Rock & Minerals Study Guide | Classification Of Minerals | Minerals

BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

[edit]Occurrence 2+ . It is frequently cut with a convex face. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11.5 K. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. and is then known as carbuncle. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. also known incorrectly as almandite. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. upper mantle and transition zone. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light.512 Å at 100 K. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series.: /ˈælməndɪn/). of deep red color. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. inclining to purple. a town in Caria in Asia Minor.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. or en cabochon. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group.

Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). and are sometimes cut and polished. a name said to be taken from Syriam. some years ago. in Tyrol. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. Almandine is widely distributed. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . When the color inclines to a violet tint. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka.

AD.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.024 [1] .7.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.25.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.790 (+/.. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . -.05 (+.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.

610 and 680-690nm [1] . and 573nm. 520.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 460. may also have faint lines at 423.

50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. For many years. Colorado. More recently. Russia. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Naturally. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. where it occurs in granitic rocks. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. . although it is easily fractured. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. orthoclase. Because of its bright green color when polished. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. El Paso County. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Virginia.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Colorado.

Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. brick-red. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. Microcline may be clear. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. white. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. . Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. viewed under a polarizing microscope. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. however. pale-yellow. or green. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. or amazonite. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar.Colorado. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. Amazon stone. It is common in granite and pegmatites. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination.

in the crystal.Cl)2. Hydroxyapatite. in the mid-20th century.g. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. named for high concentrations of OH . respectively. sodium . Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.F. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. Cl or ions. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral.F . it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. fluorapatite and chlorapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. Similarly. also known as hydroxylapatite.

BN. less often colorless. massive. sodium monofluorophosphate).Cl. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. yellow. brown. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. blue to violet. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. pink.fluoride. prismatic crystals. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane.OH) Strunz classification 08. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. usually green. compact or granular .[1] Crystal habit Tabular.

16–3.[1] Dispersion 0. blue and yellow to colorless.634–1.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.006)[1] Birefringence 0. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.638 (+0.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct. green stones – greenish yellow .blue stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.012. −0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3. Other colors are weak to very weak.002–0.

light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.which is stronger in long wave.[1] .


is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. In some mollusks. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. in others. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Spain). is situated in Slovakia. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. It is formed by biological and physical processes. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. naturally occurring. In the USA. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. also known as μ-CaCO3. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. [citation Aragonite . CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. The mineral vaterite. the entire shell is aragonite.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. respectively. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. one of the two common. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. [edit]Uses In aquaria. An aragonite cave. resulting in a different crystal shape.

c = 5.AB.95 Å.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . globular.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.96 Å. coralloidal. columnar. orange. pisolitic. green . France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. b = 7.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. stalactitic. yellow. prismatic crystals. reniform. acicular.74 Å. red. Z = 4 Identification Color White. internally banded . Aude department.

yellow.1.680 .686 Birefringence δ = 0.685 .530 nβ = 1.529 .1.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. white or .5-4 Luster Vitreous. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.1.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.682 nγ = 1.

yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish.

[edit]Characteristics .Na)(Mg.Ti)(Si.Al)2O6. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Al.Fe.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. Augite has two prominent cleavages. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.

Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. leucite.0 x 2. titanium.4 x 3. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. It is found near the Ken River. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. meaning "brightness". but augite can also contain significant aluminium. but mostly of temperature. olivine. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. sanidine. brown or [2] black) luster. for example. With declining temperature. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. Augite . labradorite. and sodium and other elements. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. which is from the Greekaugites. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite.

c = 5. Z=4 Identification Color Black. β = 106.DA.97°.Fe. violet-brown.844 Å.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Ti)(Si. skeletal.Al. dendritic . in thin section. brown.Augite .699 Å.Na)(Mg. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals. b = 8.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.272 Å. greenish. also acicular.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.

19 . nβ = 1. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.706 .684 . greenish yellow. Z = pale green. pale yellow-green. grayish green. violet .1.1. nγ = 1.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.774 Birefringence δ = 0.026 .1. green. pale brown. Y = pale brown.039 Pleochroism X = pale green. violet. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.3.741.680 .735.0.


" root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. The mineral. and unknown white crystals. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. has been known since ancient times. a carbonate. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. With azurite. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. From Tsumeb. France. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. . deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. Namibia.AZURITE Azurite is a soft.

and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. with a Mohs hardness of only 3.89.77 to 3.5 to 4. Azurite is destroyed by heat. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. . Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. carbonate and hydroxide. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. the other being bright green malachite. Characteristic of a carbonate. Azurite is soft. powdery copper(II) oxide.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. and are often stalactitic in form. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite.

as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. such as saltwater aquariums. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. and its basic content of copper carbonate. However. in the silver mines located there. and also as an ornamental stone. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. France.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. it gave a wide range of blues. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. Heating destroys azurite easily. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. a term applied to many blue pigments. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. However. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. Ultramarine withstands heat. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. a similar but much more expensive pigment.

Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. General . heat. collectors should use a cool. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. However. bright light. dark. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores.

35 Å.BA. Berlin blue. c = 10.5 to 4 . very dark to pale blue. fair on {100}.85 Å. prismatic. β = 92. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.43°.01 Å. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. stalactitic. twin planes {101}. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. b = 5. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.

calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .773 (measured).838 Birefringence δ = 0.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.758 nγ = 1.730 nβ = 1.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3. 3.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.

They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. In the case of Jamaica. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. syenite. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. gneiss. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). the clay mineral kaolinite. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite).basalt. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. and shale. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). . The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite.

known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. Brazil. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. India. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. and Guinea. followed by China. Increased aluminium recycling. .[edit]Production trends In 2010. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves.

[edit]Names [2] and history .Sr)SO4. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. anglesite and anhydrite. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. and is the main [1] source of barium. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. or barite. celestine.BARITE Baryte. The baryte group consists of baryte.

sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. heavy media separation. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. Most baryte is ground to a small. tiff. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. jigging. [2] [3] Spar. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. [2] Heavy associations and locations . but rather a material that meets that specification. [8] schwerspath. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. Other names have been used for baryte. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. such as washing. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. including barytine. flotation. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. and blanc fixe. tabling. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. an addition to industrial products. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [8] barytes. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 .

and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. . among others. and evaporation. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Perthshire. It has also been identified in meteorites. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. in hot spring deposits. hydrothermal. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. and with hematite ore.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. Scotland. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones.

Romania (Baia Sprie). De Kalb.600).000). the bit passes through various formations. China. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Virginia. chemically inert. Durham. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). and paint.Perthshire. Liberia. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). Georgia. paper. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Iran (250). a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). It is mined in Arkansas. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. As a well is drilled. radiation-shielding cement. can be less than 6 μm diameter. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Peru. and no more than 30%. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Cumbria. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. New York & Fort Wallace. UK (Cornwall. Derbyshire. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. United States (670). the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Connecticut. Thailand. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. each with different characteristics. Connecticut. by weight.Kentucky. North [2] Carolina. [edit]Paleothermometry . Morocco. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. sound reduction in engine compartments. Canada. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. New Mexico. Iran. Nevada & Missouri. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100).2 or greater. Greece. India. blue. Turkey. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. Muirshiel [2] Mine. India [12] (1. The deeper the hole. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Morocco (460). Tennessee. Chile. by weight. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility.

Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. away from continental sources of sediment.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. . pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. Since baryte has oxygen.

[edit]Deposits . possible colors are green. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. also meaning "shine". Terminated crystals are relatively rare. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. yellow. red. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". blue. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size.BERYL In geology. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. the Spanish word brillo.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". Pure beryl is colorless. veḷiru ( ). and [5] the English word brilliance. and white. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. Old French: beryl.

[edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. though the color returns with irradiation. As of 1999. Ireland and Russia. and weighing 380. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. and limestone inColombia. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. and Bahia. and 2+ 3+ . The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color.S. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Madagascar. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Mainewith dimensions 5. Espírito Santo. Mozambique. New Hampshire. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. the United States. beryl locations are in California. Connecticut. Sweden (especially morganite).Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . Beryl is found in Europe in Norway.000 kilogrammes. South Africa. neutrons or even X-rays). Colombia. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Madagascar. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains.5 m by 1. near Powder River Pass.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. U. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . and Zambia. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. Colorado. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine.5 meters in diameter. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. as well as Brazil. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. such as that occurring in Brazil. South Dakota and Utah. North Carolina. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. Idaho. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. In Brazil. Austria. InWyoming. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. In the United States. Clear yellow beryl. Maine. Germany.

as such.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Brazil.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. In the US. India. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. meaning "green". The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. It weighed over 110 kg. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. in 1910. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. North Carolina. Afghanistan and Russia. The mines of Colombia. In 1998. marakata (म कन). as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. Zimbabwe. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. Most emeralds are highly included. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. [15] [7][14] . which has been on the market since 1964. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. such as Zambia. Madagascar. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. Malawi. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. It is named for the trapiche. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. Minas Gerais. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Pakistan. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. and Chivor. Coscuez. Zambia. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern.. and its dimensions were 48. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. Brazil. Madagascar.

