BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. He experimented in the early 1900s with powdered rock material that was heated until it melted and then allowed to cool to a target temperature whereupon he observed the types of minerals that formed in the rocks produced. He repeated this process with progressively cooler temperatures and the results he obtained led him to formulate his reaction series which is still accepted today as the idealized progression of minerals produced by cooling magma. Based upon Bowen's work, one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed. [edit]Description The series is broken into two branches, the continuous and the discontinuous. The branch on the right is the continuous. The minerals at the top of the illustration (given aside) are first to crystallize and so the temperature gradient can be read to be from high to low with the high temperature minerals being on the top and the low temperature ones on the bottom. Since the surface of the Earth is a low temperature environment compared to the zones of rock formation, the chart also easily shows the stability of minerals with the ones at bottom being most stable and the ones at top being quickest to weather, known as theGoldich dissolution series. This is because minerals are most stable in the conditions closest to those under which they had formed. Put simply, the high temperature minerals, the first ones to crystallize in a mass of magma, are most unstable at the Earth's surface and quickest to weather because the surface is most different from the conditions under which they were created. On the other hand, the low temperature minerals are much more stable because the conditions at the surface are much more similar to the conditions under which they formed.


Albite is a felsic plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence its name from Latin albus.


Albite crystallizes with triclinic pinacoidal forms. Its specific gravity is about 2.62 and it has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. Albite almost always exhibits crystal twinning often as minute parallel striations on the crystal face. Albite often occurs as fine parallel segregations alternating with pink microcline inperthite as a result of exolution on cooling. It occurs in granitic and pegmatite masses, in some hydrothermal vein deposits and forms part of the typical greenschist metamorphic facies for rocks of originally basaltic composition. It was first reported in 1815 for an occurrence in Finnbo, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden.


Albite from Crete, scale = 1 in.



plagioclase, feldspar,tectosilicate

(repeating unit)

NaAlSi3O8 or Na1.0–0.9Ca0.0–0.1Al1.0–1.1Si3.0–2.9O8

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic H–M Symbol 1

Unit cell

a = 8.16 Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 7.11 Å; α = 93.45°, β = 116.4°, γ = 90.28°; Z=4



White to gray, blueish, greenish, reddish; may bechatoyant

Crystal habit

Crystals commonly tabular, divergent aggregates, granular, cleavable massive

Crystal system

Triclinic Pinacoidal


Coomon giving polysynthetic striae on {001} or {010}also contact, simple and multiple


Perfect on {001}, very good on {010}, imperfect on {110}


Uneven to conchoidal



Mohs scalehardness

6 – 6.5


Vitreous, typically pearly on cleavages




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.60 - 2.65

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index nα = 1.528 – 1.533 nβ = 1.532 – 1.537 nγ = 1.538 – 1.542


δ = 0.010

2V angle

85–90° (low); 52–54° (high)


r < v weak


Low- and high-temperature structural


modifications are recognized

of deep red color. The almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. or en cabochon. which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda.5 K. a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is antiferromagnet with the Néel temperature of 7. it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet. The name is a corruption of alabandicus. Almandine. It contains two equivalent magnetic [3] sublattices.512 Å at 100 K. with the other end member being the garnet pyrope. also known incorrectly as almandite. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series. is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-formingsilicates. Fe 3Al2Si3O12. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light. inclining to purple. It is frequently cut with a convex face.: /ˈælməndɪn/). with unit-cell parameter [2] a ≈ 11. is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d. [edit]Occurrence 2+ . upper mantle and transition zone. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with increasingly pyrope-rich composition. which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust.ALMANDINE (GARNET) Almandine (pron. and is then known as carbuncle.

in theNorthern Territory of Australia. in Tyrol. and were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. some years ago. an ancient town of Pegu (now part ofMyanmar). Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. and are sometimes cut and polished. The coarse varieties of almandine are often crushed for use as an abrasive agent. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine.Almandine Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka. the stone is often called Syriam garnet. Almandine is widely distributed. a name said to be taken from Syriam. Almandine General Category Nesosilicate . whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found. When the color inclines to a violet tint. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of theZillertal.

25.790 (+/.AD.05 (+.030) [1] Birefringence none Pleochroism none Dispersion .Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Strunz classification 09. and often anomalous double refractive [1] Refractive index 1. slightly purplish red to reddish purple and usually dark in tone Cleavage none Fracture conchoidal [1] Mohs scalehardness 7 ..5 Luster greasy to vitreous Specific gravity 4.024 [1] .12) [1] Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1] Optical properties Single refractive.25 Identification Color reddish orange to red.7. -.

Ultravioletfluorescence inert Absorption spectra usually at 504. 520. may also have faint lines at 423. and 573nm. 610 and 680-690nm [1] . 460.

More recently.AMAZONITE (MICROCLINE) Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. although it is easily fractured. and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. where it occurs in granitic rocks. It is also found in pegmatite inMadagascar and in Brazil. the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. More recent [3] studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. where it is found associated with smoky quartz. Colorado. Colorado. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains. Other localities in the United [2] States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia. [1] The name is taken from that of the Amazon River. For many years. Because of its bright green color when polished. 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk. Virginia. high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak. . Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone. El Paso County. orthoclase. many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park. Naturally. Russia.

however. white. or green. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon basin. but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system. It is common in granite and pegmatites.Colorado. . hence the name "microcline" from the Greek "small slope." It is a fully ordered triclinicmodification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. it is more stable at lower temperatures than orthoclase. or amazonite. Microcline forms during slow cooling oforthoclase.Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. pale-yellow. This could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase. brick-red. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties. US [1] and measured ~50x36x14 m. it can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination. It is a potassiumrich alkali feldspar. Amazon stone. Spanish explorers who named it apparently confused it with another green mineral from that region. microcline exhibits a minute multipletwinning which forms a grating-like structure that is unmistakable. Feldspar (Amazonite) Perthite is either microcline or orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite. the prism angle is slightly less than right angles. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. viewed under a polarizing microscope. it is generally characterized by crosshatch twinning that forms as a result of the transformation of monoclinic orthoclase into triclinic microcline. is a beautiful green variety of microcline. Microcline may be clear.

Similarly. and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.APATITE Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals. Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. respectively. Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale.F. fluorapatite and chlorapatite. it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower [3] rates of dental caries. toothpaste typically contains a source of fluoride anions (e. usually referring − − − to hydroxylapatite.F . A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.Cl)2.g. is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral. also known as hydroxylapatite. named for high concentrations of OH . in the mid-20th century. Hydroxyapatite. Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH. Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. in the crystal. Cl or ions. Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions forhydroxyl groups in apatite. sodium .

fluoride. The apatite in phosphorite is present ascryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock. compact or granular . brown.Cl. sodium monofluorophosphate). yellow.OH) Strunz classification 08.[1] Crystal habit Tabular.05 Identification Color Transparent to translucent. prismatic crystals. massive. that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. less often colorless. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other. pink. Apatite General Category Phosphate mineral group Formula (repeating unit) Ca5(PO4)3(F. less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.BN. usually green. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. blue to violet.

22[2] Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double stones – blue to light blue in both long and short wave.012.16–3.006)[1] Birefringence 0. blue and yellow to colorless. [1010] indistinct[2] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] Mohs scalehardness 5[1] (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous[1] to subresinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent[2] Specific gravity 3. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index 1.[1] Dispersion 0.638 (+0.008[1] Pleochroism Blue stones – strong. −0. green stones – greenish yellow .Crystal system Hexagonal dipyramidal (6/m)[2] Cleavage [0001] indistinct.634–1.002–0.013[1] Ultravioletfluorescence Yellow stones – purplish pink which is stronger in long wave. Other colors are weak to very weak.

light purple in short wave.[1] .which is stronger in long wave. violet stones – greenish yellow in long wave.


25 km from Aragon for which it [1] was named in 1797. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous. the entire shell is aragonite. Repeatedtwinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. is situated in Slovakia. aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions in aquariums. [edit]Physical properties Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at standard temperature and pressure. some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. The mineral vaterite. also known as μ-CaCO3. Aragonite is metastable and is thus commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. but also keeps the tank's pH close to its natural level. [edit]Uses In aquaria. is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earth's surface. Severalserpulids have aragonitic tubes. and tends to alter 7 8 to calcite on scales of 10 to 10 years. Occurrence The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara. In the USA. needed] It not only is the material that the sea life is evolved to use and live around. aragonite in the form of stalactites and "cave flowers" (anthodite) is known fromCarlsbad Caverns and other caves. the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Aragonite older than [4] the Carboniferous is essentially unknown. naturally occurring. Aragonite also forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements andspeleothems. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled. respectively. crystal forms of calcium carbonate. including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. CaCO3 (the other form being themineral calcite). in others. occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri("flowers of iron") from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. In some mollusks. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells. Ammolite is primarily aragonite with impurities that make it iridescent and valuable as a gemstone. one of the two common. an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm. and decomposes even more readily than aragonite. An aragonite cave. It is formed by biological and physical processes. [citation Aragonite . The nacreous layer of the aragonite fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. resulting in a different crystal shape. Spain).Aragonite is a carbonate mineral. Massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas.and cold-water corals (Scleractinia). aragonite forms only discrete parts of a bimineralic shell (aragonite plus calcite).

red. columnar.dipyramidal Unit cell a = 4.74 Å. France Size: 30x30x20 cm General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) CaCO3 Strunz classification 05. stalactitic. b = 7.AB. orange. globular.95 Å. pisolitic. internally banded . coralloidal. acicular.96 Å. reniform.15 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) . blue and brown Crystal habit Pseudohexagonal. c = 5.Aragonite from Salsignes Mine. yellow. green . Aude department. prismatic crystals. Z = 4 Identification Color White.

yellow.686 Birefringence δ = 0.1. resinous on fracture surfaces Streak White Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Specific gravity 2. white or .685 .682 nγ = 1. imperfect {110} and {011} Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.529 .156 2V angle 18° Solubility Dilute acid Other Fluorescence: pale rose.1.Crystal system Orthorhombic Twinning Polysynthetic parallel to {100} cyclically on {110} Cleavage Distinct on {010}.95 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.5-4 Luster Vitreous.680 .1.530 nβ = 1.

yellowish (SW UV) .characteristics bluish. phosphorescence: greenish or white (LW UV).

Augite has two prominent cleavages. meeting at angles near 90 degrees.Al.AUGITE Augite is a common rock forming single chain inosilicate mineral with formula (Ca. [edit]Characteristics .Al)2O6.Ti)(Si.Fe. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic.Na)(Mg.

Augite . Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite. gabbro and basalt and common in ultramafic rocks. labradorite. olivine. amphibolesand other pyroxenes. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. but this gap occurs at lower temperature and is not well understood.3 cm) Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. With declining temperature. although ordinary specimens have a dull (dark green. which is from the Greekaugites. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name. It also occurs in relatively high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations. [edit]Locations It's an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known [4] as shajar in parts of India. the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure. for example. There is also a miscibility gap between augite andomphacite.4 x 3. It is found near the Ken River. titanium. leucite. sanidine. The calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes. meaning "brightness". brown or [2] black) luster. but mostly of temperature. and so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks.0 x 2. It commonly occurs in association [1] with orthoclase. Local jewelers export raw shajar stone and [5] items to different parts of India. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. but augite can also contain significant aluminium. augite may exsolve lamellae of pigeonite and/or orthopyroxene.Euhedral crystal of augite fromTeide (4. and sodium and other elements.

Augite . violet-brown. skeletal. colorless to gray with zoning common Crystal habit Commonly as stubby prismatic crystals.Al)2O6 Strunz classification 9. also acicular. greenish.844 Å. in thin section. Z=4 Identification Color Black.15 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/c Unit cell a = 9.DA. brown.Ti)(Si.Na)(Mg.Fe.699 Å. dendritic . b = 8.97°. c = 5.272 Å. β = 106.Al.Muhavura volcano General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.

pale brown.741. nγ = 1.706 .5 to 6 Luster Vitreous. violet .735.774 Birefringence δ = 0. green. grayish green.684 . resinous to dull Streak Greenish-white Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.19 .1. Z = pale green.56 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.039 Pleochroism X = pale green. pale yellow-green. nβ = 1.680 .Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple on {100} and {001} Cleavage {110} good with 87° between {110} and {110}.0.1. violet.3. Y = pale brown. greenish yellow. parting on {100} and {010} Fracture uneven to conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.1.026 .


The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association. Namibia. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear.AZURITE Azurite is a soft. and unknown white crystals. [edit]Mineralogy Fresh." root of English cyan) and the Latin [4] name caeruleum. and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder'sNatural History under the Greek name kuanos (κσανός: "deep blue. From Tsumeb. It is also [2] known as Chessylite after the type locality atChessy-les-Mines near Lyon. and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. With azurite. lapis lazuli ("stone of azure"). since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (‫)دروژال‬. deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone. The mineral. a carbonate. . has been known since ancient times. France. unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite Malachite pseudomorf after azurite.

with a Mohs hardness of only 3. Azurite deposits on the interior surface of a geode Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals.89. carbonate and hydroxide. Small crystals of azurite can be produced by rapidly stirring a few drops of copper sulfate solution into asaturated solution of sodium carbonate and allowing the solution to stand overnight. Azurite has the formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. Azurite crystals are monoclinic. powdery copper(II) oxide.77 to 3.5 to 4. Specimens tend to lighten in color over time due to weathering of the specimen surface into malachite. Simple copper carbonate (CuCO3) is not known to exist in nature. the other being bright green malachite. The specific gravity of azurite is 3.Ground azurite powder for use as a pigment. with the copper(II) cations linked to two different anions. Characteristic of a carbonate. Azurite is soft. Azurite specimens are typically massive to nodular. and when large enough to be seen they appear as dark blue prismatic [2][3][5] crystals. Azurite is destroyed by heat. specimens effervesce upon treatment with hydrochloric acid. . and are often stalactitic in form. losing carbon dioxide and water to form black.

This weathering process involves the replacement of some the carbon dioxide (CO 2) units with water (H2O). However. the conversion of azurite into malachite is attributable to the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in air. changing the carbonate:hydroxide ratio of azurite from 1:1 to the 1:2 ratio of malachite: 2 Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 + H2O → 3 Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 + CO2 From the above equation. Sizable deposits were found near Lyons. a term applied to many blue pigments. Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground. intensity) of minerals such as azurite and malachite are explained in the context of conventional electronic spectroscopy of coordination complexes. Older examples of azurite pigment may show a more greenish tint due to weathering into malachite. though Verditer usually refers to a pigment made by chemical process. gentle heating of azurite produces a deep blue pigment used in Japanese painting techniques. and its basic content of copper carbonate. Heating destroys azurite easily.[edit]Color The optical properties (color. Heating can be used to distinguish azurite from purified natural ultramarine blue. Ultramarine withstands heat. [edit]Uses [edit]Pigments Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries. France. and often is pseudomorphically replaced bymalachite. so all mounting of azurite specimens must be done at room temperature. a similar but much more expensive pigment. it gave a wide range of blues. Relatively detailed descriptions are provided by ligand field theory. Azurite is also incompatible with aquatic media. [edit]Weathering Azurite is unstable in open air with respect to malachite. its softness and tendency to lose its deep blue color as it weathers limit such uses. [edit]Collecting [show]Left frame [hide]Right frame . azurite is being recognized as a major source of the blues used by medieval painters. in the silver mines located there. in addition it was formerly known as Azurro Della Magna (from Italian). When mixed with oil it turns slightly green. but azurite turns to black copper oxide. As chemical analysis of paintings from the Middle Ages improves. Much azurite was mislabeled lapis lazuli. However. It has been known asmountain blue or Armenian stone. It is also known by the names Blue Bice and Blue Verditer. [edit]Jewelry Azurite is used occasionally as beads and as jewelry. True lapis lazuli was chiefly supplied from Afghanistan during the Middle Ages while azurite was a common mineral in Europe at the time. When mixed with egg yolk it turns greengrey. as described by Cennino D'Andrea Cennini. It was mined since the 12th [6] century in Saxony. and also as an ornamental stone. such as saltwater aquariums.

To help preserve the deep blue color of a pristine azurite specimen. It is usually found in association with the chemically very similar malachite. producing a striking color combination of deep blue and bright green that is strongly indicative of the presence of copper ores. sealed storage environment similar to that of its original natural setting. heat.[show]Parallel view ( ) [show]Cross-eye view ( ) Small specimen of Azurite from China. the presence of azurite is a good surface indicator of the presence of weathered copper sulfide ores. However. dark. General . Azurite Azurite from China with large crystals and light surface weathering. [edit]Prospecting While not a major ore of copper itself. bright light. The intense color of azurite makes it a popular collector's stone. collectors should use a cool. and open air all tend to reduce the intensity of its color over time.

β = 92. very dark to pale blue. b = 5. {102} or {001} Cleavage Perfect on {011}.Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Strunz classification 05.01 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. fair on {100}. twin planes {101}.BA. tabular Crystal system Monoclinic Prismatic Twinning Rare.67 g/mol Color Azure-blue. stalactitic. prismatic. poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. pale blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive. Berlin blue.5 to 4 . Z=2 Identification Formula mass 344.35 Å. c = 10.85 Å.43°.

Luster Vitreous Streak Light Blue Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.730 nβ = 1. 3.838 Birefringence δ = 0.773 (measured).108 Pleochroism Visible shades of blue 2V angle Measured: 68°.758 nγ = 1. calculated: 64° Dispersion relatively weak .78 (calculated) Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

basalt. . recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ashdeposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. Zones with highest aluminium content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good drainage. where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. and small amounts of anataseTiO2. The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite). In comparison with the iron-rich laterites. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3.BAUXITE Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This enables the dissolution of the kaolinite and the precipitation of the gibbsite. where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. The aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. boehmite γ-AlO(OH). and shale. syenite. in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France. In the case of Jamaica. and diaspore α-AlO(OH). gneiss. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite. [edit]Bauxite formation Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). the clay mineral kaolinite.

Brazil. Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third of the world's production. which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium. followed by China. Although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing. and Guinea. Increased aluminium recycling. will considerably extend the world's bauxite reserves. India. .[edit]Production trends In 2010. known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many [citation needed] centuries.

Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba.Sr)SO4. or barite. [edit]Names [2] and history .BARITE Baryte. celestine. The baryte group consists of baryte. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless. anglesite and anhydrite. and is the main [1] source of barium. (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.

tabling. including barytine. but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling in [8] 1978. [2] [3] Spar. sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone. heavy media separation. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. The American [2][7] spelling is barite. uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender. The International Mineralogical Associationadopted "barite" as the official spelling [citation needed] when it formed in 1959 . [2] Heavy associations and locations . Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. but rather a material that meets that specification. Most baryte is ground to a small. such as washing. an addition to industrial products. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product.The unit cell of barite The radiating form. Other names have been used for baryte. which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods. tiff. [8] barytes. [edit]Mineral [8] barytite. [8] schwerspath. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud. [edit]Name The name baryte is derived from the Greek word βαξύο (heavy). and blanc fixe. attained some notoriety among alchemistsfor the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo [6] Casciarolo. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral. jigging. notably ignored by the Mineralogical Society of America. flotation.

USA Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy. among others. Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones. Perthshire. and is deposited through a large number [1] of processes including biogenic. and with hematite ore. It has also been identified in meteorites.Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Large barite crystals from Nevada. . hydrothermal. Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments. It is often [9] associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. Scotland. and evaporation. in hot spring deposits.

Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil. can be less than 6 μm diameter. Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing. can pass through a 200-mesh (75-μm) screen. Although baryte contains a "heavy" metal (barium). As a well is drilled. Iran. Nevada & Missouri. brown or gray depending on the ore body. Liberia. De Kalb. Peru. Romania (Baia Sprie). sound reduction in engine compartments. China. South [11] Africa(Barberton Mountain Land). An additional benefit of barite is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole. by weight. Durham. ) The major baryte producers (in thousand tonnes. Greece. coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance. friction products for automobiles and trucks. [edit]Paleothermometry . India [12] (1. glass ceramics and medical applications (for example. Turkey (150) and Kazakhstan (100). radiation-shielding cement. [edit]Uses Some 77% worldwide is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. Connecticut. New Mexico. and containing no more than [7] 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. it is not considered to be a toxic chemical by most governments because of its extreme insolubility. a barium meal before a contrast CAT scan). Cumbria.Kentucky. and as a [2] white pigment for textiles. North [2] Carolina. each with different characteristics. The barite is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material. Muirshiel [2] Mine. Other uses are in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics. Thailand. the more barite is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. paper. The ground barite also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4. and no more than 30%. soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit.000).600).Perthshire. Tennessee. either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Georgia. by weight. Canada. Morocco (460). and paint.2 or greater. Turkey. filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising. and there are further premiums for whiteness [7] and brightness and color. Argyllshire & Surrey ) and USA (Cheshire. Derbyshire. Morocco. Connecticut. India. the bit passes through various formations. blue. New York & Fort Wallace. Ireland (where it [10] was mined on Benbulben ). Virginia. data for 2010) are as follows: China (3. chemically inert. UK (Cornwall. The deeper the hole. United States (670). It is mined in Arkansas. Historically baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining. Chile. Iran (250). Barite used for drilling petroleum wells can be black.

Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco In the deep ocean. Since baryte has oxygen. . away from continental sources of sediment. systematics in the δ O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust. Similarly the variations in sulfur [13] isotopes are also being exploited. pelagic baryte crystallizes out and forms a 18 significant amount of the sediments.

but it is frequently tinted by impurities. and [5] the English word brilliance. Old French: beryl. maybe from the name of Belur or "Velur" in [4] [2] southern India. also meaning "shine". The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. The Late Latin word berillus was abbreviated as brill. and white. Pure beryl is colorless.BERYL In geology. yellow.which produced the Italian word brillare meaning "shine". veḷiru ( ). Terminated crystals are relatively rare. beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. the Spanish word brillo. The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively. red. [edit]Etymology The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus. possible colors are green. [edit]Deposits . blue. which is ultimately of Dravidian origin. from Sanskrit vaidurya-. and Middle English: beril) [1] from Greek βήρσλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone" and originated from Prakrit veruliya ( ) and Pali veḷuriya ( ). theFrench word brille meaning "shine".

and weighing 380.5 m by 1. As of 1999. "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. South Dakota and Utah. aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains. and 2+ 3+ when both Fe and Fe are present. beryl locations are in California. Mainewith dimensions 5. and 2+ 3+ . The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. though the color returns with irradiation.Beryl of various colors is found most commonly in granitic pegmatites. as well as Brazil. South Africa. but also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains. and Zambia.5 meters in diameter. Beryl is often associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway. Idaho.S. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found. and Bahia. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe . Decoloration of maxixe by 3+ 2+ [7][8][9][10] light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer Fe and Fe . In Brazil. the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina. North Carolina. Sweden (especially morganite). the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany. near Powder River Pass. Colombia. it is New Hampshire's state mineral. InWyoming. there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais. 18 meters [6] long and 3. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Madagascar. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green. Ireland and Russia. Espírito Santo. is sometimes called aquamarine [citation needed] chrysolite. Germany. New Hampshire. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment. The Fe ions produce golden-yellow color. U. Austria. Colorado. Madagascar.000 kilogrammes. Connecticut. the United States. Mozambique. and limestone inColombia. such as that occurring in Brazil.2 m (18 ft by 4 ft) with a mass of around 18 metric tons. Clear yellow beryl. The deep blue version of aquamarine is calledmaxixe. pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma [11] rays. Maine. [edit]Varieties [edit]Aquamarine and maxixe Aquamarine Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina. neutrons or even X-rays). In the United States. aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt.

imported from Old French: Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin: Esmaraldus) from Latin smaragdus from Greek smaragdos – ζκάξαγδνο ("green gem"). Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in [12] diameter.Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia. Minas Gerais. North Carolina. in 1910. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of [19] 3+ [8][9][10] 7 mm of thickness. Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in Austria. as such. [15] [7][14] . Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and.minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The mines of Colombia. [edit]Emerald Main article: Emerald Rough emerald on matrix Emerald refers to green beryl. emeralds can be found in Hiddenite. Zimbabwe. The word "emerald" comes (via Middle English: Emeraude. The green color of emeralds is attributed to presence of Cr ions. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo. its original source being a Semitic word izmargad (‫ )דגרמזא‬or the Sanskrit word. In the US. meaning "green". emeralds were discovered in the Yukon. India. Brazil. it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. which has been on the market since 1964. The other large producer of flux emeralds was Pierre Gilson Sr. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine. and Chivor. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth synthetics have been produced. Madagascar. It is named for the trapiche. Coscuez. Malawi. and its dimensions were 48. now housed in [13] the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Madagascar.. Zambia. so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Most emeralds are highly included. The first [18] commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. It weighed over 110 kg. Brazil. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month. In 1998. Afghanistan and Russia. as well as Swat in [16] northern Pakistan. marakata (म कन). Pakistan. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries. it has provided the incentive for developing [17] synthetic emeralds. such as Zambia. a grinding wheel used to process sugarcane in the region. colored by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. A rare type of emerald known as a trapiche emerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia.

