BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. or en cabochon. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust. Almandine. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. also known incorrectly as almandite. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. upper mantle and transition zone. of deep red color. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. It is frequently cut with a convex face. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. and is then known as carbuncle. Fe 3Al2Si3O12.5 K. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series.: /ˈælməndɪn/). [edit]Occurrence 2+ . with the other end member being the garnet pyrope.512 Å at 100 K. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. inclining to purple. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates.

an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. in Tyrol. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. and are sometimes cut and polished. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . a name said to be taken from Syriam. some years ago. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. When the color inclines to a violet tint. in theNorthern Territory of Australia. Almandine is widely distributed. whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. the stone is often called Syriam garnet.

Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09. -.12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.7.25.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .024 [1] ..5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.05 (+. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 . and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1.790 (+/.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.AD.

610 and 680-690nm [1] . 520. may also have faint lines at 423. and 573nm.Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 460.

where it is found associated with smoky quartz. El Paso County. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Virginia. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Russia.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. Colorado. . orthoclase. where it occurs in granitic rocks. Naturally. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. although it is easily fractured. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. For many years. More recently. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. Because of its bright green color when polished. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Colorado. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite.

viewed under a polarizing microscope. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. Microcline may be clear. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. . however. It is common in granite and pegmatites. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase. or green. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Amazon stone.Colorado. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. brick-red. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. or amazonite. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. white. hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope. pale-yellow. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite.

it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite. also known as hydroxylapatite. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. sodium . Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. Cl or ions. Hydroxyapatite. named for high concentrations of OH . Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2.Cl)2.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. in the mid-20th century. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Similarly. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral.F . respectively.F. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. in the crystal.g.

BN. massive. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. blue to violet.fluoride. brown. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. prismatic crystals. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane.OH) Strunz classification 08. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other.Cl. usually green.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins.[1] Crystal habit Tabular. yellow. pink. less often colorless. compact or granular . sodium monofluorophosphate).

−0. Other colors are weak to very weak.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong.638 (+0.22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave.634–1.Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.[1] Dispersion 0. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3. green stones – greenish yellow .006)[1] Birefringence stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave. blue and yellow to colorless.012.002–0.16–3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.

[1] .which is stronger in long wave. light purple in short wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.


Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. the entire shell is aragonite. Spain). aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. The mineral vaterite. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite). In the USA.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. respectively. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. In some mollusks. [edit]Uses In aquaria. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils.Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. An aragonite cave. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. 25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. in others. is situated in Slovakia. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. resulting in a different crystal shape. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. It is formed by biological and physical processes. also known as μ-CaCO3. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. naturally occurring. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. [citation Aragonite . one of the two common.

c = 5. green .AB. prismatic crystals. reniform. internally banded . pisolitic. yellow.74 Å. coralloidal. orange. stalactitic. blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. Z = 4 Identification Color White. globular. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. b = 7.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . acicular. red.95 Å. columnar.96 Å.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4. Aude department.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine.

682 nγ = 1.1.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.680 .1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. white or .5-4 Luster Vitreous. yellow.530 nβ = 1.529 .156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.686 Birefringence δ = 0.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.685 .1.

phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).characteristics bluish. yellowish (SW UV) .

The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Na)(Mg.Al.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. [edit]Characteristics .Ti)(Si. Augite has two prominent cleavages. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Fe.Al)2O6.

brown or [2] black) luster. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. It is found near the Ken River. for example. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. and sodium and other elements.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. olivine. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. titanium. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. leucite. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. Augite . sanidine. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. labradorite.4 x 3. which is from the Greekaugites.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. With declining temperature.0 x 2. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. but mostly of temperature. meaning "brightness".

15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9. also acicular.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9.Augite . b = 8.97°.844 Å. in thin section. violet-brown. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Na)(Mg. β = 106.699 Å.Al. skeletal. dendritic .Ti)(Si.DA. greenish. Z=4 Identification Color Black. brown.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Fe.272 Å. c = 5.

grayish green. nβ = 1.735.680 . Y = pale brown. violet . parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.0. pale yellow-green.Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.026 .3. Z = pale green. resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.19 .1. green. violet.741.706 . nγ = 1.684 .1. greenish yellow.039 Pleochroism X = pale green.774 Birefringence δ = 0.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. pale brown.5 to 6 Luster Vitreous.1.


a carbonate." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. With azurite. France. The mineral. From Tsumeb. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. and unknown white crystals. has been known since ancient times. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). [edit]Mineralogy Fresh. Namibia. . The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear. since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association.

Azurite is destroyed by heat. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals. and are often stalactitic in form. carbonate and hydroxide.5 to 4. powdery copper(II) oxide.77 to 3. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. The specific gravity of azurite is 3.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment.89. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. . Characteristic of a carbonate. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. the other being bright green malachite. with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Azurite is soft.

as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. it gave a wide range of blues. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. France. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). and its basic content of copper carbonate. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. a term applied to many blue pigments. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. such as saltwater aquariums. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. and also as an ornamental stone. This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). in the silver mines located there. However.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. However. Heating destroys azurite easily. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. Ultramarine withstands heat. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. a similar but much more expensive pigment.

General . and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. However. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. bright light.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. heat. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. collectors should use a cool. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. dark.

β = 92.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare. stalactitic.BA. Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344. Berlin blue.35 Å. fair on {100}.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5.01 Å. very dark to pale blue. b = 5. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. prismatic. c = 10.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue.5 to 4 . twin planes {101}.43°. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.85 Å.

108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.838 Birefringence δ = 0.758 nγ = 1.78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.773 (measured). calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak . 3.Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.730 nβ = 1.

The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. the clay mineral kaolinite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. In the case of Jamaica.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. . and diaspore α-AlO(OH). the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). gneiss. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821.basalt. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). syenite. and shale. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite.

known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries. India. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. . Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. followed by China. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. and Guinea. Brazil.[edit]Production trends In 2010. Increased aluminium recycling.

Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.BARITE Baryte. [edit]Names [2] and history . (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. anglesite and anhydrite.Sr)SO4. celestine. The baryte group consists of baryte. and is the main [1] source of barium. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. or barite.

[2] Heavy associations and locations . The American [2][7] spelling is barite. an addition to industrial products. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. including barytine. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. flotation. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. heavy media separation. [2] [3] Spar. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. Other names have been used for baryte. jigging. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . [8] schwerspath. tiff. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. Most baryte is ground to a small. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). but rather a material that meets that specification.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. tabling. such as washing. [8] barytes. and blanc fixe. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product.

Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. It has also been identified in meteorites. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. hydrothermal. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. among others. . Scotland. Perthshire. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. in hot spring deposits. and evaporation. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. and with hematite ore.

North [2] Carolina. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). Chile. Morocco (460). United States (670). [edit]Paleothermometry . Greece. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. Cumbria. Connecticut. paper. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit. Tennessee. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. radiation-shielding cement. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. India. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. the bit passes through various formations. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. and no more than 30%. India [12] (1. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. New York & Fort Wallace. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). Nevada & Missouri. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. Morocco. Iran (250). by weight. by weight. Thailand. It is mined in Arkansas. As a well is drilled. blue.600). [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. De Kalb. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining.Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. Georgia. Muirshiel [2] Mine. Canada. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. Peru. friction products for automobiles and trucks. can be less than 6 μm diameter. Durham. Liberia.Kentucky. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Connecticut. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). China.2 or greater. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Derbyshire. and paint. Romania (Baia Sprie).Perthshire. New Mexico. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Turkey. Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black. chemically inert. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. each with different characteristics. Virginia. The deeper the hole. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. UK (Cornwall. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes.000). Iran. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. sound reduction in engine compartments.

Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. away from continental sources of sediment. Since baryte has oxygen. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. . Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited.

theFrench word brille meaning "shine". Old French: beryl. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. possible colors are green. Pure beryl is colorless. veḷiru ( ). and [5] the English word brilliance. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill.BERYL In geology. [edit]Deposits . red. blue. and white. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. the Spanish word brillo. but it is frequently tinted by impurities. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. also meaning "shine". yellow. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine".

Austria. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. beryl locations are in California. the United States. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. though the color returns with irradiation. Ireland and Russia. South Africa. Clear yellow beryl.000 kilogrammes. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. and 2+ 3+ . Madagascar. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. neutrons or even X-rays). Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . Connecticut. and Bahia. In Brazil. U. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Mainewith dimensions 5. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway.5 m by 1. As of 1999. Sweden (especially morganite). including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. Mozambique. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Espírito Santo. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. South Dakota and Utah. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Germany. Colombia.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. Idaho. near Powder River Pass. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Colorado. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. and Zambia. Madagascar. North Carolina. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. and weighing 380. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains.5 meters in diameter. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. such as that occurring in Brazil. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. Maine. and limestone inColombia. as well as Brazil. InWyoming. In the United States.S. New Hampshire. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment.

marakata (म कन). Brazil. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. Coscuez. India. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. It weighed over 110 kg. Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and. It is named for the trapiche. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. North Carolina.. Madagascar. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. such as Zambia. Madagascar. The mines of Colombia. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. as such. Pakistan. and Chivor. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Zambia. in 1910. meaning "green". In the US.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Brazil. Malawi. imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). [15] [7][14] . Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. which has been on the market since 1964. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. Zimbabwe. Most emeralds are highly included. and its dimensions were 48. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Afghanistan and Russia. In 1998. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. Minas Gerais.

there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. In the past. Washington. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. However. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities.C. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. Nowadays. golden beryl has very few flaws. D. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. . it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. The name originates from Goshen. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. Unlike emerald. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency.

and Co impurities. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. Thomas [26][27] Range. However. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls).The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. In December 1910." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. "rose beryl". Juab County. Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. "pink emerald". and color banding is common. Sc. Utah. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. with other gemstone minerals. California. Fe. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. Morgan. USA. On October 7. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. green. V. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. The crystal. goshenite can be colored yellow. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. at Pala. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". It was also known.Maine. Ti. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. pink. its type locality. originally somewhat orange in hue. P. because of the . such astourmaline and kunzite. also known as "pink beryl". 1989. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite.

