Handbook Climate Change, Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation
Resilience through Economic Empowerment Climate Adaptation, Leadership and Learning (REE-CALL)
A huge number of people of south-Asia have been affected due to climate change. Already millions of people of Bangladesh have been shocked by climate change, that’s why no other country but Bangladesh is well-known to the shock of climate change. Actually, the geographical location, flood impact, boundary line close to the sea, extra pressure of population, extreme poverty, dependency on nature and natural resources are the reasons why climate change impacts are resulting extremely in Bangladesh. That’s why it is essential for the people of Bangladesh to have understanding about the priority based challenges. At a time, these challenges are required to analyze and consider with the lifestyle of the endangered community people of Bangladesh, so that they can know and understand the ways of their lives and livelihoods development capabilities by coping with the climate change impacts in a satisfactory manner. Coping with the climate change impacts the vulnerable community can acquire the adaptability, with this purpose Oxfam is implementing a community or social based adaptation project called “the Resilience through Economic Empowerment, Climate Adaptation, Leadership and Learning (REE-CALL)” The people’s climate uncertainty and its related disaster and climate adaptation capabilities, such as, economic empowerment, ensuring the sustainable lifestyle security of male and female and leadership development in the disaster management etc., of disaster prone char, haor of the Northern regions and the beel of the southern and coastal regions of the country, can be done by this project. There are so many challenges to implement this two years pilot project, such as, climate adaptation, disaster risk management, adaptation mechanism and natural resources management etc. This manual has been prepared to provide the knowledge and technical information related to mentioned challenges. This manual also will be used to train up the associated teams for their capacity building in this project implementation. In this training manual there are four chapters containing about climate change and adaptation, adaptation committee formation, disaster management and adaptation and natural resources management and lifestyle strategy respectfully. As a part of rights based approaches, climate adaptation, natural resources management and disaster risk management related law based idea, international policies have been discussed in various chapters in this manual. It has been given priority to the women and the vulnerability of the marginal people. I hope that this manual will help the associated teams in charge to implement the REE-CALL project by developing their knowledge in achieving management capacity and this also will be helpful for personnel who deals with climate adaptation and disaster risk management. "The information and data are used in this training manual are followed different write up, journal of Dr Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, Scientist, Executive Director, Center for Global Change and IPCC. PCVA guideline of REE- CALL partner organization POPI, CRA Guideline of CDMP, DRM manual of Oxfam Humanitarian team, 5th DIPECHO plan of South Asia and the book published by SLM and CSRL are also used as reference book/ guideline of this document. I acknowledge to all for the support".
Training Manual: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation
Writing and Editing Cooperated by Published in Courtesy : Pradip Kumar Ray : Anik Asad and Tapas Ranjan Chakraborty : July, 2012 : All trainees and trainers of Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change. : A Plus Communication
Design & Print
Anik Asad Program Coordinator Oxfam
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Preface Abbreviations Terminology 3 6 7
2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7
Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Adaptation and Resilient Community: importance of sustainable lifestyle framework Measure of Adaptation Capacity Role of community based organization and community members in building resilient community
31 32 33 34
Third Chapter: Natural Resources Management & Climate Adaptation
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 Climate Change and Natural Resources Natural Resources and Disaster Risk Management and Climate Adaptation Agro-ecological region based natural resources management Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Coastal Region Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Barendra Region Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Haor Region Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Char Region Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Beel Region Climate Change Related National Framework Climate Funds Climate Change Related International Framework United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) World Conference on Disaster Reduction International Strategy for Disaster Reduction 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 42 42 42 44 45 45
Chapter One: Climate Change Adaptation
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 Weather and Climate Weather Climate Difference between Climate and Weather Climate Change Causes of Climate Change The Impact of Climate Change Risk of Slow Onset Disaster and Vulnerability Risk of Rapid Onset Disaster and Vulnerability Relation of Climate Change and Differences with Disaster Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Coastal Regions Climate Change impacts on Barind regions Climate Change impacts on Char regions Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Haor Regions Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Beel Regions Scopes of Climate Adaptation and mitigation Definition of Climate Adaptation Classification of Climate Adaptation Scopes of climate adaptation Definition of Climate Change Mitigation Scopes of Climate Mitigation Climate Adaptation, Gender and Diversity Climate Adaptation and Gender Climate Change and Seasonal Variation Climate Adaptation Program Monitoring in the Local Level 8 8 8 9 9 11 12 14 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 22 22 23 23 25 25
3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4
Fourth Chapter: Disaster Risk Management & Climate Adaptation
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Disaster, vulnerability, hazard & risk Major Concerns Analyzing Vulnerability Community Based Disaster Management – CBDRM Three Pillars of risk management Disaster Risk Management Resilient for disaster management Disaster Preparedness at institutional, social and family level 46 48 51 52 52 53 54 54 54 55 55 56 64 66 66 79 80 83
4.7.1 Institutional disaster preparedness 4.7.2 Disaster preparedness in social level 4.7.3 Disaster preparedness in family level 4.7.4 Impacts of disaster on our daily livelihood 4.8 4.9 4.10 Participatory capacity building and vulnerability analysis History of natural and manmade disasters in Bangladesh Disaster Management Policies and Act
Chapter Two: A Resilient Community Formation
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Resilience Factors of Resilience Climate Adaptation and Community Resilience Resilience Lifestyle and Capacity Building in the Community Who are Resilient Community? 27 28 28 29 30
4.10.1 Permanent orders about Disaster (By Bangladesh Govt.)/ Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD) 4.10.2 Disaster Management Action Plan 4.10.3 Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) 4.11 Disaster Management Related Websites
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Annex 1 Parties BCCSAP CDMP COP CRA CPP CPPIB CSO CSDDWS DAE DDMC DER DMB DMC DMIC DMIN DNA DoE DoF DoL DRR EWS FAO FFWC GoB HFA HRRP ICT LACC LDRRF MDTF M&E MoEF MoFL MoFDM MoU NGO PCVA RRAP SOD UDMC UNFCCC UZDMC WCDRR
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Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of all living things; the different plants, animals and micro organisms, the genetic information they contain and the ecosystems they form. Hazards Natural or manmade events can cause damage to life, livelihood, environment and property. Disaster A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of the society causing widespread human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to cope using its own resources. Disaster Risks Risk is the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from any disaster. Capacity Capacity refers to anything of a person or family that reduces disaster risks. Vulnerability Vulnerability refers to a person or family or something in the society that are at high risks in disaster. Risk Reduction Risk Reduction is the conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to identify vulnerabilities & disaster risks throughout a society, and later minimize or to limit the vulnerabilities. Weather In deﬁnition of weather, weather is the limited atmospheric condition (wind circulation, temperature, pressure, precipitation, humidity) of a place. Generally weather is such records of a day. Sometimes atmospheric condition of short time a speciﬁc place is called weather. Climate Climate refers to mean average for 20-30 years of different weather event of a place. More generally climate is average weather of 20-30 years. Climate generally is for large area. Climate Change Climate change is referred to long term and meaningful change in mean climate. Due to climate change there’s change in index of earth’s atmospheric temperature, air pressure, air etc. and latterly these affect on earth’s surface. Although nowadays climate change refer to the changes in climate due to several anthropogenic activity. Climate Change Adaptation Climate changeability and loss due to change or minimizing processes of risk and endanger, the process of creating capacity building to reduce the loss and the taken steps challenging this situation, are called Climate Change Adaptation. Climate Change Mitigation The process of implementing the measures that eliminate or signiﬁcantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gas which is behind climate change. Annex 1 Parties Developed countries responsible for climate change are rich country. According to UNFCC they called Annex 1 Parties. USA, UK, Japan, and countries of EU are Annex 1 Parties.
Rich Countries (USA, Canada, UK, Japan and EU Countries Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Conference of Parties Community Risk Assessment Cyclone Preparedness Programme Cyclone Preparedness Programme Implementation Board Civil Society Organization Committee for Speedy Dissemination of Disaster Related Warning / Signals Department of Agricultural Extension District Disaster Management Committee Disaster Emergency Response Disaster Management Bureau Disaster Management Committee Disaster Management Information Centre Disaster Management Information Network Disaster Needs Assessment Department of Environment Department of Fisheries Department of Livestock Directorate of Relief and Rehabilitation Disaster Risk Reduction Early Warning System Food and Agricultural Organization Flood Forecasting and Warning System Government of Bangladesh Hyogo Framework of Action Household Risk Reduction Programme Information Communication Technology Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Change Local Disaster Risk Reduction Fund Multi-Donor Trust Fund Monitoring and Evaluation Ministry of Environment and Forestry Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock Ministry of Food and Disaster Management Memorandum of Understanding Non-Government Organization Participatory Community Based Vulnerability Assessment Risk Reduction Action Plan Standing Order on Disaster Union Disaster Management Committee United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Upazilla Disaster Management Committee World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction
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Climate Change Adaptation
1.1 Weather and Climate
We all know climate and weather is related to each other. But there are some similarity and dissimilarity between climate and weather. To know these similarity and dissimilarity ﬁrst we have to know the deﬁnition of climate and weather. Photo : Oxfam
In the deﬁnition of climate it is said that “Climate is usually described in terms of the mean and variability of different state of weather (the state of the atmosphere) over a period of time, ranging from months to millions of years, generally from 20-30 years for a speciﬁc region”. Generally, Climate is measured for a large territory.
“Climate is what we expect and Weather is what we get”
Weather has impact in all sphere of life. For example our life and livelihood depend on rainfall, temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity. Such as weather of summer is extreme, air humidity is warm and dry. On the other hand dazzling in monsoon, wash out of house, crop ﬁeld on ﬂood due to heavy rain, on the other side we have ware warm cloths to keep warm ourselves in winter. So weather changes according to time. Why this happen? Before we look for the reason let’s know the deﬁnition of weather. In deﬁnition of weather it is said that “weather is the state of the atmosphere of a place over shorter periods (air ﬂow, temperature, pressure, rainfall, humidity)”. Generally, the record of these for a day is called weather. Sometimes the atmospheric condition of a speciﬁc region over shorter periods is also called weather. We can learn from the deﬁnition of weather, the atmospheric condition, such as, air movement, temperature, pressure, rainfall, humidity of a speciﬁc region for a short time, that is, when the temperature of a place remains more, then the humidity becomes dry up, so it feels hot; when the temperature of a place remains less, then the humidity becomes wet excessively, so it feels cold. Again, due to the rainfall in the summer season temperature as well as humidity becomes dry up, so temperature also decreases. That is, the slight change in the temperature also changes the weather.
