BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. and is then known as carbuncle. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. It is frequently cut with a convex face. inclining to purple. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. Almandine. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series.5 K. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.512 Å at 100 K. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. of deep red color. or en cabochon.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.: /ˈælməndɪn/). it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. also known incorrectly as almandite.

Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. When the color inclines to a violet tint. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). some years ago. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. a name said to be taken from Syriam.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. in Tyrol. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. and are sometimes cut and polished. Almandine is widely distributed. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies.

030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion . slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.AD.25.790 (+/.024 [1] .Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.7.. -.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.05 (+.5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.

610 and 680-690nm [1] . may also have faint lines at 423. 460.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. and 573nm. 520.

amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. Colorado. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. although it is easily fractured. where it occurs in granitic rocks. El Paso County. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. Russia. Virginia. Colorado. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. . Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. More recently. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Because of its bright green color when polished. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. orthoclase. Naturally. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. For many years. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite.

Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. or amazonite. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. viewed under a polarizing microscope. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase.Colorado. Amazon stone. brick-red. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. pale-yellow. is a beautiful green variety of microcline.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is common in granite and pegmatites. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. Microcline may be clear. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. or green. . however. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. white. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination.

g. sodium . toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite.F. Hydroxyapatite. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Similarly. also known as hydroxylapatite. named for high concentrations of OH . fluorapatite and chlorapatite.Cl)2. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. Cl or ions.F . respectively. in the mid-20th century. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. in the crystal. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.

that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. compact or granular .fluoride.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. usually green. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. sodium monofluorophosphate). brown. yellow. prismatic crystals. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F.OH) Strunz classification 08. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane.BN. massive. pink. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent.Cl. less often colorless. blue to violet. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins.

[1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3.012.16–3.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.006)[1] Birefringence 0.002–0.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.634–1. Other colors are weak to very weak. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.[1] Dispersion 0. blue and yellow to colorless.638 (+0. −0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong. green stones – greenish yellow .

which is stronger in long wave. light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.[1] .


also known as μ-CaCO3. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. resulting in a different crystal shape. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. naturally occurring. In some mollusks. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. the entire shell is aragonite. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. An aragonite cave. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. one of the two common. in others. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. [citation Aragonite . Spain). Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. The mineral vaterite. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. In the USA. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. is situated in Slovakia. respectively. It is formed by biological and physical processes.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. [edit]Uses In aquaria. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite).

globular. Aude department. internally banded . prismatic crystals. red. orange. yellow.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) .95 Å. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. columnar. reniform.96 Å. coralloidal. green . pisolitic. c = 5. Z = 4 Identification Color White.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.AB. b = 7. acicular. stalactitic. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05.74 Å.

530 nβ = 1.682 nγ = 1.1.680 .685 .686 Birefringence δ = 0.156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2.1.529 .1. yellow.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}. white or .5-4 Luster Vitreous. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.

yellowish (SW UV) . phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish.

Fe.Al.Ti)(Si. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. Augite has two prominent cleavages.Al)2O6. [edit]Characteristics .Na)(Mg. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.

meaning "brightness".3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. leucite. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. titanium. but mostly of temperature. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. With declining temperature. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. which is from the Greekaugites. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. brown or [2] black) luster. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green.0 x 2.4 x 3. sanidine. It is found near the Ken River. labradorite. and sodium and other elements. for example. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. olivine. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. Augite .

Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.DA. β = 106. skeletal. dendritic .Al. b = 8. also acicular.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.699 Å. in thin section. violet-brown.Ti)(Si.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.Augite .97°. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Fe.Na)(Mg. Z=4 Identification Color Black.272 Å.844 Å. c = 5. brown. greenish.

resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. Z = pale green.735.026 .5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. grayish green.774 Birefringence δ = 0.1.684 .680 .1. greenish yellow.706 .3. violet. pale brown. nγ = 1. nβ = 1. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. green.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. violet .19 . Y = pale brown.1. pale yellow-green.741.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.0.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.


deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. a carbonate. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. has been known since ancient times. and unknown white crystals. With azurite.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. . an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. The mineral. France. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. From Tsumeb. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. Namibia.

77 to 3. and are often stalactitic in form. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. Azurite is soft. powdery copper(II) oxide. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. carbonate and hydroxide. . Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. Azurite is destroyed by heat. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. the other being bright green malachite. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. The specific gravity of azurite is 3. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black.89. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions.5 to 4. Characteristic of a carbonate.

but azurite turns to black copper oxide. in the silver mines located there. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. However. France. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. such as saltwater aquariums. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. Heating destroys azurite easily. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. a similar but much more expensive pigment.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. it gave a wide range of blues. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. However. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. a term applied to many blue pigments. and its basic content of copper carbonate. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Ultramarine withstands heat. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . and also as an ornamental stone. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony.

bright light. General . and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. heat. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. collectors should use a cool. However. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. dark.

prismatic. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.BA.35 Å. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. stalactitic.5 to 4 . {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. c = 10.43°. very dark to pale blue. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.85 Å. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. β = 92.01 Å. twin planes {101}. b = 5.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. fair on {100}. Berlin blue.

78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.838 Birefringence δ = 0.730 nβ = 1.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .758 nγ = 1.108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°. 3.773 (measured).

in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite.basalt. and small amounts of anataseTiO2.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. . the clay mineral kaolinite. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). In the case of Jamaica. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. gneiss. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. and shale. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. syenite. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France.

Increased aluminium recycling. followed by China. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. India. . Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. and Guinea. Brazil.[edit]Production trends In 2010.

Sr)SO4. anglesite and anhydrite. celestine. or barite. [edit]Names [2] and history . and is the main [1] source of barium. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba. The baryte group consists of baryte. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless.BARITE Baryte.

but rather a material that meets that specification. an addition to industrial products. [8] barytes. heavy media separation. [2] Heavy associations and locations . notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. tiff. tabling. Most baryte is ground to a small. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. flotation. Other names have been used for baryte. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. such as washing. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. including barytine. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. jigging. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. and blanc fixe. [2] [3] Spar. [8] schwerspath. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy).

and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. . Scotland. and with hematite ore. hydrothermal. in hot spring deposits. and evaporation. among others. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. It has also been identified in meteorites. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. Perthshire.

and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. chemically inert. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. each with different characteristics. De Kalb. Chile. The deeper the hole.Kentucky. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Connecticut. Nevada & Missouri. Liberia. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Connecticut. Turkey. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). and no more than 30%. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. United States (670). Morocco. Thailand. Virginia. radiation-shielding cement. China. Romania (Baia Sprie). by weight. [edit]Paleothermometry . Cumbria. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole.2 or greater. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Derbyshire.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. India. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). New Mexico. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. Peru. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Muirshiel [2] Mine. sound reduction in engine compartments. paper. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire.Perthshire. Morocco (460). Tennessee. North [2] Carolina. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. blue. Georgia. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. As a well is drilled. by weight. and paint. Canada. India [12] (1. New York & Fort Wallace. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan).600).000). and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. can be less than 6 μm diameter. It is mined in Arkansas. Greece. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. the bit passes through various formations. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Iran. UK (Cornwall. Iran (250). Durham. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. friction products for automobiles and trucks. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining.

. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. away from continental sources of sediment. Since baryte has oxygen.

which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". Terminated crystals are relatively rare. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. Pure beryl is colorless. [edit]Deposits .BERYL In geology. veḷiru ( ). which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. yellow. possible colors are green. red. the Spanish word brillo. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. Old French: beryl. also meaning "shine". beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. and white. theFrench word brille meaning "shine". blue. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. and [5] the English word brilliance.

and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. South Africa. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. Colombia. Mozambique.000 kilogrammes. Colorado. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Connecticut. In Brazil. New Hampshire. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. and 2+ 3+ . Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. In the United States. Madagascar. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. Mainewith dimensions 5. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color.S.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. Sweden (especially morganite). though the color returns with irradiation. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. near Powder River Pass. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Ireland and Russia. and Bahia. As of 1999. beryl locations are in California.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais.5 m by 1. North Carolina. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . InWyoming. South Dakota and Utah. Madagascar. and limestone inColombia. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains.5 meters in diameter. such as that occurring in Brazil. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Espírito Santo. the United States. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Maine. U. and Zambia. Germany. Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. neutrons or even X-rays). aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Clear yellow beryl. as well as Brazil. Austria. Idaho. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. and weighing 380.

marakata (म कन). The mines of Colombia.. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. Pakistan. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. such as Zambia. and its dimensions were 48. meaning "green". The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. In 1998. Madagascar. It weighed over 110 kg. Afghanistan and Russia. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. Malawi. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. and Chivor. Brazil. India. Zimbabwe. Minas Gerais. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. in 1910. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. which has been on the market since 1964. North Carolina. as such. [15] [7][14] . Zambia. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. Most emeralds are highly included. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. Madagascar.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. Brazil. In the US. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. It is named for the trapiche.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Coscuez. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month.

. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. D. Washington. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. Nowadays. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. Unlike emerald. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. golden beryl has very few flaws. In the past. However.C. The name originates from Goshen. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl.

with other gemstone minerals. also known as "pink beryl". Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. Morgan. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. and Co impurities. The crystal. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. its type locality. originally somewhat orange in hue.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. Sc. However. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. Juab County. and color banding is common. "pink emerald". California. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. On October 7. green. goshenite can be colored yellow. "rose beryl".Maine. Thomas [26][27] Range. In December 1910. USA. V. Utah. pink. Fe. at Pala. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). because of the . 1989." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. It was also known. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. P. Ti. such astourmaline and kunzite. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl".

Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. Utah.CJ. topaz.orthoclase. Beaver County.Sierra County. Utah. while he was prospecting for uranium. quartz. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. pseudobrookite and hematite. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. and Juab County. spessartine.05 . [28] of Fillmore. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. Utah. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges.000 per carat for faceted stones. New [1] Mexico. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions.

colorless. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. yellow. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9.50 Color Green. blue.21 Å. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.19 Å.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . radial. columnar. c = 9.

76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.0040–0.Specific gravity Average 2.595 nε = 1.564–1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce. but the stone itself does not) .568–1.

BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. [4] discovering many unique properties. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. who. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich . oxygen.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. Iron. Biotite was named by J. More generally.OH)2. in 1816. aluminium. silicon. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg.L. magnesium. it refers to the dark mica series. researched the optical properties of mica.F. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. Biotite is a sheet silicate. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.

and a grey-white streak. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. and consists of flexible sheets. Virginia and North Carolina. or lamellae. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. in some instances side-by-side. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. It has amonoclinic crystal system. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. fracture is uneven. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. which easily flake off. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. . Ontario. as in New England. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks.than phlogopite. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. has a vitreous to pearly luster. It appears greenish to brown or black. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. and even yellow when weathered. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. For instance. Norway. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. especially in pegmatite veins. When biotite is found in large chunks. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. It can be transparent to opaque.

less common on the {001} .5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.53 g Color Dark brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. greenish brown. yellow. blackish brown.

7–3.1 Density 2.605–1.675 Birefringence δ = 0.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.625 nβ = 1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .675 nγ = 1.5–3.605–1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).03–0.565–1.8–3.

is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic). also known as peacock ore.BORNITE Bornite. [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .

Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. Austria. Talate. and elsewhere in Cornwall. Morocco. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Karlovy Vary Region. Montana and at Bristol.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Kazakhstan.England.Connecticut in the U. the Mangula mine. . Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass. S. Illogan.5 x 4. from the N’ouva mine.Lomagundi district. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas.Mexico (size: 7. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Zimbabwe.3 x 3. eastern Tirol. the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

In carbonate marine sediments. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. The world's largest known geode. Ohio. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. Celestine . unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. usually in small quantities. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed.The mineral is found worldwide. Crystal Cave.

c = 6.352 Å. b = 5. pale blue. pink. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless. pale brown. pale green. white.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07.866 Å.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. black .AD.359 Å.

Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. also fibrous.619 .622 nβ = 1.1.624 nγ = 1. good on {210}.630 .1. earthy. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.632 Birefringence δ = 0.3.622 .011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . lamellar. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .5 Luster Vitreous.3.95 .

white blue . white blue. long UV=yellow.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.

[edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. digenite (Cu9S5). Copper is shown in pink. . hydroxides and sulfates.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. covellite (CuS).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. chalcocite (Cu2S). It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. On exposure to air.

molybdenite representing Mo. etc. Cr. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. Pb. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Pt. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. Mn. In. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. Ontario. Se. the American cordillera and the Andes. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits.3 x 4. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system.8 x 6. Pd. and Sb are reported. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. from huge masses as at Timmins. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. . Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. Ni.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. and trace amounts of Ag. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Au. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. However. V. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid.

Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02. Ouray County. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Colorado. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite).CB.

commonly massive. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.Unit cell a = 5. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.1 – 4.289 Å.3 .54 Color Brass yellow.423 Å. and sometimes botryoidal. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. c = 10.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. later shortened to сuprum. both by itself and as part of pigments. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). copper was principally mined on Cyprus. Characteristics . It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. In the Roman era. a building material. and wood preservatives. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. Pure copper is soft and malleable. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. and a constituent of various metal alloys.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. needed] In sufficient concentration. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. fungicides. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. muscle and bone.

such as grain boundaries.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. which are relatively weak for a soft metal. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. At the macroscopic scale. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 . The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. For this reason.Physical A copper disc (99. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. As with other metals. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. above which it begins to heat excessively. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper. and osmium (bluish).

shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. It does not react with water. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. such as the Statue of Liberty. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Edinburgh. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). this oxide layer stops the further. bulk corrosion. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. respectively.

62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications.83 hours. they both have a spin of 3/2. Cu. US. which has [13] a half-life of 12. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. The other isotopes are radioactive. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography.4×3. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite.7 hours.There are 29 isotopes of copper. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized.2×3.2 cm. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . [15] . with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. Native copper is a polycrystal. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. Cu and Cu are stable. decays both ways.8 minutes. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper.

It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". but can have different colors when impurities are present. All other colors are called sapphire.0 Mohs). It is commonly used as anabrasive. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda.02 g/cm . It is a rock-forming mineral. it can scratch almost every other mineral. corundum is unusual for its density of 4.g. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. with an average hardness near 8. e. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen.. In addition to its hardness. "green sapphire" for a green specimen. Transparent specimens are used as gems. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . and the mix is less abrasive. titanium and chromium.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. and wood. on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. plastics.0.

Russia. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes.8 in × 1 in). In 1903. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites.Corundum from Brazil. New York. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2.000 °C (3. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. Sri Lanka and India. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. gneiss. In 1847. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. . It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut.632 °F). Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. [4] USA. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). [4] Ontario. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. silicon carbide. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill.

and laser components. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. scratch-resistant watch crystals. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. bearings.05 Dana classification 4. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years. and other machined parts). scratchresistant optics. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).1 . Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.CB.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. rods. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis.1. Apart from ornamental uses. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature.3.

massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. blue to cornflower blue. prismatic. pink to pigeon-blood-red. brown. green. rhombohedral crystals. may be color zoned. violet. tabular.75 Å.982 Å. yellow.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. translucent toopaque . orange. gray. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. c = 12. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal.

95–4.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1. or hercynite .Specific gravity 3.772 nε = 1.hematite.759–1.767–1.

black. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. Less often blue. .01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. orange.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral.10a Identification Formula mass 12. green. pink.CB. purple and red. translucent white. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. violet. brown or gray to colorless.

01 Density 3.044 .418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.52±0.5–3.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

S.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. [edit]Properties . or in old U. In 1791. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. often as a result of diagenesis. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work.

This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system.g. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. where organic matter content is high. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. In the 1950s and 60s. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. namely. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Unlike calcite. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. . Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). i. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. gray to pink. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Arkansas. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. although it is usually massive. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. dolomite is a double carbonate. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. It forms white. having a different structural arrangement.e. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Crystal twinning is common. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis).

in a 1999 study. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. However. textural and chemical characteristics. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. White Mountains. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. . Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria.Dolomite. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. California. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites".

2×4. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.4×7. Dolomite . dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. zinc. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. a concrete aggregate. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. and copper. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Cherokee County. Kansas(size: 11. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. In horticulture. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.

stalactitic. c = 16.002 Å.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. 3 Unit cell a = 4. massive. Z = 3 Identification Color White.AB. Crystal system Trigonal . often with curved faces.8012(1) Å. granular. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. also columnar.

181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.679–1.500 Birefringence δ = 0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. .681 nε = 1.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.84–2.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.179–0. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. triboluminescent.

[edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. yellow and brown.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. the color. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. the pleochroic colors being usually green." 3+ . It displays strong pleochroism. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. Ca2Al2(Fe . The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. and the specific gravity. grey. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. The color is green. the optical constants. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. brown or nearly black. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron.

dark green. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. adularia. . but one of secondary origin. pyroxenes. amphiboles. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. and apatite. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. Haddam inConnecticut. The perfectly transparent. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. as magnificent. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. and others) composing igneous rocks. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. here as large. garnets. Arendal in Norway. micas. withasbestos. calcite. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone.

further. reddish-black. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. after whom the species was named. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808. syenite. pitchy in lustre. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. rhyolite. and others. there is little or no cleavage. Epidote . being black or dark brown in color. Dollaseite is less common. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. at Finbo. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. gneiss. yellowish-. and greenish-brown colors. near Ivrea in Piedmont. granite. and well-developed crystals are rare. and opaque in the mass. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. Piemontite occurs as small. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. near Falun in Sweden. sometimes a foot in length. Although not a common mineral. andesite. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. and many different names applied.