The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. However. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems.C. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. D. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. . it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Washington. Nowadays. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. In the past. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. The name originates from Goshen.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. Unlike emerald. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. golden beryl has very few flaws.

Maine. "pink emerald". [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. at Pala. and color banding is common. Morgan. also known as "pink beryl". California. Utah. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. Sc. green. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. goshenite can be colored yellow. Thomas [26][27] Range. "rose beryl". with other gemstone minerals. V. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. pink. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. because of the . Ti. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. However. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). It was also known. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. The crystal. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. USA. 1989. originally somewhat orange in hue.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. On October 7. P. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). In December 1910. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. such astourmaline and kunzite. Juab County. its type locality. Fe. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. and Co impurities. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across.

orthoclase. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges.05 . The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10.CJ. Beaver County.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. quartz. spessartine. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones.000 per carat for faceted stones. [28] of Fillmore. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. Utah. Utah. Utah. topaz.Sierra County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". New [1] Mexico. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. pseudobrookite and hematite. and Juab County. while he was prospecting for uranium.

19 Å.50 Color Green. yellow. blue. colorless. c = 9. columnar. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent .21 Å. radial.

568–1. but the stone itself does not) .Specific gravity Average 2.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.595 nε = 1.564–1.0040–0.

and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite.L.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. Biotite is a sheet silicate. Biotite was named by J.F. oxygen.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. in 1816. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. aluminium. silicon. it refers to the dark mica series. [4] discovering many unique properties. who.OH)2. Iron. More generally. researched the optical properties of mica. magnesium.

. For instance. has a vitreous to pearly luster. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. in some instances side-by-side. It can be transparent to opaque. especially in pegmatite veins. It appears greenish to brown or black. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. and a grey-white streak. It has amonoclinic crystal system. as in New England. Norway. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. and consists of flexible sheets. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. fracture is uneven. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks.than phlogopite. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. which easily flake off. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. or lamellae. When biotite is found in large chunks. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. and even yellow when weathered. Ontario. Virginia and North Carolina. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals.

5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. less common on the {001} . white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].53 g Color Dark brown. blackish brown. yellow.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2. greenish brown.

605–1.8–3.605–1.625 nβ = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .675 nγ = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.675 Birefringence δ = 0. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.565–1.03–0.7–3.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.1 Density 2.5–3.

is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).BORNITE Bornite. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite . also known as peacock ore.

[edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge).5 x 4. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791).Lomagundi district. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Austria. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas. Kazakhstan. Illogan. Morocco. Talate. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. Zimbabwe. Karlovy Vary Region. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Montana and at Bristol. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. .England.3 x 3.Connecticut in the U. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. S. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine.Mexico (size: 7. and elsewhere in Cornwall. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. eastern Tirol. the Mangula mine. from the N’ouva mine.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

Ohio. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. Celestine . burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. Crystal Cave. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. The world's largest known geode.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. usually in small quantities. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each.The mineral is found worldwide. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. In carbonate marine sediments.

pink. white.359 Å.866 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. pale blue. pale brown. b = 5.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8.AD. black . c = 6.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07.352 Å. pale green.

good on {210}. earthy.622 nβ = 1.95 .1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.1.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.5 Luster Vitreous.630 .3.3. lamellar.624 nγ = 1.632 Birefringence δ = 0.622 . also fibrous.619 . poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.

white blue. long UV=yellow.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue .

. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. On exposure to air. Copper is shown in pink. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. hydroxides and sulfates.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. digenite (Cu9S5). chalcocite (Cu2S). covellite (CuS). carbonates such as malachite and azurite.

Se. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. etc. molybdenite representing Mo. and Sb are reported. Ni. . In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Pd. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Pb. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. However. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As.8 x 6. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. V. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Pt. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. In. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. from huge masses as at Timmins. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Au. Fe and As substitute for sulfur.3 x 4. Cr.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. and trace amounts of Ag. Ontario. Mn. the American cordillera and the Andes.

Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Colorado. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). Ouray County.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite.CB.

1 – 4. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.3 . and sometimes botryoidal. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. commonly massive. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.423 Å. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.54 Color Brass yellow. c = 10.Unit cell a = 5.289 Å.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

fungicides. a building material. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. Characteristics . and wood preservatives.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. and a constituent of various metal alloys. Decorative art prominently features copper. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. Pure copper is soft and malleable. later shortened to сuprum. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. In the Roman era. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). both by itself and as part of pigments. muscle and bone. needed] In sufficient concentration.

For this reason. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. and osmium (bluish). Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. At the macroscopic scale.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. Copper. As with other metals. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. galvanic corrosion will occur. which are relatively weak for a soft metal.Physical A copper disc (99. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. above which it begins to heat excessively. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. such as grain boundaries. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice.

A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. such as the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. bulk corrosion. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. this oxide layer stops the further. respectively.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . It does not react with water. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. Edinburgh.

with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite.There are 29 isotopes of copper. [15] .8 minutes. which has [13] a half-life of 12. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm).2 cm.2×3. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . Native copper is a polycrystal. US. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.83 hours.7 hours. 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. they both have a spin of 3/2. Cu and Cu are stable.4×3. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. decays both ways. The other isotopes are radioactive. Cu. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging.

CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. All other colors are called sapphire. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". plastics.02 g/cm . It is a rock-forming mineral. It is commonly used as anabrasive. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. In addition to its hardness. with an average hardness near 8. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. "green sapphire" for a green specimen.. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence .0 Mohs). The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. titanium and chromium. it can scratch almost every other mineral.g.0. and wood. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. e. but can have different colors when impurities are present. and the mix is less abrasive. Transparent specimens are used as gems. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals.

Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. gneiss. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. [4] Ontario. [4] USA. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. In 1847.8 in × 1 in). It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. In 1903. . Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. Russia. silicon carbide. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.Corundum from Brazil. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont.632 °F).000 °C (3. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Sri Lanka and India. New York. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2.

and laser components. scratchresistant optics. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. and other machined parts). instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). rods. Apart from ornamental uses.1 . synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.1. bearings. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. scratch-resistant watch crystals.CB.3. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.05 Dana classification 4. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis.

may be color zoned. blue to cornflower blue. prismatic. rhombohedral crystals. tabular. c = 12. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal. translucent toopaque . gray. green. violet. pink to pigeon-blood-red. brown. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. yellow.75 Å. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. orange.982 Å.

95–4.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1. or hercynite .767–1.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.772 nε = 1.Specific gravity 3.hematite.759–1.

CB. black.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow.10a Identification Formula mass 12. green. translucent white. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Less often blue. brown or gray to colorless. pink. violet. . Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. purple and red. orange.

52±0.044 .53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.5–3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.01 Density 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

[edit]Properties . In 1791. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. often as a result of diagenesis.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist.S. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. or in old U.

It forms white. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. namely. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. having a different structural arrangement. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. where organic matter content is high. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County.e. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. although it is usually massive. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. i. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). In the 1950s and 60s. . The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. Arkansas. Crystal twinning is common. gray to pink. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. dolomite is a double carbonate.g. Unlike calcite. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO.

through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. California. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. White Mountains. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. textural and chemical characteristics. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. However. .Dolomite. in a 1999 study. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites". Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form.

Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Kansas(size: 11. Dolomite . Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water. a concrete aggregate. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. zinc.4×7.2×4. Cherokee County.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. and copper. In horticulture.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.

002 Å. 3 Unit cell a = 4. granular. c = 16. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. also columnar.8012(1) Å. Crystal system Trigonal .Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. massive. Z = 3 Identification Color White.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. often with curved faces. stalactitic.AB.

.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.84–2.681 nε = 1. triboluminescent.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.179–0. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.679–1.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.500 Birefringence δ = 0.

The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. yellow and brown. the pleochroic colors being usually green. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. the optical constants. brown or nearly black. The color is green. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. the color. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. It displays strong pleochroism. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. grey.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH)." 3+ . Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. and the specific gravity. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. Ca2Al2(Fe . the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry.

Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. and others) composing igneous rocks. . micas. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. Haddam inConnecticut. pyroxenes. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. as magnificent. calcite. The perfectly transparent. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. withasbestos. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. here as large.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. amphiboles. adularia. garnets. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. Arendal in Norway. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. dark green. and apatite. but one of secondary origin.

pitchy in lustre. further. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. at Finbo. and well-developed crystals are rare. Epidote . near Ivrea in Piedmont. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. gneiss. there is little or no cleavage. syenite. andesite. yellowish-. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. granite. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. reddish-black. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. Dollaseite is less common. being black or dark brown in color. and opaque in the mass. rhyolite. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. Piemontite occurs as small. after whom the species was named.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. near Falun in Sweden. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. and greenish-brown colors. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. Although not a common mineral. and many different names applied. and others. sometimes a foot in length.

Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. yellow-green. fibrous. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.3–3.6 . greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.

751 nβ = 1.784 nγ = 1.734–1.725–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.046 Pleochroism Strong .715–1.019–0.

[edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. While slowly cooling within the earth. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. Typically. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. of plagioclase.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. .

It is the state gem of Florida. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. In gemology. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. Germany. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. Most moonstones are translucent and white. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. such as porcelain. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 .Adularia with pyrite incrustations. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. some ceramics. and as a constituent of scouring powder. It measured ~10×10×0. Russia. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. although their value and durability do not greatly differ.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline.

63 Optical Biaxial (-). Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. White. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. 2V = 65–75 .(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Cleavages intersect at 90°. Greyish yellow.55–2. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Greenish. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral.

524 nγ = 1.522–1.522–1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger Refractive index nα = 1.518–1.525 Birefringence 0.520 nβ = 1.0050–0. Other characteristics Low negative relief .0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.

It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . It is the most important lead ore mineral. calcite and fluorite.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.

Iowa and Wisconsin. Utah and Montana. . Broken Hill. USA (size: 5. Derbyshire. Rhodope Mountains. Smolyan Province. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. The Mendips. In addition zinc.2×2. in a process similar to bioleaching. the Madan. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Illinois. cadmium. Somerset. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena.S. Idaho. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Of the latter. and Cumberland. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Missouri. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. antimony. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. England.1×3. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. Saxony. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. the former mining town of Galena. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Cornwall.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. In the United States. Bulgaria.

was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. however. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. which was known as a "cat's whisker". Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0.g. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. For example. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. In modern wireless communication systems.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine.K. which were a potential source of disease. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. which. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. U. Isle of [5] Man. in Ancient Egypt. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems.

penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].936 Å.CD.10 Dana classification 2. No. space group Fm3m.1.75 . parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.8. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. 225 Twinning Contact.5–2.

2–7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

3. Although originally defined as a single mineral. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. the other being hematite.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. lepidocrocite. although specimens may show a [6] . Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. but limonite does not.5 range. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. and jarosite. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak.5.7 to 4. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.akaganeite. among them goethite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. The hardness is variable. but generally in the 4 .

from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. hematite and magnetite. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. Main article: Ochre#History . that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. to process limonite. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. [10] California mining district. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. burnt umbers and siennas. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. amphibole. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. pyroxene. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. in Africa. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. Nonetheless.botryoidal. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. Before smelting. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. Because of its amorphous nature. sometimes mammillary. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. producing red ochres. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. and biotite. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. Complex systems developed. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. [12] notably in Tanzania. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. and hematite was far easier to smelt. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. reniform or stalactitic. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States.

5½ . powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous.

7 .4.4.9 .Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.3 Density 2.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

usually with tellurium. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. jewelry. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. giving rise to the term theacid test.GOLD Gold is a dense. Less commonly. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. . and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. in veins and in alluvial deposits. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. forming amalgam alloys. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. so named because it dissolves gold. is insoluble in nitric acid. In Europe. which dissolves silver and base metals.S. Chemically. soft. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. It dissolves in mercury. with huge war debts. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. malleable and ductile metal. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. in 1932. which have been used in mining. as nuggets or grains in rocks. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. shiny. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin.

300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. includingelectric wiring. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. Its highmalleability. 40% in [3] investments. about 8876 m .A total of 171. in terms of volume. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. ductility. and 10% in industry. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. This is roughly equivalent to 5. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. electronics. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. and other fields. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin.7 m on a side. or a cube 20.5 billion troy ounces or. . Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. colored-glass production and gold leafing.

. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. There are three principal types of natural graphite. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). 3. Therefore. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. for its use in pencils. 2. "to draw/write". although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. It is. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. a semimetal. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. the last stage of coalification.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. consequently. flat. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. graphite is an electrical conductor.

18 billion. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. in particular. [7] totaling 73% of all global production. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. India (130 kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. calcite.110 thousand tonnes (kt). The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. micas and tourmaline. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. Graphite .S. Brazil (76 kt).Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. but U. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). China is the largest producer of graphite. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. respectively.S. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. Graphite is not mined in the United States. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. U.

708 Å. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray. six-sided foliatedmasses. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.461 Å.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. c = 6.CB.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .

transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .09–2.

As foranhydrite. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. in contrast to most other salts. called alabaster. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. Selenite contains no significantselenium. [edit]Occurrence . and in the early 19th century. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. It can be used as afertilizer. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. In hand-sized samples. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. cleavable masses called selenite. referring to its crystalline projections. it is alabaster. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. "spear stone". causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. Selenite may also occur in a silky. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer.5 g/l at 25°C) and. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. typically opaque. When the crystal lattice is heated. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. "chalk" or "plaster". As a mineral. Finally. (Thus. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts.0–2. In arid areas. in the form of selenite. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. rather. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. and transparent. fibrous form.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. Upon addition of water. it may also be granular or quite compact. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos).

was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Pure gypsum is white. strongly opposed by area residents. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. Somerset. from volcanic vapors. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. UK. Wyoming. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. Under reducing conditions. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. . Commercial exploitation of the area. as well as in hot springs. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. However. and sulfate solutions inveins. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Gypsum is a common mineral. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Blue Anchor. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand.000 years. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water.

General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. pink. may be yellow. b = 15. reddish brown or gray .679(5) Å. blue.43°. brown.522(6) Å.CD. c = 6. tan.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty.202(14) Å. β = 118. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white.

flat.530 Birefringence δ = 0.529–1. inelastic. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. pearly.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible. Mohs scalehardness 1.522–1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.010 .5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.523 nγ = 1.31–2.521 nβ = 1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.519–1.

Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Maghemite is a hematite. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). one of several iron oxides. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. ancient.HEMATITE Hematite. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. brown to reddish brown. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. or other standing water. but much more brittle. they all have a rust-red streak. While the forms of hematite vary. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Varieties includekidney ore. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. . or otherwise highly weathered soils. usually as the result of volcanic activity. also spelled as haematite. spring. Hematite is harder than pure iron. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. however. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. or red. Hematite is a mineral. Hematite can also occur without water.

05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. c = 13.772(12) Å.038(2) Å. Fe2O3.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide.CB. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. dull to bright red .

reniform.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.940 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.5–6. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. granular. commonly in rosettes. radiating fibrous. nε = 2. earthy.150–3. columnar. micaceous or platy. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.220.870–2.280 . may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. a specific gravity of 2. brown or black color. but the name is used as a general or field term. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present. to refer to a dark amphibole. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules.Na)2–3(Mg. .9–3.Fe. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. greenish-brown. The general formula can be given as (Ca. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.Si)8O22(OH. and an iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).Al)5(Al.F)2. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.4 and is typically an opaque green.

diorite. andesite.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. and named edenite. New York. gabbro. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Al)5 (Al. Orange County. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . andschist. is gray to white in color. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. from its locality in Edenville. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. basalt. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. gneiss. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. syenite. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. Fe.

Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.

Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). It is a layered silicate mineral. [edit]Chemistry [6] . The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". calaba. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. earthy. a village near Jingdezhen. In many parts of the world. part of the group of industrial minerals. Alternating layers are sometimes found. giving it a distinct rust hue. In Africa. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. pinyin: Gaoling). China. United States. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. Lighter concentrations yield white. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Jiangxi province. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a soft. yellow or light orange colors. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay).KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry.

Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. Al2Si2O7. S = SiO2. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. [edit]Occurrence . and highly crystalline cristobalite. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. H = H2O. Si3Al4O12. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. however. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3).

Kaolinite . In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. the Czech Republic and the United States. Germany. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. as kaolin.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved.Korea. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. it is mined. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. about 100 million to 45 million years ago.5 million tonnes. Australia. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. France. [1] the People's Republic of China. India. in Brazil. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Bulgaria. United Kingdom. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Iran.

8°.5°.13 Å. α = 90°. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . aggregated into compact.25 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5. β = 104. thin plates or stacked. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. Z = 2 Identification Color White. c = 7. sometimes red. γ = 89. b = 8.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09.ED.89 Å.

68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. Calculated: 44° .Mohs scalehardness 2–2.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2. nβ = 1.16–2.569.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. nγ = 1.565.559–1.569–1.553–1.

LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. Ural Mountains. Manitoba. Bernic Lake. It occurs in granite pegmatites.spodumene. feldspar.Si)3O10(F. United States. columbite. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. Russia. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. Lepidolite . Associated minerals [1] include quartz. topaz and beryl. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. tourmaline.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. cassiterite. in some high-temperature quartz veins. amblygonite. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. California. Notable occurrences include Brazil. Tanco Mine. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. Canada. greisens and granites. andMadagascar.

rose-red.209(2) Å b = 9. white. Minas Gerais.EC. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.1 x 0.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. Virgem da Lapa.011(5) Å c = 10. yellowish.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.149(5) Å.Lepidolite.Si)3O10(F. Brazil (size 2. colorless . violet-gray.4 x 2. purple.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.Cm Unit cell a = 5. β = 100:77(4)°.

548.58. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. pale violet 2V angle 0° .9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.586 Birefringence 0.58° measured .554– 1. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.8–2. nγ=1.551–1. Y = Z = pink.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.0290–0.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals. nβ=1.525–1.

hematite. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. called lodestone. will attract small pieces of iron. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form.. Commonly.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. and ulvospinel have been much studied. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral.e. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite.

Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. including banded iron formations.397 Å.085 °F). magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Z=8 Identification Color Black. In many igneous rocks.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04.BB.III) oxide.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. 1.

as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane. parting on {Ill}. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. the spinel law.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.17–5.Crystal habit Octahedral.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5–6.

with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. "The Tazza". and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. a large malachite vase. "mallow-green stone". one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. The pigment is moderately lightfast. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. It is also used for decorative purposes.000 years. variant of καιάχε malāchē. or stalagmitic masses. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. This opaque. Since then. deep underground. which features a huge malachite vase. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. "mallow". Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. in fractures and spaces. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. . Middle French: melochite.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. and most often forms botryoidal. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. fibrous.

. Gabon. goethite. dark green.BA. Russia.10 Identification Formula mass 221. France. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. Timna valley. Tsumeb. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Namibia. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Broken Hill. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. the source of the carbonate. Israel. Lyon.1 g/mol Color Bright green. and calcite.Zambia. Mexico. blackish green. New South [7] Wales. Except for its vibrant green color.

655 nβ = 1.5–4. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.commonly banded in masses. stalactitic. Polysynthetic twinning also present.909 Birefringence δ = 0. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. silky if fibrous. botryoidal.875 nγ = 1.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.254 .

4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. Its crystal system is monoclinic. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. yellows. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F.76–3.OH)2. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. isinglass. browns. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore.25 parallel to the [001] face. [4] . greens. or (rarely) violet or red. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. The green. India. and can be transparent or translucent. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).

Muscovite with beryl (var. pegmatites.EC. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.3×3. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. gneisses. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. Minas Gerais. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. etc.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. feldspar. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.02. morganite) from Paprok.kyanite.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.15 Dana classification 71.02a. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass.9×4. found in granites. and schists.8×3. In pegmatites.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .

Z = 4 Identification Color White.027 Å.552–1.Unit cell a = 5. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous. β = 95. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.576 .78°. silky.106 Å. grey. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m).76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. c = 20.199 Å. b = 9.

582–1.nβ = 1.615 nγ = 1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .035 – 0.

The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). magnesium and iron. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. silicon. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). it is also called peridot and chrysolite).g. almost 1900 °C.Fe)2SiO4. as do other properties. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). Fo 70Fa30). [edit]Identification and paragenesis . Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.

though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Gila Co. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. ..Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Arizona. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). USA. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation.

Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. First X-ray view of Martian soil . because olivine is so abundant. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. the Moon. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths.feldspar. andpallasites. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. from the Greek words for gold and stone). and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Mars. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg.g. and . but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. pyroxenes. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. falling into infant stars.Fe)2Si2O6). Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. or forsterite. in the dust of comet Wild 2. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Such meteorites include chondrites. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. 2012). moreover. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. collections of debris from the early solar system. In contrast. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. the French word for olivine). Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. 12 GPa. October 17. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e.

There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. silicon in pink. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. and magnesium/iron in blue.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. O1. Oxygen is shown in red. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O3 lies in a general position. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. O2 and O3 in figure 1). the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. O2. Olivine . A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. In an alternative view. while M1 exists on an inversion center. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.5–7 Luster Vitreous .

630–1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.040 .650 nβ = 1.670 nγ = 1.650–1.27–3.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670–1.

whereas white and greens are the most common. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. olive. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. and black. like basalt. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. rose. rhyolite. For gemstone use. yellow. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. gray. Opal ranges from clear through white. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. magenta. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. orange. a mineraloid form. the reds against black are the most rare. green. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. sandstone. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. marl and basalt. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. slate. [edit]Precious opal . being most commonly found withlimonite. brown. Of these hues. red. blue. not a mineral. pink.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica .

packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. .

turbid appearance of common or potch opal. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. basalt. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. In addition. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. unlike triplet opals. Potch does not show a play of color. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal.Australian Opal Doublet. which is correctly termed play of color. Contrarily. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. . or obsidian. and are not classed as precious opal. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. it has an internal structure. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. which is often of lower quality. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. of which opal is the best known natural example.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

deposited around hot springs orgeysers. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). geyserite. menilite. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. which is brown or grey. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. hyalite. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. wood opal. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. also called siliceous sinter. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. They do not usually show any play of color. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. resin opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. or star . [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. orange. orange-yellow or red.

It weighs 17.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. It does not display pleochroism. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. when cut properly. However.effect. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Queensland. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. Queensland . there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Boulder Opal.

Royal Peacock." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. and weighs 2. Miocene age opalised teeth. and black opal.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. is the main source of black opal. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. Idaho. from Kynuna in the north. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. Opal Queen. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. crystal opal. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. fire. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Another Australian town. Bonanza. bones. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. crystal. [citation needed] [12] A . and a snake head have been found. white. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color).585 carats. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. weighing 160 carats. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. closely related to boulder opal. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. and marine creatures in South Australia. fish. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. and lemon opal. Nevada. known as the "Black Peacock.

NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. Indonesia. brown. green. Hungary. Honduras. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. Turkey. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. [19] Slovakia. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . red.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. in masses. orange.7 by 0. Brazil (inPedro II. white.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. yellow. Guatemala. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. Piauí ). [20] Opal An opal bracelet. black. In late 2008.

translucent.450 (+.020. transparent Specific gravity 2. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.42–1. or yellow in long and short wave. may phosphoresce. -.08.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. green. May also phosphoresce. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.15 (+.Mohs scalehardness 5.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. but typically reads 1. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.90)[1] Density 2. may phosphoresce.[1] .37. -.

Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. bases. hydrofluoric acid . methanol. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater.humic acid.

or iron pyrite.37 wt% gold. "fire". "of fire" or "in fire". The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). and metamorphic rock. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. in turn from πύρ (pur). The color has also led to the nicknames brass. In ancient Roman times. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. as well as in coal beds. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. brazzle and Brazil. [edit]Uses . Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. By Georgius Agricola's time.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. sedimentary rock. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel.

La Rioja. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). iron(II) sulfate. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0.95 eV.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. In the 15th century. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. often set in silver. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Marcasite jewelry. most notably the wheellock. Until the vacuum tube matured. . was popular in the Victorian era. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. By the 19th century. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). it had become the [12] dominant method. Navajún. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. that is. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available.

Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. Rioja.1. Z=4 .12.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.05a Dana classification 2. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.417 Å.EB. 512 g.

95–5.10 Fusibility 2. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Often inter-grown. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. massive.5–3 to a magnetic globule .Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. radiated. faces may be striated.5 Luster Metallic. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. globular and stalactitic. granular.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). after feldspar. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. The . space group P6221 and P6421. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. respectively.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. only one termination pyramid is present. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. giving an overall formula SiO2. Polish twardy ("hard")). β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. distorted. There are many different varieties of quartz.

but they differ in hardness. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). and is rarely found naturally. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). . onyx. without change in the way they are linked. and others. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. and jasper. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. or mixed rocks including quartz." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. heliotrope. rose quartz. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. Citrine has ferric impurities. smoky quartz. amethyst.transformation between α. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. milky quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. sard. Common colored varieties include citrine. For other uses.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. carnelian. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. such as the Lothair Crystal. are agate. Natural citrines are rare. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. see Citrine (disambiguation).

or manganese. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. iron. in the massive material. . Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Magaliesburg. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Maine. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. USA. Brazil. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium.

It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. translucent version of quartz. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .

The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. Otherwise more specific names are used. colorless Amethyst Purple. banded chalcedony. or both. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. liquid. exhibiting chatoyancy. Agate Multi-colored. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Rock crystal Clear. parallel and consistent in size.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. trapped during the crystal formation. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. This does not always hold true. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. transparent . Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture.

opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . translucent. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent to opaque.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. transparent Rose quartz Pink.

03.DA.05 Dana classification 75. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. c = 5. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2. drusy. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.01.4053 Å.9133 Å.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. fine-grained to microcrystalline.

59–2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.543–1.554 Birefringence +0.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) . may betriboluminescent. variable 2.545 nε = 1.552–1.65.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.738 nβ = 1.741 nγ = 1.711 .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.714 .724 .5 .6.57 .5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.1.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.1.751 Birefringence δ = 0.3. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. lead. further research into clinical potential continues. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. to make ornaments. and is used as an investment. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. Latin: argentum. high-value tableware. gold. and zinc refining. both from the Indo-European root*arg. free form (native silver). The metal occurs naturally in its pure. utensils (hence the term silverware). Today. A soft. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. white. jewelry. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. lustrous transition metal. Its compounds are used in photographic film. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. and currency coins. as an alloy with gold and other metals. . and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect).

lazurite and tugtupite. nosean. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. with a polished rock surface. crystals are usually transparent to translucent.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. . Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. Canada. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque.

sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. and Magnet Cove. Occurring typically in massive form.ankerite and baryte. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. sodalite may also be grey. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. [3] titanian andradite. West Greenland. and Litchfield. Arkansas. shortwave ultraviolet light. British Columbia. fluorite. [1] Narsaq. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. in the USA. Quebec. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. aegirine. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. and Mont-SaintHilaire. particularly. Smaller deposits are found in South . [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. Maine. contains sodalite. Conversely. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. green. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. near Golden. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. sanidine. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. Well known for its blue color. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. Other associated minerals include nepheline. If left in a dark environment for some time. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. Ontario. sodalite is named after its sodium content.A light. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. albite. namelyleucite. in Canada. The Ice River [5] complex. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. the violet will fade again. yellow. calcite. microcline. cancrinite and natrolite. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads.

Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland.FB. Italy. Portugal. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Euhedral. white veining common . yellow. green.America (Brazil and Bolivia). transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius.876(6) Å. Burma and Russia.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Romania. violet.

sodium .33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.483 .487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.27-2.Crystal habit Massive. with yellowishphosphorescence. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.1.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. Magnesium.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. mostly opaque. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.OH)2. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .

A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. In handsamples. Keivy Mountains. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. called penetration twinning.S. New Mexico. . Samples are also found in Taos. Kola Peninsula. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. micas. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. kyanite. It occurs with almandine garnet. as well as albite. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. depth. Norway. It is the official state mineral of the U. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. Virginia. biotite. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz.

less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins. 2.5 x 2.65 Å. c = 5. Russia.6 Å.AF. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. β = 90.45°.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.86 Å.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.Murmanskaja Oblast'. yellowish brown. b = 16. Northern Region. rarely blue.

747 nβ = 1.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .1. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.83 meas.740 .74 . Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. 3.7.762 Birefringence δ = 0.1.745 .754 nγ = 1. weak .0.736 .009 .3.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.1.686 calc.015 Pleochroism X = colorless. Y = pale yellow.


It has a specific gravity of 2. a clear or dusty luster. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. Its streak is white. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.8. [edit]Formation . It has a perfect basal cleavage. Talc is not soluble in water.5– 2.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. In loose form. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. although slightly flexible. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. and is translucent to opaque. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. and the folia are non-elastic. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel.

A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. [edit]Occurrence . and are known as whiteschist. olivine. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. garnet. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. Such rocks are typically white. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. This is typically associated with high-pressure. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. pyroxene. friable. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. and fibrous. amphibole.

Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. from Brazil. Oman and the Middle East. Western Australia. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). formed upon a polydeformed. India. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. Nepal and Bhutan. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. representing 8% of world production. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. the Guiana Shield. eastern Australia. the western European Alps especially in Italy. layered ultramafic intrusion. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons.

95 Å.3°. brown.90°. Z = 2 or a = 5.158 Å. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.09°. b = 9. α = 98.287 Å. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .EC. b = 9. c = 5. β = 99.291 Å. c = 18.290 Å. β = 119. γ = 90.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green.68°.173 Å.

Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.594 nγ = 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.600 Birefringence δ = 0.589 – 1.58 to 2.538 – 1.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.550 nβ = 1.589 – 1. long UV=yellow .

OH)2. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.5 carats. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Orange topaz. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . or blue brown. Pakistan. Norway. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. reddish-orange. is the traditional November birthstone. also known as precious topaz. Sri Lanka. gold. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Germany. Czech Republic. It can also be made white. if natural) or pink-orange. pink (rare). measured a massive 22. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. Nigeria and the United States. sometimes even violet. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. typical topaz is wine. pink or violet colored. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. pale green. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Brazil. pink (rare. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Flinders Island. Italy. blue. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. Australia.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. colorless. Imperial topaz is yellow. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area.892. gold. Typically. Japan. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections.Sweden. the symbol of [5] friendship. a more recent gem. yellow. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. The American Golden Topaz. pale gray. in Afghanistan. Mexico. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia.75 carats.

The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. [edit]History Nicols. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". both of which predate the Greek word. some scholars think it is related to . John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. Minas Gerais. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot)." However. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. [edit]Biblical background. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. In the Middle Ages. a topaz. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. the ancient name of St. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. etymology. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬.

4 Å.AF.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. = yellow. c = 8. metaphorically. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn).35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.65 Å. [citation needed] More likely. "fiery". b = 8. Z = 4 . Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. meaning "yellow burn" or.8 Å.an Assyrian word meaning "flashed".

massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.631 nγ = 1.616–1. also columnar.606–1. orange. compact.49–3. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.638 .609–1. brown. green. blue. gray.629 nβ = 1. yellow.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).

Y = yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. long UV=cream . short UV=golden yellow. violet. yellow.Birefringence δ = 0.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. Z = violet. reddish. bluish.

Italy . The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. lithium. iron. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. or potassium. magnesium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. sodium.

schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. .Drava river area. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. in addition to cassiterite. and "Schurl". Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. In the 19th century the names common schorl. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". for the Drava river area. Carinthia. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). In English. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". Beginning in the 18th century. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. schörl. Austro-Hungarian Empire. Up to about 1600. This village had a nearby tin mine where. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. black tourmaline was found. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. "Schörle".

Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Fe . Al. Cr . sodium-. Cr . Zn. Al. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. Italy. vacancy Y = Li. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. V . with the simplified formula (Li. Al. vacancy V = OH. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . O W = OH. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. K. Sweden. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Ti . V T = Si. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Czech Republic. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. California. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. vacancy Z = Mg. Fe . San Piero in Campo. Tuscany.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Mn . B B = B. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. Na. where: [6] X = Ca. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time.Campo nell'Elba. Italy. United States. F. Fe . Province of [5] Livorno. Italy. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. Mg. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Elba Island. Elba Island.5Al1.

US.. San Diego Co.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. California. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.5.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . Cryo-Genie Mine.Al1.

California. Himalaya Mine. San Diego Co.. US [edit]Physical properties . Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011.

no other common mineral has three sides. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. impact the value. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. During their 2+ growth. Usually. and does not. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. red.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. currently. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. etc. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. and are often pyroelectric as well. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. green. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. or green on the outside and pink inside. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. yellow. [edit]Geology . [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. called hemimorphism. Rarely. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. but is now exhausted. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. especially pink to red colored stones. Heavily-included tourmalines. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. it is colorless. pink. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. in western Australia. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric.

[])(Al. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. . Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. or in a dual-colored pink and green.K.Cr. sometimes radiating. Acicular prisms. Massive. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Mg. green.Na. dravites. pink. Scattered grains (in granite). Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Li.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black.B)6O18(OH.Mn)3(Al.Al.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.Fe. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. Fe. violet. are generally restricted to schists and marble. but can range from brown.

light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. small conchoidal.06 (+. dark green. nε=1. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.5 Luster Vitreous.610–1. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. typically about .650 Birefringence -0.82–3.040. light blue .020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. dark brown. dark red. dark blue.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.018 to -0.06)[1] Density 2.635–1.675. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.20 -.

Dispersion . red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.

TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. is a green variety of tremolite. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Nephrite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. [edit]Occurrence . The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.

Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant.2 x 6. wollastonite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.diopside. French Pyrenees (size: 8. Leventina. Approximately 36.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Switzerland. talc. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. Associated minerals include calcite.DE. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.Ticino (Tessin). forsterite. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. cummingtonite. dolomite. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Piumogna [1] Valley. grossular.

rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. or flattened crystals. also as fibrous. light green.99 – 3. b = 18. gray. β = 104. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple.27 Å. lavender to pink.02 Å.84 Å.95°.Unit cell a = 9. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . Z = 2 Identification Color White. common parallel to {100}. c = 5.

