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ULTRA DEEP WATER PIPELINE CAPABILITIES and CHALLENGES

Mons Hauge Statoil R&D

DEEP WATER AREAS


z NORWEGIAN SEA 17th: 900m 18th: 1500m z CASPIAN 600m

z NIGERIA NNWA: 1400m z BRAZIL ~3000m z VENEZUELA 300m (1000m)

DEEP WATER PIPELINES CHALLENGING PROJECTS


DIFFICULTY: (DEPTH x DIAMETER2)
Depth x Diameter 1000 800 600 J-lay Reel S-lay Planned Statoil
Gazprom BlueStream 24"
Caesar 24" Okeanos 24" NH Ormen L 30" BP Mardi Gras 28" Shell Na Kika 20"

Crazy Horse 28" Iran India 20"

200

Amoco Aquaba 30" Europipe II 42" Zeepipe IIb 40" 400 SNAM Transmed 26" SNAM Sicily 20"
Shell Mars 18"

Diana 20" TP 42" Exxon Diana 18"

0 1975

Statpipe 30" SNAM Mesina 20"

Shell Mensa 12" Petrobras Marlin 12" Shell Auger 12"

Shell Malampaya 24" Nansen/Boomv. 18" Shell Ursa 15" BP/TFE/Marathon Canyon Express 12" Shell Malampaya 16" Allegheny 14"

TOR II 20"

TOR I 16"

Petrobras Roncador 10" Haltenpipe 16"

Petrobras Campos 10"

Shell Popeye 6"

1980

1985 1990 1995 2000 INSTALLATION YEAR

2005

DEEP WATER CHALLENGES


THE RELEVANT TECHNOLOGIES TO INSTALL AND OPERATE DEEP WATER PIPELINES ARE: DESIGN FRAMEWORK GEOHAZARD ASSESSMENT DEEP WATER LAYING MAPPING FREE SPANS SEABED INTERVENTION HOT TAP AND REPAIR TECHNOLOGY RISK MANAGEMENT & PROJECT ORGANISATION

DEPTH ITSELF IS NOT MOST IMPORTANT

Challenge 1 DESIGN FRAMEWORK


DNV PIPELINE RULES & GUIDELINES USED WORLD WIDE z STATOIL EXPERIENCE AND R&D HAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE DESIGN RULES AND REQUIREMENTS E.G.: Buckling capacity in service (HOTPIPE) Free span fatigue assessment (FATFREE) Integrated materials requirements and design rules z STATOIL DEVELOPS RULES PRIOR TO AND DURING CHALLENGING PROJECTS E.G. Troll Oil sgard Transport z THROUGH CO-OPERATION WITH DNV THE EXPERIENCE IS IMPLEMENTED IN THE DESIGN RULES

Challenge 2 SLOPES / GEOHAZARDS


z SLOPES (2030O) + SEDIMENTS + EARTH QUAKES => GEOHAZARDS Soil investigations Geological models SLOPE STABILITY when does movement occur? when => gross mass flow? how far do slides move? SOLUTIONS routing to avoid slides
quantify load on pipeline assess risk

Challenge 3 DEEP WATER LAYING


z S-laying Submerged Weight Deformation on stinger Sag bend collapse Routing flexibility z J-laying Pipe diameter Sag bend collapse z Statoil Experience with challenging pipeline projects Statpipe, Zeepipe IIb, Europipe II: leading wrt. depth/size TOR I: leading wrt. difficult terrain

DEEP WATER LAYING


z J-LAYING: E. G. SAIPEM 7000, MODIFIED CRANE BARGE J-ramp with main line welding, NDT and tensioners prefabrication of quad-joints (48m)

z S-LAYING: E. G. STOLT OFFSHORE LB 200 S-lay stinger Prefabrication of double joints