6 . greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. fibrous. yellow-green.3–3. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.

Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.784 nγ = 1.797 Birefringence δ = 0.751 nβ = 1.725–1.019–0.734–1.046 Pleochroism Strong .

the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. Typically. of plagioclase. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. . The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. While slowly cooling within the earth. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite.

such as porcelain. Germany. Most moonstones are translucent and white. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. Russia. some ceramics. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. In gemology. It is the state gem of Florida. It measured ~10×10×0. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. and as a constituent of scouring powder. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses.

Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance.63 Optical Biaxial (-). Cleavages intersect at 90°. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. 2V = 65–75 . It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief.55–2. White. Greyish yellow. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Greenish.

524 nγ = 1.520 nβ = 1.0050–0.525 Birefringence 0.518–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.522–1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx. Other characteristics Low negative relief .522– Refractive index nα = 1.

GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. calcite and fluorite. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It is the most important lead ore mineral. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .

in a process similar to bioleaching. Derbyshire. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. Bulgaria.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. In addition zinc. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. In the United States. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado.2×2. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. . Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. cadmium.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Illinois. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Somerset. Utah and Montana. the Madan. antimony.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. The Mendips. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Rhodope Mountains. Missouri. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Smolyan Province. Cornwall. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. the former mining town of Galena. Of the latter. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. and Cumberland. USA (size: 5. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena.S. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Broken Hill.1×3. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Iowa and Wisconsin. Idaho. Saxony. England.

U. Isle of [5] Man. In modern wireless communication systems. For example. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. which.K. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. which were a potential source of disease. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. however. in Ancient Egypt. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. which was known as a "cat's whisker". Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose.g. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral .4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0.

75 .Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.CD.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. space group Fm3m. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].5–2. 225 Twinning Contact. No.936 Å.1. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.8.10 Dana classification 2.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.2–7.

The hardness is variable.3. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. although specimens may show a [6] . and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. the other being hematite. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes.akaganeite. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. but generally in the 4 . limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. among them goethite.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2.5 range. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. Although originally defined as a single mineral. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. but limonite does not. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. lepidocrocite. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. and jarosite.7 to 4.5. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak.

Because of its amorphous nature. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. Before smelting. Nonetheless. in Africa. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. sometimes mammillary. Complex systems developed. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. hematite and magnetite. producing red ochres. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. reniform or stalactitic. Main article: Ochre#History . Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. [12] notably in Tanzania. burnt umbers and siennas. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. pyroxene. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. and biotite. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. [10] California mining district. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. and hematite was far easier to smelt. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. to process limonite. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. amphibole. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits.botryoidal. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains.fibrous or microcrystalline structure.

it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.5½ . Limonite General Category Amorphous. mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate.

9 .4.4.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .7 .3 Density 2.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. Less commonly. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. usually with tellurium. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. jewelry.S. is insoluble in nitric acid. which dissolves silver and base metals. . Gold resists attacks by individual acids. as nuggets or grains in rocks. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. malleable and ductile metal. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form.GOLD Gold is a dense. In Europe. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. in 1932. It dissolves in mercury. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. in veins and in alluvial deposits. which have been used in mining. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. so named because it dissolves gold. Chemically. forming amalgam alloys. soft. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. with huge war debts. giving rise to the term theacid test. shiny. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.

Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions.7 m on a side. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. colored-glass production and gold leafing.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. electronics. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. or a cube 20. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. in terms of volume. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. This is roughly equivalent to 5. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. 40% in [3] investments. Its highmalleability. . ductility. and other fields.A total of 171. and 10% in industry. includingelectric wiring.5 billion troy ounces or. about 8876 m .

and is probably hydrothermal in origin. graphite is an electrical conductor. . flat. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. consequently. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. the last stage of coalification. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. "to draw/write". it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. 2. There are three principal types of natural graphite. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. for its use in pencils. Therefore. It is. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). and is sometimes called meta-anthracite.GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. 3. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). a semimetal. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope).: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions.

[7] totaling 73% of all global production. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. China is the largest producer of graphite. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. Graphite .S. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. U. respectively. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope.Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. calcite. India (130 kt). This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. in particular.18 billion. but U.S. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. Brazil (76 kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). micas and tourmaline. Graphite is not mined in the United States.110 thousand tonnes (kt). The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.

otherwise rough when not on cleavage . six-sided foliatedmasses.CB.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.708 Å. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.461 Å. c = 6.

09–2.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.

Selenite contains no significantselenium. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. referring to its crystalline projections. and in the early 19th century. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. Selenite may also occur in a silky. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. cleavable masses called selenite. fibrous form. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. "chalk" or "plaster". referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. [edit]Occurrence . Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. Finally. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. In arid areas. typically opaque. it may also be granular or quite compact. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". (Thus. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. As a mineral. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. rather.0–2. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. Upon addition of water. When the crystal lattice is heated. and transparent. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. "spear stone". Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. It can be used as afertilizer. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. in the form of selenite. As foranhydrite. In hand-sized samples. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. it is alabaster. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures.5 g/l at 25°C) and.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. in contrast to most other salts. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. called alabaster.

Commercial exploitation of the area. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Wyoming. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. UK. as well as in hot springs. However. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Pure gypsum is white. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Somerset. Under reducing conditions. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls.000 years. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Gypsum is a common mineral. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. from volcanic vapors. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. . the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. and sulfate solutions inveins. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Blue Anchor. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. strongly opposed by area residents. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures.

General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. may be yellow. b = 15.679(5) Å.43°. pink. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty.522(6) Å.202(14) Å.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. β = 118. reddish brown or gray .Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. brown. blue. c = 6.CD. tan. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.

due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.519–1.523 nγ = 1.530 Birefringence δ = 0.522–1.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.529–1. flat.010 . or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Mohs scalehardness 1. inelastic. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.521 nβ = 1. pearly. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}.31–2. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.

slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

While the forms of hematite vary. Hematite can also occur without water. or red.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. however. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. one of several iron oxides. It is mined as the main ore of iron. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. or other standing water. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3).HEMATITE Hematite. Hematite is a mineral. Varieties includekidney ore. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. . brown to reddish brown. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Hematite is harder than pure iron. spring. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Maghemite is a hematite. also spelled as haematite. ancient. or otherwise highly weathered soils. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). but much more brittle. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. usually as the result of volcanic activity. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. colored black to steel or silver-gray. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. they all have a rust-red streak.

05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. dull to bright red . Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.038(2) Å. α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. Fe2O3. c = 13.772(12) Å.CB.

nε = 2. botryoidal or stalactitic masses.150–3.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. micaceous or platy.870–2.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. granular. commonly in rosettes.220. columnar. earthy.5–6. reniform.940 Birefringence δ = 0. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None. radiating fibrous.280 .5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

Si)8O22(OH. The general formula can be given as (Ca. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.F)2.Fe. . to refer to a dark amphibole.Na)2–3(Mg. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. and an iron-magnesium silicate.9–3. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.Al)5(Al. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). a specific gravity of 2.4 and is typically an opaque green. brown or black color. but the name is used as a general or field term.

A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. and named edenite. andesite. New York. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. andschist. Fe. Orange County. diorite. gabbro. gneiss. basalt. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. syenite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. Al)5 (Al. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. from its locality in Edenville. is gray to white in color.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.9 Pleochroism Strong .Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

In Africa. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. United States. part of the group of industrial minerals. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". It is a soft. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. [edit]Chemistry [6] . Alternating layers are sometimes found. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. yellow or light orange colors. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). China. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. Lighter concentrations yield white. earthy.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. In many parts of the world. a village near Jingdezhen. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. It is a layered silicate mineral. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). pinyin: Gaoling). with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. calaba. Jiangxi province. giving it a distinct rust hue.

2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. [edit]Occurrence . Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). however. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. H = H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. and highly crystalline cristobalite. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. S = SiO2. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. Si3Al4O12. Al2Si2O7. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite.

Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. United Kingdom. Germany. France. [1] the People's Republic of China. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. Australia. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas.5 million tonnes. India. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. the Czech Republic and the United States. Kaolinite . Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. it is mined. as kaolin. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. Bulgaria. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks.Korea. in Brazil. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Iran. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5.

13 Å.25 Å. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. aggregated into compact.89 Å.5°. β = 104. sometimes red. γ = 89. α = 90°. b = 8. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.8°. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . Z = 2 Identification Color White.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. thin plates or stacked. c = 7.ED.

570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. Calculated: 44° .553–1.569.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.565. nβ = 1.16–2.Mohs scalehardness 2–2. nγ = 1.569–1.559–1.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.