1.1.3 Difference between Climate and Weather
We learned from the deﬁnition of weather and climate, weather is the state of atmosphere over shorter periods and climate is the state of atmosphere over longer periods. Weather is determined for a speciﬁc region, on the other hand; climate is determined for a large region. Weather and climate change in both but weather change is dependent on climate change. Weather change happens rapidly and results are observed (such as the six seasonal variation of Bangladesh), on the other hand; climate change happens slowly or very sharply, results remain almost unchanged or difference not observed apparently. The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.”
1.2 Climate Change
Global climate remained quite static state over last ten years. We would know that when and what type of weather condition will observe in the year. Without some sort of exception, it is happened over the years that could be assumed, which remained in a quite static state. Considering such kind of situations, we would make the calendar of life and livelihood for the year. We would plan our professional activities depending on the weather. In this condition, the deﬁnition of climate change has been changed and determined as, “the long lasting and meaningful change of the mean of the weather state is called climate change”. But in recent periods, human induced activities, such as, industrial smoke, vehicles oil and smoke from vehicles gas, deforestation etc., make the world warm continuously and forwarding the meaningful climate change to an unfavorable condition. Global temperature increase means the increase in the temperature continuously and this is happening very fast. For this reason, at present, from social and political views, climate change refers to that the recent times anthropogenic activities are causing the climate change. That is, anthropogenic activities cause the climate change, which have a great impact on the change of the atmospheric temperature and pressure, air etc. resulting impacts on the earth surface. So, human being is gradually polluting the weather by his own activities which are impacting in weather change.
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We familiar with the weather locally, is related to the whole world climate system. The climate change in the whole world is a complex process which is related to many things or has a relation, such as, sea-oceans, mountain-hill ranges, continental geography, Polar Regions etc. As, we are the part and parcel of global climate system, that’s why the change in the climate means the change of the local weather. The climate change causes the change in the weather, so we are going to know, what is called climate change?
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1.2.1 Causes of Climate Change
Natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities are responsible for climate change. Natural phenomena mainly impact the climate change by the natural process. On the other hand, the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the density of aerosols due to the pre-industrialization period to industrialization activities are considered to the anthropogenic activities for climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous oxide (NOx) and ozone (O3) are the greenhouse gases (GHGs).
Photo : Oxfam
“Actually, the main reason of climate change is the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The developed countries have been produced these gases for the last 200 years. “Actually the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is the main cause of climate change. The developed countries have been produced these gases for the 200 years. They have damaged the environment for their economical development and the amount of Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4) production has been trapped in the atmosphere. The emissions are produced by the countries like USA, UK, Australia, Europe and Japan for last 200 years, changing the global climate. According to the IPCC Report (2001), in the nineteenth century, the rate of temperature increase of the North Pole was the highest compare to any other century for last 1000 years. Statistics shown that the average temperature has increased in 0.6 +- 0.2 degree Celsius per year (Graph-1), the summer season has elongated in some parts of the world and the winter season has decreased all over the world.
Photo : Oxfam
As a result, the impacts of climate change are very negligible, almost unchanged and not observed apparently, and this concept is proving wrong. At present, weather and climate scientist have found the data about the climate change and results of the climate change impacts from their research. For example, according to the climate scientists, it is required to maintain the mean temperature of the earth surface within 1 degree Celsius decrease or increase over 20-30 years to keep the world suitable for human. But 2Scientists say that the world temperature will increase 1.1 degree Celsius to 6.4 degree Celsius from 1990 to 2100.
Climate Change Cycle
We already known that the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide and ozone etc.), is the cause of climate change. That is, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide and ozone act as factors for the climate change. Greenhouse gas is the natural element of the atmosphere, which retain the sunlight (warmth) to make the earth surface habitable for the human being. This process is called the greenhouse cause gas effect. It is learned by examining the ice sample in the Polar Regions that at least 10 crores or 1 million years before the earth climate has rounded as two periods, such as, only cold period or ice age and warm period or inter-ice age. But specialists have found by experiment that in the way the earth has become hot in
Photo : Oxfam
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Fig. : Variations of the Earth’s surface temperature for the past 140 years (1860 – 2000) (IPCC, 2001)
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1970, cannot be explained by natural factors or causes. As results of anthropogenic activities, such as, use of organic fuel and land clearing etc., huge amount of greenhouse gas have been stored in the atmosphere, that’s why the earth is trapping more heat and the earth surface temperature is increasing. It is explained in the picture: (1) the heat of solar radiation is 343 watt meter entering into per square meter atmosphere; (2) After crossing the greenhouse, the actual heat of the solar radiation is 240 watt per square meter; (3) the amount of solar radiation which reﬂected to the solar system after reﬂecting from the atmosphere and the earth surface is 103 watt per square meter; (4) some part of the heat of solar radiation 168 watt per square meter is absorbing by the earth surface and heating the earth surface; (5) greenhouse gases absorb the exception ultraviolet rays and reﬂected to the solar system. For this reason, the earth surface and the troposphere is heated up; (6) at heat 240 watt per square meter, some ultraviolet rays pass through the atmosphere and escape away to the solar system. It is explained in the above picture that solar radiation comes from the sun; some parts of this radiation cross through the atmosphere and reach to the earth surface. The earth surface absorbs some part of it and remaining part is reﬂected in or sent back to the greenhouse gas level. Also, greenhouse gas absorbs some part of ultraviolet ray and rest of them sent back to the solar system. Actually, the absorption in and reﬂection of ultraviolet radiation by the greenhouse gas level; act as a factor to warm up the earth surface. The climate change also happens for this reason. According to the scientists, if the climate change happens in a high rate rapidly, its impact on the human daily life becomes severe. That is, human daily life remains under threat. But, at present, as a result, the rate at which the temperature of the earth surface is increasing, the world temperature will increase from 1.4°C to 5.8 °C. That is, the present temperature is increasing in unusual rate that disrupt the normal climate change ﬂow is resulting the damage of human friendly environment. 1. In recent years, general cyclonic activity in the bay of Bengal become more frequent, causing rougher seas that can make it difﬁcult for ﬁsherman and small craft to put to sea. 2. High wind can result in storm surges up to 7 meters high, resulting in extensive damage to house and high loss of life human and livestock in the coastal communities. 3. Droughts in Bangladesh are seasonal and can devastate crops, causing hardship to poor agricultural labors and others who cannot ﬁnd work. It most commonly affects the northwestern region, which generally has lower rainfall than the rest of the country. 4. Heavy and excessive rainfall will increase in the Padma-Meghna-Jamuna river basin as well as in whole country. Increased river erosion during the monsoon may be expected due to hydrological changes in the river basins due to the effects of climate change. As a result, so many households and crop ﬁeld will go under water. Sedimentation process also will increase accelerating the water drainage process; will lead to the water logging. 5. The Himalayan Ice cap melting will carry excessive water ﬂow to make a ﬂash ﬂood in the summer season. After the narrowness or vanishing of ice cap, the rivers will dry up due to shortage of upstream water ﬂow, salinity and salinity prone area also will increase. 6. The sea level will rise, as a results, low land of the coastal regions will go under water, salinity will increase in the coastal freshwater and groundwater causing the lack of freshwater, the damage of the biodiversity riched world heritage Sundarbans will occur, water logging will make hazards to the agricultural sector. 7. Temperature and humidity will increase, that’s why diseases and germ vector will spread out at large scale. The following risks and vulnerability are mentioned in Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2009:
Flood Long time foggy coverage
1.3 The Impact of Climate Change
The increase in temperature of the earth will lead to ﬁve unchanged results. Such as, (1) Ice stored in South Pole, icecap and top of the hill will melt. As a result, upstream water will increase and will cause frequent ﬂash ﬂood in the different regions. Flood visits Bangladesh two times in 2007. This devastating scenario will increase more. At the same time, if ice in the hill and icecap fall in short then water will not available. After the upstream ﬂow in the summer season, water shortage will happen in the winter season, as a result, drought prone area will increase; (2) by heating up the surface of the ocean, the number of low pressure and tornado will increase. By turning into low pressure to cyclone, tornado will increase; (3) the evaporated ocean water will cause cloud and excessive rain in some regions; (4) Excessive rain will cause ﬂood in the summer season as well as drought in the winter season and (5) If the ocean water increase, the height of the high tide will increase as well as number of cyclone also will increase. As global climate system becomes warm, so the local weather also is changing. Most of the cases, this change happen in very slow and hard to realize. May Excessive rainfall Drought More temperature increase be it has been come to light for 10 years or more than. Following changes occur in Bangladesh because of climate change: Some of these above mentioned reasons of climate change can fall down the human life, livelihood under risk and threat resulting in short term and long term impacts.
Photo : Oxfam
8. It was mentioned that the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, the Bengal tiger and hundreds of bird species may disappear (Daily Star, 2011).