However. . Both golden beryl and heliodor are used as gems. [edit]Goshenite Goshenite Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Goshenite is found to some extent in almost all beryl localities. Probably the largest cut golden beryl is the flawless [20] 2054 carat stone on display in the Hall of Gems. there are several elements that can act as inhibitors to color in beryl and so this assumption may not always be true. The term "golden beryl" is sometimes synonymous with heliodor (from Greek hēlios – ἥιηνο "sun" + dōron – δῶξνλ "gift") but golden beryl refers to pure yellow or golden yellow shades. The name goshenite has been said to be on its way to extinction and yet it is still commonly used in the gemstone markets. Massachusetts where it was originally discovered. Nowadays. The golden yellow color is attributed to Fe ions.C. The name originates from Goshen. Unlike emerald.Golden beryl Heliodor [edit]Golden beryl and heliodor Golden beryl can range in colors from pale yellow to a brilliant gold. Washington. it is most [21][22] commonly used for gemstone purposes and also considered as a source of beryllium. goshenite was used for manufacturing eyeglasses and lenses owing to its transparency. while 3+ [7][8] heliodor refers to the greenish-yellow shades. it might be tempting to assume that goshenite is the purest variety of beryl. golden beryl has very few flaws. D. Since all these color varieties are caused by impurities and pure beryl is colorless. In the past.

at Pala. California. The resulting color depends on the [8] content of Ca. and "cesian (or caesian) beryl". Sc. "rose beryl".Maine. and Co impurities. because of the . 1989. blue and in intermediate colors by irradiating it with high-energy particles. with other gemstone minerals. P." was found at the Bennett Quarry in Buckfield. Thomas [26][27] Range. "pink emerald". pink. [edit]Red beryl Red beryl Red beryl (also known as "red emerald" or "scarlet emerald") is a red variety of beryl. Fe. V. It can be routinely heat treated to remove patches of yellow and is occasionally treated by irradiation to improve its color. such astourmaline and kunzite. On October 7. is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl. also known as "pink beryl". and color banding is common. Pink beryl of fine color and good sizes was first discovered on an island on the coast of Madagascar in [23] 1910. USA. In December 1910. Ti. It was first described in 1904 for an occurrence. was 23 cm (9 in) long and about 30 cm (12 in) across. [edit]Morganite Morganite Morganite. It was also known. Juab County. originally somewhat orange in hue. one of the largest gem morganite specimens ever uncovered. The crystal. The pink color of morganite is attributed to 2+ [7] Mn ions. The old synonym "bixbite" is deprecated from the CIBJO. its type locality. However. Morgan.The gem value of goshenite is relatively low. at Maynard's Claim (Pismire Knolls). eventually called "The [24] Rose of Maine. the New York Academy of Sciences named the pink variety of beryl [23] "morganite" after financier J. goshenite can be colored yellow. green. and weighed (along with [25] its matrix) just over 50 lbs (23 kg). Orange/yellow varieties of morganite can also be found. Utah.

Beryl Three varieties of beryl: morganite. pseudobrookite and hematite. Utah. spessartine. Utah. The dark red 3+ [7] color is attributed to Mn ions. Red beryl is very rare and has only been reported from a handful of locations including: Wah Wah Mountains.orthoclase. [28] of Fillmore.CJ. Red beryl has been known to be confused with pezzottaite. Prices for top quality natural red beryl can be as high as $10. The greatest concentration of gem-grade red beryl comes from the Violet Claim in the Wah Wah Mountains of mid-western Utah. red beryl occurs in topaz-bearing rhyolites.risk of confusion with the mineralbixbyite (also named after the mineralogist Maynard Bixby). It formed by crystallizing under low pressure and high temperature from a pneumatolitic phase along fractures or within near-surface miarolitic cavities of the rhyolite. topaz.05 . quartz.000 per carat for faceted stones. while he was prospecting for uranium. discovered in 1958 by Lamar Hodges. Utah. Beaver County.Sierra County. New [1] Mexico. a gemstone that has been found in Madagascar and now Afghanistan – although cut gems of the two varieties can be distinguished from [29] their difference in refractive index. and Juab County. also known as raspberry beryl or "raspberyl". Paramount Canyon and Round Mountain. While gem beryls are ordinarily found in pegmatites and certain metamorphic stones. Associated [30] minerals include bixbyite. aquamarine and heliodor General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Be3Al2(SiO3)6 Strunz classification 9.

colorless. granular to compact massive Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Rare Cleavage Imperfect on {0001} Fracture Conchoidal to irregular Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7. radial.50 Color Green.5–8 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent . c = 9. Z = 2 Identification Formula mass 537. yellow. pink and others Crystal habit Prismatic to tabular cystals.Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 6/mmc Unit cell a = 9.19 Å. blue.21 Å. columnar.

0040–0.564–1.602 Birefringence δ = 0.Specific gravity Average 2.568–1.595 nε = 1.76 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1. but the stone itself does not) .0070 Pleochroism Weak to distinct Ultravioletfluorescence None (some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce.

Biotite is a sheet silicate. it refers to the dark mica series.L. magnesium. primarily a solidsolution series between the iron-endmember annite.OH)2. Iron. More generally. with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg. more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. aluminium. and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. researched the optical properties of mica.BIOTITE (MICA) Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. in 1816. [4] discovering many unique properties. who.Fe)3AlSi3O10(F. oxygen. and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich .F. silicon. Biotite was named by J. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot.

When biotite is found in large chunks. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals. Under cross-polarized light biotite can generally be identified by the gnarled bird's eye extinction. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft andSudbury. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. fracture is uneven. especially in pegmatite veins. has a vitreous to pearly luster.than phlogopite. It appears greenish to brown or black. by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure andtemperature. with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets. Ontario. biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage. in some instances side-by-side. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks. and consists of flexible sheets. as in New England. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures. [edit]Occurrence Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. which easily flake off. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks. and even yellow when weathered. biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni intrusive complex of the western Dolomites. . and a grey-white streak. The largest documented single crystals of biotite were approximately 7 m (75 sq ft) sheets found [5] in Iveland. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. or lamellae. It has amonoclinic crystal system. [edit]Properties Like other mica minerals. For instance. Norway. because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnetis sensitive to temperature. Virginia and North Carolina. It can be transparent to opaque. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists. these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. [edit]Uses 2 biotite: Topotype deposit Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks. they are called ―books‖ because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets.

greenish brown.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(F. white Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) Space Group: C 2/m Twinning common on the [310]. blackish brown.53 g Color Dark brown. less common on the {001} .5 mm) General Category Dark Mica series Formula (repeating unit) K(Mg.Biotite thin tabular Biotite aggregate (Image width: 2.OH)2 Identification Formula mass 433. yellow.

0 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent to opaque Specific gravity 2.8–3.605–1.03–0.7–3.Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Brittle to flexible.605–1. elastic Mohs scalehardness 2.565–1. r > v weak (Mg rich) Ultravioletfluorescence None .5–3.1 Density 2.4 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.675 nγ = 1.625 nβ = 1.07 Pleochroism strong Dispersion r < v (Fe rich).675 Birefringence δ = 0.

also known as peacock ore. is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic). [edit]Appearance Tarnish of Bornite .BORNITE Bornite.

the West Coast of Tasmania [2] and in Dzhezkazgan.England.Lomagundi district. [edit]Occurrence Bornite with silver from Zacatecas.4 cm) It occurs globally in copper ores with notable crystal localities in Butte.5 x 4. It is also collected from the Carn Brea mine. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore. Talate. Morocco. in pegmatites and [2] in sedimentarycupriferous shales. [edit]History and etymology It was first described in 1725 for an occurrence in the Krušné Hory Mountains ( Erzgebirge). Kazakhstan. S.Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Zimbabwe. the Mangula mine. from the N’ouva mine. and elsewhere in Cornwall. eastern Tirol. Bornite is also found as disseminations inmafic igneous rocks. . Montana and at Bristol. in contact metamorphic skarn deposits. It was named in 1845 for Austrian mineralogistIgnaz [3] von Born (1742–1791). Illogan. [edit]Mineralogy Bornite is an important copper ore mineral and occurs widely in porphyry copper deposits along with the more common chalcopyrite. Large crystals are found from the Frossnitz Alps. Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.Mexico (size: 7. Chalcopyrite and bornite are both typically replaced by chalcocite andcovellite in the supergene enrichment zone of copper deposits.Connecticut in the U. It is important as an ore for its copper content of about 63 percent by [1] mass.3 x 3. Austria. Karlovy Vary Region.


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The other [5] polymorphs are the minerals aragonite andvaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable. [edit]Properties Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals. However, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms. It may occur as fibrous, granular, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form. Its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a specific gravity of 2.71, and its luster is vitreous in crystallized varieties. Color is white or none, though shades of gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, or even black can occur when the mineral is charged with impurities. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes. Acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as "dogtooth spar" while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as "nailhead spar". Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence (double refraction). This strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect (using calcite) was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. At a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, [6] respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the ordinary refractive index varies roughly between 1.6 and [7] 1.4, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.9 and 1.5. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid. Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Although calcite is fairly insoluble in cold water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite and release of carbon dioxide gas. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When

conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. When conditions are right for dissolution, the removal of calcite can dramatically increase the porosity and permeability of the rock, and if it continues for a long period of time may result in the formation of caves. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonaterich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, resulting in various forms of karst topography. [edit]Use

and applications

High-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti[8] [9] aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility. [edit]Natural


The largest documented single crystals of calcite originated from Iceland, measured 7×7×2 m and 6×6×3 [10][11] m and weighed about 250 tons.

Doubly terminated calcite crystal

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. Calcite is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble. It also occurs as a vein mineral in deposits from hot springs, and it occurs in caverns asstalactites and stalagmites. Lublinite is a fibrous, efflorescent form of calcite.

Calcite may also be found in volcanic or mantle-derived rocks such as carbonatites, kimberlites, or rarely in peridotites. Calcite is often the primary constituent of the shells of marine organisms, e.g., plankton (such ascoccoliths and planktic foraminifera), the hard parts of red algae, some sponges, brachiopods,echinoderms, some serpulids, most bryozoa, and parts of the shells of some bivalves (such as oystersand rudists). Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy River Cave of New Mexico as mentioned above, where microorganisms are credited with natural formations. Trilobites, which are now extinct, had unique compound eyes. They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. [edit]Calcite

formation processes

Calcite forms from a poorly ordered precursor (amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC). The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the ACC nanoparticles rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of [14] calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. However, the crystallization of calcite has been observed to be dependent on the starting pH and presence of Mg in [15] solution. A neutral starting pH during mixing promotes the direct transformation of ACC into calcite. Conversely, when ACC forms in a solution that starts with a basic initial pH, the transformation to calcite [16] occurs via metastable vaterite, which forms via a spherulitic growth mechanism. In a second stage this vaterite transforms to calcite via a surface-controlled dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. Mg has a noteworthy effect on both the stability of ACC and its transformation to crystalline CaCO3, resulting in the formation of calcite directly from ACC, as this ion unstabilizes the structure of vaterite. [edit]Calcite


in Earth history

Calcite seas existed in Earth history when the primary inorganic precipitate of calcium carbonate in marine waters was low-magnesium calcite (lmc), as opposed to the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite (hmc) precipitated today. Calcite seas alternated with aragonite seas over the Phanerozoic, being most prominent in the Ordovician and Jurassic. Lineages evolved to use whichever morph of calcium carbonate was favourable in the ocean at the time they became mineralised, and retained this mineralogy [17] for the remainder of their evolutionary history. Petrographic evidence for these calcite sea conditions consists of calcitic ooids, lmc cements, hardgrounds, and rapid early seafloor aragonite [18] dissolution. The evolution of marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells may have been affected [19] by the calcite and aragonite sea cycle.


A one-inch calcite rhomb that shows the double image refraction property



Carbonate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Trigonal 32/m

Unit cell

a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.0610(11) Å; Z=6



Colorless or white, also gray, yellow, green,

Crystal habit

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive, rhombohedral.

Crystal system

Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral (32/m), Space Group (R3 2/c)


Common by four twin laws


Perfect on [1011] three directions with angle of 74° 55'[1]





Mohs scalehardness

3 (defining mineral)


Vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces




Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity


Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

nφ = 1.640 – 1.660 nε = 1.486


δ = 0.154 – 0.174


Soluble in dilute acids

Other characteristics

May fluoresce red, blue, yellow, and other colors under either SW and LW UV; phosphorescent


Celestine or celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine is the principal source of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. [edit]Occurrence


Celestine from the Machow Mine, Poland.

Celestine occurs as crystals, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms. It is mostly found insedimentary rocks, often associated with the minerals gypsum, anhydrite, and halite.

Celestine . with the crystals which once composed the floor of the geode removed.7 m) in diameter at its widest point. burial dissolution is a recognised mechanism of celestine precipitation. The geode has celestine crystals as wide as 18 inches (46 cm) across. The world's largest known geode. is located near the village of Put-in-Bay. a celestine geode 35 feet (10. In carbonate marine sediments. Pale blue crystal specimens are found inMadagascar. usually in small quantities. The geode has been converted into a viewing cave. Crystal Cave. Ohio.The mineral is found worldwide. estimated to weigh up to 300 pounds (135 kg) each. The skeletons of the protozoan Acantharea are made of celestine. unlike those of other radiolarians which are made of silica. on South Bass Island in Lake Erie. [edit]Geodes [5] Celestine geode section Inside the Crystal Cave geode in Ohio Celestine crystals are found in some geodes.

pink.Clear grey-blue celestine crystal crust from Madagascar General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) SrSO4 sometimes contains minor calcium and/or barium Strunz classification 07.866 Å. Z =4 Identification Color Colorless.359 Å.352 Å. white.AD.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 8. c = 6. b = 5. pale brown. pale blue. pale green. black .

poor on {010} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3 .1.3. earthy.3.Crystal habit Tabular to pyramidal crystals. also fibrous.97 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. massive granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Perfect on {001}.1. good on {210}.011 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 50° to 51° .95 .632 Birefringence δ = 0.5 Luster Vitreous.630 .624 nγ = 1. lamellar.619 .622 nβ = 1. pearly on cleavages Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.1.622 .

long UV=yellow.Dispersion Moderate r < v Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow. white blue . white blue.

[edit]Chemistry The unit cell of chalcopyrite. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite(Cu5FeS4). Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. Copper is shown in pink. chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides. It has the chemical composition CuFeS2. carbonates such as malachite and azurite. digenite (Cu9S5). . covellite (CuS). and rarely oxides such as cuprite(Cu2O). hydroxides and sulfates. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3. chalcocite (Cu2S).5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper.CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite (pron. On exposure to air. iron in blue and sulfur in yellow.: /ˌkælkɵˈpaɪraɪt/ KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system.

Pd. Zn and Sn substituting for Cu and Fe. and trace amounts of Ag. Se. the American cordillera and the Andes. In. However. Ontario. . Ni. formed from an immiscible sulfide liquid in sulfur-saturated ultramafic lavas. Mn.Natural chalcopyrite has no solid solution series with any other sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite in this environment is produced by concentration within a magmatic system. In this environment chalcopyrite is formed by a sulfide liquid stripping copper from an immiscible silicate liquid. Pb. Chalcopyrite is concentrated in this environment via fluid transport.3 x 4. it is often contaminated by a variety of other trace elements such as Co. [edit]Paragenesis Chalcopyrite is present with many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. The largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada was at the southern end of the Temagami greenstone belt where Copperfields Mine extracted the high-grade [6] copper. Pt. Chalcopyrite is present in volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and sedimentary exhalative deposits. etc. formed by deposition of copper duringhydrothermal circulation. Chalcopyrite is an accessory mineral in Kambalda type komatiitic nickel ore deposits. There is limited substitution of Zn with Cu despite chalcopyrite having the same crystal structure as sphalerite. to irregular veins and disseminations associated with granitic to dioritic intrusives as in the porphyry copper deposits of Broken Hill. from huge masses as at Timmins. Fe and As substitute for sulfur. molybdenite representing Mo. for instance lamellae of arsenopyriterepresenting As. V. Au.5 cm) Chalcopyrite is the most important copper ore. [edit]Occurrence Fine brassy chalcopyrite crystals below large striated pyrite cubes (size:8. It is likely many of these elements are present in finely intergrown minerals within the chalcopyrite crystal.8 x 6. Chalcopyrite ore occurs in a variety of ore types. Porphyry copper ore deposits are formed by concentration of copper within a granite stock during the ascent and crystallisation of a magma. and Sb are reported. Chalcopyrite is present in the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit in South Australia. Cr.

Chalcopyrite Twinned chalcopyrite crystal from the Camp Bird Mine. and as disseminations in carbonate sedimentary rocks. + 3+ 2+ The unit cell is twice as large.10a Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 42m – scalenohedral . Crystal is about 1 cm x 1 cm.Chalcopyrite may also be found in coal seams associated with pyrite nodules. reflecting an alternation of Cu and Fe ions replacing Zn ions in adjacent 2cells. In contrast to the pyrite structure chalcopyrite has single S sulfide anions rather than disulfide pairs. Another difference is that the iron cation is not diamagnetic low spin Fe(II) as in pyrite. Ouray County. [edit]Structure Crystallographically the structure of chalcopyrite is closely related to that of zinc blende ZnS (sphalerite). General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) CuFeS2 Strunz classification 02.CB. Colorado.

3 .423 Å.54 Color Brass yellow. may have iridescent purplish tarnish.5 Luster Metallic Streak Greenish black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4. Crystal habit Predominantly the disphenoid and resembles a tetrahedron.Unit cell a = 5.1 – 4. Crystal system Tetragonal Scalenohedral 42m Twinning Penetration twins Cleavage Indistinct on {011} Fracture Irregular to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3. c = 10. Z = 4 Identification Formula mass 183. commonly massive.289 Å. and sometimes botryoidal.

Solubility Soluble in HNO3 Other characteristics magnetic on heating .

Decorative art prominently features copper. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts. and a constituent of various metal alloys. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. a building material. copper compounds are poisonous to higher organisms and are used as bacteriostatic substances. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal andelectrical conductivity. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. fungicides. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus). The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin. and wood preservatives. both by itself and as part of pigments. Characteristics . Pure copper is soft and malleable. copper was principally mined on Cyprus. In the Roman era. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as azurite and turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments.COPPER Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. later shortened to сuprum. which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobinin fish and other [citation vertebrates. muscle and bone. needed] In sufficient concentration. The main areas where copper is found in vertebrate animals are liver.

galvanic corrosion will occur. The 6 2 maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from [2] scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice. which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. metallic bonds in copper are lacking acovalent character and are relatively weak. copper is one of only four elemental [7] metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. if copper is placed [6] against another metal. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions. Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color. At the macroscopic scale. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these 6 .6×10 S/m) and thus also [4] high thermal conductivity. [2] This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper.1×10 A/m of cross[5] sectional area.Physical A copper disc (99. and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table. and osmium (bluish).95% pure) made by continuous casting and etching. For this reason. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells. As with other metals. Together with caesium and gold (both yellow). which are relatively weak for a soft metal. such as grain boundaries. which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. above which it begins to heat excessively. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. copper is usually supplied [3] in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. Copper. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical conductivity (59. introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice.

the largest copper statue in the [9] world built using repoussé and chasing. Copper(II) chloride and [11] coppercomproportionate to form copper(I) chloride. Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of copper . Edinburgh. respectively. such as the Statue of Liberty. as do oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form copper chlorides and acidified hydrogen peroxide to form copper(II) salts. which are often [8] called cuprous and cupric. Chemical Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right). which react with it to form various copper sulfides on the surface. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. this oxide layer stops the further. Copper tarnishes when exposed tohydrogen sulfides and [10] other sulfides. bulk corrosion. A green layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) can often be seen on old copper constructions. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of [2] gold and caesium. The East Tower of the Royal Observatory. Copper forms a rich variety of compounds with oxidation states +1 and +2.shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air. Oxygen-containing ammonia solutions give water-soluble complexes with copper. It does not react with water.

7 hours. Cu is a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging. Cu is used in Cu-PTSM that is a radioactive [14] tracer for positron emission tomography. Cu and Cu are stable. with the 67 [12] most stable being Cu with a half-life of 61. 64 64 Occurrence Copper is synthesized in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about [16] 50 parts per million (ppm). 62 63 65 63 Cu and Cu have significant applications.There are 29 isotopes of copper. decays both ways. where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Seven metastable isotopes have been 68m characterized. with the [17] largest described single crystal measuring 4. [15] . with Cu the longest-lived with a half-life of 3. The largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was [16] found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan. US. and 62 62 complexed with a chelate can be used for treatingcancer. whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β . The other isotopes are radioactive. with Cu comprising approximately 69% of [12] naturally occurring copper. Cu. Native copper is a polycrystal.83 hours.4×3. copper carbonates azurite and malachite and thecopper(I) [4] oxide mineral cuprite.2 cm.2×3. Isotopes with a mass + 64 number above 64 decay by β .8 minutes. which has [13] a half-life of 12. they both have a spin of 3/2.

It is commonly used as anabrasive. and the mix is less abrasive. plastics. [3] [1] ) meaning "ruby". on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals. but can have different colors when impurities are present. e. titanium and chromium. All other colors are called sapphire. it can scratch almost every other mineral.02 g/cm . Transparent specimens are used as gems. and wood. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials. with an average hardness near 8. [edit]Geology 3 and occurrence .CORUNDUM Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron. and related Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0 Mohs). The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam ( to Sanskrit kuruvinda. It is a rock-forming mineral. which is very high for a [5] transparent mineral composed of the lowatomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. In addition to its hardness. "green sapphire" for a green specimen..0. corundum is unusual for its density of 4. calledruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange.g. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances.

and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. In 1903.8 in × 1 in). . Verneuil announced he could [8] produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Russia.632 °F). Marc Antoine Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing alumina at a high temperature with [7] a small amount of chromium as a pigment. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill. Sri Lanka and India. In 1877 Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist.Corundum from Brazil. [4] Ontario. The largest documented single crystal of corundum measured [6] about 65 × 40 × 40 centimetres (26 × 16 × 16 in). Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. In 1847. Corundum should not be confused with the similarly named carborundum. gneiss. USA and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives. [4] USA. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite. silicon carbide. Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe. New York.000 °C (3. Ebelmen made white sapphires by fusing alumina in boric acid. It commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands because of its [4] hardness and resistance to weathering. size about 2 by 3 centimetres (0. associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals [4] in pegmatites. [edit]Synthetic corundum In 1837. Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF2 and Al2O3 with a little chromium at temperatures above 2.

and laser components. large quantities of these crystals have become available on the market causing a significant reduction of price in recent years.1 . scratch-resistant watch crystals. Al2O3 Strunz classification 04. synthetic corundum is also used to produce mechanical parts (tubes.05 Dana classification 4. instrument windows for satellites and spacecraft (because of its transparency from the UV to IR).1.Crystal structure of corundum The Verneuil process allows the production of flawless single-crystal sapphires. and other machined parts).3. It is also possible to grow gem-quality synthetic corundum by flux-growth and hydrothermal synthesis. Corundum General Category Oxide mineral – Hematite group Formula (repeating unit) Aluminium oxide. rubies and other corundum gems of much larger size than normally found in nature. Apart from ornamental uses. rods. Because of the simplicity of the methods involved in corundum synthesis. scratchresistant optics. bearings.CB.

blue to cornflower blue. massive or granular Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (32/m) Space group: R3c Twinning Polysynthetic twinning common Cleavage None – parting in 3 directions Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 9 (defining mineral) Luster Adamantine to vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent. yellow. tabular. brown. rhombohedral crystals. orange. Z=6 Identification Color Colorless. green. pink to pigeon-blood-red. violet.982 Å. c = 12. asteriated mainly grey and brown Crystal habit Steep bipyramidal.Crystal symmetry Trigonal (32/m) Unit cell a = 4.75 Å. prismatic. gray. translucent toopaque . may be color zoned.

95–4.hematite.759–1. or hercynite .772 nε = 1.767–1.763 Pleochroism None Melting point 2044 °C Fusibility Infusible Solubility Insoluble Alters to May alter to mica on surfaces causing a decrease in hardness Other characteristics May fluoresce or phosphoresce under UV References [1][2][3][4] Major varieties Sapphire Any color except red Ruby Red Emery Black granular corundum intimately mixed with magnetite.10 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Refractive index nφ = 1.Specific gravity 3.

General Category Native Minerals Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. orange.10a Identification Formula mass 12. . translucent white. green.01 g·mol−1 Color Typically yellow. brown or gray to colorless. purple and red. black. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. Less often blue.DIAMOND Diamond The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. pink.CB. violet.

52±0.5–3.044 .53 g/cm3 Polish luster Adamantine Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index 2.Crystal habit Octahedral Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions) Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like) Mohs scalehardness 10 Luster Adamantine Streak Colorless Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.01 Density 3.418 (at 500 nm) Birefringence None Pleochroism None Dispersion 0.

Melting point Pressure dependent .