The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah.000 per carat for faceted stones. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. [28] of Fillmore. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". pseudobrookite and hematite.05 . quartz. Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites. while he was prospecting for uranium. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions.Sierra County. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. spessartine.orthoclase.CJ. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. Beaver County. Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. New [1] Mexico. Utah. Utah. and Juab County. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9. topaz. Utah.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby).

Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. radial. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7.50 Color Green. columnar. colorless.19 Å. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals. c = 9.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . blue.21 Å. yellow.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9.

0040–0.568–1.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.595 nε = 1.0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.602 Birefringence δ = 0.564–1.Specific gravity Average 2. but the stone itself does not) .

silicon.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. oxygen. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg.F. aluminium.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group.L. who.OH)2. Biotite is a sheet silicate. in 1816. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot. Iron. magnesium. it refers to the dark mica series. More generally. Biotite was named by J. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite. [4] discovering many unique properties. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. researched the optical properties of mica. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich .

Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures.than phlogopite. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. and even yellow when weathered. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Norway. Ontario. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. It appears greenish to brown or black. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. and a grey-white streak. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. which easily flake off. especially in pegmatite veins. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. fracture is uneven. as in New England. It has amonoclinic crystal system. Virginia and North Carolina. For instance. It can be transparent to opaque. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. in some instances side-by-side. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. When biotite is found in large chunks. has a vitreous to pearly luster. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. . and consists of flexible sheets. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. or lamellae. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals.

OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. greenish brown. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310].53 g Color Dark brown.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg. blackish brown. yellow. less common on the {001} .

4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.5–3.1 Density 2.675 Birefringence δ = 0.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.625 nβ = 1.0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .605–1.675 nγ = 1.03–0.8–3.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).605–1.565–1.7–3. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.

also known as peacock ore.BORNITE Bornite. is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic). [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .

the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan. eastern Tirol. Morocco. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge).England. Talate.Mexico (size: 7. Zimbabwe. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. and elsewhere in Cornwall. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. Kazakhstan. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas.3 x 3. S.Lomagundi district. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. Montana and at Bristol. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.5 x 4.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Karlovy Vary Region. .Connecticut in the U. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. the Mangula mine. from the N’ouva mine. Illogan. Austria.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

is located near the village of Put-in-Bay.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. The world's largest known geode. usually in small quantities. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed. Ohio. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. In carbonate marine sediments. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. Crystal Cave. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. a celestine geode 35 feet (10.The mineral is found worldwide. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. Celestine .

866 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.359 Å. white. black . pale brown.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. b = 5.AD. pale green. pink.352 Å.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07. pale blue. c = 6.

massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.3.622 nβ = 1.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° . good on {210}.622 .Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals.95 .3. poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .624 nγ = 1.632 Birefringence δ = 0.630 .1. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity Luster Vitreous.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. earthy. lamellar. also fibrous.619 .

white blue . white blue.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. long UV=yellow.

It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. chalcocite (Cu2S). iron in blue and sulfur in yellow. covellite (CuS). [edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Copper is shown in pink. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. On exposure to air.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. digenite (Cu9S5). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. .: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). hydroxides and sulfates. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O).

Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite.3 x 4. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. However. Au. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Mn. Pt. Ni. from huge masses as at Timmins.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. Pd. V. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. . Pb. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. Se. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. etc. and trace amounts of Ag. molybdenite representing Mo. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. Ontario. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. In. Cr.8 x 6. and Sb are reported. the American cordillera and the Andes.

In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. Ouray County. Colorado. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large. Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.CB.

423 Å.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.54 Color Brass yellow. may have iridescent purplish tarnish. commonly massive.3 .Unit cell a = 5. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183.1 – 4. c = 10. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.289 Å. and sometimes botryoidal.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Pure copper is soft and malleable. In the Roman era. Decorative art prominently features copper. and wood preservatives. later shortened to сuprum. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. both by itself and as part of pigments. muscle and bone.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. fungicides. a building material. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. Characteristics . It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. needed] In sufficient concentration. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. and a constituent of various metal alloys. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates.

For this reason. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. above which it begins to heat excessively. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 .95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. which are relatively weak for a soft metal.Physical A copper disc (99. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. As with other metals. At the macroscopic scale. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3.6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). such as grain boundaries. Copper.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area. and osmium (bluish). Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. galvanic corrosion will occur.

Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. It does not react with water. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. this oxide layer stops the further. Edinburgh.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2. such as the Statue of Liberty. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. respectively. the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. bulk corrosion.

The other isotopes are radioactive. Native copper is a polycrystal.7 hours. US. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite.2×3. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). decays both ways. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography.8 minutes. which has [13] a half-life of 12. [15] . with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper.2 cm. with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications. Cu. Cu and Cu are stable.4×3. they both have a spin of 3/2. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.There are 29 isotopes of copper.83 hours. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β . and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer.

It is a rock-forming mineral. e.CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. it can scratch almost every other mineral.0. with an average hardness near 8. but can have different colors when impurities are present. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. It is commonly used as anabrasive. All other colors are called sapphire. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence . and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. and the mix is less abrasive.02 g/cm . "green sapphire" for a green specimen. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda.g. In addition to its hardness. titanium and chromium.. plastics. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. Transparent specimens are used as gems. and wood.0 Mohs).

silicon carbide. and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2. gneiss. Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. [4] USA. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. . The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Russia.000 °C (3. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid.8 in × 1 in). Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist. In 1847. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill.Corundum from Brazil. In 1903. Sri Lanka and India. [4] Ontario. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. New York.632 °F).

scratchresistant optics. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.1 . instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR). rods.CB.1. and other machined parts). Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. and laser components. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis.05 Dana classification 4. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. scratch-resistant watch crystals. Apart from ornamental uses. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. bearings. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide.3.

gray. translucent toopaque .75 Å. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. orange. rhombohedral crystals. blue to cornflower blue. violet. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal.982 Å. c = 12. may be color zoned. brown. tabular. yellow.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. green. prismatic. pink to pigeon-blood-red.

hematite.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.Specific gravity 3.759–1.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.772 nε = 1.767–1.95–4. or hercynite .

orange. purple and red.CB.10a Identification Formula mass 12. translucent white. green. brown or gray to colorless. violet. Less often blue. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. black. pink.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. .01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01.

044 .418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.52±0.5–3.01 Density 3.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

or in old U. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. often as a result of diagenesis.S. [edit]Properties .: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. In 1791. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium.

This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. In the 1950s and 60s. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. dolomite is a double carbonate. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. Arkansas. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. namely. although it is usually massive. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors.e. and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). where organic matter content is high. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. i. It forms white. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho.g. having a different structural arrangement. Crystal twinning is common. gray to pink.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. Unlike calcite. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). .

measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. However. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. in a 1999 study. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. has not yet been [12] demonstrated. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. White Mountains. California. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. .Dolomite. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). The specific mechanism of dolomitization. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. textural and chemical characteristics. through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites".

Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. and copper. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. zinc.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Kansas(size: 11. a concrete aggregate.4×7. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Dolomite . Cherokee County.2×4. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. In horticulture. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.

Crystal system Trigonal . stalactitic. gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. often with curved faces. 3 Unit cell a = 4. Z = 3 Identification Color White. granular. also columnar.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral.8012(1) Å. massive.002 Å.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05.AB. c = 16.

181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.179–0.679–1.84–2.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2. rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. . Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV. triboluminescent.681 nε = 1.500 Birefringence δ = 0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}.

EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. brown or nearly black. grey. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance. yellow and brown.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition. It displays strong pleochroism. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote." 3+ . but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. Ca2Al2(Fe . The color is green. the optical constants. crystallizing in the monoclinic system. the color. and the specific gravity. the pleochroic colors being usually green.

garnets. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. but one of secondary origin. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. pyroxenes. micas. withasbestos. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. amphiboles. Arendal in Norway. here as large. The perfectly transparent. dark green. and apatite.Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. Haddam inConnecticut. and others) composing igneous rocks. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. adularia. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. . the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. as magnificent. calcite.

allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. and well-developed crystals are rare. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. there is little or no cleavage. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. after whom the species was named. granite. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. sometimes a foot in length. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. andesite. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. and opaque in the mass. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. Dollaseite is less common. and many different names applied. reddish-black. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. near Falun in Sweden. Piemontite occurs as small. rhyolite. gneiss. and others. being black or dark brown in color. Epidote . pitchy in lustre. syenite. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. near Ivrea in Piedmont. further. at Finbo. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. and greenish-brown colors. yellowish-. Although not a common mineral.

yellow-green. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations.3–3. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. fibrous.6 .