Crazy Ocean and cyclone
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There is a great chance of loss in the agricultural sector (Crops, livestock, ﬁsheries) for these above mentioned changes. More than 60% people of the country are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture sector for their livelihoods. They will fall in great troubles. More frequent ﬂoods, salinity increase in the coastal regions and temperature increase with drought and the changing pattern of rainfall will combined less the production and cultivation. According to the IPCC expectations, by the year of 2050, the production of paddy and wheat will decrease in 8% and 32% respectfully (counting 1990 as a base year). The agriculture as well as other sectors will face the following side effects: The demand of safe drinking water will increase. Specially, the women and child in the coastal and drought prone northwestern part of the country collect the safe drinking water for their family. The more drinking of saline water will increase the health risks and the health risks of the pregnant women will be more. The increase of river erosion and salinity in coastal regions, many lacs of people will become homeless. These people will migrate to the city and take shelter in the city slums. If the sea level rise is more than the present assumption and the folders are not make stronger or construct in new, then by the year of 2050 60-80 lacs people will be homeless; the government will have to take these people responsibilities. The food security, health risk and livelihoods will be under threats for these changes. The people who live in near the seashore and small islands (char in Bangla) are extremely poor. These poor and the land lost people will face in huge damages. The women ruled families as well as the people live below the extreme poverty line will face in extreme misfortunes due to climate change.
The disasters (Tsunami, cyclones, ﬂood, tidal ﬂood, earthquake, volcanic eruption, tornados etc.) come in suddenly or at high speed which does not provide any clues to understand them before their coming, are called Rapid Onset Disaster.
1.4 Relation of Climate Change and Differences with Disaster
Reduction of disaster risk
Disasters not caused by climate change (Earthquake)
Disasters caused by climate change (flood, drought, cyclone, tornado)
Climate change impacts (temperature, rainfall variation, sea level rise, storm surges, polar ice melting)
There are possibilities of breaking out waterborne and airborne diseases for climate change. Excessive temperature wet weather and insufﬁcient water drainage and sanitation facilities, germ carrying vectors can reproduce in rapid. As a result, the extreme poverty and the health of highly endangered people will be more and the excessive illness will increase.
1.3.1 Risk of Slow Onset Disaster and Vulnerability
Climate specialists said that climate change will cause the temperature increases of the earth surface, the rise in sea level, melting down the trapped ice in hill, change in the local rainfall, salinity increase in the coastal regions, loss and damage of biodiversity and weaken the Risk of Slow Onset Disaster and Vulnerability environmental surroundings, increase in ﬂood- drought The increase in the earth surface temperature, rise in proneness. These types of dangers come slowly and sea level, ice melting down in hill range, rainfall we get the time to know and understand. That is, this pattern change, drought, desertification symptoms event happens slowly, not in a sudden, so these events are called Slow Onset. In South Asia, the 4th IPCC Report predicts that monsoon rainfall will increase, resulting in higher ﬂows during the monsoon season in the rivers, which ﬂow into Bangladesh from India, Nepal, Bhutan and China. These ﬂows are likely to further increase in the medium term due to the melting of the Himalayan glaciers. The IPCC also forecasts that global warming will result in sea level rises of between 0.18 and 0.79 meters, which could increase coastal ﬂooding and saline intrusion into aquifers and rivers across a wide belt in the south of the country, although most of the area is protected by polders. Rainfall is predicted to become both higher and more erratic, and the frequency and intensity of droughts are likely to increase, especially in the drier northern and western parts of the country. The idea about the disaster not caused by climate change, disaster caused by climate change and climate change impacts of has been given in the above picture. The disaster not caused by climate change, such as, earthquake is a type of disaster which is caused by changing of the earth surface. We have identiﬁed greenhouse gases as a reason behind of the disaster caused by climate change. The disasters like ﬂood, drought, storm surges and tornados are occurred by the climate change, on the other hand, the earth surface temperature increase, variation in rainfall pattern, sea level rise and the melting down of icecaps are identiﬁed as the reasons behind of the disaster but not as a disaster. We need to set up plans and implement them considering the similarities and dissimilarities of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management.
Relation and difference between the adaptation and disaster risk management programs Five Pillars of Adaptation
Long term activities or programs Categorized the causes of climate change (Greenhouse gas emission, inspiring the use of green energy)
Disaster risk Management Strategy
There is no such kind of programs disaster risk management.
• Creating the negotiations in the international levels (UNFCCC, IPCC, HFA) • Advocacy in the local and global level • low carbon emission • Inspiring the use of Green Energy
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1.3.2 Risk of Rapid Onset Disaster and Vulnerability
Natural disasters, such as, the frequency, scale and magnitude of cyclone-tornado will increase. The diseases Risk of Rapid Onset Disaster and Vulnerability Tsunami, cyclones, flood, tidal flood, earthquake, caused by insects, diarrhea and the risk of HIV’s will volcanic eruption, tornados etc. increase. The supply of safe drinking water will be less, on the other hand, the demand of water in urban regions will also increase, that’s why, loss of lives, economic and infrastructural damage will occur. Agriculture, water, communication, heath, infrastructure, economy and disaster management sectors will be damaged also.
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Five Pillars of Adaptation
Discussion on climate change uncertainty Face the certainty and the changed conditions (New risks, weather and possible future vulnerability analysis)
Disaster risk Management Strategy
There is no such kind of programs disaster risk management.
• Long term planning to face the uncertainty, • PVCA • Adjustment scientific knowledge to the conventional one • Situation justification and collection of information and data
It is known from the research works that the production of agriculture was hampered in those years, the climate driven disasters damaged the production in the same times (Benson and Clay, 2002). We also noticed that the national GDP growth rate in those years had been decreased. We should be more sensitive in case of climate change taking a lesson from the reality for ensuring future food security. Climate change will seriously affect the total agriculture production in Bangladesh. A rise in the CO2 level will have a positive fertilization effect, but with a rise in temperature, the yield will be suppressed. Thus, in order to derive the desired beneﬁt, the interaction of CO2 and temperature has to be synchronized with the choice of crop cultivars. It is believed that climate change would increase the disparities in cereal production between developed and developing countries. The production in the developed world would beneﬁt from climate change, while those in developing nations would decline (Walker and Steffen, 1997). Farm-level adaptation would be inadequate in reducing the disparities. It is also reported that even an extensive farm-level adaptation in the agricultural sector would not entirely prevent such negative effects. In general, the tropical and subtropical countries would be more vulnerable to the potential impacts of global warming through effects on crops, soils, insects, weeds and diseases. Impacts of climate change would cause enhanced vulnerability to the crop production systems in Bangladesh. Wheat was severely affected by the increased temperature, even at higher levels of CO2. Recent analysis has shown that increased CO2 levels essentially help attain higher leaf area index, and do not contribute to increased rice yields (Abrol, 1998). These results have supplemented the ﬁnding of Walker and Steffen (1997). It may be too early to come to a conclusion regarding the direct effects of climate change on food grain production. The density of carbon-di-oxide increases in the atmosphere expected to become friendly for the plants and cereals which are the main catalyst of climate change. But with the increase in temperature will increase the world average temperature at the same time. Scientiﬁc research says that the average temperature increases 20C or more from the present rate, then the production of grains will be damaged at an alarming rate (Karim et. al, 1998). The increasing temperature will increase the soil’s organic carbon degradation (Karim et. al., 1998). According to the agricultural scientists, in these critical conditions so many agricultural lands will be degraded. Climate change will turn this risk into production risk. Because of climate change related problems, the agriculture sectors will greatly damaged. As, the population number will increase more in the future, if the agriculture lags behind; the rate poverty will more. It is predicted that climate driven unemployment will increase instead of increasing of employment in agriculture.
Discussion on sustainable life style
Five pillars of life style or resource based development/ planning
Disaster risk reduction: human, social, physical natural and financial capital building
• To take planning based on five capacity boiling adaptation
Quick responses or programs
To take part in change (pre-plan in infrastructure development, climate change tolerant crops species production, social forestry, implementation of mitigation programs in national and local level)
• Integrated preparation strategy for disaster risk management • Ministry and department in national level • Local committee • Early warning system
• To concern about the probable future disasters and the hazards and the increase of climate change factors • To prepare the people according to the disaster risk management strategy.
To adapt with the climate change risks ( learning about life risks during the hazards and disasters)
• People based mitigation programs • Ministry and department in national level • Permanent orders and committees in local levels
• To implement the adaptation programs for ensuring patient life style, flood, cyclones, drought, salinity etc. • To follow Hugo framework of action • To make active the people for mitigating the risks according to the disaster risk management. • People based mitigation programs • To set up relation with local and national govt. • Inspiration and training • Policy planning and advocacy for the natural resource management • Women economic empowerment
1.5.1 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Coastal Regions
Experience based activities Resource storage or capital building, (human resources, infrastructure, natural resources management, financial resources) • Inspiration and training • To set up relation with local and national govt.
Almost 12 lacs costal ﬁsherman families will fall under threatened conditions and the supply of ﬁsh will decrease. Long term water logging and almost 17% coastal agricultural lands, households will go under water by damaging the embankments and inundating the rural areas. This will lead to salinity increase in the agricultural lands and production will be hampered. One-fourth people of the country live in coastal regions. The coastal areas of Bangladesh are already faced with so many hydro-geophysical risks, which will be exacerbated by climate change and subsequent sea-level rise. However, given the realities along the coastal zone, there is no substantial risk of permanent inundation of a large area due to a rise in sea level.
1.5 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture
Over 60% of people depend on agriculture directly or indirectly for their livelihoods. Each of these changes is likely to seriously affect agriculture (crops, livestock and ﬁsheries). Although agriculture now accounts for only 20% of GDP, The higher temperatures and changing rainfall patterns, coupled with increased ﬂooding, rising salinity in the coastal belt and droughts are likely to reduce crop yields and crop production. IPCC estimates that, by 2050, rice production in Bangladesh could decline by 8% and wheat by 32% (against a base year of 1990). The IPCC Third Assessment noted that currently available models could not do a good job towards resolving the inﬂuence of climate change on cyclones (IPCC, 2001). However, based on emerging insights from a few climate model experiments as well as the empirical records, the TAR of IPCC concluded that “... there is some evidence that regional frequencies of tropical cyclones may change but none that their locations will change. There is also evidence that the peak intensity may increase by 5% and 10% and precipitation rates may increase by 20% to 30%” (IPCC, 2001).