Challenge 4 SEABED MAPPING AND PIPELINE ROUTING


ACCURATE MAPPING IS A PREREQUISITE FOR ROUTING AND DETAILED DESIGN z MAPPING HAS BEEN CRITICAL FOR MANY PROJECTS Troll Oil (Troll to Kollsnes) sgard Transport (sgard to Krst) Vestprosess (Kollsnes to Mongstad) z RECENT AND ON-GOING DEVELOPMENTS Seismic equipment for geotechnical characterisation Scanning of seabed surface Autonome vechiles (AUV) HUGIN 600, HUGIN 3000

VESTPROSESS VIDEO

Video-clip removed

RETURN MAPPING

RETURN

Challenge 5 FREE SPANS


zSPANS MUST BE LIMITED DUE TO RISK OF
OVERSTRESSING FATIGUE

zSPAN ASSESMENT IS INTIMATELY DEPENDENT ON MAPPING

Challenge 6 SEABED INTERVENTION


zObjectives Reduce free spans Ensure pipe stability and avoid upheaval or lateral buckling Protect pipe for fishing gear zTechnologies
Trenching (plough or water jet) Rock dumping z Challenges Intervention is costly and has environmental impact Design for free lateral movements (HOTPIPE design) will reduce amount of intervention work Geotechnical impact of intervention work (e.g. shear strength after trenching)

Challenge 7 DIVERLESS HOT TAP AND REPAIR


z PIPELINE RAPAIR SYSTEM (PRS) Diver assisted system for North Sea modifications and repair operated by Statoil Hot tap on prepared T established Diverless operations established for diameter up to 20 z New challenges Maximum depth for diver assisted operations will be reduced from 360250 m in 2005 (HSE policy) Deeper water operations Hot tap on unprepared pipe Diverless hot tap and repair for diameter above 20

PIPELINE REPAIR SYSTEM (PRS) INCLUDES :


zCOMPLETE REMOTE REPAIR SYSTEM FOR DEEP WATER
PLUGS, CLAMPS, COUPLINGS LIMITED TO 600m IN REGULAR USE !

42 REMOTE PLUG

STATOIL IS OPERATOR OF THE INTERVENTION & REPAIR SYSTEMS AT THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF
12 COUPLING (VIGDIS)
SUCCESSFULLY INSTALLED 07.04.2002 00:15 SUCCESSFULL SYSTEM PRESSURE TEST 08.04.2002 10:00

12 REPAIR CLAMP

Challenge 8 RISK MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT ORGANISATION HOW TO BE COMPETITIVE ?


z IN-HOUSE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE ON CORE TECHNOLOGIES: Pipeline design and installation Materials and fabrication Seabed mapping and pipeline routing Geotechics and seabed intervention z RISK MANAGEMENT OF LARGE, COMPLEX PROJECTS Logistics Hazards Time schedule z CONTRACTING STRATEGY Contract packages (not EPCI) Interface responsibility TOTAL LENGTH OF NORTH SEA GAS TRANSPORT PIPELINES: 6000 km TYPICAL LENGHT OF PREVIOUS PIPELINE PROJECTS: 700 km NEW PIPELINE FROM ORMEN LANGE TO ENGLAND: 1200 km

The way forward: How to make pipelines competitive for long distance transport ?
70

GSm3/year
Pipe LNG sgard transport Electricity transport Methanol PIPELINE GTL Future

z Is it possible to make pipelines attractive for large volumes when the distance exceeds 3000 km ? z Is it possible to install large diameter pipelines at 30004000 m water depth ? Long distance transport will in many cases require crossing of deep water areas New resources are found in deep water areas

60

50 Energy loss [%]

LNG LNG
Snhvit Snhvit

20.0 10.0 5.0

40

PIPELINE

pipelines

Gas to Liquids

30

2.0

20

Electricity
(HVDC) UNECONOMIC 1000 2000 3000 4000

1.0 0.5 0.2


5000

10

Distance from field - km 0 2000 4000 to market 6000 8000

10000

Case study: A 2800 km pipeline from Venezuela to Florida


z 4 different pipeline routes considered z Maximum water depth about 4000 m z Design pressure increased to 400 barg z Required inner diameter: 30 MSm3/d require approx. 28 ID (10 GSm3/year) 60 MSm3/d require approx. 36 ID (20 GSm3/year) z Limitations for J-vessels with an available tension force of 1050 tonnes: (current vessels have 525 tonnes, but can easily be upgraded to 1050) Diameter OD (inches) 20 24 30 40 Water depth (m) 3600 2400 1400 400

Florida Cuba

Haiti Dominican Rep.