797 Birefringence δ = 0.784 nγ = 1.751 nβ = 1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.715–1.725–1.734–1.046 Pleochroism Strong .019–0.

Typically. of plagioclase." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture. [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase. While slowly cooling within the earth. .ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite.

It is the state gem of Florida. Most moonstones are translucent and white. It measured ~10×10×0.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. some ceramics. and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. and as a constituent of scouring powder. Russia. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. Germany. such as porcelain. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. In gemology.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses.

Cleavages intersect at 90°. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous.63 Optical Biaxial (-). White. 2V = 65–75 . Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Greyish yellow. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}.55–2. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. Greenish. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.

522–1. Other characteristics Low negative relief .0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.518–1.522– Refractive index nα = 1.525 Birefringence 0.0050–0.520 nβ = 1.524 nγ = 1. Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.

It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite.GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important lead ore mineral. calcite and fluorite. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite . Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals.

2×2. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). states of Missouri and Wisconsin. Utah and Montana. In addition zinc. Illinois. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. Rhodope Mountains. Iowa and Wisconsin. Somerset. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Missouri. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. England. In the United States. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Derbyshire. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. and Cumberland.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. Of the latter.1×3. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. . Saxony. the Madan. Cornwall. Broken Hill. antimony. the former mining town of Galena.S. in a process similar to bioleaching. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena. Idaho. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. cadmium.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. USA (size: 5. Smolyan Province. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. The Mendips. Bulgaria.

in Ancient Egypt. U. Isle of [5] Man. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals.g. In modern wireless communication systems. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. which was known as a "cat's whisker". was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. which. however. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . For example.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market. the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. which were a potential source of disease. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets.K. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm.

1.10 Dana classification 2.8.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.936 Å.CD. No. penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001]. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8.5–2. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra.75 . 225 Twinning Contact.Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. space group Fm3m.

2–7.6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. although specimens may show a [6] . but limonite does not.3. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores. among them goethite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals.5. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals. In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore. The hardness is variable.5 range. but generally in the 4 . and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely.akaganeite.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. the other being hematite. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown. Although originally defined as a single mineral. lepidocrocite. and jarosite.7 to 4. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore.

hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. and hematite was far easier to smelt. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. Before smelting. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. [10] California mining district. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. reniform or stalactitic. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. Complex systems developed. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. [12] notably in Tanzania. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. amphibole. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. burnt umbers and siennas.botryoidal. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite. in Africa. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. Because of its amorphous nature. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. Main article: Ochre#History .fibrous or microcrystalline structure. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. Nonetheless. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. to process limonite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. pyroxene. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. sometimes mammillary. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. producing red ochres. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. and biotite. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. hematite and magnetite. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States.

powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 .As regards to the use of limonite for pigments. it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs.5½ . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate. Limonite General Category Amorphous.

3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.9 .3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .4.7 .4.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. shiny. in 1932. Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies.S. jewelry. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. Chemically. soft. In Europe. usually with tellurium. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). It dissolves in mercury. . This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. malleable and ductile metal. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form. which have been used in mining. forming amalgam alloys. Less commonly. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. is insoluble in nitric acid. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.GOLD Gold is a dense. with huge war debts. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. giving rise to the term theacid test. which dissolves silver and base metals. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. so named because it dissolves gold. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. as nuggets or grains in rocks. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. in veins and in alluvial deposits.

ductility. the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth. This is roughly equivalent to 5. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. and 10% in industry. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core. about 8876 m . or a cube 20. colored-glass production and gold leafing.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. 40% in [3] investments. Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions.A total of 171. Its highmalleability. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element. includingelectric wiring. . and other fields. electronics.5 billion troy ounces or. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions.7 m on a side. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. in terms of volume. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry.

Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). and is probably hydrothermal in origin. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. consequently. .GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. the last stage of coalification. There are three principal types of natural graphite. graphite is an electrical conductor. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. 2.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. a semimetal. 3. for its use in pencils. Therefore. "to draw/write". It is. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō). just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. flat.

China is the largest producer of graphite.110 thousand tonnes (kt). world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1.S. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite.18 billion. of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). U. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt).Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. calcite. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). but U. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites.S. micas and tourmaline. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. respectively. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. Graphite . Minerals associated with graphite include quartz. Graphite is not mined in the United States. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. in particular. [7] totaling 73% of all global production. Brazil (76 kt). India (130 kt).

granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.461 Å.708 Å. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .CB.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2. c = 6. six-sided foliatedmasses.Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular.

23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni . earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2.09–2.

As foranhydrite. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved. In hand-sized samples. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". cleavable masses called selenite. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined.0–2. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). rather. and in the early 19th century. In arid areas. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. As a mineral. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. Selenite may also occur in a silky. it is alabaster. with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. fibrous form. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. Finally. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. called alabaster.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. (Thus. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. It can be used as afertilizer. "spear stone". referring to its crystalline projections. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. When the crystal lattice is heated. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. Upon addition of water. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. it may also be granular or quite compact. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. "chalk" or "plaster". this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. in the form of selenite. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. Selenite contains no significantselenium. [edit]Occurrence . in contrast to most other salts. and transparent. typically opaque. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812.5 g/l at 25°C) and.

Wyoming. was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. . Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. as well as in hot springs. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. from volcanic vapors. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Blue Anchor. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. strongly opposed by area residents. Under reducing conditions. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures.000 years. Commercial exploitation of the area. Gypsum is a common mineral. Pure gypsum is white. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Somerset. However. amongst others by pyrite oxidation.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. UK. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. and sulfate solutions inveins. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.

CD.202(14) Å. β = 118.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. tan.43°. brown. Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. c = 6. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.679(5) Å. may be yellow.522(6) Å. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty. reddish brown or gray . blue. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07. pink.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. b = 15.

pearly.523 nγ = 1. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive.31–2. flat.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.530 Birefringence δ = 0.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.519–1. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}. Mohs scalehardness 1.522–1.521 nβ = 1.529–1. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.010 . inelastic.

dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly. fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

HEMATITE Hematite. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. ancient. spring. they all have a rust-red streak. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Varieties includekidney ore. Maghemite is a hematite. is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. Hematite is harder than pure iron. Hematite is a mineral. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. or other standing water. however. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. . Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. It is mined as the main ore of iron. one of several iron oxides. also spelled as haematite. colored black to steel or silver-gray. but much more brittle. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. or otherwise highly weathered soils. brown to reddish brown. Hematite can also occur without water. or red. While the forms of hematite vary.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. usually as the result of volcanic activity. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite).

Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5. dull to bright red . α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04.CB. c = 13.038(2) Å.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. Fe2O3.772(12) Å.

870–2. granular. commonly in rosettes.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals. reniform.940 Birefringence δ = 0.220.5–6. earthy.280 . radiating fibrous. botryoidal or stalactitic masses. columnar. nε = 2. micaceous or platy.150–3.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

The general formula can be given as (Ca. . It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.Al)5(Al. brown or black color. but the name is used as a general or field term.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). to refer to a dark amphibole. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6.Na)2–3(Mg. greenish-brown. Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure.Fe.4 and is typically an opaque green. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. and an iron-magnesium silicate. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules.F)2. a specific gravity of 2.Si)8O22(OH. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.9–3.

It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. from its locality in Edenville. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. is gray to white in color. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . basalt. Al)5 (Al. Fe. diorite. gabbro.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. andschist. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. Orange County. and named edenite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite. andesite. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. syenite. gneiss. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. New York.

9 Pleochroism Strong . gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

Jiangxi province. part of the group of industrial minerals. yellow or light orange colors. China. pinyin: Gaoling). It is a layered silicate mineral. Lighter concentrations yield white. [edit]Chemistry [6] . The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). earthy. In Africa. Alternating layers are sometimes found. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder. giving it a distinct rust hue. semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. calaba. United States. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. a village near Jingdezhen. In many parts of the world.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. It is a soft. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide.

but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. Al2Si2O7. H = H2O. [edit]Occurrence . however. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. and highly crystalline cristobalite. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). Si3Al4O12. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. S = SiO2. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

the Czech Republic and the United States. the proportion of kaolinite decreases. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. France. India. as kaolin.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. Australia. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. Germany. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Bulgaria.5 million tonnes. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. United Kingdom. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Iran. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. Kaolinite . Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. [1] the People's Republic of China.Korea. it is mined. in Brazil.

13 Å. b = 8. sometimes red. c = 7.8°. aggregated into compact. β = 104. α = 90°. thin plates or stacked. claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic .5°. γ = 89.ED.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09.89 Å. Z = 2 Identification Color White.25 Å. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.