S. it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist. In 1791. Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. or in old U. [edit]History Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" [5][6] (German: Stinkstein. [edit]Properties . The term is also used to describe thesedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. often as a result of diagenesis. which may have [6] contributed to Dolomieu's work. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.: /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784.DOLOMITE Dolomite (pron. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 [7] [8] by Nicolas de Saussure.

g. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing [10][11] bacteria (e. where organic matter content is high. Unlike calcite. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals. Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturatedsaline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. Laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 °C (conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins). Crystal twinning is common. dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. In the 1950s and 60s. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis). and it does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. dolomite is a double carbonate. This dolomite is termed "organogenic" dolomite. [edit]Formation Vast deposits are present in the geological record. having a different structural arrangement. Dolomite druse from Lawrence County. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of [9] a Dalmatian dog. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium. Arkansas. It is also related to huntiteMg3Ca(CO3)4. i. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. gray to pink. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. USA (size: 24×18×8 cm) Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria.e. namely. It forms white. due to the lack of kinetic energy or temperature. even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions.The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinetic factors. . although it is usually massive.

in a 1999 study. For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. measurable levels of dolomite were [13] synthesized at low temperatures and pressures. Some researchers have stated "there are dolomites and dolomites".Dolomite. textural and chemical characteristics. leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today. White Mountains. The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. Dolomite bedrock underneath aBristlecone Pine. The specific mechanism of dolomitization. Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite). . through a process of dissolution alternating with intervals of precipitation. meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coinedOstwald's step rule. Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record. to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. involving sulfate-reducing bacteria. California. However. has not yet been [12] demonstrated.

Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.[edit]Coral atolls Dolomitization of calcite also occurs at certain depths of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Dolomite . It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. and copper. dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity and as a magnesium source. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials. Kansas(size: 11.4×7. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits ofbase metals such as lead. a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. a concrete aggregate. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rayswithout [14] adding to background radiation levels. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. In horticulture. [edit]Uses Dolomite with chalcopyrite from the Tri-state district.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. zinc.2×4. Convection created by tides and sea currents enhance this change. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role. Cherokee County.

AB.8012(1) Å. granular. 3 Unit cell a = 4. Crystal system Trigonal . gray to pink Crystal habit Tabular crystals. c = 16. often with curved faces.10 Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral. stalactitic.002 Å.Dolomite and magnesite – Spain General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (CaMg)(CO3)2 Strunz classification 05. Z = 3 Identification Color White. also columnar. massive.

500 Birefringence δ = 0.179–0.Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. . rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 1.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HClunless powdered.84–2.679–1.681 nε = 1. triboluminescent. Other characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV.

yellow and brown. but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron. It displays strong pleochroism. the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite.Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). crystallizing in the monoclinic system. brown or nearly black. the optical constants. Ca2Al2(Fe . grey. the pleochroic colors being usually green. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance.EPIDOTE Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral. are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit. the color. The color is green. [edit]Description Well-developed crystals of epidote. and the specific gravity. The name is derived from the Greek word "epidosis" (επίδοζις) which means "addition." 3+ .

Epidote from Alaska Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral. withasbestos. calcite. and others) composing igneous rocks. dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. . here as large. but one of secondary origin. Haddam inConnecticut. dark green. micas. dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones. Arendal in Norway. amphiboles. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand. the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont. near theGroßvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg. pyroxenes. and apatite. The perfectly transparent. garnets. tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone. Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné. Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars. adularia. as magnificent.

near Ivrea in Piedmont. gneiss. Sample of dollaseite (dark brown matrix at arrow points) from Sweden Allanite and dollaseite-(Ce) have the same general epidote formula and contain metals of the cerium group. the pleochroism is strong with reddish-. yellowish-. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals. at Finbo. Although not a common mineral. pitchy in lustre. after whom the species was named. becoming optically isotropic andamorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished. Epidote . and others. there is little or no cleavage. being black or dark brown in color. monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel.[edit]Related species Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite. granite. and many different names applied. famous from the Ostanmossa mine in the Norberg district of Sweden. allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks. Dollaseite is less common. and opaque in the mass. further. rhyolite. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote. Piemontite occurs as small. andesite. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral. syenite. reddish-black. and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. In external appearance allanite differs widely from epidote. and greenish-brown colors. near Falun in Sweden. and well-developed crystals are rare. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration. which may be described as manganese and ceriumepidotes respectively. sometimes a foot in length. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described byThomas Allan in 1808.

yellow-green.6 .Epidote crystals – Deposit topotype General Category Sorosilicates Formula (repeating unit) {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7] Identification Color Pistachio-green. greenish black Crystal habit Prismatic with striations. fibrous.3–3. massive Crystal system Monoclinic – Prismatic Twinning On [100] Cleavage {001} perfect and {100} imperfect Fracture Flat regular to uneven Mohs scalehardness 6–7 Luster Vitreous to resinous Streak Greyish white Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 3.

797 Birefringence δ = 0.725–1.019–0.734–1.784 nγ = 1.046 Pleochroism Strong .715–1.Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.751 nβ = 1.

Typically. The resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. . of plagioclase. The gem known as moonstone (see below) is largely composed of orthoclase." because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solid solution with albite. sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution. enriching the remaining orthoclase with potassium. the sodium endmember (NaAlSi3O8). [edit]Formation and subtypes Orthoclase is a common constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals and masses in pegmatite. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar. While slowly cooling within the earth. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture.ORTHOCLASE (FELDSPAR) Orthoclase (endmember formula KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.

and is notably found in trachytes of theDrachenfels. In gemology. The gemstone commonly called rainbow moonstone is more properly a colourless form of labradorite and can be distinguished from "true" moonstone by its greater transparency and play of colour. It is the state gem of Florida. [edit]Uses Together with the other potassium feldspars orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses. although their value and durability do not greatly differ. The lower-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is microcline. and as a constituent of scouring powder. Most moonstones are translucent and white. their luster is called adularescence and is typically described as creamy or silvery white with a "billowy" quality. Germany. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery. The higher-temperature polymorph of orthoclase is sanidine. Adularia is found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. It measured ~10×10×0.4 m and [4] weighed ~100 tons. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks.Adularia with pyrite incrustations. such as porcelain. some ceramics. Russia. Orthoclase General Category Silicate mineral Formula KAlSi3O8 . in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. although grey and peach-coloured varieties also occur. The largest documented 3 single crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains.

White. Greenish. pearly on cleavage surfaces Streak white Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Greyish yellow. Grains are commonly elongate with a tabular appearance. Baveno and manebach twins have also been reported in orthoclase.(repeating unit) Identification Colour Colourless. It can be difficult to see cleavage in thin section due to orthoclase's low relief. Pink Crystal habit Can be anhedral or euhedral. Mohs scalehardness 6 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous. 2V = 65–75 . Cleavage Has perfect cleavage on {001} and good cleavage on {010}. Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m) space group C2/m Twinning Typically displays carlsbad twinning.63 Optical Biaxial (-).55–2. Cleavages intersect at 90°.

0050–0. Other characteristics Low negative relief . Distinguishable from sanidine by a larger 2Vx.524 nγ = 1.520 nβ = 1.522–1.522– Refractive index nα = 1.518–1.0060 Dispersion relatively strong Extinction parallel to cleavage Diagnostic features Distinguishable from microclineby a lack in gridiron twinning.525 Birefringence 0.

It is the most important lead ore mineral. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedralforms. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. [edit]Lead ore deposit Galena with druzy calcite .GALENA Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. calcite and fluorite.

Missouri. Kansas takes its name from deposits of this mineral. and in the Driftless Area of Illinois. cadmium. it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type [1] deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri. The Mendips. antimony. Of the latter. [3] Cubic galena with calcite from Jasper County. the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia. Galena is the official state mineral of the U. and Cumberland. Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally [4] occurring bacteria and archaea. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. the Coeur [1] d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent. Broken Hill. states of Missouri and Wisconsin. the former mining town of Galena. Somerset. England. Idaho. Derbyshire. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel.1×3. in a process similar to bioleaching. Smolyan Province. Illinois. Cornwall. USA (size: 5. Rhodope Mountains. Iowa and Wisconsin. In addition zinc. . Bulgaria.Australia and the ancient mines of Sardinia.Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. Noted deposits include those [1] at Freiberg. arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. In the United States. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado. Utah and Montana. Saxony. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. the Madan. The economic importance of galena to the early history of theDriftless Area was so great that one of the towns in the region was named Galena.8 cm) Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in [1] southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Within the weatheringor oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series.S.2×2.

Isle of [5] Man.g. U. in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. in Ancient Egypt. [edit]Galena uses One of the oldest uses of galena was as kohl. which was known as a "cat's whisker". Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in Britain and other European countries during the 1930s. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. which. Galena is the primary ore of lead which is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where galena was mined.K. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire. For example. Galena is often mined for its silver content (e. though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.4 eV which found use in early wirelesscommunication systems. however. Galena (lead glance) Galena close-up General Category Sulfide mineral . the Galena Mine in northern Idaho). it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets. Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0. which were a potential source of disease. significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot. was applied around the eyes to [6] reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies. measuring 25 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm.The largest documented crystal of galena is composite cubo-octahedra from Great Laxey Mine. In modern wireless communication systems.

Formula (repeating unit) PbS Strunz classification 02. tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals Crystal system Cubic Hexoctahedral cF8. No.10 Dana classification 2. 225 Twinning Contact. Z = 4 Identification Color Lead gray and silvery Crystal habit Cubes and octahedra. parting on [111] Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2. space group Fm3m.1.CD.8.936 Å.5–2.75 . penetration and lamellar Cleavage Cubic perfect on [001].1 Crystal symmetry Isometric H–M symbol 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 5.

6 Optical properties Isotropic and opaque Fusibility 2 .2–7.Luster Metallic Streak Lead gray Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 7.

akaganeite. [edit]Characteristics Limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2. Although originally defined as a single mineral. although specimens may show a [6] .5 range. It varies in colour from a bright lemony yellow to a drab greyish brown.3. and jarosite. Individual minerals in limonite may form crystals. The streak of limonite on an unglazed porcelain plate is always brownish.7 to 4. In its brown form it is sometimes called brown hematite or brown iron ore. The hardness is variable. in allusion to its occurrence as bog iron ore in meadows and marshes. or from magnetite with a [6] black streak. lepidocrocite. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH 2O. [edit]Names Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow (λειμών). the other being hematite. Limonite is one of the two principle iron [4][5] ores.GOETHITE/LIMONITE Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. a character which distinguishes it from hematite with a red streak. among them goethite. and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. but limonite does not. but generally in the 4 . In its bright yellow form it sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore.5. limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals.

These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore. hematite and magnetite remained the ores of choice when smelting was by bloomeries. where the first evidence of iron metallurgy occurs. Before smelting. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron. and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone. amphibole. reniform or stalactitic. from the oxidation and hydration of iron rich sulfide minerals. [12] notably in Tanzania. although commercial mining of them has ceased in the United States. and hematite was far easier to smelt. pyroxene. from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. Limonite pseudomorphs have also been formed from other iron oxides. while the darker forms produced more earthy tones. and chemical weathering of other iron rich minerals such as olivine. It is often the major iron component in lateritic soils. Roasting the limonite changed it partially [9] to hematite.fibrous or microcrystalline structure. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia. Goldbearing limonite gossans were productively mined in the Shasta County. that the brown iron ore of limonite could be used to best advantage. at which temperature the metallic iron begins sticking together and non-metallic impurities are thrown off as sparks. producing red ochres. and it was only with the development of blast furnaces in 1st [13] [14] century BCE in China and about 1150 CE in Europe. burnt umbers and siennas. Complex systems developed. [edit]Uses [7] of limonite One of the first uses was as a pigment. and limonite often occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules. Nonetheless. In another example the deeply weathered iron formations of Brazil served to concentrate gold with the limonite of the resulting soils. In addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold. However there [6] are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. as the ore was heated and the water driven off. to process limonite. [edit]Formation Limonite usually forms from the hydration of hematite and magnetite. Main article: Ochre#History . The gold of the primary veins was concentrated into the limonites of the deeply weathered rocks. often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans. hematite and magnetite. [10] California mining district. The ore [11] was then pounded as it was heated above 1250°C. sometimes mammillary. [edit]History Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy While the first iron ore was likely Meteoric iron. In the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County. limonite is the most prevalent iron ore. in Africa.botryoidal. Because of its amorphous nature. and biotite. Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was [8] famous. more and more of the limonite was converted to hematite. but the external shape of the pyrite crystal remains. Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore [10] deposits.

powdery coating Cleavage Absent Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 4 . mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) FeO(OH)·nH2O Strunz classification Unclassified Identification Color Various shades of brown and yellow Crystal habit Fine grained aggregate.As regards to the use of limonite for pigments.5½ . it was one of the earliest man-used materials and can be [15] seen in Neolithic cave paintings andpictographs. Limonite General Category Amorphous.

3 g/cm3 References [1][2][3] Bog ore Limonite deposited from mine runoff .9 .4.7 .4.3 Density 2.Luster Earthy Streak Yellowish brown Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 2.

Galena and Limonite Limonite pseudomorphs after Garnet .

Gold standards have sometimes been a monetary policies. in veins and in alluvial deposits.S. and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. which dissolves silver and base metals. Chemically. Gold resists attacks by individual acids. soft. a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage. but were widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s. jewelry. as nuggets or grains in rocks. giving rise to the term theacid test. . is insoluble in nitric acid. which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. gold is atransition metal and a group 11 element. forming amalgam alloys. failed to return to gold as a medium of exchange. It dissolves in mercury. which have been used in mining. The last gold certificate and gold coin currencies were issued in the U. In Europe. but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). It is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin. It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive. so named because it dissolves gold. with huge war debts. most countries left the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and. malleable and ductile metal. usually with tellurium. it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. Less commonly. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form.GOLD Gold is a dense. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide. in 1932. shiny. meaning glow of sunrise) andatomic number 79.

Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions. according to GFMS as of [2] 3 2011. and 10% in industry. and other fields. ductility. electronics. includingelectric wiring. with the asteroid that formedVredefort crater being [9][10][11][12] implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth – Witwatersrand basin. 40% in [3] investments. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry. gold has many practical uses in dentistry. This is roughly equivalent to 5. about 8876 m .7 m on a side. Virtually all of the gold that mankind has discovered is considered to have been deposited later [4][5][6][7][8] by meteorites which contained the element.A total of 171. resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions. in terms of volume.5 billion troy ounces or. and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold. Most of the Earth's gold lies at its core.300 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history. Its highmalleability. colored-glass production and gold leafing. or a cube 20. . the metal's high density having made it sink there in the planet's youth.

2. consequently. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite. Therefore. for its use in pencils. Unlikediamond (another carbon allotrope). a semimetal. where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). It is. 3. . and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. flat. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. graphite is an electrical conductor. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. "to draw/write". It was named by Abraham Gottlob [4] Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράθφ (graphō).GRAPHITE The mineral graphite pron. and is probably hydrothermal in origin. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal.: /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. the last stage of coalification. each occurring in different types of ore deposit: 1. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated. useful in such applications as arc lampelectrodes. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. There are three principal types of natural graphite.

of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt). In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate [3] minerals. graphite consumption was 42 kt and [8] 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite. micas and tourmaline.18 billion. [edit]Occurrence Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds [3] during metamorphism. Brazil (76 kt). respectively. but U. [7] totaling 73% of all global production. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1. Graphite . in particular. China is the largest producer of graphite. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiberreinforced polymer. India (130 kt).S. calcite. production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1. as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe [5][6] microscope.S. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. Graphite is not mined in the United States. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz.110 thousand tonnes (kt). According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). U. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt).Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°.

Graphite specimen General Category Native element mineral Formula (repeating unit) C Strunz classification 01. c = 6. Z = 4 Identification Color Iron-black to steel-gray.05a Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: P 63/mmc Unit cell a = 2.CB. otherwise rough when not on cleavage .708 Å. deep blue in transmitted light Crystal habit Tabular. six-sided foliatedmasses.461 Å. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky.

sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.09–2. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque.Tenacity Flexible non-elastic.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni .

with the chemical [3] formula CaSO4·2H2O.GYPSUM Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again. called alabaster. it is alabaster.5 g/l at 25°C) and. It is the definition of a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections. (Thus. As a mineral. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature. [8] up to 12 metres (39 ft) long. Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding. it exhibits a retrograde solubility. it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. "chalk" or "plaster". It can be used as afertilizer. [edit]Crystal [7] varieties Main article: Selenite (mineral) Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals. and in the early 19th century. Upon addition of water. becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. Finally. cleavable masses called selenite. with embedded sand grains called desert rose. rather. it may also be granular or quite compact. the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum. resulting in the so[5] called "Plaster War" of 1812. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. it loses liquid water molecules to evaporation and thus gains solidity. referring to its crystalline projections. When the crystal lattice is heated. Selenite contains no significantselenium. and transparent. Mesopotamia and the Nottingham alabasters of medieval England. in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". "spear stone". Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān. which has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved.0–2. this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris.) Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth. [edit]Physical properties [6] Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2. In hand-sized samples. it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. [edit]Etymology and history [4] The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύυος (gypsos). both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. its solubility [6] in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration. [edit]Occurrence . As foranhydrite. gypsum can occur in a flower-like form. In arid areas. in contrast to most other salts. fibrous form. Because gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartredistrict of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum. Selenite may also occur in a silky. causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. typically opaque. in the form of selenite.

the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria. enough to supply the construction industry [10] withdrywall for 1.000 years. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation. strongly opposed by area residents. amongst others by pyrite oxidation. Pure gypsum is white. the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 2 710 km (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand. Gypsum is a common mineral. with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary [9] rocks. but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. However.Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. and sulfate solutions inveins. as well as in hot springs. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Blue Anchor. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. Veins of gypsum in the Chugwater Group. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water. . was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protectednational monument. Wyoming. Commercial exploitation of the area. from volcanic vapors. UK. Under reducing conditions. Somerset. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. when thesulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate.

c = 6. b = 15. brown.43°. pink. may be yellow.202(14) Å.CD.679(5) Å.40 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m Unit cell a = 5. blue. β = 118. tan. which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars [12] Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.522(6) Å. General Category Sulfate minerals Formula (repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2O Strunz classification 07.Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum [11] dunes in the northern polar region of Mars. reddish brown or gray . Z=4 Identification Color Colorless to white. Gypsum Fibrous gypsum selenite showing its translucentproperty.

522–1.521 nβ = 1.010 .530 Birefringence δ = 0. Mohs scalehardness 1.529–1. inelastic.519–1.due to impurities Crystal habit Massive. or waxy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m – Prismatic Twinning Very common on {110} Cleavage Perfect on {010}. flat.33 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1. distinct on {100} Fracture Conchoidal on {100}. splintery parallel to [001] Tenacity Flexible.523 nγ = 1. pearly.5–2 (defining mineral for 2) Luster Vitreous to silky.31–2.

fibrous masses Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals Alabaster Fine-grained. dilute HCl References [1][2][3] Major varieties Satin spar Pearly.Pleochroism None 2V angle 58° Fusibility 5 Solubility Hot. slightly colored Gypsum Alabaster .

Gypsum Satin-Spar Gypsum Selenite .


Halite /ˈhælaɪt/, commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates. [edit]Occurrence

Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt,Germany (size: 6.7 x 1.9 x 1.7 cm)

Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassicrock, Carmel Formation, Utah

Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes,playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States andCanada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts ofOntario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia andSaskatchewan. The Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Islamabad, Pakistan. In the United Kingdom there are three mines; the largest of these is at Winsford in Cheshire producing half a million tonnes on average in six months. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes contain anhydrite, gypsum, and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisianaand are often associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Romania and Iran also have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, purple, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termedhopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a rapidly crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes simply grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form very quickly in some rapidly evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain. Halite stalactites and encrustations are also reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. [edit]Uses Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice. Because brine (a solution of water and salt) has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice that is near 0°C will cause it to melt. (This effect is called freezing-point depression.) It is common for homeowners in cold

climates to spread salt on their walkways and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice. It is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is completely melted; rather, a small amount of salt will weaken the ice so that it can be easily removed by other means. Also, many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Salt is also used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer and to cure a wide variety of foods such [4] asbacon and fish. Larger pieces can be ground in a salt mill or dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt.


Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland



Halide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Crystal symmetry

Isometric hexoctahedral 4/m 32/m

Unit cell

a = 5.6404(1) Å; Z = 4


Formula mass

58.433 g/mol


Colorless or white; also blue, purple, red, pink, yellow, orange, or gray

Crystal habit

Predominantly cubes and in massive sedimentary beds, but also granular, fibrous and compact

Crystal system



Perfect {001}, three directions cubic





Mohs scalehardness

2 - 2.5







Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

n = 1.544


Water soluble

Other characteristics

Salty flavor, Fluorescent

they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is a mineral. also spelled as haematite. While the forms of hematite vary. Hematite crystallizes in therhombohedral system. Clay-sized hematite crystals can also occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil. It is mined as the main ore of iron. colored black to steel or silver-gray. however. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. .HEMATITE Hematite. but much more brittle. Hematite is harder than pure iron. usually as the result of volcanic activity. or red. one of several iron oxides.and magnetite-related oxide mineral. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake. and along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs. iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). ancient. or otherwise highly weathered soils. such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite). is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3). brown to reddish brown. Maghemite is a hematite. is responsible for the red color of many tropical. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Hematite can also occur without water. or other standing water. and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. spring. Varieties includekidney ore.

α-Fe2O3 Strunz classification 04. dull to bright red .05 Crystal symmetry Trigonal hexagonal scalenohedral H-M symbol: (32/m) Space group: R3c Unit cell a = 5.Hematite Hematite (blood ore) from Michigan General Category Oxide minerals Formula (repeating unit) iron(III) oxide. c = 13. Fe2O3.CB.772(12) Å. Z = 6 Identification Color Metallic gray.038(2) Å.

botryoidal or stalactitic masses.5 Luster Metallic to splendent Streak Bright red to dark red Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5.5–6.26 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nφ = 3. columnar. nε = 2.280 . oolitic Crystal system Trigonal Twinning Penetration and lamellar Cleavage None.220. micaceous or platy. radiating fibrous.Crystal habit Tabular to thick crystals.150–3.940 Birefringence δ = 0. may show partings on {0001} and {1011} Fracture Uneven to sub-conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. earthy. granular. reniform.870–2. commonly in rosettes.

E = yellowish red .Pleochroism O = brownish red.

Sodium and potassium are often present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. [edit]Compositional [3] variances Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:   Manganese and titanium are often present.Na)2–3(Mg. a specific gravity of 2. a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate. .Si)8O22(OH.Al)5(Al. brown or black color. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right.Fe. an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate. The general formula can be given as (Ca. greenish-brown. and an iron-magnesium silicate.F)2. but the name is used as a general or field term. [edit]Physical properties Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6. Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules. to refer to a dark amphibole.HORNBLENDE Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).4 and is typically an opaque green.9–3.

Orange County. It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. andschist. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote. from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. It is most often confused with the minerals augite and biotite mica. A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide. Si)8O22(OH)2 Identification . syenite. Al)5 (Al. gabbro. Other minerals in the hornblende series include:    pargasite hastingsite tschermakite Hornblende Amphibole Hornblende General Category Igneous. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende. from its locality in Edenville. andesite. [edit]Occurrence Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite.Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. metamorphic Formula (repeating unit) Ca2(Mg. and named edenite. gneiss. New York. both of which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Fe. is gray to white in color. diorite. basalt.

gray-white[1][2] Specific gravity 2.9 Pleochroism Strong .Color Black/dark green Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular Crystal system Monoclinic Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous to dull Streak Pale gray.

calaba. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15 meq/100g). In Africa. United States. part of the group of industrial minerals. The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: 高岭/高嶺. [edit]Chemistry [6] . usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay). Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are [5] known as kaolin or china clay. with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. giving it a distinct rust hue. following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. In many parts of the world. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder.KAOLINITE Kaolinite is a clay mineral. produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. Alternating layers are sometimes found. It is a layered silicate mineral. yellow or light orange colors. kaolin [8] [9] is sometimes known as kalaba (in Gabon and Cameroon ). It is a soft. earthy. Lighter concentrations yield white. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version [7] of the word: "kaolin". a village near Jingdezhen. it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide. with one tetrahedral sheet linked [4] through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia. pinyin: Gaoling). semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. and calabachop (in Equatorial Guinea). China. Jiangxi province.

Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel. [edit]Structural [3] transformations Kaolinite structure Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. which is sometimes also referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al2Si2O7 → Si3Al4O12 + SiO2. SiO2: 3 Si3Al4O12 → 2 Si2Al6O13 + 5 SiO2. S = SiO2.[edit]Notation The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. extensive research has led to general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). in ceramics applications the formula is typically written in terms of oxides. Endothermic dehydroxylation (or alternatively. 2 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 → 2 Al2Si2O7 + 4 H2O. but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order (but not strictly crystalline) due to stacking of [11] its hexagonal layers. Si3Al4O12. thus the formula for kaolinite is [10] Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O. with the oxides represented as [citation needed] A = Al2O3. and highly crystalline cristobalite. Al2Si2O7. but continuous hydroxyl loss (-OH) is observed up to 900 °C [11] and has been attributed to gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. H = H2O. the spinel phase (Si3Al4O12) nucleates and transforms to mullite. 3 Al2O3 · 2 SiO2. Upon calcination to ~1050 °C. dehydration) begins at 550 –600 °C to produce disordered metakaolin. Cement chemist notation is even more terse: AS2H2. [edit]Occurrence . however. Because of historic disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase.