613 .1.Refractive index nα = 1.599 . Long UV=range pink .612 nβ = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.625 .1.626 nγ = 1.1.

hydroboracite. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. by internal reflection. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. water and hydroxide octahedra. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. The chains are linked together by calcium. trona. borax. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. sometimes known as TV rock. USA. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. calcite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). mirabilite. probertite. gyps [1] um and halite. It is found principally in California and Nevada. water. meyerhofferite. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. glauberite. and Kazakhstan. Tarapacá Region in Chile. . Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers.

When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. two of which are polarized. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. Ulexite . the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones.

678(1) Å.12°.EA.816(3) Å. b = 12. β = 109.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. α = 90.1°.87Å.Ulexite from California(size: 6.9 x 5 x 3. Z =2 Identification .05. c = 6.11. γ = 105.25°.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.25 Dana classification 26.

Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.520 Birefringence δ = 0.504 – 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.5 Luster Vitreous.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.491 – 1.496 nβ = 1.519 – 1.95 – 1.028 .

white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. greenish yellow. cream.

Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. etc. rotten or possibly worthless material. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. so called because the rock glitters). biotite gneiss.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. diorite gneisses. . albite gneiss. chlorite or other platyminerals. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. they may also be called garnet gneiss. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. Depending on their coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757.

iron oxides. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). meaning "marble-like.German. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. [3][4] "crystalline rock". Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.g. Dutch marmer. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. sparkle. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. [5] gleam". Portuguese mármore. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Turkish mermer. Italian marmo. silt. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. Spanish mármol. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). sand. most other European languages (e. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). "to flash. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. "shining stone".MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. Polish marmur. Armenian marmar. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. . Norwegian. however.


Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). . Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. or chlorite impart a silky. and chlorite.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. sericite. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. sericite mica. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate.

Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. not around them. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. rutile and magnetite. British Columbia. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. therefore. carbonate and clay. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. such as yellow and orange. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Canada . often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. are due to other mineral impurities. iron oxide. and both usages are found in the literature. Although few fossils are normally present. silica. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. diagenetically altered. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Other colors. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation.

the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. as flooring. precambrian quartzite. In the United Kingdom. southwestMinnesota. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. In the Scottish Highlands. and stair steps. near Salt Lake City. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota.g. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. silicon and silicon carbide. In Wales. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. Foinaven. pale grey. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. the Wasatch Range in Utah. industrial silica sand. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). [4] . Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. In Canada. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. Central Texas. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. The highest mountain in Mozambique.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. as roofing tiles. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. Monte Binga (2436 m). Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. several mountains (e. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area).


If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. and others. A quartz-porphyry. such as garnet schist. Schist is oftengarnetiferous.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. for example. In other .The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. hornblende. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. however. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. The individual mineral grains in schist. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. glaucophane schist. Usually. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. If the whole district. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. can be seen by the naked eye. for example. the terms slate. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. graphite. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. tourmaline schist. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. Most schists are mica schists. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie.clastic structure. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. chlorite. By definition. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. etc.talc. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes.

and the white mica-schists. quartz and feldspar. dolomites. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. staurolite. are alteredclaystones and shales. and calc-schists. schistose character. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). The majority of mica-schists. many metamorphic limestones. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. contain silicate minerals such as mica. feldspar. which have been derived from rhyolites. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. diopside. for example. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. garnet. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. . quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs.cases intrusive junctions. foliated. A subgroup is the andalusite. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. tremolite. marbles. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). while others are found only among igneous masses. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. For example. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. Such rocks. chilled edges. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). however. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. with crystalline dolomites. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. scapolite. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. with variable amounts of white and black mica. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. zoisite and hornblende. as limestones.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


and may also be purple. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. For example. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. from pale to dark.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. as in the purple slates of North Wales. leaving a light green spotted texture. for example. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. covering roofs. apatite. the terms slate. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. or zirconas well as feldspar. or a writing slate. However. foliated. en masse. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. and pyrite and. from which it may be formed. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. traditionally a small piece of slate. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. chlorite. Slate is frequently grey in color. Occasionally. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. In the context of underground coal mining. tourmaline. especially when seen. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. often framed in wood. It may mean a single roofing slate. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. less frequently. hematite. or schist. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain.. . often along with biotite. green or cyan. Slate is not to be confused with shale. magnetite. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. kaolinite. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. graphite.


Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. potassium (K). Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. zircon. of intermediate composition. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. Magnetite. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. ilmenite. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range.e. During subduction. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle.g. 3. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. zeolites. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. anhydrous forms. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. biotite. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Partial melting of crustal material. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. barium(Ba). leading to metamorphism. but most . This removal can take place in a variety of ways. chlorite etc. apatite. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. 2. [5] sediment. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. Characteristic of subduction zones. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate.. volcanic rock. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. In a general sense.

. Basalt can. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. Without continued addition of mafic material. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. forming mafic cumulates. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. however.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. however. its intermediate phase. the composition is returned to andesite. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. Once there. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . such as the Andes. creating a layer of molten material at its base. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. however. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. therefore. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. these reservoirs cool. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. If it underplates the crust. In order to remain active. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. As this process continues. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. Models of heat transfer.


Basalt commonly erupts on Io. By definition.. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. and even on the asteroid Vesta. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. embedded in a finer-grained matrix. On Earth. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. Mars. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. Venus. Sobolev et al. the third largest moon of Jupiter. 2007). containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. although it can sometimes be porphyritic.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. (In comparison.g. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. /ˈbæsɒlt/..) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour.BASALT Basalt (pron. Hungary . basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt.

an excellent thermal insulator." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). libri XII. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. basanites "very hard stone.g. misspelling of L. from βάζανος (basanos. . US quarter for scale. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Arizona. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. as building blocks or in the groundwork).

the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids.     . MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. most large oceanic islands.

and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. the Darrans range of New Zealand. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Scotland. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. and/or pyroxene. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish.biotite. and frequently has a greenish cast. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. apatite. sphene. and Idahet in Egypt. Sondrio. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. however. Basin and Range province. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. which is transitional togabbro. and to provide a durable finished work. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. hornblende. It can also be black or bluish-grey. occasionally with porphyry. Italy. source localities include Leicestershire. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). Northeastern Turkey. magnetite. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. Romania. into which they may subtly merge. central Sweden. Finland.DIORITE Diorite (pron. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. the Isle of Guernsey. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. It may contain small amounts of quartz. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. making it difficult to carve and work with. . Minnesota in theUSA. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Its hardness. the Andes Mountains. microcline and olivine. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. Zircon.

. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. inscribed upon a 2. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. etc. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. London. weaponry.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. Assyria and Sumer. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. but mostly for fortress walls. Babylonia. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Paul's Cathedral. In later times. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. Guernsey and Scotland. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions.

GABBRO Gabbro (pron. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. Gabbro is dense. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. The rocks areplutonic. Rock Creek Canyon. amphibole. ilmenite. plagioclase. California. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. coarse-grained. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . easternSierra Nevada. Gabbros contain minor amounts. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Scotland. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. and ulvospinel. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. Isle of Skye. the rock is then a norite. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. typically a few percent.

and copper sulfides. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). . [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. intruding into the rift flanks. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. platinum. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. nickel. Massachusetts. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. gold. cobalt. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. US. silver. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro.extra descriptiveness is desired. although it may be porphyritic at times. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County.


igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. Granites can be pink to gray in color.75 3 g/cm . an unusual type of granite. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. a grain. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. northern Chile . hard and tough. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. and feldspar. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. Melting temperature is 1215 . By definition. Granitoid is a general.GRANITE Granite (pron.65 and 2. The average density of granite is between 2. mica. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. near the town of Caldera. This rock consists mainly of quartz. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa.1260 °C. descriptive field term for light-colored. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. felsic. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust.

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.

Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.

alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. sanidine. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.30% P2O5 — 0. where it forms a major part of continental crust. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. Granite often occurs as relatively small. . less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. although much of it is of Precambrian age.68% Fe2O3 — 1. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma.22% MgO — 0.12% Na2O — 3. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. In some locations.12% MnO — 0.82% FeO — 1.71% TiO2 — 0. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. it is called tonalite. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.69% CaO — 1. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.The Cheesewring. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.


forming perlite. [9][10][11] . Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. California . in addition. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Obsidian is mineral-like. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight.. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. usually 70% or more. which is the parent material. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava.. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. Obsidian is hard and brittle.