Tanco Mine. Notable occurrences include Brazil. Russia. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. columbite. Lepidolite .spodumene. andMadagascar. cassiterite. in some high-temperature quartz veins. It occurs in granite pegmatites. topaz and beryl.Si)3O10(F. feldspar. Ural Mountains. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. tourmaline.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. United States. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. California. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. Canada. greisens and granites. Bernic Lake. Manitoba. amblygonite. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium.

colorless .OH)2 Strunz classification 09.Lepidolite.149(5) Å. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.Si)3O10(F. yellowish. white. rose-red. Minas Gerais. purple. Virgem da Lapa. violet-gray.4 x 2. Brazil (size 2. β = 100:77(4)°.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m.011(5) Å c = 10.1 x 0.Cm Unit cell a = 5.209(2) Å b = 9.EC.

Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals. scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. nβ=1.548.551–1.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Y = Z = pink.586 Birefringence 0. nγ=1.58° measured .554– 1.525–1.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.0290–0.8–2. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.58. pale violet 2V angle 0° .

a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. Commonly. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. hematite. will attract small pieces of iron. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak. and ulvospinel have been much studied. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks.e. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. called lodestone. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass.. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide.

1. including banded iron formations.BB.397 Å.III) oxide.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. Z=8 Identification Color Black. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. In many igneous rocks. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont.085 °F). Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.

Crystal habit Octahedral.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5–6. parting on {Ill}. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.17–5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. the spinel law. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.

malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone.000 years. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. This opaque. which features a huge malachite vase. a large malachite vase. . Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. fibrous. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. "The Tazza". Middle French: melochite. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. or stalagmitic masses. "mallow". and most often forms botryoidal. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. The pigment is moderately lightfast. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. "mallow-green stone". deep underground. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. in fractures and spaces. Since then. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. It is also used for decorative purposes. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. variant of καιάχε malāchē.

goethite. blackish green. Timna valley. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. Israel. Lyon.Zambia. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. the source of the carbonate.1 g/mol Color Bright green. dark green. Namibia. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). and calcite. Tsumeb. Broken Hill. Russia. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. Mexico.BA. Except for its vibrant green color. Gabon. . Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. New South [7] Wales.10 Identification Formula mass 221. France.

stalactitic.909 Birefringence δ = 0. Polysynthetic twinning also present. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. botryoidal.254 .6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.875 nγ = 1.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. silky if fibrous.commonly banded in masses.655 nβ = 1. Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.5–4.

The green. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. and can be transparent or translucent. or (rarely) violet or red. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite.76–3. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. yellows.OH)2. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic.25 parallel to the [001] face. India. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. greens. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. [4] . Its crystal system is monoclinic. browns. isinglass.

Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.9×4. Minas Gerais. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. pegmatites. morganite) from Paprok. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5. In pegmatites.8×3.02a. etc. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. gneisses. feldspar. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.02.Muscovite with beryl (var.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.15 Dana classification 71.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic .3×3.EC. and schists. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.kyanite.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. found in granites.

199 Å.78°.Unit cell a = 5.027 Å. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. grey. Z = 4 Identification Color White. β = 95. b = 9.576 . silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m). c = 20.106 Å. silky.552–1.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.

582–1.035 – 0.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .587–1.615 nγ = 1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.nβ = 1.

Fo 70Fa30).Fe)2SiO4. magnesium and iron. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. almost 1900 °C. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). [edit]Identification and paragenesis .OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). silicon. The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen.. as do other properties.g. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.

though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Gila Co. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Arizona.. USA. .

the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. or forsterite. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. moreover.Fe)2Si2O6). and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. from the Greek words for gold and stone). the Moon. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. and . October 17.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. First X-ray view of Martian soil . The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. falling into infant stars. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. Such meteorites include chondrites. 2012). That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. collections of debris from the early solar system. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Mars. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans.g. the French word for olivine). in the dust of comet Wild 2. In contrast. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. 12 GPa. andpallasites. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. pyroxenes.feldspar. because olivine is so abundant. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle.

A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. Oxygen is shown in red. O3 lies in a general position. Olivine . close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O2 and O3 in figure 1). In an alternative view. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. silicon in pink. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. O1. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. while M1 exists on an inversion center. and magnesium/iron in blue. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. O2. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal.

5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

670–1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.040 .37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.690 Birefringence δ = 0.650 nβ = 1.670 nγ = 1.650–1.27–3.630–1.

pink. green. orange. not a mineral. blue. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. olive.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . the reds against black are the most rare. [edit]Precious opal . its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. magenta. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. Of these hues. yellow. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. For gemstone use. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. a mineraloid form. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. like basalt. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. sandstone. gray. brown. Opal ranges from clear through white. red. rhyolite. slate. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. and black. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. being most commonly found withlimonite. whereas white and greens are the most common. rose. marl and basalt.

packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. .Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum.

These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid.Australian Opal Doublet. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. which is correctly termed play of color. Potch does not show a play of color. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. of which opal is the best known natural example. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. unlike triplet opals. Contrarily. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. and are not classed as precious opal. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. which is often of lower quality. basalt. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. . The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. or obsidian. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. it has an internal structure. In addition. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. hyalite. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. which is brown or grey. They do not usually show any play of color. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. resin opal. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. or star . orange. geyserite. also called siliceous sinter. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. wood opal. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). menilite. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. orange-yellow or red. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal.

However. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. when cut properly. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. It does not display pleochroism. Queensland. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm).000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. Boulder Opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal.effect. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). It weighs 17. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. Queensland . It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico.

Nevada. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. bones. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. white. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. weighing 160 carats. fire. Bonanza. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. and lemon opal. crystal opal. Idaho. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. and marine creatures in South Australia. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Another Australian town. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. from Kynuna in the north. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. [citation needed] [12] A . The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots.585 carats. closely related to boulder opal. known as the "Black Peacock." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. fish. Miocene age opalised teeth. Opal Queen. and black opal. Royal Peacock. and weighs 2. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. and a snake head have been found. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. is the main source of black opal. crystal.

In late 2008. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. Turkey. Indonesia. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. red. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . Honduras. Hungary. Piauí ). green.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. [19] Slovakia. Brazil (inPedro II. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. orange. brown. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. yellow. black. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0.7 by 0. in masses. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. Guatemala. white.

15 (+.450 (+.42–1. but typically reads 1. or yellow in long and short wave.90)[1] Density 2. may phosphoresce. translucent. May also phosphoresce.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive.[1] . fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. -.37.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave. -.Mohs scalehardness 5. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1. may phosphoresce.08.020.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. green. transparent Specific gravity 2.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1.

methanol. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. hydrofluoric acid .humic acid. bases.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm.

Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. In ancient Roman times. in turn from πύρ (pur). and as a replacement mineral in fossils. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. "of fire" or "in fire". [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. or iron pyrite.37 wt% gold. "fire". [edit]Uses . this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. By Georgius Agricola's time. brazzle and Brazil. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. as well as in coal beds. sedimentary rock. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. and metamorphic rock. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits.

Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. In the 15th century. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists.95 eV. . the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. iron(II) sulfate. often set in silver. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. was popular in the Victorian era. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. that is. Marcasite jewelry. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. most notably the wheellock. Navajún. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. for use in such applications as thepaper industry.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). La Rioja. it had become the [12] dominant method. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. By the 19th century. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. Until the vacuum tube matured.

1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02.417 Å.1. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.05a Dana classification 2. Z=4 .12. Rioja.EB. 512 g.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.

tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. radiated. globular and stalactitic. faces may be striated. massive. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5 Luster Metallic. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. granular.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. Often inter-grown. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.5–3 to a magnetic globule .10 Fusibility 2.95–5.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. Polish twardy ("hard")). distorted. There are many different varieties of quartz. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. after feldspar. giving an overall formula SiO2. respectively. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. space group P6221 and P6421. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. only one termination pyramid is present. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. The .QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape.

Citrine has ferric impurities. amethyst. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. and jasper. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. but they differ in hardness. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. onyx. milky quartz. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). are agate. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. . see Citrine (disambiguation). often including contrasting bands or patterns of color." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. or mixed rocks including quartz. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. and is rarely found naturally. rose quartz. such as the Lothair Crystal. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. For other uses. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. and others.transformation between α. Natural citrines are rare. sard. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. carnelian. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. Common colored varieties include citrine. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. smoky quartz. heliotrope. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. without change in the way they are linked. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). Brazil is the leading producer of citrine.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another.

Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Brazil. . in the massive material. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Magaliesburg. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. or manganese. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. iron. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. Maine. USA. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz.

[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . translucent version of quartz. Some can also be black. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.