5 million tonnes. in Brazil. while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite (in cooler climates) or smectite (in drier climates) increases. Bulgaria Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. [1] the People's Republic of China. Kaolinite . France. Kaolin production in the US [14] during 2011 was 5. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates. Iran. in sediments [13] derived from weathered igneous andmetamorphic rocks. soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol (from [12] kaolin and soil). Bulgaria. about 100 million to 45 million years ago. where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge (INEAC) classification system.Korea. it is mined. Such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are often used to infer changes in climates in the geological past. the proportion of kaolinite decreases.A kaolin mine in Ruse Province. on a stretch of a geological fall line between Augusta and Macon. as kaolin. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot. India. In the US the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia. the Czech Republic and the United States. United Kingdom. The deposits were formed between the late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Germany. Australia.

claylike masses Crystal system Triclinic Cleavage Perfect on {001} Tenacity Flexible but inelastic . Z = 2 Identification Color White. b = 8. thin plates or stacked. sometimes red. β = 104. More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates.25 Å.ED.5°. blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habit Rarely as crystals.8°.05 Crystal symmetry Triclinic pedial H-M symbol: (1) Space group: P1 Unit cell a = 5.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Strunz classification 09. aggregated into compact. α = 90°. c = 7. γ = 89.89 Å.13 Å.

565.68 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1. Calculated: 44° .553–1.569–1.559–1.569.Mohs scalehardness 2–2.570 2V angle Measured: 24° to 50°.16–2. nγ = 1. nβ = 1.5 Luster Pearly to dull earthy Streak White Specific gravity 2.

It occurs in granite pegmatites. andMadagascar. Ural Mountains. Canada. columbite. in some high-temperature quartz veins.spodumene. Tanco Mine. It is aphyllosilicate mineral and a member of the polylithionite-trilithionite [4] series. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. Lepidolite . United States. Manitoba. California. Russia. Bernic Lake. Associated minerals [1] include quartz. amblygonite. and [6] therefore discovered the new element rubidium.Si)3O10(F.OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group that is a [3] secondary source of lithium. In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded a few grams of rubidium salts for analysis. Notable occurrences include Brazil. greisens and granites. cassiterite. feldspar. It is one of the [5] major sources of the rare alkali metalsrubidium and caesium. tourmaline.LEPIDOLITE Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al. topaz and beryl.

Lepidolite.1 x 0.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. Minas Gerais.209(2) Å b = 9.20 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic H-M symbol: 2/m Space group: C 2/m. yellowish. Z = 2 Identification Color Pink.Si)3O10(F. rose-red.4 x 2. purple. Virgem da Lapa. Brazil (size 2.011(5) Å c = 10. β = 100:77(4)°.149(5) Å. colorless .Cm Unit cell a = 5.EC. violet-gray.7 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) KLi2Al(Al. white.

scaly aggregates and massive Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Rare. nγ=1.58.0380 Pleochroism X = almost colorless.9 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα=1.8–2.548.5–3 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Tabular to prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals. Y = Z = pink. nβ=1.551–1.586 Birefringence 0.525–1. pale violet 2V angle 0° .554– 1.0290–0.58° measured . composition plane {001} Cleavage {001} perfect Fracture Uneven Mohs scalehardness 2.

[edit]Properties Lodestones were used as an early form of magnetic compass. Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. one of the two common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i. will attract small pieces of iron.III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals [6] on Earth. theoxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing . and ulvospinel have been much studied. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II. and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism. Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. the reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves a record of the Earth's magnetic field. a science important in understanding plate tectonics and as historic data for magnetohydrodynamics and other scientific fields. has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and a black streak..MAGNETITE Magnetite is a mineral. hematite. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks. Commonly. Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. It is black or brownishblack with a metallic luster.e. igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions. one of magnetite andulvospinel and the other of ilmenite and hematite. called lodestone. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite.

III) oxide.05 Crystal symmetry Isometric 4/m 3 2/m Unit cell a = 8. In many igneous rocks.085 °F).conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization.397 Å. Italy General Category Oxide minerals – Spinel group Formula (repeating unit) iron(II. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Z=8 Identification Color Black.BB. Magnetite Magnetite and pyrite from Piedmont. 1. magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together in magma. Fe2+Fe3+2O4 Strunz classification 04. The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K (585 °C. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks. including banded iron formations. gray with brownish tint in reflected sun .

the spinel law.18 Solubility Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid .5 Luster Metallic Streak Black[1] Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 5. very good Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5. as contact twins Cleavage Indistinct.Crystal habit Octahedral. fine granular to massive Crystal system Isometric Hexoctahedral Twinning On {Ill} as both twin and composition plane.5–6. parting on {Ill}.17–5.

Since then. Middle French: melochite. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at Timna [6] valley in Israel for over 3. "mallow-green stone". which features a huge malachite vase. with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. .MALACHITE Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. [edit]Etymology and history The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis. verditer amongst other synthetic greens.000 years. [4] from κνιόχε molōchē. green banded mineral crystallizes in themonoclinic crystal system. a large malachite vase. It is also used for decorative purposes. such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage. variant of καιάχε malāchē. Typical malachite is laminated and whether or not microbes intervene in its formation is unknown. one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II. Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicularprisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also [3] occur. This opaque. in fractures and spaces. malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone. deep underground. The natural form was being replaced by its synthetic form. or stalagmitic masses. fibrous. very sensitive to acidsand varying in color. and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μνινχίηεο ιίζνο molochitis lithos. where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. "The Tazza". The pigment is moderately lightfast. stands as the focal point in the center of the room of Linda Hall Library. "mallow". The mineral was given this name due to its [5] resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. and most often forms botryoidal.

France. Except for its vibrant green color.10 Identification Formula mass 221. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones. New South [7] Wales. Timna valley. dark green. and in the Southwestern United Statesnotably in Arizona. the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.BA. blackish green. Malachite Malachite from the Congo General Category Carbonate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Cu2CO3(OH)2 Strunz classification 05. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Mexico. . Tsumeb. goethite. Russia. Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals. the source of the carbonate. Gabon.Zambia. Namibia. Israel. Lyon. Broken Hill.[edit]Occurrence Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). and calcite.1 g/mol Color Bright green.

Cleavage Perfect on {201} fair on {010} Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 3. crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic Crystal system Monoclinic—prismatic H-M Symbol (2/m) Space group P21/a Twinning Common as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}.0 Luster Adamantine to vitreous. Polysynthetic twinning also present.909 Birefringence δ = 0. green to yellowish green in transmitted light Crystal habit Massive.6–4 Optical properties Biaxial (–) Refractive index nα = 1.875 nγ = 1.254 .commonly banded in masses. silky if fibrous. stalactitic.655 nβ = 1. botryoidal. dull to earthy if massive Streak light green Diaphaneity Translucent to opaque Specific gravity 3.5–4.

The green. or potash mica ) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formulaKAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. [4] . Its crystal system is monoclinic.OH)2.25 parallel to the [001] face. It is anisotropic and has highbirefringence. browns. mariposite is also a chromium-rich type of muscovite. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) [5] which are often highly elastic. greens. isinglass. Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2. and can be transparent or translucent.MUSCOVITE Muscovite (also known as common mica.76–3. yellows. India. chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite. It can be colorless or tinted through grays. Sheets of muscovite 5×3 m have been found in Nellore. or (rarely) violet or red. 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2. or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).

Minas Gerais. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as alubricant. and schists.9 cm) General Category Silicate mineral Phyllosilicate Formula (repeating unit) KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F. Muscovite Muscovite with albite from Doce valley. feldspar.kyanite. etc. Brazil (dimensions: 6×5.02a. it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. Afghanistan (dimensions: 5.Muscovite with beryl (var. morganite) from Paprok. The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass. a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows.9×4. gneisses.EC.OH)2 Strunz classification 09. In pegmatites.01 Crystal symmetry 2/m – prismatic . and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz. pegmatites.02.15 Dana classification 71.4 cm) Muscovite is the most common mica. found in granites.8×3.3×3.

c = 20.5 parallel to {001} 4 right angle to {001} Luster Vitreous. b = 9.027 Å. β = 95.199 Å.576 . silvery Crystal habit massive to platy Crystal system Monoclinic (2/m).78°.552–1. pearly Streak White Diaphaneity transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. space group C 2/m Twinning common on the [310] less common on the {001} Cleavage Perfect on the {001} Fracture Micaceous Tenacity Elastic Mohs scalehardness 2–2. silky. Z = 4 Identification Color White. grey.76–3 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1.Unit cell a = 5.106 Å.

587–1.042 Pleochroism weak when colored Dispersion r > v weak Ultravioletfluorescence None .nβ = 1.615 nγ = 1.618 Birefringence δ = 0.035 – 0.582–1.

Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.g. magnesium and iron. Fo 70Fa30). is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg. almost 1900 °C. silicon. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen. as do other properties.. but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). it is also called peridot and chrysolite). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e. monticellite(CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4). [edit]Identification and paragenesis .Fe)2SiO4.OLIVINE The mineral olivine (when of gem quality.

Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel). Gila Co. .. Arizona. Location: San Carlos Indian Reservation. Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15. though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.Green sand is actually olivine crystals. that have been eroded from lava rocks Peridotite xenoliths in basalt—olivines are light green crystals. USA.

the Moon. and extremely Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. or forsterite. First X-ray view of Martian soil . olivine revealed (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest". the French word for olivine). and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. 12 GPa.g.[5] [edit]Extraterrestrial occurrences [6] [7] Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars.Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot (péridot. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. The tails of comets (which formed from the dust disk around the young Sun) often have the spectral signature of olivine. the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics. and olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth. Because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth’s mantle at shallower depths. Mars. Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas. It is also called chrysolite (or chrysolithe. as well as on asteroid 25143 [10] Itokawa. the pressure at depths of about 360 kilometers) can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million (weight) of water. In contrast.Fe)2Si2O6).feldspar. as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene ((Mg. Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures (e. October 17. in the dust of comet Wild 2. mixes of iron-nickel and olivine. collections of debris from the early solar system. Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. pyroxenes. falling into infant stars. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea. 2012). from the Greek words for gold and stone). [8] [9] within the core of comet Tempel 1. moreover. but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. andpallasites. Such meteorites include chondrites. and . The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine. more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than [4] contained in Earth's oceans. Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals. because olivine is so abundant. and that such water contents drastically reduce the resistance of olivine to solid flow.

two distinct metal sites (M1 and M2) and only one distinct silicon site. M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. Olivine . A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra. silicon in pink. meaning that olivine is anesosilicate. Comet-like (magnesium-rich) olivine has also been detected in the planetesimal belt around [12] the star Beta Pictoris. Oxygen is shown in red. close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. O1. [edit]Crystal structure Figure 1: The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. O3 lies in a general position. In an alternative view. There are three distinct oxygen sites (marked O1.the presence of olivine has recently been verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust [11] spacecraft. the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal. O2. and magnesium/iron in blue. O2 and O3 in figure 1). while M1 exists on an inversion center.

Fe)2SiO4 Identification Color Yellow to yellow-green Crystal habit Massive to granular Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage Poor Fracture Conchoidal – brittle Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7 Luster Vitreous .General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) (Mg.

27–3.690 Birefringence δ = 0.670 nγ = 1.630–1.650 nβ = 1.040 .37 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.650–1.670–1.Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.

which [5] amounts to around 80% of the world's supply. rose. the reds against black are the most rare. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock.OPAL Opal is an amorphous form of silica . Opal is the national gemstone of Australia. It varies in optical density from opaque to semitransparent. being most commonly found withlimonite. brown. not a mineral. green. This includes the production of the state of South Australia. Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light. a mineraloid form. [edit]Precious opal . slate. depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. rhyolite. marl and basalt. its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone. yellow. whereas white and greens are the most common. magenta. blue. orange. like basalt. For gemstone use. pink. but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. which [4] produces 97% of the world's supply. gray. red. Of these hues. olive. sandstone. and black. Opal ranges from clear through white. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water.

. packed into close-packed planes that are stacked together with characteristic dimensions of several hundred nm.Opals can express every color in the visible spectrum. Potch opal from Andamooka South Australia Precious opal consists of spheres of silica of fairly regular size.

which is often of lower quality. an opal slice with a natural ironstone backing. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color. backed by a swart mineral such as ironstone. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the [6] opal. which takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. doublet opal produces similar effect of black or boulder opals at a mere fraction of the price. In addition. the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. This is the basis of the optical band gap in a photonic crystal. and then has a domed cap of clearquartz or plastic on top. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. microfractures may be filled with secondary silica and form thin lamellae inside the opal during solidification. and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. Contrarily. and this has given rise to unusual methods of preparing the stone as a gem. Combined with modern techniques of polishing. and are not classed as precious opal. basalt. The spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light determines the colors observed. An opal doublet is a thin layer of opal. opalescence is correctly applied to the milky. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is approximately half the wavelength of a component of visible light. to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath. The top layer also acts as a magnifier. which is correctly termed play of color. or obsidian. The term opalescence is commonly and erroneously used to describe this unique and beautiful phenomenon.Australian Opal Doublet. Potch does not show a play of color. Doublet opal also has the added benefit of having genuine opal as the top visible and touchable layer. The process can be described byBragg's Law of diffraction. it has an internal structure. Visible light of diffracted wavelengths cannot pass through large thicknesses of the opal. Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid. It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal. turbid appearance of common or potch opal. of which opal is the best known natural example. The triplet-cut opal backs the colored material with a dark backing. The veins of opal displaying the play of color are often quite thin. unlike triplet opals. .

[edit]Common opal A piece of milky raw opal from Andamooka South Australia An opal "triplet" from Andamooka South Australia showing blue and green fire A rock showing striations of opal throughout .

menilite. the accumulations of diatom shells or tests. Fire opals that do not show play of color are sometimes referred to as jelly opals. This type of Mexican opal is referred to as a Cantera Opal. hyalite. Mexican opals are sometimes cut in their ryholitic host material if it is hard enough to allow cutting and polishing. which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster. although occasionally a stone will exhibit bright green flashes. wood opal. deposited around hot springs orgeysers. resin opal. or star . The most famous source of fire opals is the state of Querétaro in Mexico. They do not usually show any play of color. these opals are commonly called Mexican fire opals. a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller's Glass. which is a colorless opal which exhibits either a [8] bluish or golden internal sheen. there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal. orange. There is also a type of opal from Mexico referred to as Mexican Water Opal. which is caused by the replacement of the organic [7] material in wood with opal. geyserite. [edit]Other varieties of opal Fire opal from Mexico Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors of yellow. Girasol opal is a term sometimes mistakenly and improperly used to refer to fire opals as well as a type of transparent to semi-transparent type milky quartz from Madagascar which displays an asterism. milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality). and diatomite or diatomaceous earth. orange-yellow or red.A close-up view of striations within opal Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color. also called siliceous sinter. which is brown or grey.

Blue opal also [citation needed] comes from Oregon in the Owhyee region as well as from Nevada around Virgin Valley. [edit]Sources [8] of opal Polished opal from Yowah (Yowah Nut[9]). that exhibits a bluish glow or sheen that follows the light source around. Australia Australia produces around 97% of the world's opal. It is also sometimes referred to as water opal as well when it is from Mexico. Boulder Opal.000 carats (3450 grams) and is 11 inches (280 mm) long. The world's largest and most valuable gem opal "Olympic Australis" was found in August 1956 at the "Eight Mile" opal field in Coober 3 Pedy. The two most notable locations of this type of opal are Oregon and [citation needed] Mexico. It is not a play of color as seen in precious opal but rather an effect from microscopic inclusions. White makes up 60% of the opal productions but cannot be found in all of the opal fields. when cut properly.effect. 8% is black and only 2% is boulder opal. It does not display pleochroism. However. Queensland . there is a true girasol opal that is a type of halite opal. Queensland. needed] The town of Coober Pedy in South Australia is a major source of opal. 90% is called 'light opal' or white and crystal opal. Crystal opal or [citation pure hydrated silica makes up 30% of the opal produced. with a height of 4 ⁄4 inches 1 [citation needed] (120 mm) and a width of 4 ⁄2 inches (110 mm). It weighs 17. Carisbrooke Station near Winton. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru which is often cut to include the matrix in the more opaque stones.

[citation needed] [12] A . Bonanza. bones. Idaho. from Kynuna in the north. known as the "Black Peacock. US The Virgin Valley opal fields of Humboldt County in northern Nevada produce a wide variety of precious black. and WRT Stonetree/Black [17] Beauty Mines. and a snake head have been found. Some of the opal has high water content and may desiccate and crack when dried. Lightning Ridge in New South Wales. Opal Queen. and weighs 2. crystal opal. The rarest type of Australian opal is "pipe" opal. and lemon opal. to Yowah and Koroit in the south. closely related to boulder opal." Another source of white base opal or creamy opal in the United States is Spencer. and black opal. fire. The black fire opal is the official gemstone of Nevada. known as the [18] "Roebling Opal. white. Royal Peacock. The largest unpolished Black Opal in the Smithsonian Institution. The precious opal is hosted and found within a subsurface horizon or zone of hard bentonite in-place which is considered a "lode" deposit.585 carats." came out of the tunneled portion of the Rainbow Ridge Mine in 1917. is the main source of black opal. usually [citation needed] as fossilized tree roots. Another Australian town. fish. Multi-colored rough opal specimen from Virgin Valley. Nevada. The black opal is said to be some of the best examples found in Australia. Its [11] largest quantities are found around Jundah and Quilpie (known as the "home of the Boulder Opal" ) in South West Queensland. opal containing a predominantly dark background (dark-gray to blue-black displaying the play of color). high percentage of the opal found there occurs in thin layers. Australia also has opalised fossil remains. and marine creatures in South Australia. weighing 160 carats. Andamooka in South Australia is also a major producer of matrix opal. which forms in sandstone with some iron-ore content. Most of the precious opal is partial wood replacement. The largest polished black opal in the Smithsonian Institution comes from the Royal [citation needed] Peacock opal mine in the Virgin Valley. Miocene age opalised teeth.The Mintabie Opal Field located approximately 250 km north west of Coober Pedy has also produced large quantities of Crystal opal and also the rarer black opal. crystal. Opals which have weathered out of the in-place deposits are alluvial and considered "placer" deposits. Over the years it has been sold overseas incorrectly as Coober Pedy Opal. It is found [10] sporadically in western Queensland. including dinosaur bones in New [citation needed] South Wales. The largest producing mines of Virgin Valley have been the [13] [14] [15] [16] famous Rainbow Ridge. Boulder opal consists of concretions and fracture fillings in a dark siliceous ironstone matrix.

red. in nodules Crystal system Amorphous[1] Cleavage None[1] Fracture Conchoidal to uneven[1] . [19] Slovakia. Turkey. Guatemala. yellow. blue Crystal habit Irregular veins. black. in masses. Indonesia. Nicaragua and Ethiopia. Brazil (inPedro II. [20] Opal An opal bracelet.Other significant deposits of precious opal around the world can be found in the Czech Republic. The stone size is 18 by 15 mm (0. green. Honduras. white.6 in) General Category Mineraloid Formula (repeating unit) Hydrated silica. NASA announced that it had discovered opal deposits on Mars. Hungary.7 by 0. Piauí ). brown. orange. SiO2·nH2O Identification Color Colorless. In late 2008.

450 (+. fire opal: inert to moderate greenish brown in long and short wave. -. may phosphoresce. common opal: inert to strong green or yellowish green in long and short wave.020.09 Polish luster Vitreous to resinous[1] Optical properties Single refractive. transparent Specific gravity 2.08. May also phosphoresce.90)[1] Density 2.[1] . -.15 (+.42–1. or yellow in long and short wave.080) Mexican opal may read as low as 1. green.Mohs scalehardness 5. translucent. often anomalous double refractive due to strain[1] Refractive index 1.43[1] Birefringence none[1] Pleochroism None[1] Ultravioletfluorescence black or white body color: inert to white to moderate light blue.5–6[1] Luster Subvitreous to waxy[1] Streak White Diaphaneity opaque. may phosphoresce. but typically reads 1.37.

bases.humic acid. hydrofluoric acid .Absorption spectra green stones: 660nm. 470nm cutoff[1] Diagnostic features darkening upon heating Solubility hot saltwater. methanol.

[11] arsenian pyrite contains up to 0. is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. as well as in coal beds. or iron pyrite. In the Carlin–type gold deposits. [5][6] primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. and metamorphic rock.37 wt% gold. almost certainly a reference to what we now call [9] [10] pyrite. sedimentary rock. "fire".PYRITE The mineral pyrite. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold. "of fire" or "in fire". [edit]Uses . In ancient Roman times. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass. the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy. By Georgius Agricola's time. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πσρίηης [7] [8] (puritēs). Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins. brazzle and Brazil. and as a replacement mineral in fossils. in turn from πύρ (pur). Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.

and is still used by 'crystal radio' hobbyists. [14] During the early years of the 20th century. Until the vacuum tube matured. Marcasite jewelry. and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Iron pyrite was heaped up and allowed to weather as described above (an early form of heap leaching). pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers. most notably the wheellock. made from [19] small faceted pieces of pyrite. inexpensive material in low cost photovoltaic solar [17] panels. Spain Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms. In the 15th century. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant. . where the cock held a lump of pyrite against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0. often set in silver. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point betweengalena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry (incorrectly termed marcasite). at around 700 °C pS2 is about 1 atm. Synthetic iron sulfide is used with copper sulfide to create the experimental photovoltaic [18] material. for use in such applications as thepaper industry. iron(II) sulfate. was popular in the Victorian era.95 eV. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS [13] (iron(II) sulfide) and elemental sulfur starts at 550 °C. By the 19th century. La Rioja. Pyrite detectors [15][16] can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A diodedetector. Navajún.with considerable variation between mineral types and even individual samples within a particular type of mineral. it had become the [12] dominant method. The acidic runoff from the heap was then boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. that is. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide.Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine.

main crystal: 31 mm on edge) General Category Sulfide mineral Formula (repeating unit) FeS2 Strunz classification 02. Spain (size: 95 x 78 mm. Z=4 .EB. Rioja.05a Dana classification 2.12.1. 512 g.417 Å.Pyrite Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún.1 Crystal symmetry Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3 H-M symbol: 2/m3 Unit cell a = 5.

Crystal system Isometric Twinning Penetration and contact twinning Cleavage Indistinct on {001}.95–5. partings on {011} and {111} Fracture Very uneven. faces may be striated. but also frequently octahedral and pyritohedron.5 Luster Metallic.10 Fusibility 2. sometimes conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 6–6. tarnishes darker and iridescent Crystal habit Cubic.5–3 to a magnetic globule . granular. globular and stalactitic. radiated. massive. Often inter-grown.Identification Color Pale brass-yellow. glistening Streak Greenish-black to brownish-black Diaphaneity Opaque Specific gravity 4.

Solubility Insoluble in water Other characteristics paramagnetic .

distorted. Czech tvrdy ("hard"). β-quartz [7] belongs to the hexagonal system. lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. [edit]Crystal habit and structure Crystal structure of α-quartz β-quartz Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. only one termination pyramid is present. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape. respectively. The . Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO 4 tetrahedra in the present case). giving an overall formula SiO2. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. These spacegroups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc". Especially in Europe and the Middle East. There are many different varieties of quartz. or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape. space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4silicon–oxygen tetrahedra. with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramidsat each end. after feldspar. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void. Polish twardy ("hard")). or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned. space group P6221 and P6421. several of which are semi-precious gemstones. but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix. [6] which probably originated in Slavic (cf.QUARTZ Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust. varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.

such as the Lothair Crystal. and has often been used for hardstone carvings. which is [9] then referred to as ametrine. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visibly. most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. but they differ in hardness. [edit]Citrine Citrine "Citrine" redirects here. or mixed rocks including quartz.and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz. Quartz goes by an array of different names. rose quartz. amethyst. and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. onyx. Citrine has ferric impurities. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and themicrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). [edit]Varieties (according to color) Pure quartz. often including contrasting bands or patterns of color. sard. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque. carnelian. are agate. Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown. see Citrine (disambiguation). Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica [8] consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz. and is rarely found naturally. and others. traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz). For other uses. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine. Common colored varieties include citrine. without change in the way they are linked. with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. is colorless and transparent (clear) ortranslucent. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November. while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal.transformation between α. . smoky quartz. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron. and jasper. milky quartz. heliotrope. Natural citrines are rare.