16–2.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.565.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2. nγ = 1.569.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°. nβ = 1.569–1.553–1.559–1. Calculated: 44° .

United States. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. Manitoba. Russia.spodumene. Ural Mountains. California. Canada. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. andMadagascar. Bernic Lake. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium. feldspar. Tanco Mine. tourmaline. cassiterite. topaz and beryl. Notable occurrences include Brazil. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. Associated minerals [1] include quartz.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. columbite. greisens and granites.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. Lepidolite . amblygonite.Si)3O10(F. in some high-temperature quartz veins. It occurs in granite pegmatites.

Minas Gerais. Virgem da Lapa.Cm Unit cell a = 5. Brazil (size 2. rose-red.149(5) Å.EC.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. violet-gray.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.4 x 2. β = 100:77(4)°.Lepidolite.011(5) Å c = 10.1 x 0.209(2) Å b = 9. colorless . yellowish.Si)3O10(F.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. white. purple.

scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.554– 1.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1. Y = Z = pink.551–1. nγ=1.548.8–2. composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2. nβ=1.0290–0.586 Birefringence 0.525–1.58° measured . pale violet 2V angle 0° .5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.58.

Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite..III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. Commonly. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster. and ulvospinel have been much studied. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak.e. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. will attract small pieces of iron. [edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. called lodestone. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth.

05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C.BB. Z=8 Identification Color Black. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun . Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04.III) oxide. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. 1.397 Å. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. including banded iron formations.conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. In many igneous rocks. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks.085 °F).

5–6. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.Crystal habit Octahedral. parting on {Ill}. the spinel law.17–5. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .

in fractures and spaces. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. "mallow". This opaque. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. a large malachite vase.MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. verditer amongst other synthetic greens. "The Tazza". . "mallow-green stone". Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. variant of καιάχε malāchē. The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. The pigment is moderately lightfast. or stalagmitic masses. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. fibrous. which features a huge malachite vase. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II.000 years. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. and most often forms botryoidal. It is also used for decorative purposes. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. deep underground. Middle French: melochite. Since then.

and calcite. Broken Hill.1 g/mol Color Bright green. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. goethite. the source of the carbonate. Lyon. Timna valley. dark green. Israel. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. Russia. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals.BA. Gabon. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. France. Namibia. Tsumeb. blackish green. . Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.Zambia.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). Mexico.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Except for its vibrant green color. New South [7] Wales.

655 nβ = 1.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous.875 nγ = 1.5–4.254 . Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3.909 Birefringence δ = 0. silky if fibrous.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. Polysynthetic twinning also present.commonly banded in masses. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. stalactitic. botryoidal.

yellows. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore.76–3. isinglass. or (rarely) violet or red. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. and can be transparent or translucent.25 parallel to the [001] face. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. browns. [4] . 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. Its crystal system is monoclinic.OH)2. It can be colorless or tinted through grays.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica. The green. India. greens.

02. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. feldspar. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable.9×4. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.15 Dana classification 71. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5. etc. morganite) from Paprok.02a.EC.kyanite. In pegmatites. and schists. pegmatites. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. found in granites.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz.Muscovite with beryl (var. Minas Gerais.OH)2 Strunz classification 09.8×3. gneisses.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.3×3.

576 . b = 9.106 Å. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. grey. Z = 4 Identification Color White.552–1.Unit cell a = 5.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m).027 Å. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2.78°. β = 95.199 Å. c = 20. silky.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous.

582–1.nβ = 1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .035 – 0.587–1.615 nγ = 1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.

almost 1900 °C. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen.. magnesium and iron. silicon. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. [edit]Identification and paragenesis . The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Fo 70Fa30).g.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4).Fe)2SiO4. as do other properties. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure.

Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. USA. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron..Green sand is actually olivine crystals. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. . that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. Gila Co. Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Arizona.

and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. First X-ray view of Martian soil . Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. pyroxenes. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. from the Greek words for gold and stone).Fe)2Si2O6). and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. or forsterite. October 17. Mars. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. In contrast. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. moreover. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". and . in the dust of comet Wild 2. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. 12 GPa. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water.feldspar. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. andpallasites.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. collections of debris from the early solar system. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.g. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars. because olivine is so abundant.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. falling into infant stars. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. 2012). the French word for olivine). Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. Such meteorites include chondrites. the Moon.

close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O2 and O3 in figure 1).the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. while M1 exists on an inversion center. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. Olivine . O3 lies in a general position. O2. and magnesium/iron in blue. O1. silicon in pink. In an alternative view. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1. Oxygen is shown in red.

5–7 Luster Vitreous . Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

650–1.040 .630–1.37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.650 nβ = 1.670 nγ = 1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.670–1.27–3.690 Birefringence δ = 0.

its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . rose. orange. Of these hues. a mineraloid form. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock. slate. blue. yellow. Opal ranges from clear through white. which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. magenta. being most commonly found withlimonite. For gemstone use. marl and basalt. like basalt. pink. brown. not a mineral. and black. green. rhyolite. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water. olive. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. gray. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. whereas white and greens are the most common. red. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. [edit]Precious opal . sandstone. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. the reds against black are the most rare.

Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size. . packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.

Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. basalt. of which opal is the best known natural example. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon. which is correctly termed play of color. unlike triplet opals. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes.Australian Opal Doublet. or obsidian. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. Potch does not show a play of color. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. and are not classed as precious opal. In addition. it has an internal structure. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. which is often of lower quality. . It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. Contrarily. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top.

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. geyserite. which is brown or grey. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. orange-yellow or red. The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. wood opal. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. also called siliceous sinter. or star . deposited around hot springs orgeysers. menilite. orange. resin opal.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). hyalite. They do not usually show any play of color.

needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. Boulder Opal. that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. It weighs 17. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. It does not display pleochroism. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones. However. Queensland. Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal.effect. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. when cut properly. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). Queensland . White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields.

Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Another Australian town. and black opal. high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. and weighs 2. fire. and lemon opal. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. known as the "Black Peacock." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. white. weighing 160 carats. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal.585 carats. closely related to boulder opal. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. and a snake head have been found. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. crystal opal. bones. is the main source of black opal. Nevada. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit. Opal Queen. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). fish. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. Idaho. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. Miocene age opalised teeth. and marine creatures in South Australia. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. Royal Peacock. Bonanza. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. from Kynuna in the north. crystal. [citation needed] [12] A .

Honduras.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica.7 by 0. in masses. black. brown. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. red. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. Piauí ). SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. orange. yellow. Hungary.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. white. Indonesia. green. Brazil (inPedro II. Turkey. Guatemala. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. In late 2008. [20] Opal An opal bracelet. [19] Slovakia.

or yellow in long and short wave. may phosphoresce.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. but typically reads 1. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.Mohs scalehardness 5. green.08. May also phosphoresce.90)[1] Density 2.450 (+. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave.42–1.020. -.37. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque.[1] .43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue. -. may phosphoresce.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. translucent.15 (+. transparent Specific gravity 2.

470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. bases. methanol.Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm.humic acid. hydrofluoric acid .

sedimentary rock. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. or iron pyrite. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. [11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. "fire". By Georgius Agricola's time. and metamorphic rock. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. In ancient Roman times. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. in turn from πύρ (pur). brazzle and Brazil. as well as in coal beds. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. [edit]Uses .37 wt% gold. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). "of fire" or "in fire". this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel.PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.

The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. In the 15th century. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide. Navajún. was popular in the Victorian era. it had become the [12] dominant method.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine. at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. that is. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite.95 eV. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. La Rioja. By the 19th century. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. most notably the wheellock. pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. . and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Until the vacuum tube matured. often set in silver. iron(II) sulfate. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. Marcasite jewelry.

1. 512 g.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5. Z=4 .Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.417 Å. main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm.EB.05a Dana classification 2. Rioja.12.

glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. radiated.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic. Often inter-grown. faces may be striated.5 Luster Metallic. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5–3 to a magnetic globule .95–5. massive. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. globular and stalactitic.10 Fusibility 2. granular.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

distorted. β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Czech tvrdy ("hard").QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. The . only one termination pyramid is present. Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. giving an overall formula SiO2. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). space group P6221 and P6421. respectively. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. after feldspar. Especially in Europe and the Middle East. or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. There are many different varieties of quartz. Polish twardy ("hard")). [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively.

. are agate. Quartz goes by an array of different names. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. carnelian. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. milky quartz. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. heliotrope.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). Natural citrines are rare.transformation between α. Common colored varieties include citrine. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Citrine has ferric impurities. smoky quartz. or mixed rocks including quartz. without change in the way they are linked. see Citrine (disambiguation). such as the Lothair Crystal. sard. and is rarely found naturally. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. and jasper. but they differ in hardness. For other uses. amethyst." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. rose quartz. onyx. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. and others. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown.

[edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Maine. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. or manganese. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. iron. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. in the massive material. . In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Brazil. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. USA. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz.[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. Magaliesburg.

It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray. [edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample .

Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. transparent . typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. This does not always hold true. liquid. trapped during the crystal formation. colorless Amethyst Purple. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. banded chalcedony. or both. Agate Multi-colored. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. parallel and consistent in size. Rock crystal Clear. exhibiting chatoyancy. Otherwise more specific names are used. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral.

may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White. translucent to opaque. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet . greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green.Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent. transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony.

Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical). fine-grained to microcrystalline.01. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law. c = 5.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4.03.4053 Å.DA. massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.9133 Å.05 Dana classification 75. drusy.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . SiO2) Strunz classification 04.

65.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2. variable 2. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) .63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP.552–1.545 nε = 1.543–1. may betriboluminescent.59–2. 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.554 Birefringence +0.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

1.751 Birefringence δ = 0.6. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .741 nγ = 1.5 .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.57 .724 .1.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.3.711 .76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.714 .738 nβ = 1.1.

high-value tableware. utensils (hence the term silverware). and currency coins. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. jewelry. further research into clinical potential continues. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. lead. .SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros. lustrous transition metal. free form (native silver). Latin: argentum. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. and zinc refining. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). A soft. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. gold. and is used as an investment. both from the Indo-European root*arg. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. Its compounds are used in photographic film. to make ornaments. white. as an alloy with gold and other metals. Today.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.

Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. with a polished rock surface. nosean. crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Canada. . lazurite and tugtupite. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone.

near Golden. albite. sanidine. and Litchfield. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. microcline. cancrinite and natrolite. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. Ontario. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. If left in a dark environment for some time.A light. sodalite is named after its sodium content. Quebec.ankerite and baryte. the violet will fade again. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Smaller deposits are found in South . particularly. and Mont-SaintHilaire. Occurring typically in massive form. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. fluorite. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. in Canada. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. contains sodalite. British Columbia. namelyleucite. shortwave ultraviolet light. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. green. Maine. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. sodalite may also be grey. calcite. in the USA. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. The Ice River [5] complex. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. [1] Narsaq. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. Arkansas. aegirine. West Greenland. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. [3] titanian andradite. Well known for its blue color. yellow. Other associated minerals include nepheline. and Magnet Cove. Conversely.

876(6) Å.America (Brazil and Bolivia). green.FB. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue.10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. violet. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9. Italy. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland. Burma and Russia. Portugal. Romania. yellow. white veining common . Euhedral.

with yellowishphosphorescence. sodium .1.27-2.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass.483 .33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1.5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Massive. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .OH)2. has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7. mostly opaque. Magnesium.

They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. New Mexico. Norway. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. Keivy Mountains. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. kyanite. macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. as well as albite. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. Kola Peninsula. depth. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. biotite. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. In handsamples. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. It is the official state mineral of the U. Samples are also found in Taos. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. micas. It occurs with almandine garnet. . called penetration twinning.S. Virginia.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape.

45°.5 x 2. β = 90. rarely blue. Northern Region. Russia. c = 5. 2.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O.65 Å. yellowish brown.6 Å.86 Å.Murmanskaja Oblast'. b = 16.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} . pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown.AF.

015 Pleochroism X = colorless. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3. weak .1. Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 .0.74 .83 meas.7.1.754 nγ = 1.747 nβ = 1. Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.740 . Y = pale yellow.736 .1.762 Birefringence δ = 0.686 calc.009 .3.745 . 3.


Talc is not soluble in water. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. It has a specific gravity of 2. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. and the folia are non-elastic.5– 2. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder. Its streak is white. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. In loose form. [edit]Formation . and is translucent to opaque. although slightly flexible. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.8. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. a clear or dusty luster.

low-temperature minerals such as phengite. amphibole. and fibrous. pyroxene.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. olivine. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. This is typically associated with high-pressure. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. [edit]Occurrence . Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. Such rocks are typically white. and are known as whiteschist. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral. friable. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite. garnet. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers.

Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine. the Guiana Shield. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral . such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). India. the western European Alps especially in Italy. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes.000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. from Brazil. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. Nepal and Bhutan. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. layered ultramafic intrusion. formed upon a polydeformed. Western Australia. Oman and the Middle East. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. representing 8% of world production. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. eastern Australia.

158 Å.291 Å. β = 119.90°. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.290 Å. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. c = 5. b = 9.68°. brown. γ = 90. Z = 2 or a = 5.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.EC. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage). c = 18. α = 98.09°. β = 99. b = 9.3°.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.287 Å.173 Å.95 Å.

589 – 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.58 to 2.589 – 1.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.538 – 1.594 nγ = 1. long UV=yellow .600 Birefringence δ = 0.550 nβ = 1.

[edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors . and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F.OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.

Sri Lanka.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. Brazil. reddish-orange.Sweden. in Afghanistan. Australia. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. Japan. pale green. Flinders Island. gold. Czech Republic. Mexico. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. gold. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Germany. Typically. pink (rare). measured a massive 22. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. blue. pink or violet colored. colorless. pink (rare.892. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area. The American Golden Topaz. Italy. Nigeria and the United States. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds. yellow. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. if natural) or pink-orange. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. typical topaz is wine. also known as precious topaz. is the traditional November birthstone. Imperial topaz is yellow.75 carats. pale gray. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. sometimes even violet. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. a more recent gem. [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain.5 carats. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. or blue brown. the symbol of [5] friendship. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. Norway. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. It can also be made white. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Orange topaz. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Pakistan.

some scholars think it is related to . Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). Minas Gerais. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. the ancient name of St. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. [edit]History Nicols.[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. etymology. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). [edit]Biblical background. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. a topaz. In the Middle Ages. both of which predate the Greek word. The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire"." However.

"fiery". pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). metaphorically. [citation needed] More likely. b = 8. c = 8. = yellow.4 Å. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.8 Å.65 Å. meaning "yellow burn" Assyrian word meaning "flashed".OH)2 Strunz classification 9. Z = 4 .AF.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4.

orange.629 nβ = 1. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension. blue. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3. green. compact. yellow.631 nγ = 1.49–3. gray.616–1.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities).606–1.638 . also columnar. brown.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.609–1.

pink Other characteristics Fluorescent.Birefringence δ = 0. long UV=cream . reddish. Z = violet.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. Y = yellow. bluish. yellow. violet. short UV=golden yellow.

Italy . magnesium. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. lithium. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). iron. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. sodium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. or potassium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral.

In the 19th century the names common schorl. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). . in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Austro-Hungarian Empire. Carinthia. "Schörle". which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. for the Drava river area.Drava river area. The word tourmaline has two etymologies. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century. and "Schurl". in addition to cassiterite. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite. This village had a nearby tin mine where. black tourmaline was found. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. schörl. Up to about 1600. Beginning in the 18th century.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. In English. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". both from the Sinhalese word turamali. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu).

vacancy Y = Li. V T = Si. Fe . Elba Island. Zn. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Czech Republic. Al. F. K. Ti . was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. Tuscany. Italy. sodium-. Al. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Sweden. O W = OH. vacancy Z = Mg. Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. Al. Fe . California.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). vacancy V = OH. Na. Cr .5Al1. V . Province of [5] Livorno. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. B B = B. Mn . Italy. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. Fe . and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. where: [6] X = Ca. United States.Campo nell'Elba. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice. with the simplified formula (Li. Mg. Elba Island. Cr .[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. Italy. San Piero in Campo.

Al1. US..Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. California.5. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . San Diego Co. Cryo-Genie Mine.

Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011. US [edit]Physical properties . California. Himalaya Mine. San Diego Co.. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz.

Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. in western Australia. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. During their 2+ growth. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. no other common mineral has three sides. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. pink. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones . Usually. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. and does not. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. it is colorless. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. currently. red. yellow. [edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. or green on the outside and pink inside. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. green.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. Rarely. impact the value. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. called hemimorphism. but is now exhausted. [edit]Geology . reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. especially pink to red colored stones. Heavily-included tourmalines. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. and are often pyroelectric as well. etc.

Li.Mn)3(Al. Scattered grains (in granite). Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate. Massive. or in a dual-colored pink and green. sometimes radiating. Magnesium-rich tourmalines.Al.Na. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca. violet. . Acicular prisms.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. pink. dravites. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble.Mg. green.V)6 (BO3)3(Si.Fe. are generally restricted to schists and marble.[])(Al. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated.B)6O18(OH.K.Cr. but can range from brown. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Fe.

light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. small conchoidal. light blue .32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.06 (+.650 Birefringence -0.06)[1] Density 2.5 Luster Vitreous.020 but in dark stones it may reach .Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. dark red.610–1.675.20 -. dark blue. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.635–1. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. dark green.018 to -0. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite.82–3. typically about . dark brown.light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.040. nε=1.

017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm. red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.Dispersion .

TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. [edit]Occurrence . one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. Nephrite. is a green variety of tremolite. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite.

forsterite. talc. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. grossular. Associated minerals include calcite.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic .Tremolite from the Aure Valley. wollastonite. Switzerland.diopside. Piumogna [1] Valley. Leventina.2 x 6. French Pyrenees (size: 8.DE. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite.Ticino (Tessin). Approximately 36. dolomite. cummingtonite.500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.

granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. c = 5. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. Z = 2 Identification Color White.99 – 3.27 Å. b = 18.02 Å. β = 104. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°. lavender to pink. common parallel to {100}.84 Å. gray.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) . or flattened crystals. light green. also as fibrous.95°. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Unit cell a = 9.