Venezuela
Puerto Rico

Alternative pipeline routes

New solutions 1: Pipe-in-pipe with structural filler material


z A sandwich composite structure made of two concentric pipes with a filler material in between will increase the external pressure capacity significantly, and less steel is needed for the same capacity. z As the total volume of the pipe increases, the submerged weight will also decrease (as long as the filler material has density below 1000 kg/m3) z The capacity is directly depending on material strength (X70 is assumed in case study)

This concept leads to reduced tension on the installation barge

fys
x

fyf
y

Mp

fys
M x

Pipe-in pipe filler materials


z Polymers and polymer foam (polypropylene) Used for thermal insulation Low weight (900 kg/m3 for solid PP) Low stiffness (E = 1,5 GPa for solid PP ) z Concrete Used for weight coating of pipelines High weight (2500 kg/m3) High stiffness ( E > 20 GPa ) Very cheap 75 $/m3 z Lightweight concrete Low weight (800 - 1000 kg/m3) Moderate stiffness ( E = 4 7 GPa) 225 $/m3

Pipe-in pipe cost estimate


z Material cost for a sandwich pipe-in-pipe will be approximately twice that of a pipeline with wall thickness similar to each one of the two shells. z The lay rate will be around 2/3 of a normal lay rate mainly due to more work at each field joint.
Cost of Offshore Pipelines

Steel pipe PIP

Engn. + + Material Engn. + +

Constr.

$ 1250 /m
Constr.

Material

$ 1875 /m

The pipe-in-pipe solution will only be used at the portion of the pipeline where the water depth require this solution (e.g. deeper than 1000 m) The inner diameter of this solution can be kept constant

New solutions 2: Subsea pipe splitting

z Two parallel pipes with reduced diameter is already used in the Black Sea Blue Stream project with onshore splitting. z Subsea splitting require either That all pigging can be avoided or Manifold that allow for RFO and regular pigging z Pigable manifolds are available, but development work is needed to qualify for the actual dimensions

New solutions 3 : Reduced diameter on limited part of pipeline


z If the extremely deep section has limited length, hydraulic loss in this section can be accepted. z Multi-diameter pigging technology is capable to take a 30% diameter reduction. (28 to 42 pig is developed for sgard Transport) z To achieve the required benefit of this solution a 50% diameter reduction is needed. Preliminar investigations show that this is possible, but development work is needed.

New solutions 4 Deep water S-laying


z Allowance for increased strain over stinger will provide a steeper departure angle and reduced tension requirement to S-lay vessel z Lower shear stiffness in P-I-P annulus reduces the strain in outer shell z Lower submerged weight leads to lower tension requirement

Qualification of deep water S-laying will increase the availability of lay vessels and reduce laying costs
Technological challenges:
z Contact forces on stinger z Fracture capacity due to bending on stinger and sag bend z Seabed stability during installation Reduce horisontal laying radius

Conclusions
z For ultra deep water pipeline transport, the combination of pipe diameter and water depth indicates the project challenge BUT: z The capability to install and operate such pipelines will also require control of : DESIGN FRAMEWORK GEOHAZARD ASSESSMENT DEEP WATER LAYING MAPPING FREE SPANS SEABED INTERVENTION HOT TAP AND REPAIR TECHNOLOGY RISK MANAGEMENT & PROJECT ORGANISATION

New technology is under development to be capable of ultra deep water installation and diverless hot-tap and repair of existing pipeline systems