[edit]Rose quartz An elephant carved in rose quartz. in the massive material. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium. Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford. In crystal form (rarely found) it is called pink quartz and its color is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. Maine. or manganese. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possiblydumortierite within the [10] massive quartz. Brazil. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. . 4 inches (10 cm) long Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. South Africa Main article: Amethyst Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. [edit]Amethyst Amethyst. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral. iron. Magaliesburg. USA. but most crystals [11] on the market come from Minas Gerais. Rose quartz is not popular as a gem – it is generally too clouded by impurities to be suitable for that purpose.

[edit]Milky quartz Milky quartz sample . Some can also be black. translucent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.[edit]Smoky quartz Smoky quartz Smoky quartz is a gray.

Agate Multi-colored. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas. Tiger's Eye Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz. Rock crystal Clear. liquid. Major varieties of quartz Chalcedony Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. semi-translucent to translucent Onyx Agate where the bands are straight. typically red to brown Aventurine Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer. banded chalcedony. although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in [12] most optical and quality gemstone applications. current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals. [edit]Varieties (according to microstructure) Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral. parallel and consistent in size. or both. Otherwise more specific names are used. This does not always hold true. transparent . colorless Amethyst Purple. Jasper Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz. exhibiting chatoyancy.Ancient Roman cameo onyx engraved gem of Augustus Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. trapped during the crystal formation. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material.

greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green. translucent Dumortierite quartz Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals Quartz Quartz crystal cluster from Tibet .Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown. translucent. opaque Carnelian Reddish orange chalcedony. transparent Rose quartz Pink. may display diasterism Smoky quartz Brown to gray. translucent to opaque. may display diasterism Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile Milk quartz White.

massive Crystal system α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2.01 Crystal symmetry Trigonal 32 Unit cell a = 4. Brazil law and Japan law Cleavage {0110} Indistinct Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle . Z=3 Identification Color Colorless through various colors to black Crystal habit 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical).DA.03. fine-grained to microcrystalline. c = 5.General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Silica (silicon dioxide.4053 Å. β-quartz: hexagonal622[1] Twinning Common Dauphine law.05 Dana classification 75.9133 Å. drusy. SiO2) Strunz classification 04.01.

59–2. may betriboluminescent.63 in impure varieties Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nφ = 1.554 Birefringence +0.Mohs scalehardness 7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to nearly opaque Specific gravity 2.65. variable 2.009 (B-G interval) Pleochroism None Melting point 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (βcristobalite)[1] Solubility Insoluble at STP. chiral (hence optically active if not racemic) . 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2[1] Other characteristics Piezoelectric.552–1.545 nε = 1.543–1.

Agate Onyx .

Amethyst Chalcedony .


Crystal Quartz





Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation. Rhodonite crystals often have a thick tabular habit, but are rare. It has a perfect, prismatic cleavage, almost at right angles. The hardness is 5.5–6.5, and the specific gravity 3.4–3.7; luster is vitreous, being less frequently pearly on cleavage surfaces. The manganese is often partly replaced by iron,magnesium, calcium, and sometimes zinc which may sometimes be present in considerable amounts; a greyish-brown variety containing as much as 20% of calcium oxide is called bustamite; fowlerite is a zinciferous variety containing 7% of zinc oxide.

Pink rhodonite contrasting with black manganese oxides is sometimes used asgemstone material as seen in this specimen from Humboldt County, Nevada.

The inosilicate (chain silicate) structure of rhodonite has a repeat unit of five silica tetrahedra. The rarepolymorph pyroxmangite, formed at different conditions of pressure and temperature, has the same chemical composition but a repeat unit of seven tetrahedra. Rhodonite has also been worked as an ornamental stone. In the iron and manganese mines at Pajsberg near Filipstad and Långban in Värmland, Sweden, small brilliant and translucent crystals (pajsbergite) and cleavage masses occur. Fowlerite occurs as large, rough crystals, somewhat resembling pink feldspar, with franklinite and zinc ores in granular limestone at Franklin Furnace in New Jersey. Rhodonite is the official gem of Commonwealth of Massachusetts.


Rhodonite crystals in rock



Silicate mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification


Dana classification

Crystal symmetry

Triclinic 1 pinacoidal

Unit cell

a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å; α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°; Z = 20



Rose-pink to brownish red, gray, or yellow

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals, massive, granular

Crystal system

Triclinic - Pinacoidal H-M Symbol (1) Space Group: P1


Lamellar, composition plane {010}


Perfect on {110} and {110}, (110) ^ (110) = 92.5°; good on {001}

1.714 .1.741 nγ = 1.711 .751 Birefringence δ = 0.5 .Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 5.76 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.724 .3. Calculated: 58° Alters to Exterior commonly black from manganese oxides .57 .1.6.5 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 3.738 nβ = 1.013 Pleochroism Weak 2V angle Measured: 58° to 73°.

and is used as an investment. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. jewelry. silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors. to make ornaments. The metal occurs naturally in its pure. utensils (hence the term silverware). A soft. Its compounds are used in photographic film. further research into clinical potential continues. in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Latin: argentum. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper. white. as an alloy with gold and other metals. Today.SILVER Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργσρος árguros.for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. both from the Indo-European root*arg. . While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics. free form (native silver). high-value tableware. and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. and currency coins. lustrous transition metal. gold. and zinc refining. it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used asdisinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). lead.

crystals are usually transparent to translucent. lazurite and tugtupite.SODALITE Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque. sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario. [edit]Properties A sample of sodalite-carbonatepegmatite from Bolivia. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne. Canada. nosean. with a polished rock surface. .

particularly. microcline. and Magnet Cove. Well known for its blue color. the violet will fade again. it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. British Columbia. Smaller deposits are found in South . green. sodalite may also be grey. Sodalite's six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. in Canada. relatively hard yet fragile mineral. namelyleucite. Afghanistan Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. sanidine.A light. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Maine. and Litchfield. sodalite is named after its sodium content. contains sodalite. [3] titanian andradite. cancrinite and natrolite. near Golden. [1] Narsaq. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments. fluorite. Arkansas. hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. Occurring typically in massive form. West Greenland. albite. aegirine. or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. yellow. and Mont-SaintHilaire. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Conversely. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or. [edit]Occurrence Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex. [edit]Hackmanite Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley. sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. The Ice River [5] complex. sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such asnepheline syenites. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli. where it is fashioned into cabochons and beads. shortwave ultraviolet light. in the USA.ankerite and baryte. Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft. Other associated minerals include nepheline. Quebec. If left in a dark environment for some time. calcite. Ontario. in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. The more uniformly blue material is used injewellery.

transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius. Romania.876(6) Å. white veining common .10 Crystal symmetry Isometric hextetrahedral H-M symbol: 43m Space group: P43n Unit cell a = 8. violet.FB. Burma and Russia. yellow. Z = 1 Identification Color Rich royal blue. Italy. Euhedral. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilare andGreenland.America (Brazil and Bolivia). Portugal. green. Sodalite A sample of sodalite General Category Mineral Formula (repeating unit) Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl Strunz classification 9.

27-2.1. with yellowishphosphorescence.33 Optical properties Isotropic Refractive index n = 1. sodium .483 .5-6 Luster Dull vitreous to greasy Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Massive. may bephotochromic in magentas Fusibility Easily to a colourless glass. rarely as dodecahedra Crystal system Cubic Twinning Common on {111} forming pseudohexagonal prisms Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal to uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.487 Ultravioletfluorescence Bright redorangecathodoluminescence and fluorescence under LW and SW UV.

yellow flame


Soluble in hydrochloric andnitric acids

Other characteristics

Odor of H2S emitted on fracture



Major varieties


Tenebrescent; violet-red or green fading to white


Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and othersulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack. [edit]Chemistry

The crystal structure of sphalerite

The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond.

The hexagonal analog is known as the wurtzitestructure. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the [4] zincblende crystal structure is 0.541 nm, calculated from geometry and ionic radii of 0.074 nm (zinc) and 0.184 nm (sulfide). It forms ABCABC layers. [edit]Varieties

Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA (size: 2.3×2.3×1.2 cm)

Its color is usually yellow, brown, or gray to gray-black, and it may be shiny or dull. Its luster is adamantine, resinous to submetallic for high iron varieties. It has a yellow or light brown streak, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4, and a specific gravity of 3.9–4.1. Some specimens have a red iridescence within the gray-black crystals; these are called "ruby sphalerite." The pale yellow and red varieties have very little iron and are translucent. The darker more opaque varieties contain more iron. Some specimens are also fluorescent in ultraviolet light. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, 589.3 nm) is 2.37. Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. Gemmy, pale specimens from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace) are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. [edit]Occurrence Sphalerite is the major ore of zinc and is found in thousands of locations worldwide. Sources of high quality crystals include:      
[3] [2]

Freiberg, Saxony, and Neudorf, Harz Mountains of Germany the Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais, Switzerland, has produced colorless crystals Horni Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) and Pribram, Czech Republic From Rodna, Romania Transparent green to opaque black Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria; Transparent crystals in the Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province, Spain

  

In England, from Alston Moor, Cumbria At Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia In Canada   Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Gord Cowie at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting processes Sphalerite in Flin Flon, Manitoba

In the USA  the Tri-State district including deposits near Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas; Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma   From the Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee the Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado

 

In Mexico, from Santa Eulalia and Naica, Chihuahua, and Cananea, Sonora Huaron, Casapalca, and Huancavelica, Peru


Sphalerite on dolomite from the Tri-State District, Jasper County, Missouri, USA



Sulfide mineral

(repeating unit)


Strunz classification






Brown, yellow, red, green, black.

Crystal habit

Euhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.

Crystal system

Isometric hextetrahedral (4 3m)


Simple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]


[110] perfect


Uneven to conchoidal

Mohs scalehardness



Adamantine, resinous, greasy


brownish white, pale yellow


Transparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich

Specific gravity


Optical properties


Refractive index

nα = 2.369

Other characteristics

non-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.

has aMohs hardness of 7 to 7. [edit]Properties Staurolite fromMadagascar .STAUROLITE Staurolite is a red brown to black. Magnesium. nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron [1] can substitute for aluminium.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2+ Fe 2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. mostly opaque.OH)2.

macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. [edit]Use Staurolite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature. state of Georgia and is also to be found in the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland. [edit]Name The name is derived from the Greek. and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. Virginia.A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. micas. depth. New Mexico. kyanite. stauros for cross and lithos for stone in reference to the common twinning. near Blanchard Dam in Minnesota and Selbu. Staurolite Staurolite from Pestsovye Keivy. They are often larger than the surrounding minerals and are then called porphyroblasts. as well as albite.S. Staurolite is also found in Fairy Stone State Park in Patrick County. Norway. It occurs with almandine garnet. The park is named for a local [6] name for staurolite from a legend in the area. [edit]Occurrence Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. It is the official state mineral of the U. biotite. In handsamples. with the twinning displaying optical continuity. called penetration twinning. and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional [5] metamorphic rocks. Samples are also found in Taos. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz. It can be identified in metamorphic rocks by its swiss cheese appearance (withpoikilitic quartz) and often mantled porphyroblastic character. Kola Peninsula. Keivy Mountains. .

5 x 2. Russia.45°. rarely blue. yellowish brown.2 x 1 cm General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O. Z=2 Identification Color Dark reddish brown to blackish brown. β = 90.86 Å. pale golden yellow in thin section Crystal habit Commonly in prismatic crystals Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Commonly as 60° twins.30 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic prismatic H-M symbol: (2/m) Space group: C 2/m Unit cell a = 7. 2. Northern Region. less common as 90° cruciform twins Cleavage Distinct on {010} .Murmanskaja Oblast'. c = 5. b = 16.6 Å.65 Å.OH)2[1] Strunz classification 9.AF.

740 . Y = pale yellow.0.1.5 Luster Subvitreous to resinous Streak White to grayish Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 3.83 meas.7.1.Fracture Subconchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 7 . Calculated: 84° to 88° Dispersion r > v.747 nβ = 1.686 calc.3.1.745 .754 nγ = 1.736 . Z = golden yellow 2V angle Measured: 88°. 3.009 . weak .015 Pleochroism X = colorless. Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.74 .762 Birefringence δ = 0.


It has a specific gravity of 2. Talc is not soluble in water. a clear or dusty luster. it is the widely used substance known as talcum powder.TALC Talc (derived from Persian: tālk. Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. It is the softest known mineral and listed as 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. and the folia are non-elastic. and is translucent to opaque. and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It can be easily scratched by a fingernail.5– 2. although slightly flexible.8. It is also sectile (can be cut with a knife). Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. Arabic: talk) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. [edit]Formation . In loose form. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses. but it is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids. It has a perfect basal cleavage. Its streak is white.

and fibrous. This is known as talc carbonation or steatization and produces a suite of rocks known as talc carbonates. olivine. [2] but with magnesium in the octahedral sites of the composite layers. dolomite + silica + water → talc + calcite + carbon dioxide 3 CaMg(CO3)2 + 4 SiO2 + H2O → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 + 3 CO2 Talc can also be formed from magnesian chlorite and quartz in blueschist and eclogite metamorphism via the following metamorphic reaction: chlorite + quartz → kyanite + talc + water In this reaction. the ratio of talc and kyanite is dependent on aluminium content with more aluminous rocks favoring production of kyanite.A block of talc Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the metamorphism of magnesian minerals such as serpentine. which is typical of skarnification of dolomites via silica-flooding in contact metamorphic aureoles. and are known as whiteschist. Such rocks are typically white. pyroxene. amphibole. its structure is similar to that of pyrophyllite. This is typically associated with high-pressure. [edit]Occurrence . glaucophane within the lower blueschist facies. low-temperature minerals such as phengite. in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. garnet. Talc is primarily formed via hydration and carbonation via the following reaction. serpentine + carbon dioxide → talc + magnesite + water 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O Talc can also be formed via a reaction between dolomite and silica. friable. Talc is a tri-octahedral layered mineral.

notably the komatiite belts of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The Francebased Luzenac Group is the world's largest supplier of mined talc. and some collisional orogens such as the Himalayaswhich stretches along Pakistan. Western Australia. its largest talc mine at Trimouns near Luzenac in southern France produces 400. Talc carbonate ultramafics are typical of many areas of the Archaean cratons. and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. India. Notable economic talc occurrences include the Mount Seabrook talc mine.Talc output in 2005 Talc is a common metamorphic mineral in metamorphic belts which contain ultramafic rocks. representing 8% of world production. such as soapstone (a high-talc rock). layered ultramafic intrusion. Talccarbonate ultramafics are also known from the Lachlan Fold Belt. Nepal and Bhutan. formed upon a polydeformed. eastern Australia. Talc Crystals of talc General Category Silicate mineral .000 tonnes of talc [5] per year. from Brazil. the Guiana Shield. certain areas of the Musgrave Block. and from the ophiolite belts of Turkey. the western European Alps especially in Italy. Oman and the Middle East. Prime examples of whiteschists include the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western United States.

68°. fracture in an uneven pattern Tenacity Sectile Mohs scalehardness 1 (defining mineral) Luster Waxlike or pearly Streak White to pearl green . c = 5. β = 119. Z = 2 or a = 5. brown.3°. b = 9.291 Å. c = 18.290 Å. γ = 90.90°. α = 98. β = 99. b = 9.09°.173 Å.05 Crystal symmetry Either monoclinic 2m or triclinic1[1] Unit cell a = 5.287 Å. Z = 4[1] Identification Color Light to dark green. rare as platey to pyramidal crystals Crystal system monoclinic or triclinic[2] Cleavage Perfect on {001} basal cleavage Fracture Flat surfaces (not cleavage).EC.158 Å.Formula (repeating unit) Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Strunz classification 9.95 Å. white Crystal habit Foliated to fibrous masses.

58 to 2.550 nβ = 1.Diaphaneity Translucent Specific gravity 2.589 – 1.600 Birefringence δ = 0.589 – 1.538 – 1.83 Optical properties Biaxial (-) Refractive index nα = 1. long UV=yellow .594 nγ = 1.051 Pleochroism Weak in dark varieties Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=orange yellow.

Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.OH)2.TOPAZ Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F. and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. [edit]Color and varieties Facet Cut Topaz Gemstones in various colors .

pale green. Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect. It can also be made white. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow. pink (rare). [edit]Localities [9] [8] and occurrence Topaz Mountain. gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more [7] desired darker blue. observed [10] byJean Baptiste Tavernier measured 157. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue. The Topaz of Aurangzeb. colorless. blue.Sweden. a more recent gem. or blue brown. also known as precious topaz. Utah Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. Orange topaz. if natural) or pink-orange. the symbol of [5] friendship. [11] [12] Texas within the Llano Uplift. Norway. Colorless and light-blue varieties of topaz are found in Precambrian granite in Mason County. typical topaz is wine. gold. Germany. yellow. and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Nigeria and the United States.Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities. Flinders Island. pale gray. Italy. Sri Lanka. is the traditional November birthstone. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically. The American Golden Topaz. Brazil. sometimes even violet. in Afghanistan.75 carats. Imperial topaz is yellow. Japan. Some clear topaz crystals from Brazilian pegmatites can reach boulder size and weigh hundreds of pounds.892. pink or violet colored. [edit]Etymology and historical and mythical usage . It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. pink (rare. gold. There is no commercial mining of topaz in that area.5 carats. It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on [6][7] exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Pakistan. Australia. Mexico. Czech Republic. Crystals of this size may be seen in museum collections. reddish-orange. measured a massive 22. reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent.

because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os]. which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz. the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from. Brazil The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from [13] the Greek Τνπάδηνο(Τοpáziοs) or Τνπάδηνλ (Τοpáziοn). [edit]History Nicols. Minas Gerais. the ancient name of St. John's Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius. it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant [15] here. etymology. the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones. and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row. topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known about before the classical era. including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: "And thou shalt set in it settings of stones. but probably chrysolite(chrysoberyl or peridot). Plinysays that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral "topaz" was first mined there." However. [edit]Biblical background. dedicated two [14] chapters to the topic in 1652. a topaz. some scholars think it is related to . The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word "tapas" meaning "heat" or "fire".[edit]Etymology Colorless topaz. both of which predate the Greek word. and analysis Many modern English translations of the Bible. but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above. [13] and also to the Hebrew word for "orange" (the fruit): tapooz (‫)זופת‬. In the Middle Ages.

c = 8. "fiery".OH)2 Strunz classification Assyrian word meaning "flashed". pitdah is derived fromSanskrit words ( pit dah = burn). Z = 4 . meaning "yellow burn" or. b = 8.8 Å.65 Å. metaphorically. = yellow. Topaz A group of topaz crystals on matrix General Category Silicate mineral Formula (repeating unit) Al2SiO4(F.4 Å.AF.35 Crystal symmetry Orthorhombic dipyramidal H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m) Space group: Pbnm Unit cell a = 4. [citation needed] More likely.

green.638 .606–1. massive Crystal system Orthorhombic Cleavage [001] Perfect Fracture Subconchoidal to uneven Mohs scalehardness 8 (defining mineral) Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent Specific gravity 3.49–3. gray. yellow. compact.57 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.616–1.631 nγ = 1. brown. also columnar. pink and reddish pink Crystal habit Prismatic crystals with faces striated parallel to long dimension.Identification Color Colorless (if no impurities). orange.629 nβ = 1. blue.609–1.

long UV=cream . yellow. violet.010 Pleochroism Weak in thick sections X = yellow. bluish. pink Other characteristics Fluorescent.Birefringence δ = 0. Z = violet. reddish. short UV=golden yellow. Y = yellow.

lithium. [edit]History Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. magnesium.TOURMALINE GROUP Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" ( ) or "Thoramalli" ( ). Italy . sodium. which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. iron. [edit]Tourmaline    Schorl species:   Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl Dark yellow to brownish black —dravite species and varieties Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba. At the time it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral. or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.

black tourmaline was found. In the 19th century the names common schorl. [edit]Dravite Black Dravite on a grey matrix The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927). The word tourmaline has two etymologies. Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri Dravogradu). Carinthia. Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). in addition to cassiterite.Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH). schörl. In English. the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for [3] this mineral. in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg. is a part of the Republic of [4] Slovenia. the names shorland shirl were used in the 18th century.Drava river area. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the [3] title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". for the Drava river area. Up to about 1600. in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. both from the Sinhalese word turamali. The chemical composition which was given by Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the formula NaMg3(Al. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite.    Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety (from ruby) Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo) Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άτρφμος" meaning "colorless") [edit]Schorl The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. additional names used in the German language were "Schurel". . This village had a nearby tin mine where. "Schörle". and "Schurl". Austro-Hungarian Empire. meaning "stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties) or according to other sources "mixed gemstones". which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau. Beginning in the 18th century. which is in good agreement (except for the OH content) with the [4] endmember formula of dravite as known today. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature.

in which the new [5] alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time. K. Mn . Its composition varies widely because of isomorphous replacement (solid solution). Al. which is commonly used to date written as [5] Na(Li1. vacancy Z = Mg.5Al1. San Piero in Campo.[edit]Elbaite A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö. The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton. Sweden. California. V T = Si. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. Al. and aluminum-rich tourmaline [5] from Elba Island. O 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ . Elba Island. Elba Island. Na. was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. and its general formula can be written as XY3Z6(T6O18)(BO3)3V3W. Fe . Italy. Ti . Tuscany. vacancy Y = Li. Province of [5] Livorno. Czech Republic. Fe . where: [6] X = Ca. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-. Cr . B B = B. Cr . sodium-. with the simplified formula (Li. Mg. O W = OH. vacancy V = OH. United States. H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62. [edit]Chemical composition of the tourmaline group The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite. Italy.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH). Most likely the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete. V . In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. F. performed on a pink elbaite from San Diego County. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline fromSušice.Na)HAl 6B2Si4O21. Italy. Zn. Al. Fe .Campo nell'Elba.

US.Al1.Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz. The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas) Buergerite NaFe 3+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3F Chromdravite NaMg3Cr6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Dravite NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Elbaite Na(Li1.. California.5. Cryo-Genie Mine.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Feruvite CaFe 2+ 3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Foitite (Fe 2+ 2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-liddicoatite Ca(Li2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F . San Diego Co.

San Diego Co. Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz. US [edit]Physical properties . Himalaya Mine. California..Magnesiofoitite (Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Olenite NaAl3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3O3OH Povondraite NaFe 3+ 3+ 3(Fe 4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O Rossmanite (LiAl2)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Schorl NaFe 2+ 3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 Fluor-uvite CaMg3(MgAl5)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F Vanadiumdravite NaMg3V6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 [7][8] A revised nomenclature for the tourmaline group was published in 2011.

[edit]Treatments Some tourmaline gems. reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. it is colorless. these tourmaline crystals incorporatedMn and were initially very pale. in that they change color when viewed from different directions. etc. are sometimes clarity-enhanced. and are often pyroelectric as well. Usually. Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. especially pink to red colored stones. green.[edit]Crystal structure Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long. this type is called watermelon tourmaline. An exception was the fine dravite tourmalines of Yinnietharra. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is asymmetrical. red. Small slender prismatic crystals are common in a finegrained granite called aplite. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric. but is now exhausted. Heat treatment is also used to enhance tourmaline. During their 2+ growth. pink. yellow.Mozambique Tourmaline has a variety of colors. Prisms faces often have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect. called hemimorphism. which is responsible for the deepening of the pink to red color. The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of prolonged natural irradiation. The deposit was discovered in the 1970s. impact the value. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided prisms. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic. iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown. and does not. slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular in cross-section. often forming radial daisy-like patterns. while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow. Rarely. in western Australia. or green on the outside and pink inside. gradual formation of Mn ions [9] occurs. are altered by irradiation to improve their color. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common. Irradiation is almost impossible to detect in tourmalines. and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color: blue. Due to natural gamma 40 3+ ray exposure from radioactive decay of K in their granitic environment. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba) is [10] worth much less than a non-treated gem. currently. [edit]Geology . no other common mineral has three sides. Heavily-included tourmalines. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other. such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba. [edit]Color Tourmaline gemstones .

pink.Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic rocks such as schist and marble. Crystal habit Parallel and elongated.K. Acicular prisms.Li. dravites. violet. . Magnesium-rich tourmalines.B)6O18(OH.Al. Tourmaline Schorl Tourmaline General Category Cyclosilicate Formula (repeating unit) (Ca.Cr. Massive. are generally restricted to schists and marble. Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate.Fe.F)4 [1][2] Identification Color Most commonly black. sometimes radiating. green.Mg.Mn)3(Al. Fe.Na. Scattered grains (in granite). Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. or in a dual-colored pink and green.V)6 (BO3)3(Si. but can range from brown. and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered sediments.[])(Al.

06 (+. yellow-green Brown Tourmaline: Definite. uniaxial negative[1] Refractive index nφ=1. brittle Mohs scalehardness 7–7.06)[1] Density 2. dark red. dark blue.5 Luster Vitreous.020 but in dark stones it may reach .82–3. small conchoidal.32 Polish luster Vitreous[1] Optical properties Double refractive.635–1.20 -. nε=1. sometimes resinous Streak White Specific gravity 3. typically about .light red Green Tourmaline: Strong.650 Birefringence -0.018 to -0.675. dark green. light blue .040[1] Pleochroism typically moderate to strong[1] Red Tourmaline: Definite. light brown Blue Tourmaline: Strong. dark brown.Crystal system Trigonal Cleavage Indistinct Fracture Uneven.610–1.040.

red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum[1] . and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones.Dispersion .017[1] Ultravioletfluorescence pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave[1] Absorption spectra a strong narrow band at 498 nm.

Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. but the color grades to dark green with increasing iron content. [edit]Occurrence . Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. The fibrous form of tremolite is one of the six recognised types of asbestos. chrysotile (itself a type of asbestos) and talc. is a green variety of tremolite.TREMOLITE Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white. It has a hardness on Mohs scale of 5 to 6. one of the two minerals of thegemstone jade. Fibrous tremolite is sometimes found as a contaminant in vermiculite. This material is toxic and inhaling the fibers can lead to asbestosis. lung cancer and both pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. Nephrite.

500 tonnes of tremolite asbestos are [4] mined annually in India.10 Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m prismatic . Piumogna [1] Valley. Leventina. [edit]Fibrous tremolite One of the six recognised types of asbestos. cummingtonite.Ticino (Tessin). Associated minerals include calcite. forsterite. Tremolite was first described in 1789 for an occurrence in Campolungo. French Pyrenees (size: 8.2 x 6.7 cm) Tremolite is an indicator of metamorphic grade since at high temperatures it converts to diopside. riebeckite and wi [2] nchite. Tremolite Tremolite from the type locality in Switzerland General Category Amphiboles Formula (repeating unit) Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Strunz classification 9. Switzerland.DE.diopside.Tremolite from the Aure Valley. grossular. wollastonite. It is otherwise only found as a contaminant. Tremolite occurs as a result of contact metamorphism of calcium and magnesium rich siliceoussedimentary rocks and in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafic or magnesiumcarbonate bearing rocks. talc. Approximately 36. dolomite.

Unit cell a = 9. light green.95°. c = 5.03 Optical properties Biaxial (-) .99 – 3. Z = 2 Identification Color White.27 Å. rarely parallel to {001} Cleavage Perfect on {110} at 56° and 124°.02 Å. partings on {010} and {100} Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5–6 Luster Vitreous Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2. β = 104. common parallel to {100}. lavender to pink. b = 18. also as fibrous. gray. granular or columnar aggregates Crystal system Monoclinic Twinning Simple or multiple. light yellow Crystal habit Elongated prismatic. or flattened crystals.84 Å.

625 . Long UV=range pink .637 Birefringence δ = 0.1.Refractive index nα = nβ = 1.599 .626 nγ = 1.026 2V angle Measured: 86° to 88° Ultravioletfluorescence Short UV=yellow.613 .

with a basic structure containing chains of sodium. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral. Tarapacá Region in Chile. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes.ULEXITE Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide). hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. gyps [1] um and halite. Ulexite was named for the [2] German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex (1811–1883) who first discovered it. water and hydroxide octahedra. borax. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite. hydroboracite. It is found principally in California and Nevada. sometimes known as TV rock. is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. The chains are linked together by calcium. glauberite. by internal reflection. . Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals. trona. meyerhofferite. and Kazakhstan. calcite. probertite. USA. water. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. mirabilite.

a good-quality specimen will display an image of whatever surface is adjacent to its other side (as shown in the photograph). the internal reflection of the slow ray and the refraction of the fast ray into the slow ray of an adjacent fiber. The fiber-optic effect is the result of the polarization of light into slow and fast rays within each fiber. transmitting light along their lengths by internal reflection. Ulexite decomposes in hot water.A fragment of ulexite displaying characteristic optical property Ulexite is also known as TV rock due to its unusual optical characteristics. When a piece of ulexite is cut with flat polished faces perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers. Ulexite . when a laser beam obliquely illuminates the fibers. two of which are polarized. These cones can be seen when viewing a light source through the [4] mineral. An interesting consequence is the generation of three cones. The fibers of ulexite act asoptical fibers.

678(1) Å. Z =2 Identification .Ulexite from California(size: 6.25°.12°. c = 6.1 cm) General Category Nesoborates Formula (repeating unit) NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O) Strunz classification 06.816(3) Å.1°.25 Dana classification 26. γ = 105.87Å. β = 109.EA.11.9 x 5 x 3.05.01 Crystal symmetry Triclinic 1 pinacoidal Unit cell a = 8. α = 90. b = 12.

496 nβ = 1.504 – 1.95 – 1. silky or satiny in fibrous aggregates Streak White Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Specific gravity 1.491 – 1.506 br/>nγ = 1.520 Birefringence δ = 0.519 – 1.5 Luster Vitreous.028 .Color Colorless to white Crystal habit Acicular to fibrous Crystal system Triclinic Twinning Polysynthetic on {010} and {100} Cleavage Perfect on {010} good on {110} poor on {110} Fracture Uneven Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 2.96 Optical properties Biaxial (+) Refractive index nα = 1.

cream.2V angle Measured: 73° to 78° Ultravioletfluorescence May fluoresce yellow. white under SW and LW UV Solubility Slightly soluble in water Other characteristics Parallel fibrous masses can act as fiber optical light pipes . greenish yellow.

Depending on their composition. biotite gneiss. . Gneiss displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses.: /ˈnaɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. rotten or possibly worthless material. [edit]Etymology The etymology of the word "gneiss" is disputed. diorite gneisses. Other sources claim the root to be an old Saxon mining term that seems to have meant decayed. albite coarse-foliated and largely recrystallized but do not carry large quantities of micas. chlorite or other platyminerals. etc.GNEISS Gneiss (pron. so called because the rock glitters). This is developed under high temperature and pressure conditions. It has occurred in English since at least [1] 1757. etc. [edit]Composition Gneissic rocks are usually medium. they may also be called garnet gneiss. Some sources say it comes from the Middle High German verb gneist (to spark.

[3][4] "crystalline rock". sparkle. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. [5] gleam". most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. "shining stone". These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. [edit]Etymology The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron). most other European languages (e. perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρφ" (marmaírō). The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay.MARBLE Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals. Italian marmo. silt. Armenian marmar. stonemasons use the [1] term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. sand. "to flash. Danish and Swedish ma rmor. [edit]Physical [2] origins Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. Polish marmur. however. Turkish mermer. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. Czech mramor and Russianмр áмор ) follow the original Greek.g. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone. meaning "marble-like. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre. Norwegian. Spanish mármol.German. Dutch marmer. iron oxides. . Portuguese mármore. from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros). This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. most commonly calcite or dolomite.


sericite mica. or chlorite impart a silky. . and chlorite. Phyllites are said to have a "phyllitic texture" and are usually classified as having a low grade in the regional metamorphic facies. Phyllite is formed from the continued metamorphism of slate. The protolith (or parent rock) for phyllite is shale or pelite. Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but are not visible with the naked eye. The foliation is commonly crinkled or wavy in appearance. Minute crystals of graphite. Phyllites are usually black to gray or light greenish gray in color. Phyllite has a good fissility (a tendency to split into sheets) and will form under low grade metamorphic conditions. sericite. sometimes golden sheen to the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity).PHYLLITE Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz. Phyllite is commonly found in the Dalradian metasediments of northwest Arran. the rock represents a gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist.

Canada . the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. Minor amounts of former cementing materials. carbonate and clay. the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. therefore. and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries. not around them. diagenetically altered. When sandstone is metamorphosized to quartzite. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon. [edit]Uses [3] [1] Abandoned quartzite mine in Kakwa Provincial Park. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented by silica. such as yellow and orange. British Columbia.QUARTZITE Quartzite (from German Quarzit ) is a hard. Other colors. silica. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites. non-foliated metamorphic rock which was [2] originally sandstone. rutile and magnetite. and both usages are found in the literature. iron oxide. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented. Although few fossils are normally present. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. are due to other mineral impurities. though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. The nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little for soil. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops.

Quartzite is also found in the Morenci Copper Mine [12] in Arizona. South Africa Because of its hardness and angular shape. and stair steps. crushed quartzite is often used as railway ballast. pale grey. eastern South [7] [8] Dakota. In the United Kingdom. Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellentPrecambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. In Wales. In Canada. During the Stone Age quartzite [6] was used as an inferior alternative to flint.g. silicon and silicon carbide. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. High purity quartzite is used to [5] produce ferrosilicon. industrial silica sand. Also to be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartizite" (in Shropshire). A glassy vitreous quartzitehas been [13] described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo [9] [10] Hills in Wisconsin. Central Texas. In the Scottish Highlands. Arkle) composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far northwest Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction [15] to Skye. as flooring. as roofing tiles. Utah and as resistant ridges in [11] the Appalachians and other mountain regions. southwestMinnesota. precambrian quartzite. [4] . formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania. [2] Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. Monte Binga (2436 m). 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. several mountains (e. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls. [edit]Occurrences In the United States. Foinaven. and [14] the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite" (Nuneaton area). the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed primarily of white quartzite. as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of very hard. a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones (early Ordovician – Arenig Epoch.Biface in quartzite – Stellenbosch. The highest mountain in Mozambique. near Salt Lake City. 500 Ma) runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault. the Wasatch Range in Utah.


In other . Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents. shale and schist were not sharply differentiated. tourmaline schist. Contents [hide]       1 Historical mining terminology 2 Formation 3 Engineering considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Historical mining terminology [1] Before the mid 18th century. Schist is oftengarnetiferous. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. for example. In the [2] context of underground coal mining. chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Schist is characteristicallyfoliated. may both be converted into a grey or pink mica-schist. Most schists have been derived from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales. it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. A quartz-porphyry. but graphite and chlorite schists are also common. occupied by these rocks have traces of bedding. and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone. or unconformability then it may be a sign that the original rock was sedimentary. etc. Schists are frequently used as dimension stone. The individual mineral grains in schist. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. glaucophane schist. hornblende. they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. By definition. however. such as garnet schist. [edit]Formation During metamorphism. for example. Dimension stone is stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific shapes or sizes. often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. If the whole district. Most schists are mica schists. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. and others.slates and phyllites as intermediate steps. rocks which were originally sedimentary or igneous are converted into schists and gneisses. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. The word schist is derived from the Greek word ζχίδεηλ schíxeinmeaning "to split". schist contains more than 50% platy and elongated minerals.talc. can be seen by the naked eye.clastic structure. Usually. Certain schists have been derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts and tuffs. If the composition of the rocks was originally similar. chlorite. graphite.The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. the terms slate.

however. are alteredclaystones and shales. for there are certain rock types which occur only as sediments. Such rocks. while others are found only among igneous masses. some of them aregraphitic and others calcareous. The diversity in appearance and composition is very great. feldspar. tremolite. quartz schists and quartzose gneisses). quartzites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characters which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized. there are also schistose ironstones (hematite-schists). . but they form a well-defined group not difficult to recognize. foliated. The graphitic schists may readily be believed to represent sediments once containing coal or plant remains. kyanite and sillimanite-schists which usually make their appearance in the [3] vicinity of gneissose granites. diopside. it rarely modifies the chemical composition of the mass very greatly. garnet. and however advanced the metamorphism may be. many metamorphic limestones. marbles. contain silicate minerals such as mica. Among schists of igneous origin there are the silky calc-schists. but metamorphic beds of salt or gypsum are exceedingly uncommon. porphyroids and banded halleflintas. For example. as limestones. and have presumably been affected by contact metamorphism. zoisite and hornblende. from the abundance of black and white micas and their thin. A subgroup is the andalusite. The schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. and the white mica-schists. They are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. quartz-porphyries and felsic tuffs. the foliated serpentines (once ultramafic masses rich in olivine). They are among the most common metamorphic rocks. These were once sandstones and arenaceous rocks. for example. with crystalline dolomites. and pass into the normal sedimentary rocks through various types of phyllite and mica-slates. chilled edges.cases intrusive junctions. and calc-schists. staurolite. Another group is rich in quartz (quartzites. The majority of mica-schists. schistose character. scapolite. quartz and feldspar. which have been derived from rhyolites. contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. dolomites. The last appeal is often to the chemistry. with variable amounts of white and black mica.

Schist Garnet Schist Mica .


In the context of underground coal mining. kaolinite. less frequently. [1] Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. magnetite. the terms slate. [edit]Mineral composition Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite. or a writing slate. tourmaline. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. leaving a light green spotted texture. graphite. green or cyan. or zirconas well as feldspar. foliated. . shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Slate is not to be confused with shale. especially when seen. traditionally a small piece of slate.Slate Slate is a fine-grained. However. and pyrite and. slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey. used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc. and draw slate refers to roof slate [4] (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids. covering roofs. chlorite. and may also be purple. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei. from pale to dark. [edit]Historical mining terminology [2] Before the mid-19th century. hematite. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. often along with biotite. from which it may be formed. The phrase "clean slate" or "blank slate" comes from this use. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shaletype sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanicash through low-grade regional metamorphism. or schist. many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. often framed in wood. which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen. as in the purple slates of North Wales. and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns. It may mean a single roofing slate.. For example. Occasionally. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry. en masse. for example. Slate is frequently grey in color. apatite. the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th [3] century.


Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. it rises through the wedge until it reach the lower boundary of the overriding plate. the relative contribution of the three components (crust. Themineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene and/or hornblende. During subduction. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir [edit]Fractional crystallization To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization. ilmenite. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole. but most . of intermediate composition. The average composition of the continental crust is andesitic.ANDESITE Andesite (pron. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Along with basalts they are [3] a major component of the Martian crust. Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. anhydrous forms. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: 1. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are then removed from the melt. 3. [edit]Generation of melts in island arcs Magmatism in island arc regions (i. andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs. Characteristic of subduction zones. (which are present in the oceanic lithosphere) dehydrate as they change to more stable. such as the Aleutian [2] Arc in Alaska. active oceanic margins) comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge. leading to metamorphism. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite. if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. [edit]Genesis of andesite Andesite is typically formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may also melt during this process. Magnetite. This removal can take place in a variety of ways. it is the intermediate type between basalt and dacite. and wedge) to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. zircon. but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements (e. Due to the lower density of the partially molten material. biotite. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts.. [1] and garnetare common accessory minerals. volcanic rock. In a general sense. barium(Ba). the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. zeolites. apatite.g. 2. Partial melting of crustal material. with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. chlorite etc. and lead (Pb)) which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate. releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle.e. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers [4] the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. potassium (K).: /ˈændəsaɪt/) is an extrusive igneous. [5] sediment. the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature.

however.commonly this occurs by crystal settling. magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system. Once these mafic minerals have been removed. such as the Andes. Without continued addition of mafic material. creating a layer of molten material at its base. magma often pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. Basalt can. the melt becomes more and more evolved eventually becoming andesitic. These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. As this process continues. are probably the result of fractional crystallization rather than partial melting of the crust.1240 °C cannot provide [6] enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite. [edit]Magma mixing In continental arcs. Once there. or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. When this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma. however. the melt will eventually reach a rhyolitic composition. these reservoirs cool. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs. however. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat. meltpelitic upper crustal [7] material. the melt no longer has a basaltic composition. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are olivines and amphiboles. The silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. This possibly points to a new mechanism to generate andesite [8] crust. the basaltic melt can eitherunderplate the crust. its intermediate phase. In order to remain active. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition (dacitic to rhyolitic) through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. . There geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. Models of heat transfer. show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100 . researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites (numbered GRA 06128 and GRA 06129) that were discovered in the Graves Nunatak Icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted. [edit]Partial melting of the crust Partially molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. If it underplates the crust. forming mafic cumulates. the basalt can (in theory) cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. [edit]Andesite in space In 2009. the composition is returned to andesite. therefore.


Source rocks for the partial melts probably include bothperidotite and pyroxenite (e.BASALT Basalt (pron. granite has more than 20% quartz by volume. but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust.g.: /bəˈsɔːlt/. and even on the asteroid Vesta. basalt must be an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20%quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume. embedded in a finer-grained matrix.) Basalt is usually grey to black in colour. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt. the third largest moon of Jupiter. The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt. (In comparison. By definition. Sobolev et al. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow. produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges. Hungary . /ˈbæsɔːlt/. but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic(coarse) groundmass are generally referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or gabbro.. and has also formed on Earth's Moon. Mars. 2007). and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. although it can sometimes be porphyritic. most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. On Earth. [1][2][3] Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill. /ˈbæsɒlt/. Basalt commonly erupts on Io. or /ˈbeɪsɔːlt/) is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria.. and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. Venus.

Arizona. . an excellent thermal insulator. Uses Basalt is used in construction (e. believing it to be the same as Pliny the Elder's "very hard stone". as building blocks or in the groundwork). from βάζανος (basanos. Etymology The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes. basanites "very hard stone.g." which was imported from Ancient Greek βαζανίηης (basanites). [4] "touchstone") and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica. making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) and in making statues. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg (local castle hill) at Stolpen.Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater. misspelling of L. US quarter for scale. Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool. libri XII. Types Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern.

most large oceanic islands. MORB itself has been subdivided into varieties such [5][6] as NMORB and EMORB (slightly more enriched in incompatible elements). Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins. MORB is commonly erupted only at ocean ridges. is characteristically low in incompatible elements.     . It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids. and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. alkali feldspar and phlogopite. distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition. Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor. MORB (Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt). Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium. It has greater than 17% alumina (Al2O3) and is intermediate in composition between tholeiite and alkali basalt. High alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated (see normative mineralogy). the relatively alumina-rich composition is based on rocks without phenocrysts ofplagioclase.

and frequently has a greenish cast. the rock grades into ferrodiorite. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite (>5% quartz) or tonalite (>20% quartz). and in cordilleran mountain building such as in the Andes Mountains as largebatholiths. It is so hard that ancient civilizations (such as Ancient Egypt) used diorite balls to work granite. [edit]Occurrence Diorite Diorite is a relatively rare rock. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. Finland. . Its hardness. however. into which they may subtly merge. Diorite has a medium grain size texture. Minnesota in theUSA. Diorite results from partial melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. Scotland. and/or pyroxene. Italy. sphene. UK (one name for microdiorite— markfieldite—exists due to the rock being found in the village of Markfield). An orbicular variety found in Corsica is called corsite. which is transitional togabbro. It can also be black or bluish-grey. and if orthoclase (potassiumfeldspar) is present at greater than ten percent the rock type grades into monzodiorite or granodiorite. also allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish. making it difficult to carve and work with. Sondrio. microcline and olivine. It may contain small amounts of quartz. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs.: /ˈdaɪəraɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine). apatite. the Darrans range of New Zealand. When olivine and more ironrich augite are present. and Idahet in Egypt. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite.DIORITE Diorite (pron. [edit]Historic use Diorite is an extremely hard rock.biotite. Romania. hornblende. occasionally with porphyry. Basin and Range province. and to provide a durable finished work. the Isle of Guernsey. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions. ilmenite andsulfides occur [1] as accessory minerals. Northeastern Turkey. the Andes Mountains. central Sweden. Thuringia andSaxony in Germany. magnetite. source localities include Leicestershire. Zircon.

23 m (7 ft 4 in) pillar of black diorite. but mostly for fortress walls. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt. The original can be seen today in Paris'Musée du [2] Louvre. Guernsey and Scotland. Although diorite is rough-textured in nature. where centuries of foot traffic have polished the steps to a sheen. Assyria and Sumer. its ability to take a polish can be seen in the diorite steps of St. Paul's Cathedral.One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription. today many diorite cobblestone streets can be found in England. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. etc. In later times. weaponry. Although one can find diorite art from later periods. inscribed upon a 2. it became more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability. Perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi. London. and scattered throughout the world in such places as Ecuador and China. . Diorite was used by both the Inca andMayan civilizations. Babylonia. It was especially popular with medieval Islamic builders. diorite was commonly used as cobblestone. as it is easier to carve in relief than in threedimensional statuary.

The pyroxene is mostly clinopyroxene. Gabbro as a xenolith in a granite. the rock is then a norite.: /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark. amphibole. (Silica saturation of a rock can be evaluated by normative mineralogy).GABBRO Gabbro (pron. Rock Creek Canyon. Gabbros contain minor amounts. small amounts of orthopyroxene may be present. Isle of Skye. easternSierra Nevada. coarse-grained. plagioclase. and olivine (olivine gabbro when olivine is present in a large amount). intrusive mafic igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt. If the amount of orthopyroxene is substantially greater than the amount of clinopyroxene. with crystals in the size range of 1 mm or greater. formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust. Quartz gabbros are also known to occur and are probably derived from magma that was oversaturated with silica. although the vernacular term microgabbro is often used when . Essexites represent gabbros whose parent magma was under-saturated with silica. Finer grained equivalents of gabbro are called diabase. Gabbro is generally coarse grained. greenish or dark-colored and contains pyroxene. [edit]Petrology A gabbro landscape on the main ridge of the Cuillin. of irontitanium oxides such as magnetite. California. The rocks areplutonic. typically a few percent. resulting in the formation of the feldspathoidmineral nepheline. Gabbro is dense. and ulvospinel. Scotland. produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. ilmenite.

silver. intruding into the rift flanks. [edit]Etymology Gabbro was named by the German geologist Christian Leopold von Buch after a town in the Italian Tuscany region. It is also used in kitchens and their countertops. although these may exhibit acicular crystal habits. which is a popular type of graveyard headstone used in funerary rites. although it may be porphyritic at times. Gabbro may be extremely coarse grained to pegmatitic. Gabbro is an essential part of the oceanic crust. Cumulate gabbros are more properly termed pyroxene-plagioclase orthocumulate. and can be found in many ophiolite complexes as parts of zones III and IV (sheeted dyke zone to massive gabbro zone). Essexite is named after the type locality in Essex County. paving stones and it is also known by the trade name of 'black granite'. Gabbro is usually equigranular in texture. US. and some pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates are essentially coarse grained gabbro. [edit]Distribution Gabbro can be formed as a massive. uniform intrusion via in-situ crystallisation of pyroxene and plagioclase. also under the misnomer of 'black granite'. nickel.extra descriptiveness is desired. cobalt. and copper sulfides. Mantle plume hypotheses may rely on identifying mafic and ultramafic intrusions and coeval basalt volcanism. Long belts of gabbroic intrusions are typically formed at proto-rift zones and around ancient rift zone margins. platinum. Massachusetts. Ocellar varieties of gabbro can be used as ornamental facing stones. or as part of a layered intrusion as acumulate formed by settling of pyroxene and plagioclase. especially when plagioclase oikocrysts have grown earlier than the groundmass minerals. [edit]Uses Gabbro often contains valuable amounts of chromium. gold. .


in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Granites can be pink to gray in color. mica. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. Granite is usually found in thecontinental plates of the Earth's crust. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures). its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa. and therefore it has gained [1] widespread use as a construction stone. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum. coarse-grained igneous [4] rocks. granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume.1260 °C. an unusual type of granite. formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass. and feldspar. Granitoid is a general. By definition. The average density of granite is between 2. in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. near the town of Caldera. a grain. and its viscosity near STP is 3-6 • 19 [2] [3] 10 Pa·s. descriptive field term for light-colored.GRANITE Granite (pron. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. northern Chile . Melting temperature is 1215 . depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. hard and tough. felsic.: /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common type of intrusive.65 and 2.75 3 g/cm . This rock consists mainly of quartz. [edit]Mineralogy Orbicular granite.

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia Close-up of granite exposed in Chennai. Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) . India.

Cornwall .Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park. valley of the Merced River Roche Rock.

sanidine. pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite.69% CaO — 1. Cornwall Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods. very coarsegrained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase. Granite often occurs as relatively small. [edit]Origin Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. [edit]Chemical composition [5] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite.The Cheesewring.12% MnO — 0. In some locations. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase. True granite according to modern petrologicconvention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.71% TiO2 — 0.68% Fe2O3 — 1. the rock is referred to asalkali granite. it is called tonalite.82% FeO — 1.04% (silica) Al2O3 — 14.30% P2O5 — 0. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. where it forms a major part of continental crust.05% Based on 2485 analyses [edit]Occurrence Granite is currently known only on Earth. alkalifeldspar (orthoclase.12% Na2O — 3. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. . although much of it is of Precambrian age. by weight percent:            SiO2 — 72.42% (alumina) K2O — 4.22% MgO — 0.


its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. California . Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals). where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. Origin and properties Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava. becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater.. among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass. which had been used in the past in cutting and piercing tools. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt. Obsidian is hard and brittle. Having a low [12] water content when newly formed typically less than 1% water by weight. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide).. obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. forming perlite. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins ofrhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. The translation into English of Natural History written by the elder Pliny of Greece shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called Obsian. [9][10][11] . and has been used experimentally as [4] surgical scalpel blades. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions. it therefore fractures with very sharp edges.OBSIDIAN Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. a substance very similar to the stone [5] found by Obsius in Ethiopia. usually 70% or more. Obsidian is mineral-like. in addition. which is the parent material. no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. so named from its resemblance to a stone found in [6][7][8] Ethiopia by Obsius (obsiānus lapis). It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include granite and rhyolite.