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There is a strong correlation between increasing sea surface temperatures and the occurrence of too many rough sea events in the recent years. High wind actions have been causing economic damage to ﬁsher folks by quickly damaging the traditional boats. High wind actions have been eroding sea-facing coastal islands; even embankments located far inland than the open sea. Sudden breaches in embankments have been destroying standing crops, inundating crop lands with saline water, thereby diminishing economic potential of the coastal lands, and forcing poor people to out-migrate from the affected areas by destroying their livelihoods. A northward shift in isohaline lines under climate change would compound the already alarming effect of water logging in the southwestern region. It has been reported that the sea surface temperatures along the northern Indian Ocean (i.e., Bay of Bengal) has gradually been rising steadily. Though there is no evidence that the frequency of occurrence of cyclone along the Bay of Bengal has actually changed over the past ﬁve decades due to rising sea surface temperatures that cyclone intensity might be increased by as much as 10% due to increased warming. A devastating example that Bangladesh has been observing in this regard is the Aila affected areas in Satkhira, Khulna and Bagerhat district.
1.5.4 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Haor Regions
Haor is the distinct and exclusive ecological zone of our country. The inhabitants of Sunamgonj, Kishoregonj and Netrakona up to Brahmanbariya have adapted the ﬂood by inheritance. But due to the impacts of climate change, the advance coming of ﬂood in the month of April-May causes huge damage to the crops and households per year. It not only damages the production of Boro crops, households but also the reduction of Aman rice, livestock. It is predated that climate change will raise negative impacts on the ecosystem of the haor basin. The ecosystem of the haor area depends on the availability of water with respect to the seasonal variation. The supply of water will increase due to the direct inﬂuence of monsoon wind, because of climate change. If the rainy season comes earlier, then the production of Boro rice will be damaged.
1.5.5 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture of Beel Regions
The life and livelihoods of local people are hampering continuously due to the rapid dumping of Chalan beel as well as other beels. Especially drought and the supply of water of the rivers which are connected to the beels, is decreased or due to dryness, the supply of water of the beel has been decreased also. As a result, beels are belonging to the human usages and beels are dumping. So, the people dependent on beels specially the life and livelihoods of the ﬁsherman are falling under threats and the variety of ﬁsheries is destroying.
1.5.2 Climate Change impacts on Barind regions
Barind regions, that is, the western part of Bangladesh are a drought prone region. North-western region (Barind tract) of Bangladesh is normally drought prone. Droughts are associated with the late arrival or an early withdrawal of monsoon rains and also due to intermittent dry spells coinciding with critical stages of T. Aman rice. Droughts in May and June destroy broadcast Aman, Ausand jute. Inadequate rains in July delay transplantation of Aman in high Barind areas, while droughts in September and October reduce yields of both broadcast and transplanted Aman and delay the sowing of pulses and potatoes. Boro, wheat and other crops grown in the dry season are also periodically affected by drought. A simulation study has been conducted to assess the vulnerability of Boro rice production (58% of the total rice production during 2008) in Bangladesh to see the effects of potential climate change. It would be quite impossible for the small and marginal farmer to grow Boro rice depending on groundwater availability overtaking the drought challenges.
1.5.6 Scopes of Climate Adaptation and mitigation
Climate change mitigation and adaptation have some common elements, they may be complementary, substitutable, independent or competitive in dealing with climate change, and also have very different characteristics and timescales. Adaptation and mitigation are two types of policy response to climate change, which can be complementary, substitutable or independent of each other. Irrespective of the scale of mitigation measures, adaptation measures will be required anyway, due to the inertia in the climate system. Over the next 20 years or so, even the most aggressive climate policy can do little to avoid warming already ‘loaded’ into the climate system. The beneﬁts of avoided climate change will only accrue beyond that time. Over longer time frames, beyond the next few decades, mitigation investments have a greater potential to avoid climate change damage and this potential is larger than the adaptation options that can currently be envisaged(medium agreement, medium evidence) Mitigation and adaptation are both essential aspects of dealing with climate change, but adaptation becomes costlier and less effective as the magnitude of climate change grows. Consequently, when mitigation objectives are affordably achieved, adaptation requirements are reduced and the ultimate result is less stress. The incorporate both mitigation and adaptation in modeling the future effects of climate change result in lower levels of vulnerability compared with scenarios that include either mitigation or adaptation alone. Therefore, pursuing synergies between mitigation and adaptation in the context of reducing poverty will be particularly important in building resilience to the effects of climate change.
1.5.3 Climate Change impacts on Char regions
There are chars (islands and accreted lands) along the banks of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna and parts of the Ganges-Padma and the Lower Meghna. There are almost hundreds of chars surrounding the main rivers and estuaries have potentiality for the habitation and agriculture. These chars act as a shelter place for the river erosion and other disasters driven homeless people. Almost 7 lacs people live in there and collects their livelihoods. A potential implication would be that future storm surges might be even higher than those observed currently. About 1.2 million hectares of arable land are affected by varying degree of soil salinity, tidal ﬂooding during wet season, direct inundation by saline water and upward and lateral movement of saline ground water during dry season. Inundation of brackish water for shrimp farming is key causes for secondary Stalinization of coastal lands. The severity of salinity problem has increased over the years and expected in increase in future due to sea level rise. Increased river bank erosion and saline water intrusion in coastal region are likely to displace hundred if thousands of people who will be forced to migrate, often to slums in Dhaka and other big cities. If sea level rise is higher than currently expected and coastal polders are not strengthened and/or new ones built, six to eight million people could be displaced by 2050 and would have to be resettled. Higher temperatures will result in more glacial melt, increasing runoff from the neighboring Himalayas into the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Given the altitude of the mountains and the enormous size of the glaciers, this problem will most likely continue over the century. The problem could be of even greater concern as there is evidence to show that temperatures in the Himalayas (where the glaciers are located) are rising at higher rates, thereby contributing to enhanced snowmelt.
1.6.1 Deﬁnition of Climate Adaptation
Climate Change Adaptation which is the process through which people reduce the negative effects of climate on their health and well-being and adjust their lifestyles to the new situation around them is an essential and often overlooked part of the response to climate change; although it is not intended as a substitute for mitigation actions as adaptation has limitations. There are a number of basic strategies that can be taken in response to climate change that categorize various ways to adapt to the altered situation but a process that starts in and with the local community and its adaptive capabilities is vital; especially as climate change adaptation is context speciﬁc. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development thinking and practices has also been recommended as a priority and there are already many innovative projects in Bangladesh and around the world addressing the growing impacts of climate change on local communities.
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Adaptation—an adjustment made in response to a perceived change in a human or natural system in order to reduce vulnerability, build resilience, or both. Adaptation can be proactive (anticipatory) or reactive, and planned (involving public intervention) or autonomous (representing spontaneous action by private actors). That’s why adaptation process in not backward one but it always contains the hints of further development.
Local level Scopes of climate adaptation
Lack of food and income security
Programs for adaptation
Food and income generation program by agriculture
Examples of programs
Floating vegetables production methods, saline tolerant paddy species generation, drought resistant crops varieties, vegetation near the household etc. Handloom, basket making, husbandry, saline tolerant tree plantation, mixed cultivation of fish, honey bee and honey collection. Work together with the local govt. to ensure the people access to the public land, water and forests, so that general people can catch fish from the canals, beels and do floating vegetation. Making food storage that would be free from damage and flood risk.
Ensure the income security by creating alternative employment.
1.6.2 Classiﬁcation of Climate Adaptation
Structural Adaptation: This process means the adaptation by the slight development and extension of the present technologies. Such as, increase in the height of house for ﬂood, building the house with sustainable structure etc. Non-Structural Adaptation: In many cases, adaptation can be possible by the change of behavior and life style. This type of adaptation is called Non-Structural Adaptation, such as, leaving away the risky place or changing in the profession etc. Anticipatory Adaptation: To take adaptation mechanism before the adverse impacts of climate change is occurred, is called Anticipatory Adaptation, such as, the collection and the preservation of dry foods before the ﬂood etc. Reactive Adaptation: The adaptation process is taken after the observation of harmful impacts of climate changes is called reactive adaptation, such as, saline tolerant species generation, development and cultivation.
Lack of income security
Increase in income by access to human resources
Lack of food security
Increase in the supply of food by food production and storage. Development of social and health safety
Lack of Health Security
1.6.3 Scopes of climate adaptation
The outlines an integrated adaptation approach that is comprised of the following tasks: First, enhancing the resilience of coastal communities and protective ecosystems through community-led adaptation interventions that focus on afforestation and livelihood diversiﬁcation options. Mangrove forests along the coastline have a high potential to reduce future climate change-induced threats, particularly the impacts of cyclones and storm surges; simultaneously, they provide livelihood resources for vulnerable coastal communities. Second, enhancing national, sub-national, and local capacities of government authorities and sectoral planners to understand and anticipate climate risk dynamics in coastal areas and delineate and implement appropriate climate risk reduction measures. Third, promoting a review and revision of speciﬁc national policies to increase community resilience to climate change impacts in coastal areas. A feedback loop between community-based adaptation actions and policy review will ensure that national policies are updated on the basis of actual lessons learned at the community level, and ensure that policy support provided through this project will ultimately beneﬁt vulnerable communities. Fourth, developing a functional system for the collection, distribution, and internalisation of climate-related knowledge at the national, district, and local levels. Lack of water Ensure the availability of saline free and safe drinking water
The setting up and use of sanitary latrine that is free from flood and water logging risks, to make sure the access of lower class people in the cyclone shelter. To make sure the use of safe drinking water, repairmen of deep tube wells, usage of pond water after filtration, preserve the rain water and Searching and usage of ancient concepts to make sure the protection of households from strong wind, self development training for constructing a house and managing the uninterrupted flow of air
Lack of habitation
Ensure the household security
Free from the risk of vulnerability
To take the Community based risk reduction programme
Performing the dredging of small canal, river and river management to make sure the flow of water
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1.6.4 Deﬁnition of Climate Change Mitigation
Climate change Mitigation which refers to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or to capture greenhouse gases through certain kinds of land use, such as tree plantation is the main response that must be made to prevent future impacts of climate change. 2. “The method or process by which the causes of climate change and the emission of greenhouse gas are reduced is called Climate change Mitigation” Mitigation-the reduction of anthropogenic green-house gas emissions or the enhancement of natural sinks (that is, a natural process that absorbs more carbon than it releases) through the implementation of policies (IPCC 2007a). 3.