626 nγ = 1.625 .1. Long UV=range pink .637 Birefringence δ = 0.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.1.613 .1.612 nβ = 1.Refractive index nα = 1.599 .

It is found principally in California and Nevada. hydroboracite. and Kazakhstan. sometimes known as TV rock. gyps [1] um and halite. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes. by internal reflection. USA. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. mirabilite.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). meyerhofferite. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. The chains are linked together by calcium. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. trona. with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. water. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. . calcite. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. glauberite. water and hydroxide octahedra. probertite. borax. Tarapacá Region in Chile. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals.

The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers. two of which are polarized. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. Ulexite decomposes in hot water. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. Ulexite .A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber.

9 x 5 x 3.25 Dana classification 26.Ulexite from California(size: 6.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8.1°.25°. Z =2 Identification .87Å. c = 6. β = 109. b = 12.678(1) Å.EA.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.12°.05.11.816(3) Å. γ = 105. α = 90.

5 Luster Vitreous.95 – 1.Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.506 br/>nγ = 1.504 – 1.496 nβ = 1.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.491 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.028 .519 – 1.

greenish yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes .2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. cream.

biotite gneiss. Depending on their composition. etc. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. etc. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. . [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. they may also be called garnet gneiss. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. chlorite or other platyminerals. rotten or possibly worthless material. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark. albite gneiss.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. so called because the rock glitters). diorite coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses. This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions.

These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. iron oxides." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. "shining stone". Polish marmur. Portuguese mármore. Italian marmo. "to flash. Turkish mermer. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. most other European languages (e. most commonly calcite or dolomite. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. sand.German. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. sparkle. Spanish mármol. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron).g. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek. [5] gleam". The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Armenian marmar. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. [3][4] "crystalline rock". meaning "marble-like. Norwegian. Dutch marmer. however. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. . silt. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks.


PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. sericite. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity). or chlorite impart a silky. . Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. and chlorite. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. sericite mica. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Minute crystals of graphite. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color.

Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. rutile and magnetite. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. are due to other mineral impurities. Although few fossils are normally present. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. iron oxide. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. silica. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. carbonate and clay. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. Other colors. diagenetically altered. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. British Columbia. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. therefore. Canada . Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. and both usages are found in the literature. not around them. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. such as yellow and orange. the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals.

near Salt Lake City. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Foinaven. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. industrial silica sand. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. the Wasatch Range in Utah. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. as flooring. Monte Binga (2436 m). Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire).Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. The highest mountain in Mozambique. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. In the Scottish Highlands. the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint.g. Central Texas. Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. and stair steps. In Canada. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. In the United Kingdom. [4] . and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. several mountains (e. as roofing tiles. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. southwestMinnesota. silicon and silicon carbide. A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. In Wales. precambrian quartzite. pale grey.


Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. for example. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. In other .clastic structure. however. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. for example. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. graphite. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. etc. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. can be seen by the naked eye. By definition. A quartz-porphyry. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. such as garnet schist. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. Most schists are mica schists. hornblende. the terms slate. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. tourmaline schist. The individual mineral grains in schist. If the whole district. chlorite.talc. Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. glaucophane schist.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. and others.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Usually. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure.

the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. with variable amounts of white and black mica. with crystalline dolomites. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. as limestones. They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. feldspar. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. dolomites. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. scapolite.cases intrusive junctions. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. foliated. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. are alteredclaystones and shales. chilled edges. and calc-schists. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. quartz and feldspar. contain silicate minerals such as mica. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. many metamorphic limestones. zoisite and hornblende. For example. and the white mica-schists. diopside. while others are found only among igneous masses. but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. for example. staurolite. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. marbles. which have been derived from rhyolites. A subgroup is the andalusite. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). Such rocks. tremolite. schistose character. . garnet. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. however. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. The majority of mica-schists. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. green or cyan. from pale to dark. the terms slate. or schist. or zirconas well as feldspar. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. kaolinite. chlorite. foliated. less frequently. apatite. tourmaline. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. Occasionally. or a writing slate. However. magnetite. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. It may mean a single roofing slate. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. from which it may be formed. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. hematite. Slate is not to be confused with shale. . the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century. especially when seen. en masse. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. for example.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. For example. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. often framed in wood. Slate is frequently grey in color. leaving a light green spotted texture.. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. often along with biotite. graphite. In the context of underground coal mining. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. and may also be purple. covering roofs. traditionally a small piece of slate. and pyrite and. as in the purple slates of North Wales. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality.


(which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. anhydrous forms. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. leading to metamorphism.e.: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. 2. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite.. During subduction. ilmenite. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature. [5] sediment. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. zeolites. potassium (K). biotite. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. 3. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. chlorite etc. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. of intermediate composition. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. Magnetite. but most . Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Partial melting of crustal material. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. barium(Ba). apatite. In a general sense. zircon. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. Characteristic of subduction zones. volcanic rock. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process.g. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic.

however. forming mafic cumulates. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. creating a layer of molten material at its base. these reservoirs cool. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. therefore. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. such as the Andes. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . however. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. however. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. Once there. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. . are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. Basalt can. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. the composition is returned to andesite. Without continued addition of mafic material. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. Models of heat transfer. As this process continues. In order to remain active. its intermediate phase. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. If it underplates the crust.


but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro. /ˈbæsɒlt/. embedded in a finer-grained matrix.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. Venus.BASALT Basalt (pron. the third largest moon of Jupiter. Sobolev et al.. On Earth. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.g. Mars. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume.. and even on the asteroid Vesta. (In comparison. and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. By definition. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria. Hungary . Basalt commonly erupts on Io. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e. 2007). and has also formed on Earth's Moon. /ˈbæsɔːlt/. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface.

Uses Basalt is used in construction (e.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen. an excellent thermal insulator. US quarter for scale. . Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool.g. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. libri XII. basanites "very hard stone. misspelling of L. The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". Arizona. from βάζανος (basanos. as building blocks or in the groundwork).

alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase. is characteristically low in incompatible elements. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). most large oceanic islands.     .

apatite. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. the Andes Mountains. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). which is transitional togabbro. Romania. the Isle of Guernsey. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Finland. making it difficult to carve and work with.DIORITE Diorite (pron. into which they may subtly merge. Northeastern Turkey. . magnetite. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. Basin and Range province. source localities include Leicestershire. microcline and olivine. It can also be black or bluish-grey. the Darrans range of New Zealand. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock. Minnesota in theUSA. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. It may contain small amounts of quartz. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. and/or pyroxene. central Sweden. and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. and Idahet in Egypt. Zircon. Scotland.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. sphene. occasionally with porphyry. and to provide a durable finished work. An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. however. Sondrio. and frequently has a greenish cast.biotite. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. Italy. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite. hornblende. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). Its hardness.

it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. Guernsey and Scotland. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. London. weaponry. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. but mostly for fortress walls. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. Assyria and Sumer. Babylonia. inscribed upon a 2. etc. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Paul's Cathedral. Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. In later times. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. . diorite was commonly used as cobblestone.

and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. and ulvospinel. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy). [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. the rock is then a norite. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. amphibole. coarse-grained. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Isle of Skye. Rock Creek Canyon. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. Scotland. The rocks areplutonic. easternSierra Nevada. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. Gabbro is dense. Gabbros contain minor amounts. The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica.GABBRO Gabbro (pron. intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. California. plagioclase. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. ilmenite. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. typically a few percent. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene.

Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. although it may be porphyritic at times. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. cobalt. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. US. and copper sulfides. silver. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. Massachusetts. platinum. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. . nickel. gold. intruding into the rift flanks. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium.extra descriptiveness is desired. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase.


Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. Granites can be pink to gray in color. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. and feldspar. descriptive field term for light-colored.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive. Granitoid is a general. By definition. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s.GRANITE Granite (pron. northern Chile . mica. hard and tough. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry.75 3 g/cm . granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). an unusual type of granite.65 and 2. a grain. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. This rock consists mainly of quartz. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids.1260 °C. near the town of Caldera. felsic. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. The average density of granite is between 2. Melting temperature is 1215 .

India. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) .The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai.

Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. Cornwall . valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.

and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.The Cheesewring. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite.30% P2O5 — 0. although much of it is of Precambrian age. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. In some locations. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. . Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72.69% CaO — 1. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.12% Na2O — 3.68% Fe2O3 — 1.82% FeO — 1.22% MgO — 0. the rock is referred to asalkali granite.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14. where it forms a major part of continental crust. Granite often occurs as relatively small.12% MnO — 0. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.42% (alumina) K2O — 4. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. sanidine. it is called tonalite. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor.71% TiO2 — 0.


usually 70% or more. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. California . Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. [9][10][11] . its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater. which is the parent material. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide). Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight.. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). forming perlite. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Obsidian is mineral-like. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). Obsidian is hard and brittle. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. in addition. where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava..