This does not always hold true. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. trapped during the crystal formation. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Rock crystal Clear. transparent . parallel and consistent in size. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. liquid. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. Otherwise more specific names are used. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. exhibiting chatoyancy. or both. Agate Multi-colored.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. colorless Amethyst Purple. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. banded chalcedony.

transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent to opaque. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. translucent.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .

9133 Å. c = 5. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.4053 Å.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.03.05 Dana classification 75.01. drusy. fine-grained to microcrystalline. SiO2) Strunz classification 04. Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle .DA.

59–2.545 nε = 1.65. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric. variable 2.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.554 Birefringence +0. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) . may betriboluminescent.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.543–1.552–1.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.1.738 nβ = 1.Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.5 .751 Birefringence δ = 0.714 .1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.6.3.711 .57 .1.724 .741 nγ = 1.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .

further research into clinical potential continues. and zinc refining. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). and is used as an investment.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. Today. Latin: argentum. to make ornaments. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. and currency coins. . free form (native silver). The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Its compounds are used in photographic film. A soft. high-value tableware. lead. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. jewelry. lustrous transition metal. both from the Indo-European root*arg. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. white. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. as an alloy with gold and other metals. utensils (hence the term silverware). it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. gold.

nosean. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Canada. with a polished rock surface. . lazurite and tugtupite.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia.

particularly. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. and Mont-SaintHilaire. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites.A light. and Litchfield. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. shortwave ultraviolet light. albite. The Ice River [5] complex. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. Ontario. in Canada. sanidine. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. Smaller deposits are found in South . fluorite. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. Well known for its blue color. green. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. sodalite is named after its sodium content. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. Quebec. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. namelyleucite. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. Maine. Arkansas. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. microcline. Occurring typically in massive form.ankerite and baryte. in the USA. West Greenland. British Columbia. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. near Golden. calcite. cancrinite and natrolite. [1] Narsaq. yellow. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. aegirine. [3] titanian andradite. sodalite may also be grey. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. Other associated minerals include nepheline. the violet will fade again. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. contains sodalite. and Magnet Cove. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. If left in a dark environment for some time. Conversely. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine.

Italy. white veining common . violet. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8.876(6) Å. yellow. Burma and Russia.America (Brazil and Bolivia).FB. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Romania. green. Euhedral. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Portugal.

Crystal habit Massive.1. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.483 .5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV. sodium . rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. with yellowishphosphorescence.27-2.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.OH)2. Magnesium. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium. mostly opaque.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7.

stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. as well as albite. Norway. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. kyanite.S. biotite. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. It occurs with almandine garnet. New Mexico. It is the official state mineral of the U. micas. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. In handsamples. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. Kola Peninsula. . [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. Samples are also found in Taos. Virginia. Keivy Mountains. depth.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. called penetration twinning.

pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.86 Å. rarely blue. b = 16. Russia.Murmanskaja Oblast'. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . c = 5. 2. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.45°.6 Å. yellowish brown.AF.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. β = 90. Northern Region.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7.5 x 2.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.65 Å.

3.1.015 Pleochroism X = colorless. Y = pale yellow.83 meas.009 .74 .762 Birefringence δ = 0.1.0. weak .7.736 .745 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.1.740 .754 nγ = 1. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.747 nβ = 1. 3.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.686 calc.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.


It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. In loose form. although slightly flexible. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. Its streak is white. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. [edit]Formation . it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. and the folia are non-elastic.8. a clear or dusty luster. It has a specific gravity of 2. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. Talc is not soluble in water.5– 2. and is translucent to opaque.

olivine. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. Such rocks are typically white. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. friable. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. amphibole. garnet. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. and are known as whiteschist. This is typically associated with high-pressure. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. and fibrous. pyroxene. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. [edit]Occurrence .

Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. Nepal and Bhutan.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. Oman and the Middle East. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. eastern Australia. formed upon a polydeformed. India. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . the western European Alps especially in Italy. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. from Brazil. Western Australia. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. representing 8% of world production. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. the Guiana Shield. layered ultramafic intrusion.

173 Å. α = 98.90°.3°. c = 18. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.95 Å.291 Å. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green .05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5. Z = 2 or a = 5. b = 9. c = 5.158 Å.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.287 Å.EC. β = 99. b = 9.09°. γ = 90. β = 119. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. brown.290 Å.68°. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).

538 – 1. long UV=yellow .83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.58 to 2.600 Birefringence δ = 0.594 nγ = 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.550 nβ = 1.589 – 1.589 – 1.

OH)2. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

Imperial topaz is yellow. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. measured a massive 22. pink (rare. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. gold. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. typical topaz is wine. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow.Sweden. Czech Republic. Germany.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. if natural) or pink-orange. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. a more recent gem. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. yellow. pink (rare). the symbol of [5] friendship. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. The American Golden Topaz. Pakistan. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. Nigeria and the United States. blue. or blue brown. in Afghanistan. Japan. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. is the traditional November birthstone. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Norway. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. Flinders Island. Brazil.5 carats. Sri Lanka. Typically. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. also known as precious topaz.892. reddish-orange. pale green. gold. Australia. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. pink or violet colored. pale gray. It can also be made white. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain.75 carats. sometimes even violet. Italy. colorless. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. Orange topaz. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. Mexico.

" However. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. In the Middle Ages. the ancient name of St. etymology. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire". Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. [edit]History Nicols. both of which predate the Greek word. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. some scholars think it is related to . and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. a topaz. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. [edit]Biblical background. Minas Gerais.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above.

meaning "yellow burn" or. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F. Z = 4 .4 Å.AF. c = 8.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.65 Å.an Assyrian word meaning "flashed". metaphorically. [citation needed] More likely.OH)2 Strunz classification 9. b = 8. "fiery".8 Å. pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). = yellow.

yellow.606–1. brown. also columnar.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.629 nβ = 1. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). gray.631 nγ = 1. blue.49–3. green. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.616–1. orange.609–1.638 . compact.

short UV=golden yellow.Birefringence δ = 0. Y = yellow. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent. bluish. reddish. yellow. violet. Z = violet.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. long UV=cream .

Italy . lithium.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. sodium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). magnesium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. iron. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.

The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. This village had a nearby tin mine where. Up to about 1600. in addition to cassiterite. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. for the Drava river area. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". In the 19th century the names common schorl. black tourmaline was found. Austro-Hungarian Empire. Beginning in the 18th century. In English.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. Carinthia. and "Schurl". . Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. "Schörle". schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill".Drava river area. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. schörl.

V . In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . where: [6] X = Ca. sodium-. vacancy Y = Li. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Sweden. Al. Al. Cr . Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Na. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Italy. San Piero in Campo. Czech Republic. Italy. Al. Fe . California. F. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. B B = B.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Fe . Mn . and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Cr . Fe . in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. Elba Island.Campo nell'Elba. Zn. K. with the simplified formula (Li. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Elba Island.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Mg. United States. vacancy V = OH. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Tuscany. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Italy.5Al1. vacancy Z = Mg. Province of [5] Livorno. O W = OH. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. V T = Si. Ti .

.Al1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . US. Cryo-Genie Mine. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1. San Diego Co.5. California.

Himalaya Mine. California. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. San Diego Co..Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. US [edit]Physical properties .

Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. [edit]Geology . An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. called hemimorphism. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. currently. yellow. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Rarely. but is now exhausted.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. in western Australia. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. and does not. etc. red. no other common mineral has three sides. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . it is colorless. or green on the outside and pink inside. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. Usually. and are often pyroelectric as well. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. especially pink to red colored stones. During their 2+ growth. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. pink. green. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. Heavily-included tourmalines. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. impact the value. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs.

V)6 (BO3)3(Si. Scattered grains (in granite).[])(Al. Acicular prisms. dravites.Cr. but can range from brown. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Fe. Fe. Magnesium-rich tourmalines. or in a dual-colored pink and green. Massive. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite.Na. green.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Mn)3(Al. violet. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate.Li. sometimes radiating. pink.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black.B)6O18(OH. .Mg. are generally restricted to schists and marble.Al.K.

dark blue.20 -. typically about .675. nε=1.650 Birefringence -0.5 Luster Vitreous. dark brown.82–3.610–1.06 (+. light blue .040.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong. small conchoidal. dark red.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. dark green. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong.020 but in dark stones it may reach . brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.635–1.018 to -0. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.06)[1] Density 2.

and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.Dispersion . red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] .

The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. Nephrite. is a green variety of tremolite. [edit]Occurrence . It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.

[edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. dolomite.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.2 x 6. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.DE.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. Switzerland. Leventina. Approximately 36. Associated minerals include calcite. Piumogna [1] Valley. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. wollastonite. talc. cummingtonite.Ticino (Tessin).10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo.diopside. grossular. forsterite. French Pyrenees (size: 8. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks.