relevant to the country’s fuel security. For this reason, Bangladesh govt. is inspiring to use of energy and fuel in a sustainable way and searching for new alternative sources of fuel. And it is requested to give emphasize on the usage of solar energy and biogas. Solar energy use and waste management activities can be taken under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Besides, climate change mitigation activities, such as, carbon trading and carbon credit making strategy can be done. Social forest programme play a vital role in climate mitigation. Social forestry works for the empowerment of the millions of people who depend on forestland and resources for their daily needs. Social forestry aims at ensuring economic, ecological, and social beneﬁts to the people, particularly to the rural masses and those living below poverty line, especially by involving the beneﬁciary’s right from the planning stage to the harvesting stage. The target of the social forestry is the ‘rural poor’ and not the ‘tree’ alone
Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
The terms “adaptation” and “mitigation” are two important terms that are fundamental in the climate change debate. The IPCC deﬁned adaptation as adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderate harm or exploits beneﬁcial opportunities. Similarly, Mitchell and Tanner (2006) deﬁned adaptation as an understanding of how individuals, groups and natural systems can prepare for and respond to changes in climate or their environment. According to them, it is crucial to reducing vulnerability to climate change. While mitigation tackles the causes of climate change, adaptation tackles the effects of the phenomenon. The potential to adjust in order to minimize negative impact and maximize any beneﬁts from changes in climate is known as adaptive capacity. A successful adaptation can reduce vulnerability by building on and strengthening existing coping strategies. In general the more mitigation there is, the less will be the impacts to which we will have to adjust, and the less the risks for which we will have to try and prepare. Conversely, the greater the degree of preparatory adaptation, the less may be the impacts associated with any given degree of climate change. For people today, already feeling the impacts of past inaction in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation is not altogether passive, rather it is an active adjustment in response to new stimuli. However, our present age has proactive options (mitigation), and must also plan to live with the consequences (adaptation) of global warming. The idea that less mitigation means greater climatic change and consequently requiring more adaptation is the basis for the urgency surrounding reductions in greenhouse gases. Climate mitigation and adaptation should not be seen as alternatives to each other, as they are not discrete activities but rather a combined set of actions in an overall strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
1.7 Climate Adaptation, Gender and Diversity 1.7.1 Climate Adaptation and Gender
Disasters affect both women and men but they experience disasters differently due to their gendered social construction. Consequently, disasters also impact differently on men and women. When we talk about the gender element in climate change and adaptation we are referring to the different ways in which men and women contribute to climate change, the different impact that climate change has on men and women, the different ways that men and women respond to and are able to cope with climate change, and the differences in how they are able to shift from short term coping mechanisms to resilience. Women are not just victims but active agents of change and possess unique knowledge and skills that should be acknowledged and tapped into to develop resilience. Women should be at the centre of adaptation programmes because they are a particularly vulnerable group owing to their limited access, control and ownership over resources, unequal participation in decision and policy-making, lower incomes and levels of formal education, and extraordinarily high workloads. To understand women vulnerability in any natural or manmade or climate change induced disaster, we can go through the following case study: Coastal Cyclone Shelter Centre: The Cyclone Shelters were planned to accommodate the people and numbers of valuable livestock during cyclones. For regular activities each centre was planned to serve as a health clinic with a medicine dispensing area; as a seed/grain store; as a focus for education, training and community information; and as a communication centre. All of the women and girls suffered from different types of violence such as psychological and physical happened in cyclone shelter centers. In the cyclone centre women have to face the following problems: Majority of the women did not have any security in cyclone, ﬂood shelter centers. In the Cyclone, ﬂood shelters stranger men have always been looking for scope. Many families had to live in a single room, lack of proper sanitation facilities and safe drinking water. Pregnant women face the great troubles like abortion
Climate change involves complex interactions between climatic, environmental, economic, political, institutional, social, and technological processes. It cannot be addressed or comprehended in isolation of broader societal goals (such as equity or sustainable development), or other existing or probable future sources of stress.
1.6.5 Scopes of Climate Mitigation
Mitigation strategies can reduce ecosystem vulnerability, and adaptation strategies can increase ecological resilience to climate and landscape change. Mitigation strategies are actions to prevent, reduce, or slow climate and/or landscape change. Adaptation strategies are actions to counteract the adverse consequences of climate and landscape change. Natural resource managers can use both strategies to reduce adverse ecosystem effects of climate and landscape change. 1. Although the contribution of greenhouse gas emission of Bangladesh is very negligible, but we are interested to reduce the present and future emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, with the increase of demand for fuel due to the development activities, that’s why our mitigation programme needs to be
Water logging: The health sector is mainly affected by waterborne and skin diseases, which the people face due to floods, water logging and salinity. Long term effects include malnutrition, stress, and increased physical labor arising out of poverty. While health problems create additional treatment expenditures, they also lead to lack of productivity of labor. Severe consequences such as death only occur in cyclone prone hotspot and a couple of events such as drowning of children have also been recorded in flood prone areas.
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The impacts on education can also be direct or indirect. Floods and cyclones often cause schools to remain closed for weeks and also create communication problems for children. In the river flood prone hotspot, children have to sit on the teacher’s bed to take exams, and in the water-logged hotspot, young children have to be carried to school by their mothers so that they do not drown or damage their books. In all hotspots, however, secondary effects are more severe, as when lack of income compels parents to stop education of their children. Even if some can afford up to primary education, secondary education is out of bounds for most house-holds, and the children drop out of school to work with their parents. During floods, water logging or drainage congestion, women face difficulties in conducting their personal sanitary tasks because toilets get flooded and they have to wait till night to ensure their privacy. In drought prone areas, scarcity of water means that women cannot bathe frequently. They go to some distant river or pond and bathe there in the afternoon hours while men are resting at home. Collection fresh and saline water: The soil of the southwestern part of country becomes saline as a result of climate change. The people of these regions have to go far away from their home for collecting fresh water. Generally, women and girl perform this job. The wastage of time for collecting water hamper the education period of those girls. River, Char and Coastal Erosion: River, char and coastal erosion are the common phenomena in Bangladesh. The poor people become homeless because of these erosions. Due to the erosions, the male member of a family goes to another place their home leaving family maintaining responsibilities. As a result, women have to face so many social and economic crises.
1.7.2 Climate Change and Seasonal Variation
Scientists have determined six seasons (summer, Monsoon, autumn, Late Autumn, winter and Spring.) for Bangladesh analyzing the local weather.
Who are the most vulnerable?
The vulnerabilities of women are considered to adapt or adjust with the situation during the implementation of plan.
Who are the most vulnerable?
Who dependent on the sensitive natural resources, fisheries and agriculture
Photo : Oxfam
Women produce 50% of the worked food 60 % agricultural labor in Bangladesh is women.
The slum dwellers and the people who live in flood prone area where the possi
These seasons come one after another in a regular cycle. Each season has its own beauty and features. Each of them appears with its own beauty, color, sights and sounds. Nowhere in the world are the six seasons so sharply felt as in Bangladesh. Everything changes. The people also feel different in each season. They forget the monotony of life and start their daily work anew. But the temperature of the world is increasing because of climate change, that’s why the change is occurring in our weather along the seasonal variation is also changing. Most of the times it is seen that no rain falls in the summer season, heavy cool in the winter season and the length of winter become short in some year. Sometimes, earlier rain causes inundation in low lands of the country. Our daily life is changing due to the seasonal variations, such as, the production of crops decreasing, man are migrating to city for alternative emplacement, lack of food variety man suffering from malnutrition. Besides, the employment of tribal community of Bangladesh that depends on water and forest, are damaging due to climate change and their existence is reaching to the threatening condition continuously.
• • •
bilities to occur climate are change driven disasters. Women consume only 10% of the world total production. Women earn 90% of their family income. Women face 4 times more sexual harassment than man.
Who have no manpower, financial and institutional capacity in case of climate
change 75% migrated people are women. A woman dies per 1000 for giving birth.
1.7.3 Climate Adaptation Program Monitoring in the Local Level
The monitoring and evaluation programme can be done under the climate fund or govt. national planning by the direct participation of the local civil society. During the monitoring of the govt. and development cooperative society financed projects, the govt. evaluation report for these are not expressed to the general people because of state infrastructural weakness. For this reason, most of the times of project handling and after
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implementation, results go against the public interest. That’s why, the project should be monitored locally and climate fund generation or after development of project identified, the following aspects are needed to be considered: Project implementation, in which part public participation is enquired and is it dine? Who will get benefit for implementing the project and which community will face damage; is the govt. take any realistic strategy to pay the compensation and rehabilitation. Is there occurring any change or may be in the forest, swamps, and agriculture. For this, are there any changes in the lifestyle of general people? Which ones are the financial sectors of the obtained project? Is there any chance to cause corruption and who will be engaged with this? Is the budget less or more for the different programmes of this project? Is there any specific rules and regulation for representing the information about the progress report, results and impacts of the project?