S. Texas. Scotland and the United States. Armenia. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.Utah. Very few samples are nearly colorless. Oregon and Idaho. New [13] [14] Mexico.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. Colorado. [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. Canada. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. white. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. Azerbaijan. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Occurrence Glass Mountain. It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow.Greece. Pantelleria. Washington. It can be found in Argentina. as well as Pennsylvania. and deposits can be found in many other western U. states including Arizona. Peru. Mexico. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). the inclusion of small. Guatemala. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. El Salvador. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Chile. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). Italy. Japan. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Kenya. aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. states of Virginia.S. Iceland. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. . New Zealand. In some stones.


Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. exsolution lamellae.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Similarly. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. in essence a granite. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. Therefore. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. For this reason. pyroxene and other minerals are known. Theory Theory . [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. macroscale graphic texture is known.5 cm in size. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. feldspar and mica. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical.

Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. for example greisens. Rock Creek Canyon. granite-associated mineralisation styles. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. eastern Sierra Nevada. often with mica and usually with quartz. to liberate the right constituents and water. with bulk chemical and textural change. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. and are usually granitic in character. often closely matching the compositions of nearby pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. . [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. in a few cases. being altogether "granitic" in character. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation. Beyond that. California. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount.

Bismuth. beryllium. potassium and lithium. fluorite. Occasionally. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. Hence. orientation. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. however. tantalite. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. tantalite. columbite. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. among others. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. such as aquamarine. tourmaline. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. uranium. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". cesium. aluminium. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. commonly almandine or spessartine. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. zinnwaldite and so forth. Geochemically. orange and brown almandine garnet. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. lepidolite. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. tourmaline. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals.Garnet. tourmaline. topaz. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. say. thorium. Tantalum. . boron. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. Australia). et cetera. apatite and corundum. accessory minerals and timing. Queensland. bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. niobium. Often. In most cases. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite.

Within the metamorphic belts.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. . notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. However. transitional with some greisens. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. "granitic" or "metasomatic". pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. Similarly.

The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser. compressed with fiamme on right. Pumice is created when super-heated. which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored. . The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. Rocks from the Bishop tuff.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened).PUMICE Pumice pron. uncompressed with pumice on left.

ranging from white. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. but basaltic and other compositions are known. . dacitic. blue or grey. 1984 and 2006. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. with tree trunks floating among them. When larger amounts of gas are present. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. phonolite. andesite. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin. and initially floats on water. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. pantellerite.S. After the explosion of Krakatoa. rhyolitic. to green-brown or black. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. many samples float in water. It is commonly. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. In 1979. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji.g.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. In [4] fact. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. trachyte). A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. cream. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. it sinks rapidly. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. Pumice is commonly pale in color.. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria.

in the case of pumiceous lavas. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. When used as an additive for cement. cosmetic exfoliants. plaster-like concrete. smooth.There are two main forms of vesicles. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. during flow. . The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. especially in polishes. and the production of stone-washed jeans. It is also used as an abrasive. The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. pencil erasers. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair.

United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. below:pumice. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. .nodular. rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. the eruptions were at the St. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). and lithophysal structures. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. spherulitic. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. also called obsidian. volcanic (extrusive) rock. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). and consequently.


An old name for scoria is cinder. . Quincan. Vesicles are usually small. coalescence. Auckland in New Zealand. creating bubbles in the molten rock. a unique form of Scoria. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. another vesicular volcanic rock. The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. black or purplish red). usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. but in contrast to pumice. bubble growth. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies. and may contain phenocrysts. typically near its surface. instead they open into one another with little distortion. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. and sinks in water. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. rust. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. and bursting. An example is Mount Wellington.SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. Australia. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. blocks and bombs). for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). skōria. and hence is denser. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow.

Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. has high surface area and strength for its weight. It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. . It is somewhat porous. and often has striking colours.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. and to carve some moai from.

and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). as opposed to lignite. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). Australia and the US. blue.1% and 98%. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92.3– 1. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves.S. coal) is a hard. [5] Vietnam. and lustre. which also include bituminous coal and lignite. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. the UK. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). which is used mainly in power generation. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. and smokeless flame.4. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. which is used as a pigment. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. Ukraine. its higher relative density of 1. culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. hard coal. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. is known as culm. North Korea. the fewest impurities. In America. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. blind coal (in Scotland). (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . which is softer). [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources. "coal-like. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal. other producers are Russia. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. and black diamond. mineral-matter-free basis. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. It has the highest carbon content. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance).

New Mexico. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality. Since the 1980s. By 1795. The thermal conductivity is also higher. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton.. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. In [6] June 2008. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. [7] It was In the United States. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. on the as-received basis (i. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. Structurally. circa 1935 . For example. Pennsylvania. coking coal and domestic house coals.e. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. mined near Saundersfoot. and Western Pennsylvania. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. In southwest Wales.MJ/kg).

In spring 1808. In the early 20th century United States.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. making it ideal for this purpose. the Delaware. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. Current U.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. From that first mine. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. placed in descending order. such as schools. on an open grate in a fireplace." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. Group of breaker boys. Many large public buildings. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Pennsylvania. Of that. about 1. Pennsylvania. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year.S. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot.

Switzerland and parts of Germany. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. or less. both in America and South Wales. Formerly. "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Commercial mining has now ceased. anthracite was largely used. [10] . Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993.Anthracite". as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Similarly. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". "poor". the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour.

therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. due to the depositional processes that form it. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. although bedding is frequently visible. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. and some mica is often present. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. Fossils are rare in arkose. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. and thus the potential precursor of arkose. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. most commonly granitic rocks. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. rock fragments may also be a significant component. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid. . Apart from the mineral content. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour.


Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). dull-banded". which have not been driven off from the macerals. air. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Within the coal mining industry.BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. and sulphur. These distinctive sequences. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. bright-banded" or "bright. and exinite. this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. the rest is composed of water. mineral-matter-free basis. . often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. good ventilation and vigilant site management. hydrogen. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. which are classified according to either "dull. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³).

Technically. In the field. A breccia may have a variety of different origins.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. The word is a loan from Italian. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. by contrast. typically in a karst landscape. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. by their relative movements. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. lithified colluvium. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. avalanches. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia. A conglomerate. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. poorly sorted. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock.079 in) in size. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. igneous breccia. tectonic breccia. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. These are. . mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. in essence.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/.

This occurs when the thick. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. granites and kimberlite pipes. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. . both of lava and pyroclastic type. as they slide past each other. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes.g. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions. also called pillow breccias. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. Lavas. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma. When particularly intense. Broken. and these form volcanic breccias. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. [edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column.

Pahranagat Range. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. and attrition quickly o . the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. in the rim.g. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater. Impact breccia. steam and boiling water. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. In addition. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. impact glass. Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. shocked minerals. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. Nevada. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. iridium and osmium anomalies). forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. a type of impactite. near Blessington in Ireland. Cloghleagh Iron Mine. and are usually found at impact craters. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago.

Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. . silver and gold. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. in particular CO2. as the formational event is brief. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold.rounds angular breccia fragments.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. at much greater depths. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. Pend Oreille mine. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime. As a result. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. In the mesothermal regime. Washington. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Pend Oreille County. On their journey. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. If boiling occurs. forming an angular jigsaw breccia.


The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides.CHERT Chert (pron. Where it occurs in chalk or marl. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. it is usually called flint. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. hard chert. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). [edit]Terminology: "chert".8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. New York. (3. Buffalo. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. "chalcedony" and "flint" . limestone. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Oklahoma. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). It also occurs in thin beds.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). but most often manifests as gray. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. chalk. brown. cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral.

chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. Strictly speaking. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties).Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. The term does not include quartzite. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). Among petrologists. Everett. . Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz. cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert.chert being lower quality than flint. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations.

[edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section. South Dakota. . which consist of angular clasts.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm). A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias.

well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic.clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict . Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate.000 ft. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational .clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . Alaska. and are known as basal conglomerates. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict . [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. conglomerates are normally very well sorted. In this setting. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- . They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. approximate depth 10.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems.Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core.

Tillites.g.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. These form the basis of a number of . The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier. are typically poorly-sorted. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . The matrix is generally fine-grained. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. desert) environments. In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. forming structures such aseskers. in Australia's Northern Territory. at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. in rapidly eroding (e. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. matrix-supported conglomerates. near Barcelona. consisting of finely milled rock fragments.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. Another spectacular example of conglomerate.

. These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.large oil fields. as different sectors of the fault moved.g. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly. e. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea.

The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. often including some phosphate. shallow submarine raised banks. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. close packing. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. fracturing. which compose them. or other invertebrates. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. brachiopods. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks.COQUINA Coquina (pron. As a result. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. . Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. in the form of seashells or coral. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. abraded. abrasion. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. and sorting of the shells. and barrier bars. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. trilobites. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. swift tidal channels.: /koʊˈkiːnə/.

but still comparatively soft.Close-up of coquina from Florida. However. In order to be used as a building material. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years. cannon balls would sink into. form. Saint Augustine. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. coquina is extremely soft. rather than shatter or puncture. The scale bar is 10 mm. Because of coquina's softness. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. The stone makes a very good material for forts. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. When first quarried. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. .