Texas. El Salvador. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. New Zealand. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Azerbaijan. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Very few samples are nearly colorless. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Colorado. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.S. It can be found in Argentina. Iceland. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. . Armenia. states including Arizona. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Japan. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Italy. Washington. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Pantelleria. Peru. white. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Mexico. Scotland and the United States. New [13] [14] Mexico. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). Chile.Utah. and deposits can be found in many other western U. Kenya. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Guatemala. as well as Pennsylvania. the inclusion of small. Oregon and Idaho. Canada. states of Virginia.S.Greece. In some stones.


a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Therefore. feldspar and mica. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. in essence a granite. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. For this reason. exsolution lamellae. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites.5 cm in size. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Similarly. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. macroscale graphic texture is known. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Theory Theory . thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. pyroxene and other minerals are known.

being altogether "granitic" in character. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. and are usually granitic in character. Beyond that. for example greisens. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. often with mica and usually with quartz. . Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. eastern Sierra Nevada. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. in a few cases. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Rock Creek Canyon. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. to liberate the right constituents and water. with bulk chemical and textural change. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. granite-associated mineralisation pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. California.

Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. potassium and lithium. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. In most cases. orientation. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. boron. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. accessory minerals and timing. Often. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. Tantalum. however. zinnwaldite and so forth. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. . cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. thorium. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. orange and brown almandine garnet. et cetera. tourmaline. fluorite. Australia). tourmaline. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. beryllium. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. Occasionally. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. tantalite. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. Hence. niobium. lepidolite. apatite and corundum. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. Bismuth. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. such as aquamarine. Geochemically. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. commonly almandine or spessartine. tourmaline. topaz. cesium. aluminium. say. uranium.Garnet. among others. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. columbite. tantalite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. Queensland.

creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. transitional with some greisens. However. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. Within the metamorphic belts. Similarly. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. "granitic" or "metasomatic". .While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense.

It is typically light colored. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened).: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. Rocks from the Bishop tuff.PUMICE Pumice pron. which may or may not contain crystals. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. compressed with fiamme on right. Pumice is created when super-heated. uncompressed with pumice on left. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. . highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.

some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. phonolite. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. In [4] fact. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. . When larger amounts of gas are present. to green-brown or black. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. it sinks rapidly. cream. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. blue or grey. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock.g. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. It is commonly. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. pantellerite. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. Pumice is commonly pale in color. rhyolitic. and initially floats on water. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag.S. many samples float in water. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. 1984 and 2006. trachyte). with tree trunks floating among them. dacitic. In 1979. andesite. but basaltic and other compositions are known. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. After the explosion of Krakatoa.. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. ranging from white.

Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. in the case of pumiceous lavas. especially in polishes. pencil erasers. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. and the production of stone-washed jeans. When used as an additive for cement. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. cosmetic exfoliants. during flow. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. . smooth. It is also used as an abrasive. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice.There are two main forms of vesicles. plaster-like concrete. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes.

volcanic (extrusive) rock. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock.nodular. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). spherulitic. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. and lithophysal structures. the eruptions were at the St. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. below:pumice. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). and consequently. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. . also called obsidian.


some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. and sinks in water. and hence is denser. instead they open into one another with little distortion. Vesicles are usually small. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. bubble growth. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. Quincan. typically near its surface. Australia. a unique form of Scoria. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. and may contain phenocrysts. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . Auckland in New Zealand. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. An old name for scoria is cinder. creating bubbles in the molten rock. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. skōria. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. another vesicular volcanic rock.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. and bursting. . An example is Mount Wellington. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. coalescence. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. rust. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. but in contrast to pumice. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. blocks and bombs). black or purplish red).

Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. . It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and often has striking colours. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. and to carve some moai from. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. It is somewhat porous. has high surface area and strength for its weight.

Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. Ukraine. North Korea. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. its higher relative density of 1. mineral-matter-free basis. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. the UK." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. the fewest impurities. blind coal (in Scotland). the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. as opposed to lignite. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. [5] Vietnam. In America. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. It has the highest carbon content. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. which is softer).1% and 98%.4. is known as culm. which is used as a pigment. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). and is mined in only a few countries around the world. and smokeless flame. blue. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. coal) is a hard.S. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . and black diamond. Australia and the US. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation.3– 1. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. other producers are Russia. hard coal. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. which is used mainly in power generation. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. "coal-like. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). and lustre. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals.

it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. on the as-received basis (i. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. Pennsylvania. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. and Western Pennsylvania. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. Structurally.MJ/kg). an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. circa 1935 . In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli.e. coking coal and domestic house coals. New Mexico. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. In southwest Wales. [7] It was In the United States. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. By 1795. mined near Saundersfoot. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region.. The thermal conductivity is also higher. For example. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. Since the 1980s. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. In [6] June 2008.

8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. such as schools. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. making it ideal for this purpose. Pennsylvania. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. placed in descending order. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. Group of breaker boys. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. In the early 20th century United States. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Current U. the Delaware. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. Many large public buildings. From that first mine. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. In spring 1808. on an open grate in a fireplace. Pennsylvania. Of that. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). about 1. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders.S.

[10] .consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. Similarly. "poor". but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Commercial mining has now ceased. both in America and South Wales. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. Switzerland and parts of Germany.Anthracite". Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". Formerly. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . anthracite was largely used. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. or less.

The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. . Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. although bedding is frequently visible. Fossils are rare in arkose. due to the depositional processes that form it. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. and some mica is often present.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. Apart from the mineral content. most commonly granitic rocks. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. rock fragments may also be a significant component.


which are classified according to either "dull. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. bright-banded" or "bright. good ventilation and vigilant site management. hydrogen. These distinctive sequences. . and exinite. air. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. and sulphur. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. dull-banded". Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). mineral-matter-free basis. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. the rest is composed of water. which have not been driven off from the macerals. Within the coal mining industry. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams.

Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. A breccia may have a variety of different origins.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. These are. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. A conglomerate. Technically. lithified colluvium. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. by contrast. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular.079 in) in size. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. igneous breccia. . by their relative movements. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. tectonic breccia. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. avalanches. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. in essence. The word is a loan from Italian. typically in a karst landscape. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. In the field. poorly sorted. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks.

This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. and these form volcanic breccias. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks.g. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. also called pillow breccias. . tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. This occurs when the thick. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. Broken. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. as they slide past each other. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. granites and kimberlite pipes. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. both of lava and pyroclastic type. When particularly intense. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. Lavas. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks.

the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. iridium and osmium anomalies). a type of impactite. shocked minerals. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. impact glass. Nevada.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. and are usually found at impact craters. and attrition quickly o . In addition. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. steam and boiling water. near Blessington in Ireland. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Impact breccia. in the rim. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser.g. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. Cloghleagh Iron Mine.Pahranagat Range.

Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. as the formational event is brief. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. in particular CO2. If boiling occurs. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. . Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Washington. Pend Oreille County. On their journey.rounds angular breccia fragments. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. As a result. silver and gold. In the mesothermal regime. Pend Oreille mine. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. at much greater depths. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia.


Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer.CHERT Chert (pron. It also occurs in thin beds. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. "chalcedony" and "flint" . but most often manifests as gray. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Buffalo. [edit]Terminology: "chert". New York. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. grayish brown and light green to rusty red.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. Oklahoma. it is usually called flint. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. chalk. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively).: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. brown. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. limestone. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. hard chert. (3. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral.

it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. . "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz.chert being lower quality than flint. Strictly speaking. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". The term does not include quartzite.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. Everett. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. Among petrologists. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality .

Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. .: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. which consist of angular clasts. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). South Dakota. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias.

clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. approximate depth 10. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. In this setting. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . conglomerates are normally very well sorted. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. Alaska. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. and are known as basal conglomerates.000 ft.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core.

in Australia's Northern Territory. The matrix is generally fine-grained. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. are typically poorly-sorted. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. near Barcelona.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. These form the basis of a number of . Tillites. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. forming structures such aseskers. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. in rapidly eroding (e. matrix-supported conglomerates. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley.g. desert) environments. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven.

g. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.large oil fields. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. e. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. . as different sectors of the fault moved.

Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. As a result. which compose them. trilobites. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. swift tidal channels. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. and sorting of the shells. in the form of seashells or coral. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. close packing. or other invertebrates. brachiopods. abraded. and barrier bars. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. fracturing. abrasion. shallow submarine raised banks. often including some phosphate. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. . [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world.COQUINA Coquina (pron. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing.

it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. When first quarried. However. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. The scale bar is 10 mm. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. rather than shatter or puncture. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments.Close-up of coquina from Florida. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. form. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. but still comparatively soft. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. Because of coquina's softness. In order to be used as a building material. . The stone makes a very good material for forts. coquina is extremely soft. cannon balls would sink into. Saint Augustine. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos.