It can be found in Argentina. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian) or aniridescent. Mexico. states including Arizona. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U. Palmarola and Monte [15] Arci. Colorado.Utah. rainbow-like sheen (rainbow obsidian). [16] Acigöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia. and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari. states of Virginia. a large obsidian flow atMedicine Lake Volcano Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Pantelleria.S. Scotland and the United States. white. Canada.Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance. New Zealand. In some stones. Peru.Greece. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America. El Salvador. Iron and magnesium typically give the obsidian a dark brown to black color.S. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Melos and Giali. Chile. Very few samples are nearly colorless. as well as Pennsylvania. and deposits can be found in many other western U. . aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. Kenya. one of the [17][18][19] more important source areas in prehistoric Near East. Texas. Armenia. Oregon and Idaho. Iceland. the inclusion of small. Japan. Azerbaijan. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin. New [13] [14] Mexico. Occurrence Glass Mountain. Italy. though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Guatemala. Washington. radially clustered crystals ofcristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern (snowflake obsidian). It may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow.


crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection. pyroxene and other minerals are known. and the world's largest crystal was found within a [citation needed] pegmatite. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites. Similarly. found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions.PEGMATITE A pegmatite is a very crystalline. Therefore. such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic. macroscale graphic texture is known. to assist in the enhancement of conditions of diffusivity High concentrations of fluxing elements such as boron and lithium which lower the temperature of solidification within the magma or vapor Low thermal gradients coupled with a high wall rock temperature. and when affected by hydrous crystallization. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz.     Low rates of nucleation of crystals coupled with high diffusivity to force growth of a few large crystals instead of many smaller crystals High vapor and water pressure.5 cm in size. Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning. in essence a granite. Ca-plagioclase feldspar. A very diagnostic feature are crystals that are larger than in normal igneous rocks. For this reason. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite often shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye. thermal and compositional conditions required to promote pegmatite growth there are three main theories behind pegmatite formation. [edit]Petrology Crystal growth rates in pegmatite must be incredibly fast to allow gigantic crystals to grow within the confines and pressures of the Earth's crust. Pegmatites are usually small compared to typical intrusions. Theory Theory . [edit]General description There is no single feature that is diagnostic to all pegmatites. Individual crystals over 10 metres across have been found. Crystal size and mineral [2] assemblages are usually oriented parallel to the wall rock or even concentric for pegmatite lenses. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole. exsolution lamellae. with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and usually show zones with different mineral assemblages. explaining the preponderance for pegmatite to occur only within greenschist metamorphic terranes Despite this consensus on likely chemical. Their size is in the order of magnitude of 1 m to a few 100 m. intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking crystals usually larger [1] than 2. feldspar and mica. the consensus on pegmatitic growth mechanisms involves a combination of the following processes. a list of criteria is used to distinguish them from other rocks. with crystals usually over 5 cm in size.

and are usually granitic in character. to liberate the right constituents and water. pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems. for example greisens. eastern Sierra Nevada. being altogether "granitic" in pegmatite fluids are created by devolatilisation (dewatering) of metamorphic rocks. It is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. Pegmatites thus represent exsolved granitic material which crystallises in the country rocks Metasomatic pegmatite. could be explained by the action of hot alteration fluids upon a rock mass. granite-associated mineralisation styles. . California. at the right temperature Magmatic pegmatites tend to occur in the aureoles of granites in most cases. Metamorphic particularly felsic gneiss. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in all cases dominated by some form of feldspar. Metasomatism is currently not well favored as a mechanism for pegmatite formation and it is likely that metamorphism and magmatism are both contributors toward the conditions necessary for pegmatite genesis. with bulk chemical and textural change. often with mica and usually with quartz. [edit]Mineralogy Pegmatitic granite. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Rock Creek Canyon. in a few cases. often closely matching the compositions of nearby granites. Note pink potassium feldspars and cumulatefilled chamber. Beyond that. and somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation.

bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. et cetera. tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatites within the area of influence of a composite granite intrusion (Mount Isa Inlier. The majority of the world's beryllium is sourced from non-gem quality beryl within pegmatite. tourmaline. fluorite. apatite and corundum. pegmatite is often characterised by sampling the individual minerals which comprise the pegmatite. and comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. such as aquamarine. Queensland. [edit]Nomenclature Pegmatites can be classified according to the elements or mineral of interest. Bismuth. considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite. Tantalum. however. [edit]Economic importance Pegmatites are important because they often contain rare earth minerals and gemstones. is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. tourmaline. potassium and lithium. Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene. In most cases. Geochemically. Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite. boron. Hence. thorium. when found in association with granitic plutons it is likely that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile (incompatible) elements. niobium. tourmaline. often along with tin and tungstenminerals. beryllium. These may be named formally or informally as a class of intrusive rock or within a larger igneous association. however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between. notably the Greenbushes Pegmatite. for instance "lithian pegmatite" to describe a Li-bearing or Li-mineral bearing pegmatite. Often. say. There is often no meaningful way to distinguish pegmatites according to chemistry due to the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample. but this is not yet an important source of these metals. zinnwaldite and so forth. [edit]Geochemistry Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. lepidolite. molybdenum and tin have been won from pegmatite. The primary source for caesium is pollucite. uranium. rare-earth elements are sourced from a few pegmatites worldwide. a mineral from a zoned pegmatite. cesium. tantalite. orange and brown almandine garnet. . orientation. topaz. among others. commonly almandine or spessartine. enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of equally unusual and rare minerals such as beryl. cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. accessory minerals and timing. aluminium. lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite. there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite. Occasionally. pegmatites typically have major element compositions approximating "granite". tantalite. columbite. or "boron pegmatite" for those containing tourmaline.Garnet. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red. niobite) are found in association with spodumene. Australia). but often groups of pegmatites can be distinguished on contact textures.

notable pegmatite occurrences are within the major cratons. for example within the strain shadow of a large rigid granite body. pegmatite tends to concentrate around granitic bodies within zones of low mean strain and within zones of extension. often pegmatites are referred to as "metamorphic". Aplite and porphyry dikes and veins may intrude pegmatites and wall rocks adjacent to intrusions. Within the metamorphic belts. creating a confused sequence of felsic intrusive apophyses (thin branches or offshoots of igneous bodies) within the aureole of some granites. Similarly. and within greenschist-facies metamorphic belts. based on the interpretations of the investigating geologist. "granitic" or "metasomatic". pegmatite localities are only well recorded when economic mineralisation is found. transitional with some greisens.While difficult to be certain of derivation of pegmatite in the strictest sense. However. Some skarns associated with granites also tend to host pegmatites. [edit]Occurrence Worldwide. as a late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal effect of syn-metamorphic granitic magmatism. pegmatite is often found within the contact zone of granite. .

The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. compressed with fiamme on right. Pumice is created when super-heated. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (includingwater and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava. The simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in the matrix. Rocks from the Bishop tuff. Properties Illustrates the porous nature in detail. . It is typically light colored. causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened). uncompressed with pumice on left. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored [1][2] and denser.: /ˈpʌmɨs/ is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass.PUMICE Pumice pron. highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. which may or may not contain crystals.

. and initially floats on water. andesite. In [4] fact. In 1979. When larger amounts of gas are present. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. many samples float in water. 1984 and 2006. ranging from white. pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. After the explosion of Krakatoa. with tree trunks floating among them. rafts of [3] pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years. Pumice has an average porosity of 90%. to green-brown or black. It is commonly. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. some as large as 30 km that floated hundreds [5] of kilometres to Fiji. 20-dollar bill demonstrates its very low density. the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumicite. Pumice is commonly pale in color. Pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles. translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock.g. trachyte). With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. blue or grey.. dacitic. cream. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure. pantellerite.S. A piece of processed pumice resting on a plastic bag. It forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma nucleate bubbles which cannot readily decouple from the viscous magma prior to chilling to glass. but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition (e. rhyolitic. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin.A 15 centimeter (6 inch) piece of pumice supported by a rolled-up U. underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts. phonolite. but basaltic and other compositions are known. Pumice is a common product of explosive eruptions (plinian and ignimbrite-forming) and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. it sinks rapidly.

The elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or. It was also used in [6] ancient Greek and Roman times to remove excess hair. . Roman engineers used it to build the huge dome of the Pantheon and as construction material for many aqueducts. in the case of pumiceous lavas. smooth. plaster-like concrete. Uses Pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density breeze blocks. This form of concrete was used as far back as Romantimes. Pumice is also used as a growing substrate for growing horticultural crops. Some brands of chinchilla dust bathare made of powdered pumice. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners (such as Lava soap) as a mild abrasive. especially in polishes. during flow. It is also used as an abrasive. pencil erasers. cosmetic exfoliants. "Pumice stones" are often used in beauty salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric. When used as an additive for cement. and the production of stone-washed jeans. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high vapor pressure during eruption.There are two main forms of vesicles. a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight.

below:pumice.RHYOLITE Rhyolite is an igneous. the eruptions were at the St. Andrew Strait Volcano in Papua New Guinea. Novarupta Volcano in Alaska. Rhyolites that cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre. and lithophysal structures. rhyolite melts are highly polymerized and form highly viscous lavas. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents. where as many as fifty small quarry pits are known. also called obsidian. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals. of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations. and consequently. [edit]Geology Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock. Eruptions of this advanced form of Igneous rock are rare. They can also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. . lower right: is rhyolite (light colour) In North American pre-historic times. alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2 — see the QAPF diagram). Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams [1] County. spherulitic. outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. only 3 eruptions of Rhyolite have been recorded since the 20th century. United States and Chaiten in Southern Chile. [edit]History Top: obsidian (vitrophyre). rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.nodular. volcanic (extrusive) rock. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz. Many eruptions of rhyolite are highly explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. Some rhyolite is highly vesicular pumice.


SCORIA Scoria is a highly vesicular. Volcanic cones of scoria can be left behind after eruptions. and hence is denser. Quincan. allowing rapid volatile diffusion. instead they open into one another with little distortion. creating bubbles in the molten rock. Vesicles are usually small. [edit]Formation As rising magma encounters lower pressures. another vesicular volcanic rock. Scoria may form as part of a lava flow. is quarried at Mount Quincan in Far North Queensland. some of which are frozen in place as the rock cools and solidifies. Most scoria is composed of glassy fragments. for instance inStrombolian eruptions that form steep-sided scoria cones. It is typically dark in color (generally dark brown. skōria. dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts). and sinks in water. a unique form of Scoria. [edit]Comparisons Scoria differs from pumice. coalescence. rust. The [1][2] wordscoria comes from the Greek ζκφρία. . The difference is probably the result of lower magma viscosity. typically near its surface. bubble growth. spheroidal and do not impinge upon one another. but in contrast to pumice. dissolved gases are able to exsolve and form vesicles. or as fragmental ejecta (lapilli. An example is Mount Wellington. blocks and bombs). The holes or vesicles form when gases that were dissolved in the magma come out of solution as it erupts. Scoria is relatively low in mass as a result of its numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles. Australia. which like the Three Kings in the south of the same city has been extensively quarried. and basaltic or andesitic in composition. and bursting. in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls. An old name for scoria is cinder. Auckland in New Zealand. black or purplish red). and may contain phenocrysts. usually forming mountains with a crater at the summit. [edit]Uses Tuff moai with red scoriapukao on its head . all scoria has a specific gravity greater than 1. Some of the vesicles are trapped when the magma chills and solidifies.

Scoria can be used for high-temperature insulation. . It is also used as a traction aid on ice and snow covered roads. Scoria is used on oil well sites to limit mud issues with heavy truck traffic. It is also commonly used in gas barbecue grills. Scoria is often used in [3] [4] landscaping and drainage works. The quarry of Puna Pau on Rapa Nui/Easter Island was the source of a red coloured scoria which the Rapanui people used to carve the pukao (or topknots) for their distinctive moai statues. and to carve some moai from. It is somewhat porous. has high surface area and strength for its weight. and often has striking colours.Scoria has several useful characteristics that influence how it is used.

which also include bituminous coal and lignite. as opposed to lignite. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short. which is softer). Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness. the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist. The imperfect anthracite of north Devonand north Cornwall (around Bude) in England. which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. Anthracite [4] accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves. blind coal (in Scotland). hard coal. China accounts for the lion’s share of production. like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well. is known as culm. Kilkenny coal (in Ireland). stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance." from άλζξαμ (ánthrax). Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism). Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point ofignition. and smokeless flame. which is used as a pigment. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous into anthracite. and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG). North Korea. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the UK. It has the highest carbon content. in [2][3] which the carbon content is between 92. [edit]Terminology Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal.ANTHRACITE COAL Anthracite (Greek aλζξαθίηεο (anthrakítes). Australia and the US.3– 1. and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. "coal-like. the fewest impurities. compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. mineral-matter-free basis. other producers are Russia. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons. Anthracite is categorized into standard grade. and black diamond. and lustre. and is mined in only a few countries around the world. [5] Vietnam. its higher relative density of 1.1% and 98%. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Ukraine. and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U. [edit]Properties This section does not cite any references or sources.4. and the highest calorific content of all types of coals. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite. crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance). blue.S. In America. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 . culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. markets to distinguish it from its competitors. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. which is used mainly in power generation. (February 2013) [1] Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. coal) is a hard.

Since the 1980s. it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former. circa 1935 .MJ/kg). anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements. Anthracite is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks. and Western Pennsylvania. anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times. In [6] June 2008. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. coking coal and domestic house coals. Structurally. the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic)Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentuckyand West Virginia. anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. mined near Saundersfoot. New Mexico. Pennsylvania. In southwest Wales. an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. the central and eastern portions producing steam coal. Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings. By 1795. Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous and graphite.e. the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton. such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous at the same temperature. anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. [7] It was In the United States. [edit]Economic value Because of its higher quality.. The thermal conductivity is also higher. on the as-received basis (i. just as bituminous is associated with sedimentary rocks. For example. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region.

The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces.S." and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. Current U. In the early 20th century United States. by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces.8 million tons [8] were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in [citation needed] 1917. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom. dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite. the Delaware. Pennsylvania. and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a [citation needed] viable heating fuel.Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media. were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Of that. From the late 19th century until the 1950s. John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth. marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. making it ideal for this purpose. Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for [9] their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. about 1. Many large public buildings. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. In spring 1808. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves. Pennsylvania. From that first mine. Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives. anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of . from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine During the American Civil War. on an open grate in a fireplace. such as schools. until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot. Group of breaker boys. placed in descending order.

"semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power . Similarly. anthracite was largely used. Formerly. the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies. but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. [10] . Commercial mining has now ceased. both in America and South Wales. as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France. Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed". Switzerland and parts of Germany. or less. meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993. "poor".Anthracite".

Arkose is often associated with conglomerate deposits sourced from granitic terrain and is often found above unconformities over such granitic terrain. Fossils are rare in arkose. Arkosic sand is sand that is similarly rich in feldspar. Apart from the mineral content. Quartz is commonly the dominant mineral component. . and thus the potential precursor of arkose. although bedding is frequently visible.ARKOSE Arkose (pron. but tends toward the coarser end of the scale. These sediments must be deposited rapidly and/or in a cold or arid environment such that the feldspar does not undergo significant chemical weathering and decomposition. rock fragments may also be a significant component. Arkose sandstone found in Slovakia Arkose is generally formed from the weathering of feldspar-rich igneous or metamorphic. which are primarily composed of quartz and feldspar (called 'grus' as a sand). and some mica is often present. Arkose usually contains small amounts of calcite cement. which causes it to 'fizz' slightly in dilute hydrochloric acid.: /ˈɑrkoʊz/) is a detrital sedimentary rock. specifically a type of sandstone containing at least [1][2] 25% feldspar. due to the depositional processes that form it. The sand grains making up an arkose may range from fine to very coarse. The central Australian monolith Uluru (Ayers Rock) is composed of late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian arkose. therefore arkose is designated a texturally immature sedimentary rock. Arkose is typically grey to reddish in colour. [3] deposited in the Amadeus Basin. sometimes the cement also contains iron oxide. most commonly granitic rocks.


Within the coal mining industry. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull material within the seams. is how Bituminous coals are stratigraphically identified. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 24 to 35 MJ/kg (21 million to 30 million BTU per short ton) on a moist. These distinctive sequences. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. air. dull-banded". Extraction of Bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring. Bank density is approximately 1346 kg/m³ (84 lb/ft³). this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp. Its primary constituents are macerals vitrinite. the rest is composed of water. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60-80%. good ventilation and vigilant site management. which are classified according to either "dull. a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Bulk density typically runs to 833 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³). bright-banded" or "bright. mineral-matter-free basis. hydrogen. It is of higher quality than lignite coalbut of poorer quality than anthracite. and sulphur. and exinite. .BITUMINOUS COAL Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. which have not been driven off from the macerals.

Sedimentary breccias can be described as rudaceous. Technically. randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. [edit]Tectonic Tectonic breccias form where two tectonic plates create a crumbling of the interface. by their relative movements. The other derivation of sedimentary breccia is as angular. Thick sequences of sedimentary (colluvial) breccias are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens. lithified colluvium. avalanches. A breccia may have a variety of different origins. Talusslopes might become buried and the talus cemented in a similar manner. Sedimentary breccias are an integral host rock for many SEDEX ore deposits. especially if one is working entirely from drilling information. and in that language indicates either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. A conglomerate.BRECCIA Breccia (pron. Breccias indicate accumulation in a juvenile stream channel or accumulations because of gravity erosion. . tectonic breccia. [edit]Collapse A collapse breccia forms where there has been a collapse of rock. typically in a karst landscape. Collapse breccias form blankets in highly weatheredregolith due to the removal of rock components by dissolution. These are. Both breccias and conglomerates are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres (0. The angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. turbiditesare a form of debris flow deposit and are a fine-grained peripheral deposit to a sedimentary breccia flow. They are formed by either submarine debris flows. In the field. poorly sorted. immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting. igneous breccia. The word is a loan from Italian. that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.079 in) in size. [edit]Types [edit]Sedimentary Sedimentary breccias are a type of clastic sedimentary rock which are composed of angular to subangular. it may at times be difficult to distinguish between a debris flow sedimentary breccia and a colluvial breccia. as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia. Italian: breach) is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or [1] rock cemented together by a fine-grainedmatrix. is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of preexisting rocks. by contrast.: /ˈbrɛtʃiə/ or /ˈbrɛʃiə/. mud flow or mass flow in an aqueous medium. in essence. impact breccia and hydrothermalbreccia.

[edit]Volcanic Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column. . Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of mineral matter introduced by groundwater. This occurs when the thick. Lavas. granites and kimberlite pipes. as they slide past each other. The volcanic breccia environment is transitional into the plutonic breccia environment in the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes. where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. This may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magmaconduit. This is typical of volcanic caldera settings. tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are then reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma.[edit]Fault Fault breccias result from the grinding action of two fault blocks. [edit]Igneous Igneous clastic (detrital) rocks can be divided into two classes:   Broken. especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano. Lavas may also pick up rock fragments. fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions.g. and these form volcanic breccias. the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. [edit]Intrusive Clastic rocks are also commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry [2] stocks. especially if fresh magma is intruded into partly consolidated or solidified magma. fragmental rocks produced by intrusive processes. where the felsic wall rocks are softened and gradually invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion (termed taxitic texture by Russian geologists) Accumulation of rocks which fall through the magma chamber from the roof. When particularly intense. forming chaotic remnants Autobrecciation of partly consolidated cumulate by fresh magma injections or by violent disturbances within the magma chamber (e. postulated earthquakes) Accumulation of xenoliths within a feeder conduit or vent conduit. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion. especially rhyolite and dacite flows. usually associated with plutons or porphyry stocks. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes:     consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks. The resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. Broken. where lava tends to solidify and may be repeatedly shattered by ensuing eruptions. This may be seen in many granite intrusions where later aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. both of lava and pyroclastic type. also called pillow breccias.

near Blessington in Ireland. and are usually found at impact craters. impact glass. the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock. the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards. the water violently boils – akin to an underground geyser. shocked minerals. a type of impactite. Nevada. composed mainly of quartz and manganese oxides. or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. In addition.Pahranagat Range. forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. and chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material (e. Frasnian) near Hancock Summit. the result of seismic activity about 12 million years ago.g. and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones. in the rim. The void draws in hotwater and as pressure in the cavity drops. Main article: Ore genesis#Hydrothermal processes Hydrothermal breccias usually form at shallow crustal levels (<1 km) between 150 to 350 C. [edit]Hydrothermal Hydrothermal breccia. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater.[edit]Impact Alamo bolide impact breccia (LateDevonian. steam and boiling water. Impact breccia. and attrition quickly o . Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth. when seismic or volcanic activity (an earthquake) causes a void to open along a fault deep underground. iridium and osmium anomalies). Rock fragments hit each other and sides of the fault. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater. Cloghleagh Iron Mine.

Washington. as the formational event is brief. Epithermal deposits are mined for copper. Pend Oreille mine. Pend Oreille County. Light gray is mostly dolomite with a little translucent quartz. On their journey. methane and hydrogen sulfide may be lost to the steam phase and ore may precipitate. at much greater depths. in particular CO2. The morphology of breccias associated with ore deposits varies from tabular sheeted veins and clastic dikesassociated with overpressured sedimentary strata. high-pressure fluids crack rock by hydrofracturing.rounds angular breccia fragments. Dark gray is jasperoidand ore minerals. to large-scale intrusive diatreme breccias (breccia pipes). They are typical of the epithermal ore environment and are intimately associated with intrusive-related ore deposits such as skarns. [3] Silicified and mineralized breccia. or even some synsedimentary diatremes formed solely by the overpressure of pore fluid within sedimentary basins. forming an angular jigsaw breccia. The pressurised fluids ascend towards shallower crustal levels that are under lower hydrostatic pressure. Mesothermal deposits are often mined for gold. As a result. If boiling occurs. Breccia-hosted ore deposits are ubiquitous. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase as boiling continues. fluids under lithostatic pressure can be released during seismic activity associated with mountain building. Hydrothermal breccias are usually formed by hydrofracturing of rocks by highly pressuredhydrothermal fluids. Veinlet along lower edge of specimen contains sphalerite in carbonates. silver and gold. . In the mesothermal regime. the chemistry of the fluids change and ore minerals rapidly precipitate. Rounding of rock fragments less common in the mesothermal regime.greisens and porphyry-related mineralisation.


its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock. It also occurs in thin beds. but most often manifests as gray. and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). Where it occurs in chalk or marl. hard chert. grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Buffalo. [edit]Terminology: "chert". Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. The banded iron formations ofPrecambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides.8 cm wide) Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand. Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. brown.: /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silicarich microcrystalline.CHERT Chert (pron. chalk. it is usually called flint. "chalcedony" and "flint" . cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. These thickly bedded cherts include thenovaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral. New York. (3. when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Oklahoma. and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. limestone. It varies greatly in color (from white to black). Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks [1] as old as the Cretaceous. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense. [edit]Occurrence A chert nodule from the Onondagalimestone layer. where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis.

Since many cherts contain both microcrystaline and microfibrous quartz. it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in America and is likely caused by early immigrants who imported the terms from England where most true flint (that found in chalk formations) was indeed of better quality than "common chert" (from limestone formations). The term does not include quartzite.chert being lower quality than flint. Pennsylvania There is much confusion concerning the exact meanings and differences among the terms "chert". cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz. Chalcedony is a microfibrous (microcrystaline with a fibrous structure) variety of quartz.Chert (dark bands) in the DevonianCorriganville-New Creek limestone. the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is often one of quality . chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline. Everett. "chalcedony" and "flint" (as well as their numerous varieties). Strictly speaking. Among non-geologists (in particular among archaeologists). . Among petrologists. thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert. the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone [2][3] formations.

conglomerates are classified in terms of both their rounding and sorting. A conglomerate at the base of theCambrian in the Black Hills. Orthoconglomerates consist of a clast-supported rock with less than 15% matrix of sand and finer [3] particles. [edit]Texture Paraconglomerates consist of a matrix-supported rock that contains at least 15% sand-sized or [2] smaller grains (<2 mm). [edit]Classification In addition to the factors described in this section.: /kəŋˈɡlɒmərɨt/) is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together. the rest being larger grains of varying sizes. which consist of angular clasts. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of [1] rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias. Metamorphic alteration transforms conglomerate into metaconglomerate.CONGLOMERATE A conglomerate (pron. South Dakota. . Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm).

approximate depth 10. the basal part of a bed is typically coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. [edit]Fluvial Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are typically well-rounded and well-sorted. They represent the [6] position of the shoreline at a particular time and will be diachronous. conglomerates are generally confined to the basal [7] part of a channel fill where they are known as pebble lags. Alaska. Conglomerates deposited in a fluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication.clasts of many different lithologies Intraformational . Clasts of this size are carried as bedload and only at times of high flow-rate. [edit]Alluvial Alluvial deposits are formed in areas of high relief and are typically coarse-grained.clasts derived from older rocks than the formation in which they are found [edit]Clast size Conglomerates are also classified by the dominant clast size. In the sediments deposited by mature rivers.clasts of only a few different lithologies Polymict . well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis [5] type imbrication of the clasts. so conglomerates are more characteristic of immature river systems. [edit]Shallow marine Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine trangressions above an unconformity. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this setting are clast- .Section of polymict conglomerate from offshore rock core. conglomerates are normally very well sorted.000 ft.     Granule conglomerate 2–4 mm Pebble conglomerate 4–64 mm Cobble conglomerate 64–256 mm Boulder conglomerate >256 mm [edit]Sedimentary environments Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge to form braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickest deposits of conglomerates. The maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported further due to attrition. [edit]Deepwater marine In turbidites. and are known as basal conglomerates. [edit]Clast composition [4] Conglomerates are classified for the lithologies of the clasts      Monomict .clasts with only a single lithology Oligomict .clasts derived from the same formation in which they are found Extraformational . In this setting.