A Resilient Community Formation
Resilience refers to the magnitude of a disturbance a system can withstand without crossing a threshold into a new structure or dynamic. This deﬁnition implies that social systems have the additional ability to anticipate and plan according to perceived and real changes. Therefore, the ability of institutions and individuals to avoid potential damage and to take advantage of opportunities will be a critical factor in building resilience to climate change. In addition, building resilience to climate change requires simultaneously building resilience in human systems and in the interlinked ecosystems on which they depend. The concept of resilience, however, recognizes that social and environmental systems are interlinked, complex, and adaptive; processes rather than input-dependent; and self-organizing rather than predictable. The lens of resilience is useful in analyzing climate change because it is founded on the recognition that human existence within ecological systems is complex, unpredictable, and dynamic, and that institutional measures and responses should be based on this principle. Agriculture is a form of natural resource management for the production of food, fuel, and ﬁber. As such, it depends on the resilience of both social and ecological systems. In social systems, resilience varies greatly among households, communities, and regions, depending both on the assets and knowledge farmers can mobilize and the services provided by governments and institutions. On the other hand, the resilience of agriculture-related ecosystems depends largely on slowly changing variables, such as climate, land use, nutrient availability, and the size of the farming system. In addition, agriculture is a source of livelihood for billions of people—particularly poor people—the income from which directly contributes to society’s resilience. As a result, enacting measures to build agricultural resilience requires an understanding of strategies to reduce vulnerability while at the same time generating income and reducing poverty. There is relation between resilience and adaptive capacity. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system, society or community to adjust to climate by moderating harm, managing consequences, and exploiting beneﬁts.
Characteristics of Community resilience -Reducing the risk as a social capacity -The capacity to control the harmful impacts during disaster -Maintaining the capacity to restore previous condition and less the social instability -The community capacity or team works to adapt with the external forces
Deﬁnition of Community Resilience:
Community Resilience refers to the ability of human communities to withstand and recover from stresses, such as environmental change or social, economic, or political upheaval”. This idea is similar to adaptive capacity.
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2.2 Factors of Resilience:
There are some factors which practice in the people help to form community resilience within a community. To form a resilient community, the following factors are needed to consider: Strengthening the social capital: The diversity of community, community to community relation according to the socio-economic conditions, social and economic equity and justice in the community, social morality and individual knowledge and contribution are considered as the social capital to perform the activities in a speciﬁc ecosystem. Human capital: Sustainable knowledge and launching the planning and the implementation capacity of mitigation project and resources collection and knowledge rich local community, are the key factors participate in the current process to build up a resilient community. All these are considered as a human capital of the community. Infrastructural accessibility: Any kind of disaster causes partial damage but do not make the complete destruction of a strong community. The disaster risk reduction strategy, risk reduction capacity, management of shelters during disaster period (such as, cyclone, ﬂood, and storm surges), the change of existing capacity with the adaption mechanism, are considered as the factors of copping with this partial damage. Livelihood availability and ﬁnancial freedom: the community or the risk free community accessibility to the resources, services, production, market system, govt. and non govt. sectors and the capability of participating in the service and market system, are considered as factors of the chance of livelihood and economic empowerment. Effective institutional governing system: the institutional decentralization and the community’s easy access to the administration for the socio-economic development of local community are considered as the factors of effective institutional governing system. It is needed for the sustainable development of the community but it is impossible without political fairness and willingness.
What is the Coping Mechanism?
The strategy by which a community or organization can use the existing resources and chances properly to achieve the success coping with the unwanted, adverse situations that are ting by any kind of disaster event or process. What is resul Climate adaptation?
The IPCC deﬁnes adaptation as the, “adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or The aims of the climate adaptation and disaster management are: human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their eﬀects, which moderates harm or exploits beneﬁcial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation.
• • • •
2.3 Climate Adaptation and Community Resilience
Resilient communities are capable of bouncing back from adverse situations. They can do this by actively inﬂuencing and preparing for economic, social and environmental change. When times are bad they can call upon the myriad of resources that make them a healthy community. A high level of social capital means that they have access to good information and communication networks in times of difﬁculty, and can call upon a wide range of resources. A high level of social capital means that they have access to good information and communication networks in times of difﬁculty, and can call upon a wide range of resources. Actually, resilience refers to activities, such as, the long term risk of disaster or reduces the impacts, to restore the previous situation by controlling the impacts. That is, resilience is a coping mechanism that is a mechanism of copping with the disaster risks in short term. On the other hand, climate adaptation is also a coping mechanism which is a long term and permanent mechanism to reduce the climate change risks. In order for populations and species to persist in a changing climate (as opposed to go extinct, either locally or globally), they need to have adequate coping mechanisms. These can include mechanisms of tolerance, acclimation, adaptation, and re-distribution.
Formation of resilience community Community risk reduction Poverty eradication and ensure the sustainable life and livelihood Adaptation for natural disaster, such as, ﬂood, cyclone, drought, salinity, water logging, river erosion etc. • Community suﬀerings reduction • Disaster risk management and mitigation
An integrated risk management programme should be adopted by connecting the experience and knowledge of the disaster risk reduction programme with climate adaptation to form of resilience community. A process is needed in the integrated risk management programme (participatory base risk management) so that the community can take a proper step by indentify and analyzing the risks and susceptibility of disaster of the vulnerable community. This not only reduces the risk but also increase the capability to prevent the disaster risk. One of the most important side is the active involvement of the vulnerable community people is ensured to the every level in the decision making programme. On the other hand, the support and cooperation of the less vulnerable community are welcomed. Not only the ﬁeld level community but also the participation of the representatives from different local and govt. level are ensured.
2.4 Resilience Lifestyle and Capacity Building in the Community
The climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction management have recognized that the poor people are affected by the disaster impacts. One of the main reasons is that they are more dependent on the living components. But the components which are helpful to strengthen the restore to the previous from the post-disaster period, they have the less accessibility to these. And this is applicable for all social, economic and environmental cases. That’s why; the adaptation and disaster risk reduction are essential part for both poverty eradication and sustainable disaster management of natural resources.
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The indicators are needed to form a resilient community, are mentioned below: Indicators of Resilience:
Have a leadership of women and movement to stop the violence against the women. Have the knowledge about community risk and the reduction of risk Have hazards free local habitation Have the access to the resources to cope with the risk and risk mitigation Have access to the physical infrastructure, such as, roads, phone, clinic, natural resources, cyclone centers etc. Have the communication with the local govt., local govt. employees, organization connected to the NGOs and humanitarian programmes Have the capacity to influence on the local and national policies
Photo : Oxfam
Subjects of capacity development
Build up social ethical view Sustainable knowledge and planning implementation Making variety in profession Internal relation eighth the policy makers Resource management
Example of activities
Build up ethical view based on Economic and social equity and justice.
• • •
Strategy for mitigating disaster, risk and vulnerability and consciousness and training for plan implementation Masons, house meander, embankment constructor, plumber, trainer of handicraft, farmers, labors, electrician etc. To develop the efficiency by working Local govt., policy major, local administration Consciousness about local land, water and forest management and the training about the strategy of accessing to the resources. Shelter management during disaster and making consciousness about safe cyclone shelter The consciousness about the govt. and non govt. services and the capacity of communication and safe drinking water, sanitation and health during disaster periods. Floating crops production, vegetation near the house yard, social forestry, handcraft efficiency development etc. Ensure the security of legal price of the available products The ideas about the institutional decentralization •
• • •
Have the communication with the local institutions to achieve the five capital of sustainable lifestyle Have the capacity to overcome any kind of hindrance and have the self driven initiatives to cope with the disaster risks
Cyclone shelter during disaster
2.6 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
The Sustainable Lifestyles Framework is a tool to support a wide range of organizations and communities to develop effective approaches to influence behavior. The Framework outlines a set of key behaviors that constitute a sustainable lifestyle, identifies best practice to influence behavior and key insights on why some people act, all informed by a robust evidence base.
Alternative employment Market system Institutional governance
2.5 Who are Resilient Community?
The community whose are always ready for the upcoming disaster risk or having the following preparation, they are called as resilience community. • The community comprises with different groups of people, such as, women, juveniles groups, youths, students etc. • • • The communities have the contingency planning for coping with the disaster management. Have the early disaster warning system facilities. Have the experience and efficient individuals in the community, such as, risk inventory, recovery, first aids, medical treatment and relief and rehabilitation etc. Have the proper, dace and alternative sources of livelihoods Have the capacity to provide the security during the disaster. Photo : Oxfam Access to finance refers to the possibility that individuals or enterprises can access financial services, including credit, deposit, payment, insurance, and other risk management services. Those who involuntarily have no or only limited access to financial services is referred to as the unbanked or under banked, respectively. For poverty and poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods framework, human capabilities and assists and resources are considered for the welfare of the people. In case of resources and tools and machineries, access to the land and other resources, financial capital and debt are indicated respectfully. Access to the resources or other resources refers to having a land or to having the chance and capability to buy; to having the chance of canal-beel-swamps-forest usage etc.
Sustainable life style framework or approach has the two main parts, such as:
1. It gives idea about the causes of poverty or indicators 2. It is a policy which indicates the programme for overcoming the poverty.
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The picture of sustainable life style framework or approach has mentioned above, where main human vulnerability context has been identified. The main human vulnerability context Ares, seasonality, that is, vulnerability context indicates the trends and types of impacts due to the disaster. The causes of poor people vulnerability or indicators affect it are marked by the angles of the pentagon indicating as H, S, P, F, N | Here, H = Human Capital; S = Social Capital; P = Physical Capital; F = Financial Capital and N = Natural Capital. That is, due to the shortage of the above mentioned factors or capitals, people become vulnerable during disaster period. These indicators or capitals are affected by the poor people vulnerability context, or the capital is reduced, that make the poor people poorer. The poverty indicator or the capital should be increased to reduce the vulnerability context. For this reason, the local and national level policy, institution and process are required to highlight for the development of the lifestyle of poor people as it helps to remove the poverty.
2.6.2 Measure of Adaptation Capacity
We have already known about the ﬁve (Human capital, social capital, physical capital, ﬁnancial capital and natural capital) capitals that inﬂuence poverty. Moreover, people living in different zones as drought zone, ﬂood prone zone, coastal zone, riverbank erosion zone, haor zone have differences in their livelihood options, means there is anomaly in the availability of the mentioned resources which inﬂuences their livelihood. This anomaly mainly depends on the adaptive capability of people in a speciﬁc area. We can determine the livelihood standards of different areas measuring the adaptive capacity of the people of that area. To determine livelihood standards a score card of points is been used. This score card contains total 25 points. If the point ranges 20-25, then the adaptive capacity will be very high, 15-20 denotes medium capacity, 10-15 denotes low capacity and 0-5 point denotes very low adaptive capacities.