236 pixels/ μm.. soft. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. mechanical insecticide. recognized its ability to filter.69 mm. a type of hard-shelled algae. Wilhelm Berkefeld. and athermal insulator. This powder has an abrasive feel. a stabilizing component of dynamite. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. It is used as a filtration aid. it was thought that limestone had been found.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. absorbent for liquids. similar to pumice powder. anti-block in plastic films.5 to 2% iron oxide. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. activator in blood clotting studies. which could be used as fertilizer. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0.E.13 by 0. matting agent for coatings.: /ˌdaɪ. TheCelle engineer. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. porous support for chemical catalysts. Peter Kasten. Initially. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . cat litter. is a naturally occurring. diatomite. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. the peasant and goods waggoner.

another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. used successfully.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. .from diatomaceous earth. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region.  ca.

California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. but are of low quality. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known.Virginia. Nevada (USA). The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. such as this one for swimming pools . In Colorado and in Clark. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Washington and California. France. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Oregon. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places.

He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. hollow particles. [7] taste. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. such as beer and wine. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. It can also filter syrups. due to its physico-sorptive properties.e. causing them to [9] dehydrate. However. coffin-like. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. It has a high porosity. with questionable efficacy. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. . because it is composed of microscopically small. In order to be effective as an insecticide. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. efficacy is very low. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid.. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. It is also used to filter water. since slugs inhabit humid environments. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. especially for swimming pools. based on Fick's law of diffusion. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. but this method may take weeks to work. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.. or nutritional properties. and honey without removing or altering their color. for this purpose. as well as in some facial scrubs. sugar. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. foodgrade— see below). and other liquids.e.

It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. particularly as bonsai soil. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. Like perlite. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. As with other silicates. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer).vermiculite. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.S. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. Fungicide. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. . [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. as [20] well as an insecticide. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. including water.

especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. as feed supplement. and has a high silica content (>60%). allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried.and expanded clay. It is produced uncalcinated. Libya. which has been widely used for the same purpose. it retains water and nutrients. and as an insecticide. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%).  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. has a very fine particle size. which is used as an indigestible marker. the largest single . Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. while draining fast and freely. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. For instance.

atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. generating dust by abrasion. . where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes.

It is. In old U.G. however.S. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. used in some geological publications. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. but it can still develop solution features over time.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. .S. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater.

The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . ca. When reacted with quaternary amine. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. mineral-matter-free basis.. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%.5 million BTU/ton). The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. Germany. Serbia. often referred to as brown coal. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.e. Russia. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. Australia averages 8.4 MJ/kg (6. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. on the as-received basis (i. Poland. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). the United States. India. it is mined in Greece.

The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. particularly in combination with strip mining. [4] Victoria. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). .than for comparable black-coal plants. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick.

The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. Virginia. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. USA . The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. and as a chemical feedstock. as aggregate for the base of roads. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera.

Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. or it can fill fractures. is found near waterfalls. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Romania. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite.e.000 meters. such as stalagmites and stalactites. Tufa. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Like most other sedimentary rocks. depending on several factors.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. most limestone is composed of grains. many limestones exhibit different colors. intraclasts. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. including the water temperature. diatoms. Because of impurities. Limestone may be crystalline. especially onweathered surfaces. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. flint. and around hot or cold springs. peloids. particularly where there are waterfalls. clastic. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). radiolarians). and varying amounts of clay. or massive. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. Below about 3. limestone recrystallizes into marble. sand. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. . iron oxide and other materials. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. such as clay. i. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. jasper. and extraclasts. This produces speleothems. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. building upon past generations. Travertine is a banded. pH. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. When conditions are right for precipitation. quartz. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. organic remains. Crystals of calcite. etc. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. the Folk and the Dunham. depending on the method of formation.travertine. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Classification Two major classification schemes. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. granular.

caves and gorges. These include limestone pavements. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. especially in acid. Robert J. cenotes. it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. The Folk system uses two-part names. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. matrix (mostly micrite). Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. there are three main components: allochems (grains). a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. and therefore self-supporting. not the grains in the sample. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. and cement (sparite). Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Unlike the Folk scheme. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. Such erosion landscapes are known . Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Based on composition. pot holes. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats.

Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. Notch Peak in Utah. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. It is most common in the tropics. This process is known as bioerosion. and relatively expensive as a building material. The Florida Keys. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. making it impractical for tall buildings. Examples include the Burren in Co. Unique habitats are found on alvars. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. On the island of Malta. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. While draining. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. England. it is a very heavy material. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. . dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Clare. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. the only building material available. Many landmarks across the world. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Sweden. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys).as karsts. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. theVerdon Gorge in France. [9] Michigan. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. especially in Europe and North America. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. However. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. typically clays. 2003). and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Ontario. So many buildings in Kingston. islands off the south coast of Florida. are made of limestone. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. Sweden. Ireland. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Egypt. for a long time. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks.

its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World.The Great Pyramid of Giza. Kansas .

Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. In the United States. Purified. durable. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. tiles. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. since it is hard. such as for poultry (when ground up). but only in thin plates for covering. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. in some circumstances. called Indiana limestone. [11] . As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. paper. rather than solid blocks. Indiana. Train stations. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. uses limestone. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. It is added to toothpaste. paint. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. cement and mortar. Used in blast furnaces. most notably the Bloomington area. plastics. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. limestone extracts iron from its ore. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. Glass making. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

Fine-grained aquifers. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. red. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. brown. white and black. sandstone may be any colour. . It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. pink. such as sandstones. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). In the western United States and incentral Australia. [edit]Uses 17. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. most [1] sandstone is red. Like sand. yellow. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. but the most common colours are tan.France. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. gray. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity.

Germany. .Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. in Freiburg. around 1770.

. It is relatively soft. and continues to be used.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. homes. These are sandstone beverage coasters. and other buildings.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. cathedrals. making it easy to carve.

These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. or chemical. and silica. Utah.079 inches). some that have been used in the past. yet are easy to work. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. have been found less resistant. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. clays. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings.002–0. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park.g.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. like chalk and coal. [3] like gypsum and jasper). Because of the hardness of individual grains. gritstone. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. Scale bar is 1.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. are typically called argillaceous sediments. including siltstones and shales.. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. However. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. rocks with greater grain sizes. for sharpening blades and other implements. . They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. e.0 mm. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones.

or sea) or from air (as in a desert). once it has accumulated. First. and composition and. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. i. over other construction. Typically. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. in finer detail. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e.. Arizona. either from water (as in a stream. include its grain size. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. lake.sorting. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. Finally. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. which. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand).g. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. in a desert or erg). as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments .e.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. in more general detail.. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain.

These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. such as hardness and chemical stability. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Alluvial fans 3. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Beach and shoreface sands 3.  .1. Glacial outwash 4. Rivers (levees. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. Tidal flats 4. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. point bars. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Lakes 5. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. channel sands) 2. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Deltas 2. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1.

this represents a complete solid solution. metamorphic. or other dense. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. Although. magnetite.garnet. rutile (hence ZTR). tourmaline. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. olivine. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. upper picture is plane-polarized light. called lithic fragments or clasts. Common heavy minerals include zircon. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index.25 millimeter. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. or sedimentary rock. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. and corundum. bottom picture is cross-polarized light.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). One is to call the . scale box at left-center is 0. pyroxene. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain.

  [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. such as calcite. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. Permeability is the rate in which water flows.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. and very rarely is in other sandstones. limonite. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. feldspars. barite. and the other is to call it a wacke. and zeolite minerals. anhydrite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. [6] gypsum. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. clay minerals. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix.sandstone an arenite.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient.  .


are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. iron hydroxide (goethite . Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. the terms slate. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. especially quartz and calcite. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray.greens). Sand grain = 2 mm. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. sodium. magnesium. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Red. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. in dia. called fissility. calcium. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. on the other hand. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. biotite and illite . Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. iron . The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. Mudstones.browns and limonite [1] yellow). montmorillonite and illite.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century.reds). Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished.

The enriched values are of controversial origin. in relatively deep. and zinc. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. dolomite. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. However. hematite and albite. such as in stagnant water columns.and water. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. ankerite. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. These released elements form authigenic quartz. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. .chert. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. quiet water. black shales were deposited in anoxic. calcite. in river deltas. 'Black shales' are dark.Cumberland Plateau. uranium. reducing environments. vanadium. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale.

With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. or various carbonate minerals. . fissile. in keeping with the Stone Age puns.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. metamorphic rockknown as slate. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". which originally aired on November 3. The Flintstones. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. "Flintstone of Princestone". Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. 1961. apatite. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. then schist and finally to gneiss.

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