In the nineteenth century a thick layer of Pottsville conglomerate was recognized to underlie anthracite [8] coal measures in Pennsylvania. near Barcelona. Another spectacular example of conglomerate. Waterlain deposits [7] associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic. The rock is strong enough to be used as a building material . are typically poorly-sorted. The matrix is generally fine-grained.g. forming structures such aseskers.supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. [edit]Fanglomerate Fanglomerate When a series of conglomerates accumulates into an alluvial fan. matrix-supported conglomerates. the resulting rock unit is often called afanglomerate. These form the basis of a number of . at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range in Colorado's San Luis Valley. The Crestone Conglomerate is a metamorphic rock stratum and consists of tiny to quite large rocks that appear to have been tumbled in an ancient river. Here erosion has created vertical channels giving the characteristic jagged shapes for which the mountain is named (Montserrat literally means "jagged mountain"). [edit]Glacial Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and many glacial deposits are conglomeratic. the Crestone Conglomerate may be viewed in and near the town of Crestone. in Australia's Northern Territory. consisting of finely milled rock fragments. [edit]Examples A spectacular example of conglomerate can be seen at Montserrat. Some of the rocks have hues of red and green. Conglomerate may also be seen in the domed hills of Kata Tjuta. Tillites. desert) environments. Famously picturesque Dunottar Castle sits on a rugged promontory of conglomerate jutting into the North Sea just south of the town of Stonehaven. a [5] result of debris-flow deposition on some alluvial fans. Some matrix-supported conglomerates are present. Impressive conglomerate cliffs are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland from Arbroath northwards along the coastlines of the former counties of Angus and Kincardineshire. in rapidly eroding (e. the sediments deposited directly by a glacier.see Montserrat abbey front at full resolution for detail of the rock structure.

as different sectors of the fault moved.g. e. which supplied an intermittent stream of debris into the conglomerate pile. the Tiffany and Brae fields in the North Sea. . These fanglomerates were actually deposited into a deep marine environment but against a rapidly moving fault line.large oil fields. The sediment fans are several kilometers deep at the fault line and the sedimentation moved focus repeatedly.

Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing. swift tidal channels.COQUINA Coquina (pron. Incompletely consolidated and poorly cemented coquinas are [3] considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. brachiopods. The term "coquina" is derived from the Spanish [1][2] word for cockleshells or shellfish. Coquina from the Devonian period through to the more recent pleistocene are a common find all over the world. and mechanically sorted fragments of the shells of either molluscs. or other invertebrates. and good orientation of the shell fragments composing them. [edit]Composition and distribution Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite. As a result. Spanish: "cockle") is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported. abraded. close packing. with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. . fracturing. often including some phosphate. and sorting of the shells. [edit]History and use Coquina from Florida. For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina. Wellcemented coquinas are classified as biosparites according to the Folk classification of sedimentary [4] rocks. trilobites. The high-energy marine or lacustrine associated with [4][5] coquinas include beaches. abrasion. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately-cemented. shallow submarine raised banks. in the form of seashells or coral. the average size of the particles composing it should be 2 mm or greater in size. which compose them. they typically exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding. and barrier bars.: /koʊˈkiːnə/.

coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. form. cannon balls would sink into. . but still comparatively soft. Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments. Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years.Close-up of coquina from Florida. coquina is extremely soft. The stone makes a very good material for forts. particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Because of coquina's softness. In order to be used as a building material. the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. rather than shatter or puncture. Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate. The scale bar is 10 mm. However. When first quarried. Saint Augustine. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. which causes the stone to harden into a usable. which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building.


Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. Diatomaceous earth is made up of the cell walls/shells of single cell diatoms and readily crumbles to a fine powder. absorbent for liquids. silica synthesised in the diatom cell by the polymerisation of silicic acid. TheCelle engineer. [edit]Geology and occurrence Diatomaceous earth as viewed under bright fieldillumination on a light microscope. soft. Diatom cell walls are made up of biogenic silica. is a naturally occurring.DIATOMITE Diatomaceous earth (pron. porous support for chemical catalysts.236 pixels/ μm. mechanical insecticide. mild abrasive in products including toothpaste. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. [edit]Discovery In 1836 or 1837..: /ˌdaɪ. which could be used as fertilizer. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica. The fossil remains consist of a pair of [1] symmetrical shells or frustules.siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber. This powder has an abrasive feel. cat litter. but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. a stabilizing component of dynamite. a type of hard-shelled algae. anti-block in plastic films.69 mm. [edit]Formation Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal. matting agent for coatings.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as D. recognized its ability to filter. Wilhelm Berkefeld. and athermal insulator. Initially. in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany.E. It is used as a filtration aid. diatomite. SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. or kieselgur/kieselguhr. and developed 'filter candles' fired [2] . activator in blood clotting studies. discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill. similar to pumice powder. the peasant and goods waggoner.13 by 0. Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms. Peter Kasten. and is very light as a result of its high porosity. with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay [1] minerals) and 0. it was thought that limestone had been found.5 to 2% iron oxide. This image of diatomaceous earth particles in water is at a scale of 6. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometre to more than 1 millimeter.

another is under way  1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared. 1880 to 1920 Oberohe from 1884 to 1970 Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. [edit]Extraction            [3] During thecholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892. with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of diatomaceous earth was from this region. 1900–1910 Diatomaceous earth pit at Neuohe  ca.  ca. used successfully. .from diatomaceous earth. 1925 Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928 Breloh from 1907 to 1975 Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975 Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994 The deposits are up to 28 metres (92 ft) thick and are all of freshwater diatomaceous earth. 1880 to 1894 Hammerstorf from ca. these Berkefeld filters were and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994 Wiechel from 1871 to 1978 Hützel from 1876 to 1969 Hösseringen from ca.

Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany. Nevada (USA). France. there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica fromvolcanic ash may be needed for thick [6] diatomite deposits.Virginia. Older deposits from [6] as early as the Cretaceous Period are known. on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic. Oregon.[edit]Other deposits [4] In Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf [5] and at Klieken (Saxony-Anhalt). such as this one for swimming pools . but are of low quality. Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Denmark and the Czech Republic. Washington and California. In Colorado and in Clark. California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. [edit]Applications [edit]Industrial Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media. The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada.

or nutritional properties. based on Fick's law of diffusion. as well as in some facial scrubs. It has also been used to [15] control bedbug infestations.. . In order to be effective as an insecticide. with questionable efficacy. [edit]Pest control [8] Diatomite is used as an insecticide. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid. and other liquids. causing them to [9] dehydrate. because it is composed of microscopically small. to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i. especially for swimming pools. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-wormboth [10][11] animals and humans. and honey without removing or altering their color.Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified) In 1866. but this method may take weeks to work. since slugs inhabit humid environments. such as beer and wine. coffin-like. sugar. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects'exoskeletons.e. particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid. [edit]Filtration Diatomaceous earth may be used as a filter medium. and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.e. it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes. Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. However. [7] taste. and [citation needed][12][13] can be used to help control and eventually eliminate cockroach and flea infestations. it must not be [16] heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 microns (i. efficacy is very low. It has a high porosity. for this purpose. due to its physico-sorptive properties.. This [14] material has wide application for insect control in grain storage. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. foodgrade— see below). This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. [edit]Abrasive The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867. It is also used to filter water. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. hollow particles. It can also filter syrups.

Food grade diatomaceous earth is widely available in [21] agricultural feed supply stores. It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to [21] prevent caking. It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants. Fungicide. [edit]Absorbent Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. [edit]Use in agriculture Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent. including water. the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. particularly as bonsai soil. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in the home fridge. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils. pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under theFederal Insecticide. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers. guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as [19] 5M HCl. or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans. It is also [18] used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics.vermiculite. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive.Although considered to be relatively low-risk. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier. and Rodenticide Act and [17] must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. [edit]DNA purification Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide. [edit]Hydroponics Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. It can absorb up to six times its weight in water. It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). As with other silicates. . while mild caustictreatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. as [20] well as an insecticide.S. One should always use a food grade not a pool grade DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce. The microscopic matrix of DE make it a great desiccant. Like perlite. [edit]Thermal Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material.

Salt-water-derived pool/ beer/ wine filter grade is not suitable for human consumption nor is effective as an insecticide. it retains water and nutrients. is composed of larger particles than the freshwater version. Libya. the largest single .and expanded clay. [edit]Marker in livestock nutrition experiments Natural diatomaceous earth (dried. and as an insecticide. It is usually calcinated before being sold to remove impurities and undesirable volatile contents. and is very low in crystal silica (<2%). not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a source of acid insoluble ash (AIA). Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role.  [edit]Climatologic importance The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere. has a very fine particle size. while draining fast and freely. but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a potential hazard to research personnel. which has been widely used for the same purpose. so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. By measuring the content of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following equation: Where: is percent Nutrient Digestibility is the percent of nutrients in the feces is the percent of nutrients in the feed is the percent of AIA in the feces is the percent of AIA in the feed And: Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide. as feed supplement. allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. For instance. It is produced uncalcinated. especially on the islands of Fur and Mors. Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland. Freshwater-derived food grade diatomaceous earth is the type used in US agriculture for grain storage. Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark. which is used as an indigestible marker. [edit]Specific     varieties Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli. and has a high silica content (>60%).

atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad. where storms push diatomite [22] gravel over dunes. . generating dust by abrasion.

publications it was referred to as magnesian limestone.S. but it can still develop solution features over time.G. The term dolostone was introduced to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. It is. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. used in some geological publications.DOLOMITE ROCK OR DOLOSTONE Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite. It is resistant toerosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. .S. In old U. Most [1] dolostone formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud prior to lithification. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater. however. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomitewas first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence.

5 million BTU/ton).e. or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad. Poland. ca. Primarily because of latent high moisture content of brown coal. Lignite mining in Western North Dakota. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. mineral-matter-free basis. Russia.4 MJ/kg (6. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 . a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. it is mined in Greece. [edit]Characteristics Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%. amine treated lignite (ATL) forms. The energy content of lignite consumed in United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton). Unfortunately its high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage. carbon dioxide emissions from traditional brown-coal-fired plants are generally much higher . the United States.1945 Lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher ranking coals. Serbia. Australia averages 8.. [edit]Uses Because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content. India.LIGNITE COAL Lignite. often referred to as brown coal. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria. When reacted with quaternary amine. such as in Australia's Latrobe Valley and Luminant's Monticello plant in Texas. Germany. on the as-received basis (i. will transform the calorific value of brown coal to a black coal equivalent fuel while significantly reducing the emissions profile of 'densified' brown [3] coal to a level similar to or better than most black coals. brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades. and an ashcontent ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to [2] 12% for bituminous coal.20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist.Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power [1] generation. ATL is used in drilling mud to reduce fluid loss. containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). It is now known that efficient processes that remove latent moisture locked within the structure of brown coal will relegate the risk of spontaneous combustion to the same level as black coal. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24. It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to any mines.

than for comparable black-coal plants. The operation of traditional brown-coal plants. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick. with the world's highest-emitting beingHazelwood Power Station. [edit]Geology Lignite is geologically younger than higher-grade coals. . can [5][6] be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. The first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Seams are covered by very little overburden (10 to 20 metres). It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable [8] quantity of ulmic acid. The deposit is equivalent to 25% of known world reserves. with multiple coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up [7] to 230 metres. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria. Australia contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion [7] tonnes of brown coal. originating mainly in the Tertiary period. [4] Victoria. particularly in combination with strip mining. [edit]Types Lignite can be separated into two types.

Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material. Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778. and as a chemical feedstock. USA . [1] Description Limestone quarry at Cedar Creek. in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints. as aggregate for the base of roads. Virginia. which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3).LIMESTONE Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite.

building upon past generations. water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly. which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs. calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids.e. pH. many limestones exhibit different colors. depending on several factors. organic remains. Because of impurities. such as clay. especially onweathered surfaces. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. or massive. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). compact variety of limestone formed along streams.) or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules. and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. clastic. jasper. including the water temperature. and dissolved ionconcentrations. Calcite can be either dissolved or precipitated by groundwater. is found near waterfalls. limestone recrystallizes into marble.La Zaplaz formations in the Piatra Craiului Mountains. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone. . and leave these shells behind after the organisms die. iron oxide and other materials. dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. the Folk and the Dunham. and around hot or cold springs. etc. quartz.000 meters. Below about 3. particularly where there are waterfalls. flint. diatoms. such as stalagmites and stalactites. a porous or cellular variety of travertine. Classification Two major classification schemes. Limestone may be crystalline. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny). depending on the method of formation. sand. Romania. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. i. When conditions are right for precipitation. This produces speleothems. are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks. and extraclasts. silt and sand (terrestrial detritus) carried in by rivers. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony. granular. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. intraclasts. most limestone is composed of grains. Crystals of calcite. and varying amounts of clay. radiolarians). Limestones may also [2][3] form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. peloids.travertine. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Like most other sedimentary rocks. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all. Travertine is a banded. or it can fill fractures. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility. Tufa. so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters (see lysocline). in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases.

The Folk system uses two-part names. matrix (mostly micrite). [6][7] Limestone is partially soluble. or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats.Folk classification Main article: Folk classification Robert L. and therefore forms many erosional landforms. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact. The Dunham scheme [5] is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture. Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. and therefore self-supporting. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme. there are three main components: allochems (grains). it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. a tall limestone rock (Pieskowa Skała Castle in the background) Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. not the grains in the sample. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. Limestone landscape Main article: Karst topography The Cudgel of Hercules. cenotes. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962. and cement (sparite). Dunham classification Main article: Dunham classification The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Robert J. because it is easier to determine the components [4] present in each sample. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. especially in acid. Such erosion landscapes are known . Based on composition. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Unlike the Folk scheme. caves and gorges. These include limestone pavements. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. pot holes.

Unique habitats are found on alvars. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. water and organic acid from the soil slowly (over thousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks. the only building material available. Karst topography and caves develop in limestone rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. The Florida Keys. While draining. Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed [10] the 'Limestone City'. Malham Cove in North [8] Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight. on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland. dissolving the calcium carbonate and carrying it away in solution. It is therefore usually associated with hills and downland. 2003). a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was. the Niagara Escarpmentin Canada/United States. and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures. the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China. Examples include the Burren in Co. including the Great Pyramid and its associated complex in Giza. as surface water easily drains downward through joints in the limestone. Sweden. Uses Limestone is very common in architecture. Egypt. However. are made of limestone. Many landmarks across the karsts. [9] Michigan. extend for more than a hundred kilometers. . which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. Clare. Huge quarries in northwestern Europe. Ontario. are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys). The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes. islands off the south coast of Florida. and relatively expensive as a building material. typically clays. making it impractical for tall buildings. So many buildings in Kingston. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. for a long time. Regions overlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible above-ground sources (ponds and streams). theVerdon Gorge in France. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson. it is a very heavy material. Ireland. It is most common in the tropics. Sweden. The world's largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City. Another area with large quantities of limestone is the island of Gotland. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks. This process is known as bioerosion. such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands). It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. but more resistant than most othersedimentary rocks. Notch Peak in Utah. England. On the island of Malta. and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks. especially in Europe and North America.

The Great Pyramid of Giza. Courthouse built of limestone inManhattan. one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. Kansas . its outside cover is made entirely from limestone.

It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. Other uses include:               It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide). It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving. Indiana. which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. durable. has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone. plastics. it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. since it is hard. [11] . uses limestone. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone. In the United States. and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Purified. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. Used in blast furnaces. it reacts with sulfur dioxide for air pollution control. Train stations. It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe [12] corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. tiles. rather than solid blocks. Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions. banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. It is used as a facade on some skyscrapers. called Indiana limestone. Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred. most notably the Bloomington area. cement and mortar. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it. It is added to toothpaste. such as for poultry (when ground up). As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. paper. and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. Glass making. Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. in some circumstances. paint. but only in thin plates for covering. making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. limestone extracts iron from its ore. slaked lime (calcium hydroxide).A limestone plate with a negative map ofMoosburg in Bavaria is prepared for alithography print.

Chalk Cyrstalline Fossiliferous .

Oolitic Travertine .

It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like theSahara Desert in Africa. In the western United States and incentral Australia. white and black. most [1] sandstone is red. gray. [edit]Uses 17. the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including Sydney). red. making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. pink. yellow. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices. Fine-grained aquifers. . Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.France. sandstone may be any colour. but the most common colours are tan. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. such as sandstones.SANDSTONE Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sandsized minerals or rock grains. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities. such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity.000 yr old sandstone oil lamp discovered at the caves of Lascaux. Like sand. brown.

Germany. around 1770. .Sandstone statue Maria Immaculata byFidelis Sporer. in Freiburg.

making it easy to carve. cathedrals.Germany Sandstone is highly absorbent. These are sandstone beverage coasters. and continues to be used. Sandstone has been used for domestic construction and housewares since prehistoric times. It is relatively soft. Sandstone was a popular building material from ancient times. and other buildings. It has been widely used around the world in constructing temples. It has also been used for artistic purposes to create ornamental fountains and statues. homes. .Sandstone doorway in Heidelberg.

rocks with greater grain sizes. including siltstones and shales.0 mm.Some sandstones are resistant to weathering.0625 mm to 2 mm (0. Scale bar is 1.079 inches). They are formed fromcemented grains that may either be fragments of a preexisting rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain. some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones. clays. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye. are typically called argillaceous sediments. [3] like gypsum and jasper).g. or chemical. for sharpening blades and other implements. Because of the hardness of individual grains. some that have been used in the past. necessitating [2] repair and replacement in older buildings. Grain sizes in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color. such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England.. and silica. [edit]Origins Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. have been found less resistant. e. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic. . like chalk and coal. However. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite. including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments. yet are easy to work. gritstone. uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure.002–0. Utah.

the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain. in more general detail. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate. Arizona. A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide. in a desert or erg). as illustrated by the following broad groupings:  Terrestrial environments . as well as central Europe and Mongolia. over other construction.e. Typically. lake. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. and composition and. i. with additionalmanganese imparting a purplish hue. in finer detail. either as a primary building material or as a facing stone. either from water (as in a stream. a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation. First.g. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine.Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon. which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone. sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water or ground surface (e. include its grain size. once it has accumulated. which. include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures.. worn smooth by erosion from flash flooding over thousands of years. Finally. or sea) or from air (as in a desert).sorting.. which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta).

Alluvial fans 3. Storm deposits (tempestites) 6. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock. These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition:  Quartz framework grains are the dominate minerals in most sedimentary rocks. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)  Marine environments 1.1. this is because they [6] have exceptional physical properties. Lakes 5. Rivers (levees. which are felsic in origin and also from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in [6] sandstones. Glacial outwash 4. Offshore bars and sand waves 5.  . channel sands) 2. Tidal flats 4. Beach and shoreface sands 3. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans) [edit]Components [edit]Framework grains Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Framework grains are sand-sized (1/16 to 2 mm diameter) detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a [4][5] sandstone. Deltas 2. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events. point bars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic [6] microscope. while also allowing the grains [6] to display some degree of rounding. such as hardness and chemical stability.

Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that make up the bulk of the rock.  [edit]Matrix Matrix is very fine material. which is present within interstitial pore space between the framework [6] grains. One is to call the .25 millimeter. commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone. or other dense. Although. Common accessory minerals [6][7] include micas (muscovite and biotite). the most [6] common lithic fragment found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks.garnet. [6] Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain. this represents a complete solid solution. metamorphic. scale box at left-center is 0. resistate minerals derived from the source rock. rutile (hence ZTR). magnetite. These heavy minerals are commonly resistant to weathering and can be used as an [8] indicator of sandstone maturity through the ZTR index. or sedimentary rock. [6]  Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic fragments can be any fine[6] grained or coarse-grained igneous. called lithic fragments or clasts. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. upper picture is plane-polarized light. bottom picture is cross-polarized light. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. This type of grain would be a main component of a lithic sandstone. tourmaline.  Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to [6] individual mineral grains. olivine. The interstitial pore space can be classified into two different varieties. Common heavy minerals include zircon. and corundum. pyroxene.

Cement is a secondary mineral [6] that forms after deposition and during burial of the sandstone. and very rarely is in other sandstones. this adhesion is [6] what causes the framework grains to be adhered together. [7] [5] [edit]Cement Cement is what binds the siliclastic framework grains together.  Porosity is the percentage of bulk volume that is inhabited by interstices within a given [9] rock. anhydrite.   [edit]Pore space [9] Pore space includes the open spaces within a rock or a soil.   Arenites are texturally "clean" sandstones that are free of or have very little matrix.  . Wackes are texturally "dirty" sandstones that have a significant amount of matrix. The cement adheres itself to the framework grains. barite. Permeability is the rate in which water flows. clay minerals. such as calcite. Hydraulic gradient is the change in depth of the water table due to the direction of groundwater flow.sandstone an arenite. The overgrowth retains the same crystallographic continuity of quartz framework grain that is being cemented. and this is measured in gallons per day [9] through a one square foot cross section under a unit hydraulic gradient. The porosity and permeability are [6] directly influenced by the way the sand grains are packed together. and the other is to call it a wacke. The pore space in a rock has a direct relationship to the porosity and permeability of the rock. In sandstone where there is silica cement present the quartz grains are attached to cement. [6] gypsum. Opal cement is found in sandstones that are rich in [6] volcanogenic materials. Calcite cement is an assortment of smaller calcite crystals. feldspars. this creates a rim around the quartz grain called overgrowth. and zeolite minerals. Quartz is the most common silicate mineral that acts as cement. Calcite cement is the most common carbonate cement. [6] rearranged from loosely packed to tightest packed in sandstones. Other minerals that act as cements include: hematite. These cementing materials may [6] be either silicate minerals or non-silicate minerals.  Silica cement can consist of either quartz or opal minerals. Below is a definition of the differences between the two matrices. limonite. Porosity is directly influenced by the packing of even-sized spherical grains.


[edit]Historical th mining terminology [2] Before the mid 19 century. iron . sodium. called fissility. calcium. brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite . the terms slate. Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana. Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite.browns and limonite [1] yellow).06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystone (less than 1/3 silt). iron hydroxide (goethite . Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0. especially quartz and calcite. Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. magnesium. Sand grain = 2 mm. on the other hand. Rocks with similar [1] particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones.SHALE Shale is a fine-grained. Shale is the [4] most common sedimentary rock. clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals. shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20 century. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel [1] layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness.greens). Mudstones. or micaceous minerals (chlorite. In the th [3] context of underground coal mining. in dia. [edit]Texture Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility breaking into thin layers. Red. often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral [1] flakes. montmorillonite and illite. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates [1] [5] areducing environment. [edit]Composition and color Shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The ratio [1] of clay to other minerals is variable. are similar in composition but do not show the fissility.reds). biotite and illite .

[edit]Formation Limey shale overlaid by limestone.Pyrite and [1] amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration and purple. However. Tennessee The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is compaction. dolomite. . Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. They can also be deposited on the continental shelf.and water. These released elements form authigenic quartz. on floodplains and offshore from beach sands.Cumberland Plateau. 'Black shales' are dark. this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. uranium. such as in stagnant water columns. in relatively deep. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as [6][7][8] molybdenum. calcite. vanadium. reducing environments. all trace to minor (except [1] quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. black shales were deposited in anoxic. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonaldeposits.chert. and zinc. Black shales which form in anoxic 2+ 2conditions contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe ) and sulfur (S ). hematite and albite. in river deltas. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. having been alternatively attributed to input fromhydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow [7][9][10] accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. ankerite. quiet water. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger and denser particles of sand have deposited. The enriched values are of controversial origin.

or various carbonate minerals.Splitting shale with a large knife to reveal fossils Fossils. in keeping with the Stone Age puns. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite. fissile. As a prehistoric version of Yale University. Other variations include "McShale" or "O'Shale". animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. . Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky [edit]References in Popular Culture In the television series. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite. which originally aired on November 3. The Flintstones. it is also the arch-rival school of Princestone in an episode entitled. "Flintstone of Princestone". metamorphic rockknown as slate. Shale is a very commonBedrock surname (along the lines of today's "Smith" or "Jones"). 1961. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard. then schist and finally to gneiss. apatite.

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