2.6.1 Adaptation and Resilient Community: importance of sustainable lifestyle framework
Climate change not only discusses about the melting of polar ice but also about the vulnerability context specially indicates the vulnerability context especially for the poor people. The poverty and hunger will be increased in the twenty ﬁrst century. The variation of temperature and rainfall refers to that the production of food will be hampered and the price of the food also will be increased. Due to the seasonal variation, the production ﬂow of the farmer will be changed, that’s why, and the employment of the farmer will be damaged. By the year of 2030, the food price in the international market will be double than the present because of climate changing. If climate change appears as reason behind of vulnerability context and risk, then the human access to food and chance of getting resources will hamper. Economic and Livelihoods Diversiﬁcation are needed to secure and extend the lifestyle of the poor people. To determine the climate adaptation strategy, importance should be given to the following aspects:
Total Acquired Score 20-25 15-20 10-15 05-10 0-05
Adaptive Capacity Very high High Medium Low Very Low
• • • •
Human adopt or want to adopt which methods for the security of life and livelihoods during vulnerability context. what they do or how they do and want to do for the economic stability the importance of local resources, such as, water, forest and land for the safety of poor Others options that help them in Economic and Livelihoods Diversification
Sustainable livelihood framework indicates a working framework to denote the causes of poverty and remedies. On the other hand to protect the capital or resources from disaster risk man requires adaptive capacity, so if the adaptive capacity is increased lesser the disaster risks to assets and acquiring ﬁve capacities man can improve his life from disaster risk and be resilient. The main objective of adaptive capability is to ensure overcoming the disaster risks and making the livelihood more
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2.7 Role of community based organization and community members in building resilient community
Building resilient community is a continuous process, where community based organizations (CBOs), member of community as women, youth, volunteers etc. have very important roles. Roles of community based organization: • • • • • • Can work as initiative taker and pressure group Help in analyzing, determining nad documenting the community risk Can lobby according to plan to reduce community risks Including adaptation issues in local planning, where applicable Monitoring progress and inform it to policy makers Organize or assist in organizing capacity building training to build resilient community with adaptation capability at local level.
Natural Resources Management & Climate Adaptation
3.1 Climate Change and Natural Resources
Bangladesh is predominantly Agricultural with two thirds of the population engaged in farming or Agro-based industrial activity mainly. The climate of Bangladesh can be characterized by High temperatures, Heavy rainfall, High humidity, and fairly marked three seasonal variations like Hot Summer, Shrinking Winter and Medium to Heavy Rains during the Rainy season. The economy of Bangladesh is based on Agriculture mainly, with two thirds of the population engaged (directly or indirectly) on Agricultural activities. The overall impact of Climate Change on Agricultural production in Bangladesh would be wide spread and devastating for the country’s economy. Beside this, other impacts of Climate Change such as - Extreme Temperature, Drought, and Salinity Intrusion etc. are also responsible for the declining crop yields in Bangladesh. Temperature and Rainfall changes have already affected crop production in many parts of the country and the area of arable land has decreased to a great extent. The Salinity intrusion in the coastal area is creating serious implications for the coastal land that were traditionally used for rice production. The ﬁsheries sector has also experienced an adverse affect because of the impacts of Climate Change. The ﬁsheries sector contributes about 3.5% of the GDP in Bangladesh and people depend on ﬁsh products in order to meet up majority of their daily protein requirements. There are around 260 species of ﬁsh in the country and almost all the varieties are sensitive to speciﬁc salt and freshwater conditions.
Role of women: • • • Which adaptation facilities are suitable and which are not for women-this issues can be justified from gender point of view; To be active together so that the adopted activity should be gender friendly; Take initiative to ensure women participation in every program and activities.
3.2 Natural Resources and Disaster Risk Management and Climate Adaptation
Natural resources like soil, water, and ﬁsheries of Haor, Beel, Sundarbans and Barendra region are being affected for climate change. As a result, the life, livelihoods are being hampered of people dependant on these resources. As, for ﬁsheries Bangladesh is the third largest country in the world. Bangladesh is ﬁfth in pisciculture. But climate change is putting impact on this sector. Irregular rainfall behavior, temperature rise is creating unfavorable conditions for ﬁsheries. The ﬁsh reproduction is greatly hampered by the irregular rainfall. Lack of seasonal rainfall and heavy rainfall during unusual time creating various adverse impacts in ﬁsh reproduction. Specialists told that if the temperature goes to 29-30 then the water temperature also rise and oxygen level being decreased. So, the reproductive ﬁsh are being tired very easily. The egg membrane thickness is decayed and production of fry is hampered. Climate change adaptation to combat the risks of climate change impact and protect natural resources it’s necessary to prioritize from root level to National Forest policy, National Livestock policy, and National Fisheries policy should be synchronized with National Agrarian Policy.
Roles of juvenile, youth and volunteers: • • • • Can form a group. Can establish a knowledge and database on local risks and hazards in team; Can implement action planned and united which are needed to be taken for risk reduction. Can evaluate different local level projects Can analyze the result of hazards and continuous adaptation.
3.3 Agro-ecological region based natural resources management
Roles of NGOs: • • • • NGOs should ensure that the intrinsic adaptation activity are done in effective manner; It is necessary to monitor and progress that the institutional adaptation activity must be implemented in a planned manner to obtain acquired results To operate capacity building activity for implementing adopted local programs, If any program fails to obtain short term and long term adaptive objectives, they are to be indicated and to be assisted developing them as capable for adaptation. • •
3.3.1 Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Coastal Region
• Giving more incentives and ﬁnance in inventing, examining and extending improved saline tolerant crop in country context is necessary. For ﬁnancing, state managed ﬁnancial mechanisms and root level farmer participation must be ensured to the possible extent, the research outcomes must be prepared in a farmer friendly manner so that they can use it. To conserve the biodiversity of Sundarbans including ﬁshes, Deer, Tiger and other wild animals an integrated approach should be taken. Gender friendly cyclone shelters must be established and awareness should be raised for during disaster health, alternative livelihood and market system.
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• • • •
To increase the income of poor people they have to be provided with free winter vegetable seeds and other facilities for needed for production. The rivers and canals must be dredged and harmful isles must be removed for making agricultural activities easy. Effective initiatives should be taken to transform one crop land to two crop land. The whole coastal belt should be brought under the green belt project and mangrove forest must be created.
institutions of Bangladesh have played splendid roles in the scientiﬁc and political negotiations of climate change. However, questions and debate still remain whether Bangladesh as a country has been doing enough to the maximum use of intellectual capacity of her people and institutions as well as organizational capacity. All major national policy documents developed by the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) have addressed the key issues around climate change:
3.3.2 Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Barendra Region
• • • • To conserve ground water in Barendra region it’s important to take initiative for increasing use of surface water. Necessary steps should be taken to dredge and renovated every big rivers, their tributary-distributaries and channels to contain rainwater effectively. Necessary steps should be taken to conserve rain water in tributaries using dam. Invention, examination and dissemination of drought tolerant species for Barendra region is needed more ﬁnance and ﬁnancial incentive. For ﬁnancing, state managed ﬁnancial mechanisms and root level farmer participation must be ensured to the possible extent, the research outcomes must be prepared in a farmer friendly manner so that they can use it.
The 14 Party Grand Alliance came to power declaring their ‘Vision 2021’ which is a set of key policy proposals towards the year 2021 that marks the golden jubilee of country’s independence. The Vision 2021 that provides political directions to all national policy documents states, “All measures will be taken to protect Bangladesh, including planned migration abroad, from the adverse effects of climate change and global warming.”
Outline Perspective Plan (OPP)
The current government has suspended the World Bank driven Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) process; simultaneously drafted the ‘Outline Perspective Plan of Bangladesh 2010-2021: Making Vision 2021 a Reality’ and placed before the Prime Minister’s Ofﬁce in March 2010 for approval. The Outline Perspective Plan (OPP) is the ‘blue print that advances a more inclusive and holistic picture of development’ that considered climate change for devising strategies for overall and sectoral development plan in one hand, on the other hand, proposed ‘Climate Change Response Options’.
3.3.3 Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Haor Region
• • • • • • • To conserve ﬁsheries and biodiversity of haor region the rivers and canals within the haor region must be dredged to maintain the normal water ﬂow. Special crop species for haor must be invented so that advance cropping is possible. To protect inhabitants of haor from advance ﬂashﬂood small submerged dams must be constructed. Haor inhabitants must be provided with assistance for ﬂoating crop and vegetable, duck raring etc. Fishing rights of haor ﬁshermen to must be conserved. Effective measures should be taken to protect almost extinct haor ﬁsh species. Illegal ﬁlling of haor here and there must be stopped.
Sixth Five Year Plan (SFYP)
‘Bangladesh Sixth Five Year Plan FY2011-FY2015’ provides strategic directions and policy framework as well as sectoral strategies, programmes and policies for accelerating growth and reducing poverty of the country. SFYP has identiﬁed benchmarks, targets and implementation strategies for the mentioned period.
Other Policy Documents
It has been observed that other national sectoral policy documents that are being reviewed currently also considering the effects of climate change and directing policy propositions to combat those.
Last but the most important point is that the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, through its 15th amendment, considered the issue of climate change, albeit implicitly. Following the recommendations tabled by the ‘All-Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Climate Change and Environment’† and intensive lobby done by the Campaign for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (CSRL), the high level committee on Constitutional Amendment included the following article in ‘Part II: Fundamental Principles of State Policy’ and was passed accordingly: “18A. Protection and improvement of environment and biodiversity: The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the natural resources, biodiversity, wetlands, forests and wild life for the present and future citizens.”