02 Å. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. c = 5. b = 18. or flattened crystals. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple.Unit cell a = 9. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.95°. gray. light green.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . lavender to pink.27 Å. β = 104. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.84 Å.99 – 3. also as fibrous. Z = 2 Identification Color White. common parallel to {100}.

1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.612 nβ = 1.599 .626 nγ = 1.637 Birefringence δ = 0. Long UV=range pink .613 .1.Refractive index nα = 1.1.625 .

glauberite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. by internal reflection. It is found principally in California and Nevada. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. The chains are linked together by calcium. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. trona. probertite. and Kazakhstan. meyerhofferite. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. sometimes known as TV rock. calcite. mirabilite. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. hydroboracite. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. borax. water. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. gyps [1] um and halite. Tarapacá Region in Chile. USA. . with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. water and hydroxide octahedra.

The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). Ulexite . When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. two of which are polarized.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral.

25 Dana classification 26. c = 6. γ = 105.816(3) Å.678(1) Å.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.25°. b = 12.EA. β = 109. α = 90.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. Z =2 Identification .Ulexite from California(size: 6.1°.05.11.87Å.12°.9 x 5 x 3.

506 br/>nγ = 1.028 .491 – 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.504 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.519 – 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.496 nβ = 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.95 – 1.

greenish yellow.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . cream.

Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. they may also be called garnet gneiss. diorite gneisses. . rotten or possibly worthless material. etc. so called because the rock glitters). chlorite or other platyminerals. albite gneiss. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. biotite gneiss. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. Depending on their composition. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions.

Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Italian marmo. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. silt. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. however. Armenian marmar. sand. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. [5] gleam". These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. sparkle. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). Spanish mármol. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock.g. meaning "marble-like. Turkish mermer. . Polish marmur. most other European languages (e. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. most commonly calcite or dolomite.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Dutch marmer.German. [3][4] "crystalline rock". Norwegian. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. iron oxides. "shining stone". "to flash. Portuguese mármore." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō).


Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. or chlorite impart a silky. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. . Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. Minute crystals of graphite.PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). and chlorite. sericite. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. sericite mica. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite.

and both usages are found in the literature.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. silica. British Columbia. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. are due to other mineral impurities. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. therefore. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. carbonate and clay. rutile and magnetite. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. Other colors. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. iron oxide. Canada . Minor amounts of former cementing materials. not around them. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). such as yellow and orange. diagenetically altered. Although few fossils are normally present. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism.

500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. pale grey. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. Foinaven. The highest mountain in Mozambique. industrial silica sand. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. In Canada. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard.g. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. as roofing tiles. [4] . southwestMinnesota. the Wasatch Range in Utah. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. Central Texas. several mountains (e. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. silicon and silicon carbide. Monte Binga (2436 m). eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. In the Scottish Highlands. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. In the United Kingdom. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. as flooring. precambrian quartzite. near Salt Lake City. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. and stair steps. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. In Wales.


it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. tourmaline schist. [edit]Formation During metamorphism.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie.talc. Usually. can be seen by the naked eye. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. chlorite. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". glaucophane schist. and others. however. for example. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. graphite. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. In other . If the composition of the rocks was originally similar.clastic structure. By definition. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. the terms slate. A quartz-porphyry. etc. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. such as garnet schist. for example. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. The individual mineral grains in schist. hornblende. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. If the whole district. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. Most schists are mica schists. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas.

while others are found only among igneous masses. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). tremolite. many metamorphic limestones. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. scapolite.cases intrusive junctions. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. which have been derived from rhyolites. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. The majority of mica-schists. foliated. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). Such rocks. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. staurolite. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). The last appeal is often to the chemistry. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. with variable amounts of white and black mica. however. garnet. For example. schistose character. marbles. feldspar. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. contain silicate minerals such as mica. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. and the white mica-schists. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. and calc-schists. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. are alteredclaystones and shales. as limestones. . dolomites. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. A subgroup is the andalusite. chilled edges. quartz and feldspar. zoisite and hornblende. with crystalline dolomites. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. for example. diopside. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. Occasionally. For example. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. . These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. especially when seen. foliated. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. leaving a light green spotted texture. Slate is frequently grey in color. en masse.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. often framed in wood. chlorite. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. for example. the terms slate. graphite. from pale to dark. less frequently. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. often along with biotite. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. or zirconas well as feldspar. from which it may be formed. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. traditionally a small piece of slate. or schist. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. as in the purple slates of North Wales. However. and may also be purple. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. Slate is not to be confused with shale. magnetite. In the context of underground coal mining. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. covering roofs. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. It may mean a single roofing slate. green or cyan. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. and pyrite and. kaolinite. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. tourmaline. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc.. or a writing slate. hematite. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. apatite.


chlorite etc. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. zeolites. 2. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous..g. volcanic rock. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. Magnetite. ilmenite. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. leading to metamorphism. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. In a general sense. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. of intermediate composition. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. Partial melting of crustal material. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. anhydrous forms. [5] sediment. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic. apatite. zircon.e.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. but most . barium(Ba). [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. During subduction. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Characteristic of subduction zones. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. 3. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. biotite. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. potassium (K).

the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. creating a layer of molten material at its base. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. its intermediate phase. In order to remain active. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. . [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. however. As this process continues. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. Models of heat transfer. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . these reservoirs cool. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. Without continued addition of mafic material. however. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. Basalt can. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. therefore. forming mafic cumulates. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. If it underplates the crust. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. however. Once there. the composition is returned to andesite. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. such as the Andes.commonly this occurs by crystal settling.


. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.BASALT Basalt (pron. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. and even on the asteroid Vesta. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. /ˈbæsɒlt/. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. (In comparison. By definition. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. Sobolev et al. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. embedded in a finer-grained matrix.g. Venus. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. 2007). the third largest moon of Jupiter. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. On Earth.. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. Hungary .: /bəˈsɔːlt/. Mars.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e.

believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone".g. . The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. an excellent thermal insulator. as building blocks or in the groundwork).Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. misspelling of L. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. Arizona. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. basanites "very hard stone. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. libri XII. from βάζανος (basanos. US quarter for scale. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate".

 Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. alkali feldspar and phlogopite.     . MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. most large oceanic islands. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy).

Finland. It may contain small amounts of quartz. . Its hardness. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. however. Italy. the Isle of Guernsey. and frequently has a greenish cast. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. hornblende. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. Minnesota in theUSA. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. occasionally with porphyry. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. and to provide a durable finished work. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. the Darrans range of New Zealand. and/or pyroxene. Romania.DIORITE Diorite (pron. source localities include Leicestershire. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. which is transitional togabbro. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. apatite. central Sweden. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present.biotite. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). It can also be black or bluish-grey. microcline and olivine. Basin and Range province. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Zircon. into which they may subtly merge. Sondrio. sphene. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. Scotland. magnetite. Northeastern Turkey. making it difficult to carve and work with. and Idahet in Egypt. the Andes Mountains. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). Diorite has a medium grain size texture.

Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. In later times. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. weaponry. Paul's Cathedral. etc. but mostly for fortress walls. London. Babylonia. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. Guernsey and Scotland. . its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. inscribed upon a 2. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Assyria and Sumer.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China.

Gabbro is dense. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. easternSierra Nevada. and ulvospinel. the rock is then a norite. typically a few percent. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). plagioclase.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. coarse-grained. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. California. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. Isle of Skye. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. Rock Creek Canyon. Scotland. The rocks areplutonic. ilmenite. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. amphibole. Gabbros contain minor amounts. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount).

also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. cobalt. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. and copper sulfides. US. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. gold. although it may be porphyritic at times. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. nickel. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. silver. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. platinum. Massachusetts. . [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive.extra descriptiveness is desired. intruding into the rift flanks. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism.


igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. The average density of granite is between 2.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. Granitoid is a general. northern Chile . By definition. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. mica. Granites can be pink to gray in color. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. descriptive field term for light-colored. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). felsic.1260 °C. an unusual type of granite. Melting temperature is 1215 . its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock.GRANITE Granite (pron. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks.75 3 g/cm . [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. and feldspar. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. near the town of Caldera. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. a grain.65 and 2. This rock consists mainly of quartz. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. hard and tough.

Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. India.

Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park.

Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.The Cheesewring. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. sanidine. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz.71% TiO2 — 0. although much of it is of Precambrian age. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. Granite often occurs as relatively small. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite.82% FeO — 1. where it forms a major part of continental crust. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.12% MnO — 0. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.30% P2O5 — 0. it is called tonalite.12% Na2O — 3.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth.68% Fe2O3 — 1. In some locations. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. .22% MgO — 0.69% CaO — 1. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.


