occur without water. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. however. they all have a rust-red streak. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. While the forms of hematite vary. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. ancient.HEMATITE Hematite. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite).

Fe2O3. dull to bright red . c = 13.772(12) Å. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.038(2) Å.CB.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.

micaceous or platy.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.940 Birefringence δ = 0.280 . granular.220. radiating fibrous. reniform. earthy.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.870–2.150–3. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5–6. columnar. commonly in rosettes. nε = 2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

Al)5(Al. and an iron-magnesium silicate.F)2. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. a specific gravity of 2.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). . a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate.4 and is typically an opaque green. but the name is used as a general or field term. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.Fe. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.Si)8O22(OH.Na)2–3(Mg. brown or black color. to refer to a dark amphibole. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right. The general formula can be given as (Ca.9–3.

both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. gabbro. basalt. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. from its locality in Edenville. Al)5 (Al. andesite. Orange County. New York. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . is gray to white in color. syenite. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. andschist. gneiss. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. and named edenite. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Fe. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. diorite.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong .

yellow or light orange colors. giving it a distinct rust hue. It is a layered silicate mineral. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. It is a soft. calaba. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. In many parts of the world. [edit]Chemistry [6] . United States. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". In Africa. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Alternating layers are sometimes found.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. pinyin: Gaoling). usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. earthy. a village near Jingdezhen. China. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). part of the group of industrial minerals. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. Lighter concentrations yield white. Jiangxi province.

and highly crystalline cristobalite. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. Si3Al4O12. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Al2Si2O7. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. [edit]Occurrence . S = SiO2. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. H = H2O.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. however. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin.

In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Kaolinite . Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. France.Korea. it is mined. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. Germany. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. Australia. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. as kaolin.5 million tonnes. [1] the People's Republic of China. the Czech Republic and the United States. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. in Brazil. Iran. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Bulgaria.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. India. United Kingdom.

13 Å. Z = 2 Identification Color White.5°.25 Å.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. α = 90°. γ = 89. aggregated into compact. c = 7. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. β = 104.89 Å. thin plates or stacked.8°. sometimes red. b = 8. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.ED.

Mohs scalehardness 2–2.569–1.569.559–1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.16–2. Calculated: 44° .5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. nβ = 1.553–1.565. nγ = 1.

greisens and granites. California.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. andMadagascar. Notable occurrences include Brazil. Lepidolite . topaz and beryl. tourmaline. It occurs in granite pegmatites. Ural Mountains. cassiterite. feldspar.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. Manitoba. Russia. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series.Si)3O10(F. Bernic Lake. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis.spodumene. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. United States. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. columbite. Canada. Tanco Mine. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. amblygonite. in some high-temperature quartz veins.

011(5) Å c = 10.Lepidolite.Si)3O10(F.1 x 0. Minas Gerais.209(2) Å b = 9.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. purple.EC. Virgem da Lapa. colorless .4 x 2. Brazil (size 2. rose-red.149(5) Å. white. violet-gray.Cm Unit cell a = 5.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. β = 100:77(4)°. yellowish.

Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.548.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.0290–0.8–2. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.554– 1. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.525–1.58° measured .5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.551–1. nγ=1.58. pale violet 2V angle 0° . Y = Z = pink. nβ=1.586 Birefringence 0.

The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. Commonly. hematite.. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. will attract small pieces of iron. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. called lodestone. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing .e. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. and ulvospinel have been much studied.

Z=8 Identification Color Black. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. including banded iron formations. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization.BB. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. In many igneous rocks. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.III) oxide. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.085 °F). Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. 1.397 Å.

Crystal habit Octahedral.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .17–5. parting on {Ill}.5–6. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. the spinel law. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.

Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. deep underground.000 years. Middle French: melochite. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Since then. This opaque. "The Tazza". [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. . in fractures and spaces. which features a huge malachite vase. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. "mallow". verditer amongst other synthetic greens. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. "mallow-green stone". one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. variant of καιάχε malāchē. and most often forms botryoidal. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. fibrous. The pigment is moderately lightfast. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. or stalagmitic masses. a large malachite vase. It is also used for decorative purposes.

Mexico. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.10 Identification Formula mass 221. goethite. the source of the carbonate.1 g/mol Color Bright green. Gabon. Tsumeb. New South [7] Wales. Israel.Zambia. and calcite. blackish green. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Russia. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Namibia.BA. Broken Hill. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. France.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Except for its vibrant green color. . Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. dark green. Lyon. Timna valley. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona.

commonly banded in masses. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.254 . botryoidal.655 nβ = 1. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. Polysynthetic twinning also present. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. silky if fibrous.5–4.909 Birefringence δ = 0. stalactitic.875 nγ = 1.

MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. or (rarely) violet or red. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. isinglass. yellows. The green. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. and can be transparent or translucent. [4] . It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic.OH)2.25 parallel to the [001] face. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. Its crystal system is monoclinic. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. greens. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). browns. India.

OH)2 Strunz classification 09. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. etc.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. Minas Gerais. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant.kyanite. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.15 Dana classification 71. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.9×4.3×3.02a. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . gneisses. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.EC.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. morganite) from Paprok. pegmatites. and schists.8×3.Muscovite with beryl (var. feldspar. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. found in granites.02. In pegmatites.

106 Å. β = 95. silky.576 .78°.027 Å. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.552–1.199 Å. grey. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. c = 20.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m).76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. Z = 4 Identification Color White. b = 9.Unit cell a = 5.

618 Birefringence δ = 0.587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .035 – 0.615 nγ = 1.nβ = 1.582–1.

Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). magnesium and iron. almost 1900 °C. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). Fo 70Fa30). silicon.Fe)2SiO4. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). [edit]Identification and paragenesis . It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.. as do other properties.g. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C).

though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. USA. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15.. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Gila Co. Arizona. .

Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. 12 GPa. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. moreover. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. 2012). Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. in the dust of comet Wild 2.Fe)2Si2O6). mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. collections of debris from the early solar system. the French word for olivine). but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. First X-ray view of Martian soil . from the Greek words for gold and stone). Such meteorites include chondrites. October 17. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. pyroxenes. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Mars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. and .g. because olivine is so abundant. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. the Moon. In contrast. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. or forsterite.feldspar. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. falling into infant stars. andpallasites. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite.

the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. while M1 exists on an inversion center. O3 lies in a general position. and magnesium/iron in blue. Oxygen is shown in red. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. In an alternative view. silicon in pink. O2 and O3 in figure 1). two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. O1. O2. Olivine . meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7 Luster Vitreous .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

630–1.650 nβ = 1.650–1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670 nγ = 1.670–1.27–3.040 .690 Birefringence δ = 0.

For gemstone use. magenta. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. brown. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. Of these hues. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. rose. whereas white and greens are the most common. gray. not a mineral. green. [edit]Precious opal . Opal ranges from clear through white. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. olive. being most commonly found withlimonite. slate. yellow.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . like basalt. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. orange. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. rhyolite. and black. a mineraloid form. marl and basalt. pink. sandstone. the reds against black are the most rare. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. blue. red.

. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

The top layer also acts as a magnifier. it has an internal structure. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. or obsidian. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. . unlike triplet opals. Contrarily. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. which is often of lower quality. which is correctly termed play of color. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction.Australian Opal Doublet. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. In addition. and are not classed as precious opal. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. of which opal is the best known natural example. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. Potch does not show a play of color. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. basalt. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

also called siliceous sinter. hyalite. geyserite. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. which is brown or grey. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. wood opal. orange-yellow or red. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). orange. menilite. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. resin opal. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. They do not usually show any play of color. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. or star . these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals.

Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. It weighs 17. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced.effect. Queensland. It does not display pleochroism. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Queensland . White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. Boulder Opal. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. when cut properly. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. However. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm).

585 carats. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. known as the "Black Peacock. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. Nevada. closely related to boulder opal. white. bones. and lemon opal. Bonanza." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Idaho." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. fire. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. from Kynuna in the north. Royal Peacock. [citation needed] [12] A . The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. and weighs 2. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. and marine creatures in South Australia. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. and a snake head have been found. is the main source of black opal. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Another Australian town. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Opal Queen. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. weighing 160 carats. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. and black opal. fish. crystal. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. crystal opal. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Miocene age opalised teeth.

7 by 0.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. brown. yellow. white. black. Hungary. Turkey. Brazil (inPedro II. orange. red.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. Honduras. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. In late 2008. in masses. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . Piauí ). The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. green. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. [19] Slovakia. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. Indonesia. Guatemala. [20] Opal An opal bracelet.

37. transparent Specific gravity 2. or yellow in long and short wave.Mohs scalehardness 5. may phosphoresce. -.450 (+.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. but typically reads 1.90)[1] Density 2.020. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. -. green.15 (+.08.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.[1] . often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. may phosphoresce. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.42–1.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. May also phosphoresce. translucent.

Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. methanol.humic acid. hydrofluoric acid . 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. bases.

PYRITE The mineral pyrite. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. or iron pyrite. sedimentary rock. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. In ancient Roman times.37 wt% gold. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. By Georgius Agricola's time. "of fire" or "in fire". This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. as well as in coal beds. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. "fire". In the Carlin–type gold deposits. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). and as a replacement mineral in fossils. in turn from πύρ (pur). Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. brazzle and Brazil. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. [edit]Uses . and metamorphic rock. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal.

Until the vacuum tube matured. most notably the wheellock. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Marcasite jewelry. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. In the 15th century. La Rioja. . and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). often set in silver. Navajún. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. was popular in the Victorian era. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. it had become the [12] dominant method. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. iron(II) sulfate.95 eV. that is. By the 19th century. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm.

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.417 Å. Rioja. 512 g. Z=4 .05a Dana classification 2. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.12.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.1.EB.

partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. massive. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6.5 Luster Metallic.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. Often inter-grown.5–3 to a magnetic globule . but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. radiated. granular.95–5. faces may be striated.10 Fusibility 2. globular and stalactitic. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

distorted. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. after feldspar. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). The . The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. space group P6221 and P6421. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. only one termination pyramid is present. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. respectively. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Polish twardy ("hard")). There are many different varieties of quartz. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. giving an overall formula SiO2.

see Citrine (disambiguation). The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. sard. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. Common colored varieties include citrine. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. and others. are agate. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. or mixed rocks including quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. and is rarely found naturally. Citrine has ferric impurities. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). but they differ in hardness. Quartz goes by an array of different names. milky quartz. carnelian. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. such as the Lothair Crystal. without change in the way they are linked. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. smoky quartz. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. and jasper. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. onyx. amethyst. heliotrope. Natural citrines are rare. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. and has often been used for hardstone carvings.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November.transformation between α. . rose quartz. For other uses.

iron. Maine. Magaliesburg. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. in the massive material. Brazil. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. USA. . Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. or manganese. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color.

[edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.

although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. Agate Multi-colored. colorless Amethyst Purple. Rock crystal Clear. parallel and consistent in size. banded chalcedony. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. transparent . typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. Otherwise more specific names are used. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. This does not always hold true. liquid. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. or both. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. trapped during the crystal formation. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. exhibiting chatoyancy. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral.

Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent. translucent to opaque. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. transparent Rose quartz Pink. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .

Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. fine-grained to microcrystalline.03.DA. drusy. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.9133 Å.05 Dana classification 75.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.4053 Å. c = 5.01. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.

may betriboluminescent.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .59–2.545 nε = 1.554 Birefringence +0.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.543–1.65.552–1. variable 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001} .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.738 nβ = 1.724 .5 .741 nγ = Birefringence δ = 0.57 .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.714 . Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .

for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Latin: argentum. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. utensils (hence the term silverware). gold. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). and is used as an investment. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. further research into clinical potential continues. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. both from the Indo-European root*arg. high-value tableware. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. A soft. Today. jewelry. lead. Its compounds are used in photographic film. lustrous transition metal. . to make ornaments.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. white. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. and currency coins. and zinc refining. free form (native silver). as an alloy with gold and other metals.

SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Canada. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. with a polished rock surface. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. nosean. lazurite and tugtupite. .

in the USA. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. West Greenland. cancrinite and natrolite. Occurring typically in massive form. particularly. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. British Columbia. near Golden. sodalite may also be grey. albite. sanidine. yellow. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. fluorite. sodalite is named after its sodium content. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. contains sodalite. Well known for its blue color. [3] titanian andradite. The Ice River [5] complex. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. Arkansas. shortwave ultraviolet light. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. microcline. and Mont-SaintHilaire. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Other associated minerals include nepheline. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. and Magnet Cove. Quebec. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Conversely. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Maine. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. namelyleucite. calcite. the violet will fade again. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. aegirine. If left in a dark environment for some time.ankerite and baryte. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. and Litchfield. [1] Narsaq. green. in Canada. Ontario. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or.A light. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. Smaller deposits are found in South .

FB. Portugal. Burma and Russia. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. violet.America (Brazil and Bolivia). yellow. white veining common . Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Italy. Euhedral. green. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Romania.876(6) Å. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8.

Crystal habit Massive.1.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. sodium .5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.483 .27-2. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV. with yellowishphosphorescence.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

mostly opaque. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar . Magnesium.OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.

It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. It is the official state mineral of the U. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. Samples are also found in Taos. Norway. In handsamples. New Mexico. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. Virginia. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. depth. Keivy Mountains. kyanite. called penetration twinning. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. with the twinning displaying optical continuity.S. biotite. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. . Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. Kola Peninsula. It occurs with almandine garnet. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. as well as albite. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. micas. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County.

pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. b = 16. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .AF.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7. c = 5.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. yellowish brown.86 Å.Murmanskaja Oblast'.45°. β = 90. Russia.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. 2.5 x 2. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.6 Å.65 Å. rarely blue. Northern Region.

weak .83 meas.736 .754 nγ = 1. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. 3.762 Birefringence δ = 0.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .747 nβ = 1. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.3.740 .74 . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.686 calc.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.009 . . Y = pale yellow.1.7.015 Pleochroism X = colorless.


It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. Its streak is white. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. a clear or dusty luster. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.5– 2. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. [edit]Formation . Talc is not soluble in water.8. and is translucent to opaque. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. although slightly flexible. It has a perfect basal cleavage.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It has a specific gravity of 2. and the folia are non-elastic. In loose form.

[edit]Occurrence .A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. This is typically associated with high-pressure. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. and are known as whiteschist. friable. and fibrous. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. amphibole. pyroxene. olivine. garnet. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. Such rocks are typically white.

Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. layered ultramafic intrusion. from Brazil.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). formed upon a polydeformed. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. the Guiana Shield. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. Western Australia. the western European Alps especially in Italy. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. India. Oman and the Middle East. eastern Australia.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. Nepal and Bhutan. representing 8% of world production.

290 Å.90°.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. α = 98. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. b = 9. β = 119.3°. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. b = 9. c = 18. c = 5.173 Å.09°. β = 99. γ = 90.68°.158 Å.EC. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .291 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.287 Å. brown.95 Å. Z = 2 or a = 5.

58 to 2.600 Birefringence δ = 0. long UV=yellow .589 – 1.550 nβ = 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.538 – 1.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.589 – 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.594 nγ = 1.

and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.OH)2. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

It can also be made white. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County.Sweden. Brazil. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. gold. Flinders Island. sometimes even violet. pink or violet colored. pale gray. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. is the traditional November birthstone. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . typical topaz is wine. pale green. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah.5 carats. colorless. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. a more recent gem. Nigeria and the United States. blue. Japan. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas.75 carats. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Orange topaz. Italy. Germany. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Australia. measured a massive 22. the symbol of [5] friendship. reddish-orange. pink (rare. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. Imperial topaz is yellow. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Typically. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Norway. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. if natural) or pink-orange. also known as precious topaz.892. gold. in Afghanistan. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Mexico. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. Sri Lanka. Czech Republic. pink (rare). Pakistan. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. The American Golden Topaz. yellow. or blue brown. The Topaz of Aurangzeb.

and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. [edit]History Nicols. both of which predate the Greek word. a topaz. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". etymology. the ancient name of St. In the Middle Ages. [edit]Biblical background." However. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). some scholars think it is related to . because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. Minas Gerais. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above.

[citation needed] More likely. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4( Assyrian word meaning "flashed". c = 8.AF.OH)2 Strunz classification 9.4 Å. "fiery". pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). metaphorically. = yellow. Z = 4 .35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. b = 8.8 Å.65 Å. meaning "yellow burn" or.

606–1. yellow. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.638 . green. orange.629 nβ = 1.49–3.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.616–1. also columnar.609–1.631 nγ = 1. compact. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. blue. gray.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). brown.

pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. Z = violet. violet. long UV=cream . yellow.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. short UV=golden yellow. reddish. Y = yellow. bluish.

magnesium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. Italy . sodium.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. or potassium. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. lithium. iron.

Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. schörl.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. . is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. black tourmaline was found. Austro-Hungarian Empire. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". In English. in addition to cassiterite.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. Up to about 1600. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. Carinthia. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). Beginning in the 18th century. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. In the 19th century the names common schorl. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones".Drava river area. This village had a nearby tin mine where. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). and "Schurl". "Schörle". The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. for the Drava river area.

Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Italy. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). California. San Piero in Campo. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. vacancy V = OH. Zn. Mg. Al. Fe . In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. Cr . Cr .5Al1. Na. V .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals.Campo nell'Elba. Italy. K. Elba Island. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Ti . In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Mn . V T = Si. F. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . B B = B. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Sweden.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. vacancy Y = Li. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Al. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. Elba Island. United States. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. where: [6] X = Ca. Province of [5] Livorno. Czech Republic. vacancy Z = Mg. Al. Fe . with the simplified formula (Li. Fe . O W = OH. Italy. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Tuscany. sodium-. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time.

5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F .5. Cryo-Genie Mine.Al1.. San Diego Co. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. California. US.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.

San Diego Co. Himalaya Mine.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. California. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.. US [edit]Physical properties .

currently. it is colorless. etc. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. Usually. and are often pyroelectric as well. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. During their 2+ growth. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. in western Australia. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. [edit]Geology . yellow. green. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. Heavily-included tourmalines. or green on the outside and pink inside. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. especially pink to red colored stones. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. and does not. called hemimorphism. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. impact the value. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. no other common mineral has three sides. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. Rarely. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. red. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. but is now exhausted. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . pink. are altered by irradiation to improve their color.

pink.[])(Al.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.Na.Cr. but can range from brown. Fe. . and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments. are generally restricted to schists and marble.Li. dravites.B)6O18(OH. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. Massive.Fe. sometimes radiating.Mn)3(Al. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Mg.K. green. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. Scattered grains (in granite). Acicular prisms.Al. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. violet.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. or in a dual-colored pink and green.

Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.675. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. dark red.650 Birefringence -0.040.82–3. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. small conchoidal.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.06)[1] Density 2. dark blue.20 -.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.06 (+.5 Luster Vitreous.635–1. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.610–1. dark green. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. light blue .020 but in dark stones it may reach . light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. typically about . nε=1. dark brown.018 to -0.

red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.Dispersion .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.

one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. is a green variety of tremolite. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. [edit]Occurrence . Nephrite. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis.

2 x 6. grossular. forsterite.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Switzerland. Associated minerals include calcite.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic .500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. wollastonite. cummingtonite. Approximately 36.DE. talc. French Pyrenees (size: 8. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant.diopside. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. dolomite. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Piumogna [1] Valley. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. Leventina.Ticino (Tessin). riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.

or flattened crystals. common parallel to {100}. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.99 – 3.27 Å.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . also as fibrous.84 Å. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. β = 104. c = 5.02 Å.95°. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. lavender to pink. light green. gray.Unit cell a = 9. Z = 2 Identification Color White. b = 18.

Long UV=range pink .Refractive index nα = 1.613 .637 Birefringence δ = 0.1.599 .1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.1.625 .626 nγ = 1.612 nβ = 1.

The chains are linked together by calcium. and Kazakhstan. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. water. by internal reflection. borax. . mirabilite. calcite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). sometimes known as TV rock. trona. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Tarapacá Region in Chile. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. meyerhofferite. USA. glauberite. hydroboracite. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. probertite. It is found principally in California and Nevada. gyps [1] um and halite. water and hydroxide octahedra. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral.

transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. two of which are polarized. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. Ulexite . when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.

γ = 105.11.12°. β = 109.1°.EA. α = 90. c = 6.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.9 x 5 x 3.05.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.25 Dana classification 26. b = 12. Z =2 Identification .25°.816(3) Å.Ulexite from California(size: 6.87Å.678(1) Å.

504 – 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.028 .96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.496 nβ = 1.491 – 1.95 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous.520 Birefringence δ = 0. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.519 – 1.

white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. cream.

: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. diorite gneisses. albite gneiss. chlorite or other platyminerals. they may also be called garnet gneiss. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. rotten or possibly worthless material. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. . Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. Depending on their composition. etc. biotite gneiss.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. so called because the rock glitters).

most other European languages (e. Armenian marmar. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Norwegian. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. [5] gleam". perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Portuguese mármore. Dutch marmer. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. silt. Spanish mármol. [3][4] "crystalline rock". meaning "marble-like. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal.German. Italian marmo. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). "to flash. most commonly calcite or dolomite.g. Polish marmur. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. sparkle. Turkish mermer. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. "shining stone". . sand. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. however. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. iron oxides.


sericite mica. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. sericite. or chlorite impart a silky.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. . The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. and chlorite. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate.

therefore. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. silica. Canada . Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. diagenetically altered. such as yellow and orange. British Columbia. and both usages are found in the literature. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. iron oxide. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. are due to other mineral impurities. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. Other colors.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. not around them. Although few fossils are normally present. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. carbonate and clay. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. rutile and magnetite. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism.

500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. [4] . Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. In the Scottish Highlands. Foinaven. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. southwestMinnesota. the Wasatch Range in Utah. Central Texas. Monte Binga (2436 m). precambrian quartzite. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. as roofing tiles. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch.g. as flooring. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. The highest mountain in Mozambique. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). near Salt Lake City. silicon and silicon carbide. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. industrial silica sand. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. In Wales. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. and stair steps. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. several mountains (e. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. In Canada. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. In the United Kingdom.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. pale grey.


for example. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. for example. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. however. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. the terms slate. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. In other . Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. The individual mineral grains in schist. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. hornblende. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. such as garnet schist. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. If the whole district. tourmaline schist. chlorite. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. A quartz-porphyry. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. etc. glaucophane schist. can be seen by the naked eye. By definition. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. and others. graphite. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. Usually. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Most schists are mica schists. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie.clastic structure.talc. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated.

Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. dolomites. while others are found only among igneous masses. scapolite. with crystalline dolomites. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. for example. marbles. foliated. quartz and feldspar. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. For example. The majority of mica-schists. as limestones. tremolite. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. and calc-schists. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. diopside. and the white mica-schists. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. A subgroup is the andalusite. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. many metamorphic limestones. with variable amounts of white and black mica. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. staurolite. garnet. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. which have been derived from rhyolites. Such rocks. however. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). zoisite and hornblende. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. are alteredclaystones and shales. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). chilled edges. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism.cases intrusive junctions. schistose character. . contain silicate minerals such as mica. feldspar. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


traditionally a small piece of slate. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. tourmaline. It may mean a single roofing slate. especially when seen. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. and may also be purple. magnetite. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. from which it may be formed. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. chlorite. less frequently. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. green or cyan. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. often framed in wood. for example. Slate is not to be confused with shale. foliated. en masse. For example. kaolinite. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. the terms slate. graphite. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. as in the purple slates of North Wales. and pyrite and. often along with biotite. Slate is frequently grey in color. In the context of underground coal mining. or schist.. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. apatite. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. covering roofs.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. from pale to dark. However. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. Occasionally. or a writing slate. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. hematite. leaving a light green spotted texture. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. or zirconas well as feldspar. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. .


Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. chlorite etc. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. Partial melting of crustal material. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. zircon. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. biotite. potassium (K). In a general sense. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. ilmenite. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Characteristic of subduction zones.. During subduction. apatite. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. but most . The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. anhydrous forms. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. zeolites. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. barium(Ba). a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. [5] sediment.e.g. of intermediate composition. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. volcanic rock. leading to metamorphism. 3. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. Magnetite. 2.

If it underplates the crust. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. such as the Andes. . the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. however. In order to remain active. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. its intermediate phase. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . therefore. creating a layer of molten material at its base. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. Basalt can. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. Once there. however. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. Without continued addition of mafic material.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. As this process continues. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. forming mafic cumulates. however. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. these reservoirs cool. Models of heat transfer.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. the composition is returned to andesite. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition.


The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. On Earth. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Sobolev et al. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. (In comparison. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e.. 2007). By definition. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. Hungary .BASALT Basalt (pron. the third largest moon of Jupiter. Venus. Mars.. /ˈbæsɒlt/. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume.g. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. and even on the asteroid Vesta.

Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. Arizona. as building blocks or in the groundwork). [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Uses Basalt is used in construction (e." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). US quarter for scale.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. . from βάζανος (basanos. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". misspelling of L. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. an excellent thermal insulator. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. basanites "very hard stone. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues.g. libri XII.

    . MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). alkali feldspar and phlogopite. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. most large oceanic islands. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition.

microcline and olivine. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. Zircon. the Isle of Guernsey. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. however. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths.biotite. the Darrans range of New Zealand. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. making it difficult to carve and work with. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. Scotland. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock.DIORITE Diorite (pron. Italy. Sondrio. and to provide a durable finished work. magnetite. Diorite has a medium grain size texture.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). It may contain small amounts of quartz. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. Northeastern Turkey. occasionally with porphyry. hornblende. . Its hardness. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. which is transitional togabbro. Romania. apatite. Basin and Range province. Finland. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. central Sweden. source localities include Leicestershire. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. and Idahet in Egypt. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. the Andes Mountains. and frequently has a greenish cast. and/or pyroxene. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. It can also be black or bluish-grey. into which they may subtly merge. sphene. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Minnesota in theUSA.

The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. etc. Assyria and Sumer. Paul's Cathedral. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Guernsey and Scotland. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. but mostly for fortress walls. Babylonia. In later times. inscribed upon a 2. London. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. weaponry.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. .

ilmenite. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. typically a few percent. and ulvospinel.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Gabbros contain minor amounts. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. The rocks areplutonic. the rock is then a norite. Isle of Skye. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. coarse-grained. Gabbro is dense. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. easternSierra Nevada. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. plagioclase. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. Rock Creek Canyon. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). California. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. Scotland. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. amphibole. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica.

[edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. nickel. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. . Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. and copper sulfides. intruding into the rift flanks. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. Massachusetts. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. silver. platinum. gold. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism.extra descriptiveness is desired. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. US. although it may be porphyritic at times. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. cobalt. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture.


igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture.75 3 g/cm . Granitoid is a general.1260 °C. Melting temperature is 1215 .GRANITE Granite (pron. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. felsic. a grain. This rock consists mainly of quartz. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.65 and 2. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. mica. descriptive field term for light-colored. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. and feldspar.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. hard and tough. By definition. near the town of Caldera. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. an unusual type of granite. The average density of granite is between 2. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. Granites can be pink to gray in color. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. northern Chile .

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai.

Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park.

where it forms a major part of continental crust. In some locations. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.12% Na2O — 3. it is called tonalite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. although much of it is of Precambrian age. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.12% MnO — 0.30% P2O5 — 0. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. Granite often occurs as relatively small. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. . Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.82% FeO — 1.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.22% MgO — 0. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.68% Fe2O3 — 1.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth.71% TiO2 — 0. sanidine. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.69% CaO — 1. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor.The Cheesewring. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.


and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. Obsidian is hard and brittle. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. [9][10][11] . obsidian's composition is extremely felsic.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. in addition. which is the parent material.. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals).. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is mineral-like. California . This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. usually 70% or more. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. forming perlite. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth.