69 mm. anti-block in plastic films. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. This powder has an abrasive feel. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. and athermal insulator. TheCelle engineer.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron.5 to 2% iron oxide.. cat litter.236 pixels/ μm. matting agent for coatings. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. soft. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. diatomite. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837. absorbent for liquids. a type of hard-shelled algae. Peter Kasten. is a naturally occurring. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. a stabilizing component of dynamite. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules. activator in blood clotting studies. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. Initially. the peasant and goods waggoner. It is used as a filtration aid. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. similar to pumice powder. Wilhelm Berkefeld. recognized its ability to filter.: /ˌdaɪ. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica.13 by 0. and is very light as a result of its high porosity.E. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. porous support for chemical catalysts. it was thought that limestone had been found. mechanical insecticide. which could be used as fertilizer.

1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca.from diatomaceous earth. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca.  ca. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca. .1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. used successfully. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892.

but are of low quality. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. such as this one for swimming pools .Virginia. Oregon. France. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. In Colorado and in Clark. Nevada (USA). Washington and California.

as well as in some facial scrubs. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. In order to be effective as an insecticide. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. [7] taste. especially for swimming pools. based on Fick's law of diffusion.. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. causing them to [9] dehydrate. and honey without removing or altering their color. coffin-like. such as beer and wine. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. . and other liquids. sugar. but this method may take weeks to work. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. hollow particles. or nutritional properties. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. It has a high porosity.. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations.e. since slugs inhabit humid environments. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867.e. with questionable efficacy. because it is composed of microscopically small. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations. foodgrade— see below). it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. It is also used to filter water. for this purpose. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. However. It can also filter syrups. due to its physico-sorptive properties. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. efficacy is very low.

It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.vermiculite. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. as [20] well as an insecticide. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. Fungicide. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material. particularly as bonsai soil. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant.S. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. . It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. Like perlite. including water. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. As with other silicates.

Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. the largest single . allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. It is produced uncalcinated. has a very fine particle size. as feed supplement. which has been widely used for the same purpose. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. which is used as an indigestible marker. Libya. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. For instance. and as an insecticide. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version.and expanded clay. it retains water and nutrients. Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. while draining fast and freely. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. and has a high silica content (>60%). [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried.

where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. generating dust by abrasion.atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. .

S. publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.G. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. used in some geological publications.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. In old U.S. . Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. however. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. but it can still develop solution features over time. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. It is. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence.

Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. the United States. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal. When reacted with quaternary amine.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. Russia. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. mineral-matter-free basis. Poland. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).4 MJ/kg (6. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.5 million BTU/ton). often referred to as brown coal. it is mined in Greece. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines. Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. on the as-received basis (i. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 .. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.e.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. Australia averages 8. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. India. ca. Serbia. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. Germany. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss.

The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. . [4] Victoria. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station.than for comparable black-coal plants. particularly in combination with strip mining. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. originating mainly in the Tertiary period.

as aggregate for the base of roads. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints.LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite. USA . The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Virginia. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. and as a chemical feedstock. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes.

Because of impurities.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. or massive. limestone recrystallizes into marble. peloids. in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Limestone may be crystalline. and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. flint. Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. intraclasts. clastic. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. granular. is found near waterfalls. sand. When conditions are right for precipitation. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Like most other sedimentary rocks. jasper. Romania. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Travertine is a banded. . Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids. etc. diatoms. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. iron oxide and other materials.travertine. radiolarians). Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves).e. such as clay. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). Crystals of calcite. and varying amounts of clay.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Classification Two major classification schemes. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. organic remains. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. Tufa. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. compact variety of limestone formed along streams. most limestone is composed of grains. including the water temperature. and around hot or cold springs. i. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. especially onweathered surfaces. depending on several factors. many limestones exhibit different colors. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. Below about 3. building upon past generations. and extraclasts. such as stalagmites and stalactites. quartz. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. or it can fill fractures. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. pH. depending on the method of formation.000 meters. particularly where there are waterfalls. the Folk and the Dunham. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. This produces speleothems.

The Folk system uses two-part names. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. pot holes. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. not the grains in the sample. Based on composition. [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. matrix (mostly micrite). Such erosion landscapes are known . His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. Robert J. and cement (sparite). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. there are three main components: allochems (grains). a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. cenotes. especially in acid. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. caves and gorges.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. Unlike the Folk scheme. These include limestone pavements. and therefore self-supporting. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root.

a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. Sweden. the only building material available. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. The Florida Keys. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. So many buildings in Kingston. Examples include the Burren in Co. . Ontario. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). Many landmarks across the world. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. are made of limestone. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. This process is known as bioerosion. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. for a long time. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. England. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. and relatively expensive as a building material. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. 2003).as karsts. Notch Peak in Utah. making it impractical for tall buildings. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. It is most common in the tropics. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Sweden. While draining. which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Unique habitats are found on alvars. islands off the south coast of Florida. Clare. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. On the island of Malta. especially in Europe and North America. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. theVerdon Gorge in France. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. Ireland. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. typically clays. However. Egypt. [9] Michigan. it is a very heavy material.

its outside cover is made entirely from limestone. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Kansas .The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan.

slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). cement and mortar. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. most notably the Bloomington area. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. in some circumstances. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. tiles. uses limestone. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. such as for poultry (when ground up). It is added to toothpaste. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Purified. [11] . which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. plastics. paper. but only in thin plates for covering. paint. called Indiana limestone. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. In the United States. Glass making. since it is hard. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. rather than solid blocks. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Indiana. Train stations. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Used in blast furnaces. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. durable. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils.A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. limestone extracts iron from its ore. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

Sandstone is mined by quarrying. Like sand.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. white and black. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. pink. . yellow. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. In the western United States and incentral Australia.France. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. gray. sandstone may be any colour. most [1] sandstone is red. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. [edit]Uses 17. but the most common colours are tan. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. such as sandstones. red. brown. Fine-grained aquifers. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney).

in Freiburg.Germany.Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. . around 1770.

It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. and continues to be used. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. These are sandstone beverage coasters. It is relatively soft. . and other buildings. cathedrals. making it easy to carve. homes. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues.Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times.

e. Because of the hardness of individual grains. gritstone. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure. have been found less resistant. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England. yet are easy to work. for sharpening blades and other implements.002–0. rocks with greater grain sizes. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. some that have been used in the past.g.079 inches). Utah.0 mm.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. [3] like gypsum and jasper). .Some sandstones are resistant to weathering. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. including siltstones and shales. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. and silica. are typically called argillaceous sediments. Scale bar is 1. clays.. However. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. or chemical. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. like chalk and coal.

with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. in more general detail.. which. the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. once it has accumulated.e. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta). over other construction. and composition and. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate.sorting. as well as central Europe and Mongolia. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine.. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. Typically. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. either from water (as in a stream. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). or sea) or from air (as in a desert). include its grain size. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. i. in finer detail. lake. Finally. Arizona. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.g. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. in a desert or erg). as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. First.

Offshore bars and sand waves 5. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. channel sands) 2. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Alluvial fans 3. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Tidal flats 4. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Rivers (levees.  . Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1. point bars. Deltas 2. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar.1. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. such as hardness and chemical stability. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. Glacial outwash 4. Lakes 5. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope.

commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. or sedimentary rock. called lithic fragments or clasts. olivine. Although. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. rutile (hence ZTR).garnet. magnetite. and corundum.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. One is to call the . Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. metamorphic. this represents a complete solid solution. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. or other dense. tourmaline. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. upper picture is plane-polarized light. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. scale box at left-center is 0.25 millimeter. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. pyroxene. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock. Common heavy minerals include zircon.

Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented.  . and the other is to call it a wacke. such as calcite. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. feldspars. clay minerals. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. and zeolite minerals. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals. Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. and very rarely is in other sandstones.sandstone an arenite. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. limonite. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil. [6] gypsum. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. barite.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix. anhydrite. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together.


shale and schist were not sharply distinguished.greens). shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.browns and limonite [1] yellow). Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. the terms slate. called fissility. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. [edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. in dia. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. biotite and illite . iron . Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. montmorillonite and illite. calcium. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. especially quartz and calcite. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. iron hydroxide (goethite . sodium. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana.reds). [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Red. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . Mudstones. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. magnesium.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). or micaceous minerals (chlorite. Sand grain = 2 mm. on the other hand.

Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. The enriched values are of controversial origin. However.Cumberland Plateau. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. dolomite. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf.and water. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. in river deltas. in relatively deep. uranium. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. black shales were deposited in anoxic.chert. such as in stagnant water columns. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. These released elements form authigenic quartz. . 'Black shales' are dark. reducing environments. vanadium. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits. quiet water. hematite and albite. calcite. [edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone. and zinc. ankerite. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited.

As a prehistoric version of Yale University. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". fissile. 1961. metamorphic rockknown as slate. then schist and finally to gneiss. animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. The Flintstones. which originally aired on November 3. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. "Flintstone of Princestone". it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. apatite. . in keeping with the Stone Age puns. Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. or various carbonate minerals.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils.

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