California . The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. in addition. forming perlite. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. Obsidian is hard and brittle. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Obsidian is mineral-like. which is the parent material. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions.. usually 70% or more.. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. [9][10][11] . becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools.

and deposits can be found in many other western U. Oregon and Idaho. Colorado. Azerbaijan. Iceland. as well as Pennsylvania.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Mexico. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). Occurrence Glass Mountain. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari.Utah. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.S. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Guatemala. Peru. Washington. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. Italy.Greece. It can be found in Argentina. states including Arizona. Japan. . radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Chile. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Texas. Pantelleria. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Canada. New [13] [14] Mexico. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. states of Virginia. Kenya. the inclusion of small.S. Scotland and the United States. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. El Salvador. Armenia. New Zealand. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. In some stones. white. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California.


Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. macroscale graphic texture is known.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Theory Theory . [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. For this reason. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. in essence a granite. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Therefore. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. exsolution lamellae. feldspar and mica. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Similarly. pyroxene and other minerals are known. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation.5 cm in size. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning.

being altogether "granitic" in character. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. to liberate the right constituents and water. in a few cases. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. often with mica and usually with quartz. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. eastern Sierra Nevada. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. Beyond that. California. granite-associated mineralisation styles. . for example greisens. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Rock Creek Canyon. with bulk chemical and textural change. and are usually granitic in character. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber.

accessory minerals and timing. Occasionally. Queensland. . pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. lepidolite. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. thorium. Often. orientation. tantalite. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. beryllium. et cetera. tantalite. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. however. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. Tantalum. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. tourmaline. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. In most cases. Geochemically. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. say. zinnwaldite and so forth. apatite and corundum. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Australia). for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. Hence. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. orange and brown almandine garnet. such as aquamarine. tourmaline. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. fluorite. aluminium. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. tourmaline. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. among others. uranium. commonly almandine or spessartine. topaz. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. cesium. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. niobium. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite.Garnet. columbite. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. boron. Bismuth. potassium and lithium.

"granitic" or "metasomatic". pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Similarly. pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. transitional with some greisens. However. notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. Within the metamorphic belts. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. . based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites.

The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. .PUMICE Pumice pron. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. uncompressed with pumice on left. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. compressed with fiamme on right. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. which may or may not contain crystals.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. It is typically light colored. Pumice is created when super-heated. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.

g. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. When larger amounts of gas are present. dacitic. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. rhyolitic. to green-brown or black. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%.S.. it sinks rapidly. and initially floats on water. 1984 and 2006. pantellerite. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. blue or grey. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. cream. In [4] fact. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. ranging from white. Pumice is commonly pale in color. In 1979. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. many samples float in water. with tree trunks floating among them. phonolite. It is commonly. trachyte). . but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. but basaltic and other compositions are known. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. andesite. After the explosion of Krakatoa.

When used as an additive for cement. It is also used as an abrasive. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. in the case of pumiceous lavas. smooth. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. especially in polishes. and the production of stone-washed jeans. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. pencil erasers. during flow. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption.There are two main forms of vesicles. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. cosmetic exfoliants. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. . It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. plaster-like concrete.

Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. and consequently. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. spherulitic. volcanic (extrusive) rock. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. below:pumice. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea.nodular. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. also called obsidian. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. the eruptions were at the St. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. and lithophysal structures. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). . of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.


creating bubbles in the molten rock. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. skōria. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. An old name for scoria is cinder. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. and sinks in water. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. . An example is Mount Wellington. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. a unique form of Scoria. rust. Quincan. typically near its surface. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. Auckland in New Zealand. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. and may contain phenocrysts. and hence is denser. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. black or purplish red). blocks and bombs). Vesicles are usually small. but in contrast to pumice. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. another vesicular volcanic rock.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. coalescence. Australia. bubble growth. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . and bursting. instead they open into one another with little distortion. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).

and often has striking colours. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. and to carve some moai from. has high surface area and strength for its weight. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. . It is somewhat porous. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used.

compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. the fewest impurities. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. and lustre. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). which is softer). is known as culm. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). and black diamond.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes).S. as opposed to lignite. hard coal. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. which is used mainly in power generation. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. "coal-like. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. and smokeless flame. other producers are Russia. mineral-matter-free basis. its higher relative density of 1. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. In America. North Korea. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance. blind coal (in Scotland). [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. [5] Vietnam.3– 1. Australia and the US. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. Ukraine. the UK. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. which is used as a pigment. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. coal) is a hard. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). blue. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well.4. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. It has the highest carbon content.1% and 98%. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England.

The thermal conductivity is also higher. anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. circa 1935 .MJ/kg). containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). coking coal and domestic house coals. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. and Western Pennsylvania. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. mined near Saundersfoot. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. In southwest Wales. Since the 1980s. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. Structurally. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. By 1795. on the as-received basis (i. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal.e. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. For example. Pennsylvania. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. In [6] June 2008. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality.. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. New Mexico. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. [7] It was In the United States.

anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Current U. Group of breaker boys. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives.S. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. about 1. such as schools. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. In spring 1808. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Many large public buildings. Of that. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). the Delaware. Pennsylvania. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. In the early 20th century United States. From that first mine. placed in descending order. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. making it ideal for this purpose. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. on an open grate in a fireplace.

as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. "poor". Commercial mining has now ceased. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Similarly. or less. [10] . anthracite was largely used. Switzerland and parts of Germany. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.Anthracite". the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. both in America and South Wales. Formerly.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed".

due to the depositional processes that form it. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. and some mica is often present. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. . but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. although bedding is frequently visible. Fossils are rare in arkose. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. most commonly granitic rocks. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. Apart from the mineral content. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. and thus the potential precursor of arkose.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide.ARKOSE Arkose (pron.


The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. . Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). Within the coal mining industry. and exinite. which are classified according to either "dull. air. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. which have not been driven off from the macerals. good ventilation and vigilant site management. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. These distinctive sequences. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. bright-banded" or "bright. and sulphur. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. mineral-matter-free basis. dull-banded". Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). hydrogen. the rest is composed of water.

They are formed by either submarine debris flows.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. by contrast. lithified colluvium. in essence. by their relative movements.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia.079 in) in size. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. avalanches. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. igneous breccia. Technically. poorly sorted. These are. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. typically in a karst landscape. tectonic breccia. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. The word is a loan from Italian. . Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. In the field. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. A conglomerate. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. A breccia may have a variety of different origins.

The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. Lavas. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. When particularly intense. as they slide past each other. This occurs when the thick. Broken. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias.g. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. and these form volcanic breccias. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. also called pillow breccias. both of lava and pyroclastic type. granites and kimberlite pipes. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. . or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion.

Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. a type of impactite. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. in the rim. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago. shocked minerals. iridium and osmium anomalies). Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. In addition. Nevada.Pahranagat Range. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. Impact breccia. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. impact glass. and attrition quickly o . near Blessington in Ireland. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground.g. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. steam and boiling water. and are usually found at impact craters.

As a result. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. In the mesothermal regime. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. If boiling occurs. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. Pend Oreille County. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. in particular CO2. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. Pend Oreille mine. at much greater depths. as the formational event is brief. Washington. silver and gold. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata.rounds angular breccia fragments. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. On their journey. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. .


Oklahoma. limestone. hard chert. chalk. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. "chalcedony" and "flint" . Where it occurs in chalk or marl. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). but most often manifests as gray. New York. it is usually called flint. It also occurs in thin beds.CHERT Chert (pron. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. Buffalo. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. (3. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. brown.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. [edit]Terminology: "chert". its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites).: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas.

This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). . Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert".chert being lower quality than flint. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. The term does not include quartzite. Strictly speaking. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations. Among petrologists. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Everett. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline.

conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. South Dakota. which consist of angular clasts. .

They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. and are known as basal conglomerates. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. In this setting. Alaska.clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict .clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. approximate depth 10.000 ft. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems.

Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . The matrix is generally fine-grained. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone.g. in rapidly eroding (e. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. near Barcelona. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). desert) environments. are typically poorly-sorted. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. These form the basis of a number of .see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. forming structures such aseskers. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. Tillites. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. in Australia's Northern Territory. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. matrix-supported conglomerates.

e. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. as different sectors of the fault moved. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. .g.large oil fields. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.

Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. and barrier bars. As a result. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. trilobites. in the form of seashells or coral. and sorting of the shells. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. swift tidal channels. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. abrasion.COQUINA Coquina (pron. which compose them. brachiopods. shallow submarine raised banks. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. often including some phosphate. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. or other invertebrates. close packing. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. fracturing. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish.: /koʊˈkiːnə/. . For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. abraded. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size.

particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. . Saint Augustine. coquina is extremely soft. The scale bar is 10 mm. Because of coquina's softness. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. However. When first quarried. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. form. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. In order to be used as a building material. rather than shatter or puncture.Close-up of coquina from Florida. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. cannon balls would sink into. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. but still comparatively soft. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. The stone makes a very good material for forts.