Chile. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Pantelleria. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Scotland and the United States. as well as Pennsylvania. Washington. In some stones.S. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Japan. Iceland. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Italy. Colorado. states of Virginia.Greece. Azerbaijan. and deposits can be found in many other western U. Oregon and Idaho. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Armenia. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Canada. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. states including Arizona. Kenya. Texas. white. New [13] [14] Mexico. . Peru. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. New Zealand. Mexico. Guatemala.Utah. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Occurrence Glass Mountain. It can be found in Argentina.S. El Salvador.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. the inclusion of small.


and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. exsolution lamellae. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. For this reason. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Theory Theory . Therefore. feldspar and mica. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. macroscale graphic texture is known. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Similarly. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. pyroxene and other minerals are known. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. in essence a granite.5 cm in size.

. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. and are usually granitic in character. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. California. being altogether "granitic" in character. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. Beyond that. Rock Creek Canyon. often closely matching the compositions of nearby pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. in a few cases. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. with bulk chemical and textural change. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. to liberate the right constituents and water. granite-associated mineralisation styles. for example greisens. often with mica and usually with quartz. eastern Sierra Nevada.

columbite. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. orientation. Occasionally. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. uranium. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. et cetera. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". boron. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. In most cases. niobium. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. tourmaline. thorium. apatite and corundum. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. . Queensland. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. zinnwaldite and so forth. tantalite. orange and brown almandine garnet. fluorite. Geochemically. Tantalum. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. beryllium. often along with tin and tungstenminerals.Garnet. tourmaline. lepidolite. Often. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. Australia). topaz. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. accessory minerals and timing. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. tantalite. such as aquamarine. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. cesium. Bismuth. tourmaline. among others. commonly almandine or spessartine. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. potassium and lithium. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. aluminium. however. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. say. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. Hence.

Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. "granitic" or "metasomatic". creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. However. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". transitional with some greisens. Within the metamorphic belts. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. Similarly. . notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense.

compressed with fiamme on right. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. .PUMICE Pumice pron. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. which may or may not contain crystals. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. uncompressed with pumice on left. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Pumice is created when super-heated. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. It is typically light colored. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization.

with tree trunks floating among them.g. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. phonolite. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. trachyte). When larger amounts of gas are present. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. dacitic. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. ranging from white.S. In [4] fact. 1984 and 2006. pantellerite. andesite. but basaltic and other compositions are known. cream. Pumice is commonly pale in color. many samples float in water. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. After the explosion of Krakatoa. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. It is commonly. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. .A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. blue or grey. and initially floats on water.. In 1979. to green-brown or black. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. rhyolitic. it sinks rapidly. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%.

especially in polishes. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. during flow. in the case of pumiceous lavas. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. cosmetic exfoliants. When used as an additive for cement. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks.There are two main forms of vesicles. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. smooth. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. and the production of stone-washed jeans. . Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. plaster-like concrete. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. It is also used as an abrasive. pencil erasers.

and consequently. volcanic (extrusive) rock. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. and lithophysal structures. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre).nodular. also called obsidian. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). the eruptions were at the St. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. below:pumice. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. . spherulitic.


Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. Auckland in New Zealand. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. blocks and bombs). The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. and bursting. and sinks in water. rust. typically near its surface. An old name for scoria is cinder. and may contain phenocrysts. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. another vesicular volcanic rock. An example is Mount Wellington. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. bubble growth. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. black or purplish red). which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. instead they open into one another with little distortion. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. . Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. and hence is denser. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. Australia. skōria. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. a unique form of Scoria. but in contrast to pumice. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. coalescence. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. Vesicles are usually small. Quincan. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). creating bubbles in the molten rock. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown.

It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. and often has striking colours. It is somewhat porous. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. and to carve some moai from. . has high surface area and strength for its weight. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used.

1% and 98%. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). which is softer). Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. mineral-matter-free basis. its higher relative density of 1. and black diamond." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). North Korea. Australia and the US.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. [5] Vietnam. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. blind coal (in Scotland).S. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. hard coal. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection.3– 1. is known as culm. "coal-like. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. blue. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures.4. It has the highest carbon content. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. which is used as a pigment. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and smokeless flame. the UK. the fewest impurities. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. which is used mainly in power generation. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). which also include bituminous coal and lignite. coal) is a hard. and lustre. In America. as opposed to lignite. other producers are Russia. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . Ukraine.

with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. coking coal and domestic house coals. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. on the as-received basis (i. Pennsylvania. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. and Western Pennsylvania. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality.MJ/kg). it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher. In southwest Wales. For example. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges.e. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. Since the 1980s. Structurally. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. By 1795. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. circa 1935 . New Mexico. In [6] June 2008. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation.. [7] It was In the United States. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. mined near Saundersfoot.

Of that. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). In spring 1808. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. making it ideal for this purpose. about 1. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. the Delaware. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes.S. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Pennsylvania. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. placed in descending order. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. on an open grate in a fireplace. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. In the early 20th century United States. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. such as schools. Pennsylvania.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Group of breaker boys. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. Current U. Many large public buildings. From that first mine.

but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed".consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Similarly. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. [10] . as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. or less. Commercial mining has now ceased. "poor". both in America and South Wales. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. anthracite was largely used. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. Formerly.Anthracite". the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. Switzerland and parts of Germany.

which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. Fossils are rare in arkose. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. due to the depositional processes that form it. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. Apart from the mineral content. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. . Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. most commonly granitic rocks.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. and some mica is often present. rock fragments may also be a significant component. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. although bedding is frequently visible.


The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. bright-banded" or "bright. which are classified according to either "dull. mineral-matter-free basis. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). the rest is composed of water. and exinite. and sulphur. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. hydrogen. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. which have not been driven off from the macerals. air. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. good ventilation and vigilant site management. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. Within the coal mining industry. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. . often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. These distinctive sequences. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. dull-banded".

randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. A conglomerate. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. avalanches. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks.079 in) in size. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. tectonic breccia. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. in essence. by contrast. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. In the field. The word is a loan from Italian. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. by their relative movements. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. typically in a karst landscape. igneous breccia. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. . lithified colluvium. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. poorly sorted. These are. Technically. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution.BRECCIA Breccia (pron.

. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. and these form volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. both of lava and pyroclastic type. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. as they slide past each other. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. granites and kimberlite pipes. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. Lavas.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. also called pillow breccias. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. Broken. This occurs when the thick. When particularly intense. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition.g. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano.

[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. In addition. iridium and osmium anomalies). a type of impactite. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. and attrition quickly o . impact glass. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. Impact breccia. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. in the rim. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C.Pahranagat Range. steam and boiling water. Nevada. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. shocked minerals. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. and are usually found at impact craters. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops.g. near Blessington in Ireland. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater.

Pend Oreille County. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). forming an angular jigsaw breccia. If boiling occurs. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. as the formational event is brief. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. In the mesothermal regime. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Pend Oreille mine. As a result. . Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia.rounds angular breccia fragments. in particular CO2.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. Washington. at much greater depths. On their journey. silver and gold.


cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Buffalo. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. grayish brown and light green to rusty red.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Oklahoma. limestone. chalk. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. [edit]Terminology: "chert". [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). brown. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. New York.CHERT Chert (pron. but most often manifests as gray. (3. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). "chalcedony" and "flint" . where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. hard chert. It also occurs in thin beds. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. it is usually called flint.

Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . Everett. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties).chert being lower quality than flint. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. Strictly speaking. Among petrologists. The term does not include quartzite. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. . Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations).

[edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm).: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. which consist of angular clasts. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. . Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. South Dakota.

[edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate.000 ft. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . Alaska. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. In this setting. approximate depth 10. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. and are known as basal conglomerates. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous.

in rapidly eroding (e. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. in Australia's Northern Territory.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. desert) environments. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. The matrix is generally fine-grained. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. matrix-supported conglomerates. near Barcelona. Tillites.g. forming structures such aseskers. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). are typically poorly-sorted. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. These form the basis of a number of . the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta.

as different sectors of the fault moved. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly.g. . These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.large oil fields. e. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile.

Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported.COQUINA Coquina (pron. fracturing. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. shallow submarine raised banks.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. trilobites. which compose them. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. brachiopods. abrasion. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. often including some phosphate. in the form of seashells or coral. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and barrier bars. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. . abraded. and sorting of the shells. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. close packing. or other invertebrates. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. swift tidal channels. As a result. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite.

Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. However. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. When first quarried. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. rather than shatter or puncture. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. In order to be used as a building material. but still comparatively soft. Because of coquina's softness. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. form. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. The stone makes a very good material for forts.Close-up of coquina from Florida. . Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. coquina is extremely soft. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. Saint Augustine. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. cannon balls would sink into. The scale bar is 10 mm. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building.


It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. is a naturally occurring. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. porous support for chemical catalysts. mechanical insecticide. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. which could be used as fertilizer. anti-block in plastic films. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. a stabilizing component of dynamite. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. similar to pumice powder. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. It is used as a filtration aid.: /ˌdaɪ..E.13 by 0.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. and athermal insulator.236 pixels/ μm. it was thought that limestone had been found. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. activator in blood clotting studies. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments.5 to 2% iron oxide. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. This powder has an abrasive feel. diatomite.69 mm.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. TheCelle engineer. absorbent for liquids. the peasant and goods waggoner. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. a type of hard-shelled algae. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. recognized its ability to filter. matting agent for coatings. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. soft. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. cat litter. Wilhelm Berkefeld. Initially. Peter Kasten.

from diatomaceous earth. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth.  ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. used successfully. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. . with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region.

In Colorado and in Clark. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Oregon. Nevada (USA). France. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. such as this one for swimming pools . Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Washington and California. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. but are of low quality.Virginia. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Denmark and the Czech Republic.

However. It is also used to filter water. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. It has a high porosity. In order to be effective as an insecticide. sugar. causing them to [9] dehydrate. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. for this purpose. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. as well as in some facial scrubs. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. It can also filter syrups. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. but this method may take weeks to work. and other liquids. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. based on Fick's law of diffusion. especially for swimming pools. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. [7] taste. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. due to its physico-sorptive properties. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. such as beer and wine. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide.e. or nutritional properties. and honey without removing or altering their color.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. .e. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. coffin-like. efficacy is very low. hollow particles. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations.. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. foodgrade— see below). with questionable efficacy. since slugs inhabit humid environments. because it is composed of microscopically small. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs..

DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. As with other silicates. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. . [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation.vermiculite. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. including water. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. Fungicide. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. particularly as bonsai soil. as [20] well as an insecticide.S. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. Like perlite. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers.

For instance. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and as an insecticide. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). Libya. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). has a very fine particle size. the largest single . Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel.and expanded clay. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. while draining fast and freely. as feed supplement. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. and has a high silica content (>60%). Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. which is used as an indigestible marker. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. It is produced uncalcinated. which has been widely used for the same purpose. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. it retains water and nutrients. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere.

generating dust by abrasion. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. .

DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. . In old U. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. but it can still develop solution features over time. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. used in some geological publications.S.G. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. however.S. It is.

The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). India. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota.e.5 million BTU/ton). will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. When reacted with quaternary amine. the United States. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Russia. on the as-received basis (i. Serbia. ca. Poland. Germany. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. mineral-matter-free basis. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. often referred to as brown coal. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%.4 MJ/kg (6.. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. it is mined in Greece. Australia averages 8.

with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station.than for comparable black-coal plants. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. particularly in combination with strip mining. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. [4] Victoria. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. . It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria.

The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. USA . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. as aggregate for the base of roads. and as a chemical feedstock. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). Virginia.

Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. etc. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. many limestones exhibit different colors. Crystals of calcite. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. is found near waterfalls. depending on the method of formation. building upon past generations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Classification Two major classification schemes. flint. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. including the water temperature. Romania.e. This produces speleothems. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Tufa. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). organic remains. Travertine is a banded. jasper. and extraclasts. and dissolved ionconcentrations. intraclasts. sand. Like most other sedimentary rocks. Because of impurities. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. or it can fill fractures. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. pH. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. Limestone may be crystalline. such as clay. the Folk and the Dunham. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. i. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. When conditions are right for precipitation. such as stalagmites and stalactites. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock.000 meters. or massive. clastic. iron oxide and other materials. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks.travertine. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. radiolarians). and varying amounts of clay. and around hot or cold springs. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. depending on several factors. particularly where there are waterfalls. . peloids. Below about 3. granular. limestone recrystallizes into marble. quartz. diatoms. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. most limestone is composed of grains. especially onweathered surfaces.

not the grains in the sample. Based on composition. and cement (sparite). Such erosion landscapes are known . His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Unlike the Folk scheme. especially in acid. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. cenotes. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. These include limestone pavements. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Robert J. matrix (mostly micrite). The Folk system uses two-part names. caves and gorges. there are three main components: allochems (grains). pot holes. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. and therefore self-supporting. and therefore forms many erosional landforms.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample.

including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. are made of limestone. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. karsts. So many buildings in Kingston. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. islands off the south coast of Florida. making it impractical for tall buildings. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Many landmarks across the world. it is a very heavy material. Egypt. On the island of Malta. This process is known as bioerosion. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. England. Sweden. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. typically clays. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Clare. The Florida Keys. Ontario. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. for a long time. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. . theVerdon Gorge in France. Unique habitats are found on alvars. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. [9] Michigan. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. It is most common in the tropics. While draining. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Examples include the Burren in Co. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). However. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. 2003). the only building material available. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. and relatively expensive as a building material. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Notch Peak in Utah. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. especially in Europe and North America. Sweden.

Kansas . Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.The Great Pyramid of Giza. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.

and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Train stations. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. plastics. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Purified. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. It is added to toothpaste. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). cement and mortar. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. uses limestone. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. tiles. in some circumstances. [11] . since it is hard. paint. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. but only in thin plates for covering. Indiana. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Glass making. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. such as for poultry (when ground up). It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. paper. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. most notably the Bloomington area. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). durable. In the United States. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. rather than solid blocks. Used in blast furnaces. called Indiana limestone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

sandstone may be any colour. but the most common colours are tan. pink. .France.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). yellow. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. In the western United States and incentral Australia. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. gray. white and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. [edit]Uses 17.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. Fine-grained aquifers. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. brown. Like sand. most [1] sandstone is red. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. red. such as sandstones. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Sandstone is mined by quarrying.

Germany. around 1770. in Freiburg. .Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer.

Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. homes. making it easy to carve. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. cathedrals. It is relatively soft. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. These are sandstone beverage coasters. and other buildings.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. and continues to be used. .

some that have been used in the past. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. or chemical.079 inches). Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. . clays.g. gritstone. However.. are typically called argillaceous sediments. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Because of the hardness of individual grains.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. including siltstones and shales. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite.002–0. for sharpening blades and other implements. yet are easy to work. like chalk and coal. Utah. [3] like gypsum and jasper). Scale bar is 1.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. have been found less resistant.0 mm. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. and silica. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. rocks with greater grain sizes. e.

A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. and composition and. Typically. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. once it has accumulated. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry.e.. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. lake.. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta).g. either from water (as in a stream. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. include its grain size. Finally. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. over other construction. or sea) or from air (as in a desert). as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. in finer detail. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. First. which. in a desert or erg). Arizona. in more general detail.sorting. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. i.

These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Deltas 2. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled.1. Beach and shoreface sands 3.  . this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Rivers (levees. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Tidal flats 4. Glacial outwash 4. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. channel sands) 2. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Alluvial fans 3. point bars. Lakes 5. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. such as hardness and chemical stability. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope.

tourmaline. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. or other dense. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. called lithic fragments or clasts. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. scale box at left-center is 0. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. magnetite. Common heavy minerals include zircon.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. upper picture is plane-polarized light. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite).25 millimeter. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. this represents a complete solid solution.garnet. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. and corundum. metamorphic. pyroxene. Although.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. rutile (hence ZTR). which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. olivine. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. One is to call the . or sedimentary rock. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. bottom picture is cross-polarized light.

Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. [6] gypsum. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. feldspars. clay minerals.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. and the other is to call it a wacke. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. anhydrite. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials.  . In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. such as calcite. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. limonite. and very rarely is in other sandstones.sandstone an arenite. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. and zeolite minerals. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. barite.


greens). often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. biotite and illite . Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. sodium. magnesium. Red. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. the terms slate. Sand grain = 2 mm. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished.browns and limonite [1] yellow). calcium. or micaceous minerals (chlorite.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. iron . called fissility. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal.reds). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. on the other hand. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. especially quartz and calcite. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. montmorillonite and illite. Mudstones. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. in dia. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. iron hydroxide (goethite .

reducing environments. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. calcite. vanadium. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum.and water. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited.chert. and zinc. in relatively deep. in river deltas.Cumberland Plateau. However. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. black shales were deposited in anoxic. . These released elements form authigenic quartz. such as in stagnant water columns. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. hematite and albite. quiet water. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. dolomite. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. ankerite. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. The enriched values are of controversial origin. 'Black shales' are dark. uranium.

which originally aired on November 3. . Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. or various carbonate minerals. 1961. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. metamorphic rockknown as slate.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. fissile. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. apatite. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). "Flintstone of Princestone". Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". in keeping with the Stone Age puns. then schist and finally to gneiss. The Flintstones.

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