It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter. cat litter. is a naturally occurring. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. Peter Kasten. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. Wilhelm Berkefeld.: /ˌdaɪ.69 mm. it was thought that limestone had been found..13 by 0. similar to pumice powder.236 pixels/ μm. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres.E. matting agent for coatings. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. and athermal insulator. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. porous support for chemical catalysts. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. diatomite. mechanical insecticide.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. anti-block in plastic films. Initially. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. It is used as a filtration aid. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. recognized its ability to filter. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. a stabilizing component of dynamite. This powder has an abrasive feel. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments.5 to 2% iron oxide. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. which could be used as fertilizer. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. soft. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. the peasant and goods waggoner. TheCelle engineer. activator in blood clotting studies. absorbent for liquids.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. a type of hard-shelled algae.

1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca.from diatomaceous earth. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. used successfully. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. .1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth.  ca. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca.

Oregon. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. In Colorado and in Clark. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places.Virginia. Washington and California. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). Nevada (USA). on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. such as this one for swimming pools . France. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. but are of low quality. Denmark and the Czech Republic.

and other liquids. However. for this purpose. such as beer and wine. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. as well as in some facial scrubs. foodgrade— see below). This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. sugar. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. since slugs inhabit humid environments. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i.e. based on Fick's law of diffusion. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. [7] taste. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. It can also filter syrups. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. because it is composed of microscopically small. due to its physico-sorptive properties. but this method may take weeks to work.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. It has a high porosity. coffin-like. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. or nutritional properties. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency.e. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. . It is also used to filter water. In order to be effective as an insecticide. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. causing them to [9] dehydrate.. hollow particles. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. and honey without removing or altering their color. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. with questionable efficacy. especially for swimming pools. efficacy is very low. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper..

[edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. including water.S. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. Like perlite. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. particularly as bonsai soil. as [20] well as an insecticide. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. . As with other silicates. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.vermiculite. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. Fungicide. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation.

has a very fine particle size. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. and has a high silica content (>60%). Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. which has been widely used for the same purpose. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. as feed supplement. For instance. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. which is used as an indigestible marker. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Libya. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. the largest single . while draining fast and freely.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. It is produced uncalcinated. it retains water and nutrients. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and as an insecticide. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents.and expanded clay. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried.

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. .

. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite.S. but it can still develop solution features over time. however. used in some geological publications.G. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. In old U. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. It is.S.

or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . Russia.4 MJ/kg (6. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. mineral-matter-free basis. Poland. Serbia. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.. Germany. Australia averages 8. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.5 million BTU/ton). it is mined in Greece. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. When reacted with quaternary amine. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. ca. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). often referred to as brown coal. the United States. on the as-received basis (i. India.e. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria.

Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification.than for comparable black-coal plants. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. particularly in combination with strip mining. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. [4] Victoria. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. . The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. originating mainly in the Tertiary period.

LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. as aggregate for the base of roads. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Virginia. and as a chemical feedstock. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. USA . The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years.

building upon past generations. is found near waterfalls. the Folk and the Dunham. and varying amounts of clay. especially onweathered surfaces. Tufa. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells.travertine. . including the water temperature. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. sand. diatoms. Classification Two major classification schemes. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Travertine is a banded. pH. or massive. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs.000 meters. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. such as clay. etc. i. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. Limestone may be crystalline.e. jasper. many limestones exhibit different colors. depending on the method of formation. granular. quartz. flint. most limestone is composed of grains. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. intraclasts.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. limestone recrystallizes into marble. peloids. clastic. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. Crystals of calcite. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). This produces speleothems. or it can fill fractures. Like most other sedimentary rocks. depending on several factors. organic remains. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. When conditions are right for precipitation. radiolarians). During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. and extraclasts. and around hot or cold springs. iron oxide and other materials. Romania. Below about 3. such as stalagmites and stalactites. particularly where there are waterfalls. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Because of impurities. compact variety of limestone formed along streams.

matrix (mostly micrite). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. and cement (sparite). and therefore self-supporting. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. pot holes. cenotes. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Such erosion landscapes are known . because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. caves and gorges. especially in acid. not the grains in the sample. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. These include limestone pavements. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Based on composition. there are three main components: allochems (grains). a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The Folk system uses two-part names. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Unlike the Folk scheme. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles.

typically clays. Uses Limestone is very common in karsts. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. Egypt. On the island of Malta. The Florida Keys. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. So many buildings in Kingston. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. It is most common in the tropics. making it impractical for tall buildings. and relatively expensive as a building material. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. Sweden. for a long time. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. it is a very heavy material. are made of limestone. . Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Notch Peak in Utah. Ireland. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. However. Unique habitats are found on alvars. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Sweden. theVerdon Gorge in France. Many landmarks across the world. Examples include the Burren in Co. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. England. especially in Europe and North America. [9] Michigan. While draining. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). Clare. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. This process is known as bioerosion. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. Ontario. the only building material available. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. 2003). islands off the south coast of Florida. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City.

one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. Kansas .

It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. limestone extracts iron from its ore. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. uses limestone. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. durable. Purified. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. Glass making. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. such as for poultry (when ground up). called Indiana limestone. most notably the Bloomington area. paint. It is added to toothpaste. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. cement and mortar. paper. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. [11] . Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the United States. tiles. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Train stations. Indiana. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. but only in thin plates for covering. since it is hard. plastics. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. Used in blast furnaces. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. in some circumstances. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. rather than solid blocks.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. such as sandstones. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). Sandstone is mined by quarrying. but the most common colours are tan. brown. white and black. sandstone may be any colour. pink. . most [1] sandstone is red.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. Fine-grained aquifers. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. yellow.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. red. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. In the western United States and incentral Australia. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Like sand. gray. [edit]Uses 17. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features.France.

.Germany. around 1770.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. in Freiburg.

These are sandstone beverage coasters. cathedrals. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. making it easy to carve.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. It is relatively soft. . and other buildings.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. and continues to be used. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. homes.

. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. for sharpening blades and other implements. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. gritstone. and silica.079 inches).. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. like chalk and coal. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. rocks with greater grain sizes. Scale bar is 1. including siltstones and shales. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. some that have been used in the past. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. [3] like gypsum and jasper).0625 mm to 2 mm (0.002–0. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. clays. have been found less resistant. or chemical.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. yet are easy to work. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic.g. Utah.0 mm. e. However. are typically called argillaceous sediments. Because of the hardness of individual grains.

the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains.. as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments .sorting.. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. either from water (as in a stream. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. i.e. Finally. in a desert or erg). worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Arizona. and composition and. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain.g. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Typically. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). or sea) or from air (as in a desert). The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. in finer detail. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. in more general detail. once it has accumulated. lake. over other construction. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. First. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. which. include its grain size.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon.

Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock.  . Alluvial fans 3. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Deltas 2. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Glacial outwash 4. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. such as hardness and chemical stability.1. channel sands) 2. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Rivers (levees. Lakes 5. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. Offshore bars and sand waves 5. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Tidal flats 4. point bars.

bottom picture is cross-polarized light. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. or other dense. pyroxene. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. magnetite. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. rutile (hence ZTR). [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. Common heavy minerals include zircon. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. One is to call the . The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. or sedimentary rock. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. tourmaline. Although. metamorphic. and corundum.25 millimeter. called lithic fragments or clasts. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. scale box at left-center is 0.garnet. upper picture is plane-polarized light.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. olivine. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. this represents a complete solid solution.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone.

and zeolite minerals. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient.sandstone an arenite. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. and the other is to call it a wacke.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. barite. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow. [6] gypsum.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. anhydrite. and very rarely is in other sandstones. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals.  . The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. feldspars. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. limonite. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. clay minerals. such as calcite. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals.


called fissility. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. montmorillonite and illite. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals.browns and limonite [1] yellow). sodium. especially quartz and calcite. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. on the other hand.greens). the terms slate. magnesium. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. iron . calcium. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. Mudstones. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. Sand grain = 2 mm. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. biotite and illite . In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock.reds). [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Red. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. iron hydroxide (goethite .06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. in dia.

reducing environments. in river deltas. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ankerite. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands.Cumberland Plateau. quiet water. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ).Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. calcite. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. 'Black shales' are dark. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. hematite and albite. . such as in stagnant water columns. dolomite. The enriched values are of controversial origin. black shales were deposited in anoxic. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. These released elements form authigenic quartz.and water. uranium. in relatively deep. vanadium. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. and zinc. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks.chert. However.

Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. apatite. which originally aired on November 3. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). metamorphic rockknown as slate. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. . it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. "Flintstone of Princestone". then schist and finally to gneiss. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. or various carbonate minerals. The Flintstones. fissile. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". 1961. As a prehistoric version of Yale University.

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