3.3.4 Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Char Region
• • • Initiatives should be taken to protect the char community from river bank erosion. Government and community based social forestry program should be expanded. Government should take initiatives to provide the char indigenous people with alternative income.
Government and community based program should be adopted to create green belt around the char.
3.3.5 Disaster Risk & Natural resources Management and Climate Adaptation in Beel Region
• • • • The rivers and canals in the Chalan beel should be dredged and excavated for ensuring adequate water supply. Government initiatives are necessary to protect ﬁsh fry in the Chalan beel. Every illegal activity to capture beel land and ﬁll up the beel should be stopped. Fishermen should be provided with rights for ﬁshing in every beel and rivers.
National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA, 2005)
National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)-2005 that was prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh as a response to the decision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). National adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to adapt to climate change – those for which further delay would increase vulnerability and/or costs at a later stage. NAPA was a 10 years plan, what will be the adaptation strategy in next 10years the policy aimed to that.
Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP, 2009)
Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), 2009 is the key operational document on climate change. Operationally, it combines all relevant ministries of the government and tends to inﬂuence the establishment of a fully ﬂedged ‘Department of Climate Change’ under the Ministry of Environment and Forests. There are six priority areas in the BCCSAP 2009.
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3.4 Climate Change Related National Framework
We have already known the causes, impact and results of climate change. We have seen, Impacts are enormous, ﬁnancial and technological assistances are inadequate; but lives keep on going. Historically, people and
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In the aftermath of the COP13 at Bali, Indonesia, the Government of Bangladesh increasingly felt the need for a climate change strategy to carry forward and coordinate activities in support of the Bali Action Plan. Subsequently, the Government has developed the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) under the overall supervision of a Steering Committee chaired by the Special Assistant to the Chief Adviser of Government. The BCCSAP has been prepared through a fully consultative process involving government, civil society and development partners. Its main purpose is to articulate a strategy to manage climate change and its impacts in Bangladesh leading towards an action plan of programmes addressing the needs for substantive interventions with a deﬁnitive timeline for their implementation. The BCCSAP is presented in two parts. The ﬁrst part provides the background based on physical and climatic contexts, core socio-economic realities and policies in the country and the consequent rationale for a strategy on climate change. The thrust of the strategy is on sustainable development, poverty reduction and increased well-being of all vulnerable groups in society with special emphasis on gender sensitivity. The second part elaborates a set of programmes based upon six pillars or broad areas of intervention (not necessarily mutually exclusive) which have been elaborated in the ﬁrst part. The BCCSAP sums up Bangladesh’s current thinking on desirable activities to build climate resilience into the economy and society of Bangladesh through adaptation to climate change as well as mitigation for a low carbon development path. The BCCSAP is designed as a ‘living document’. This is because we are still uncertain about the timing and exact magnitude of many of the likely impacts of climate change. As we continue to implement our adaptation and mitigation programmes, we will deepen our understanding of the phenomenon. We will no doubt also keep ourselves informed of the latest developments in the science of Climate Change from experiences in other parts of the world, including through our participation in the process of UNFCCC and related fora.
Conce rned Ministry - Ministry of Agriculture - Ministry of Industries - Ministry of Defense - Ministry of Envir ment and Forestry - Ministry of Water Resources - Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources - Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives - Ministry of Shipping & Inland Water Transport - Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism - Ministry of Agriculture - Ministry of Industries - Ministry of Defense - Ministry of Environment and Forestry - Ministry of Water Resources - Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources - Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives - Ministry of Shipping & Inland Water Transport - Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism
T4: Research and Knowledge Management
P1. Establishment of a centre for knowledge management and training on climate change P2. Climate change modeling at national and sub-national levels P3. Preparatory studies for adaptation against sea level rise P4. Monitoring of ecosystem and biodiversity changes and their impacts P5. Macroeconomic and sectoral economic impacts of climate change. P6. Monitoring migration of severely affected community domestically and to abroad and assisting rehabilitation by increasing capacity. P7. Monitoring various impacts on tourism management and priority based plan implementation
The programs being implemented through the BCCSAP are listed below:
Financing and implementation of technology is the major challenge of climate change adaptation and mitigation. These two issues has been the major concern since the inception of international climate change related negotiations. The fundamentals of it are very clear in broader context. Present climate change is the result of the historical carbon emission of western and other industrialized countries. That’s why these countries have to provide funds to the affected countries for continuing with their (affected countries) national development activities without any trouble. The ﬁnancing mechanisms should be ﬁxed through international negotiations. But, Bangladesh expects a new ﬁnancial mechanism in which there is scope of participation in the decision making for fund formation, fund allotment and disbursement of fund for the LDC’s, G 77 plus China and other alliances. Every fund for adaptation should be given as grant. Because it is being needed because of historical carbon emission by the industrialized countries, Mitigation, basically related with fuel production, distribution and use related technologies, which are often expensive. If Bangladesh wants to reduce GHG emission using appropriate technology; the excessive expense of the technology must be provided by the international ﬁnance mechanism. So, the fund for technology transfer should be given as grant too. Bangladesh government has formulated Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (BCCTF) on its own funding and Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) by the help of the donors.
T4: Research and Knowledge Management
P1. Improved energy efficiency in production and consumption of energy P2. Gas exploration and reservoir management P3. Development of coal mines and coal fired power stations P4. Renewable energy development P5. Lower emission from agricultural land P6. Management of urban waste P7. Afforestation and reforestation programme P8. Rapid expansion of fuel reduction equipments P9. Using fuel and water in environment friendly manner P10. Change of fuel use modals in transportation sector and establish emission reduction mechanism
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Conce rned Ministry
- Ministry of Water Resources - Ministry of Food and Disaster Management - Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives
Conce rned Ministry
- Ministry of Agriculture - Ministry of Industries - Ministry of Environment and Forest - Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources - Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives - Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock - Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
T3 : Infrastructure
P1. Repair and maintenance of existing flood embankments P2. Repair and maintenance of cyclone shelters P3. Repair and maintenance of existing coastal polders P4. Improvement of urban drainage P5. Adaptation against Floods P6. Adaptation against tropical cyclones and storm surges P7. Planning and design of river training works P8. Planning, designing and implementation to reinstate river and canals by dredging.
T5: Mitigation and Low Carbon Development
P1. Improved energy efficiency in production and consumption of energy P2. Gas exploration and reservoir management P3. Development of coal mines and coal fired power stations P4. Renewable energy development P5. Lower emission from agricultural land P6. Management of urban waste P7. Afforestation and reforestation programme P8. Rapid expansion of fuel reduction equipments P9. Using fuel and water in environment friendly manner P10. Change of fuel use modals in transportation sector and establish emission reduction mechanism
T4: Research and Knowledge Management
P1. Establishment of a centre for knowledge management and training on climate change P2. Climate change modeling at national and sub-national levels P3. Preparatory studies for adaptation against sea level rise P4. Monitoring of ecosystem and biodiversity changes and their impacts P5. Macroeconomic and sectoral economic impacts of climate change. P6. Monitoring migration of severely affected community domestically and to abroad and assisting rehabilitation by increasing capacity. P7. Monitoring various impacts on tourism management and priority based plan implementation
- Ministry of Agriculture - Ministry of Industries - Ministry of Defense - Ministry of Environment and Forestry - Ministry of Water Resources - Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources - Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives - Ministry of Shipping & Inland Water Transport - Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism
T6: Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening
P1. Revision of sectoral policies for climate resilience P2. Main-streaming climate change in national, sectoral and spatial development programmes P3. Strengthening human resource capacity P4. Increasing gender considerations in climate change management P5. Strengthening institutional capacity for climate change management P6. Main-streaming Climate Change in the Media
- Planning Commission - Ministry of Environment and Forest - Ministry of Women and Child Affairs - Ministry of Information and Communication Technology
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3.5 Climate Funds
Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (BCCTF) It’s a fund which is created from the taxes of people, got the allotment from National Budget by the government. It has allotted with 3 Billion BDT in 2008-09 FY, 4 Billion BDT in 2009-10 FY, 7 Billion BDT in 2010-11 FY, 7 Billion BDT in 2011-12FY and , 4 Billion BDT in 2012-2013 FY total 25 Billion BDT from the National Budget. Under the BCCTF government agencies and NGOs are decided to be provided funding for coping climate change risks. Till now 18 government departments has implemented 44 projects under this fund. Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) A fund was formulated concluding the countries which are willing to help our country to cope up with the impacts of climate change in 2008. The fund was initially named Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF). Later on the fund was named Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF). European Union, Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom have provided 8.78 BDT to this fund. Initiative for constructing and renovating 100 shelters.
removals, which were used to create the 1990 benchmark levels for accession of Annex I countries to the Kyoto Protocol and for the commitment of those countries to GHG reductions. Updated inventories must be regularly submitted by Annex I countries. The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at Bali, Indonesia, between December 3 and December 15, 2007 (though originally planned to end on 14 December). Representatives from over 180 countries attended, together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13), the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 3 or CMP 3), together with other subsidiary bodies and a meeting of ministers. Negotiations on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol dominated the conference. A meeting of environment ministers and experts held in June called on the conference to agree on a road-map, timetable and ‘concrete steps for the negotiations’ with a view to reaching an agreement by 2009. It has been debated whether this global meeting on climate change has achieved anything signiﬁcant at all. After the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference on the island Bali in Indonesia in December, 2007 the participating nations adopted the Bali Road Map as a two-year process to ﬁnalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen. The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13) and the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 3 or CMP 3). The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan (BAP) that was adopted by Decision 1/CP.13 of the COP-13. It also includes the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) negotiations and their 2009 deadline, the launch of the Adaptation Fund, the scope and content of the Article 9 review of the Kyoto Protocol, as well as decisions on technology transfer and on reducing emissions from deforestation. The Conference of Parties decided to launch a comprehensive process to enable the implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, by addressing: (the called pillars or building blocks) • • • • • A shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions. Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change. Enhanced action on adaptation. Enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation. Enhanced action on the provision of ﬁnancial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation.
The government has started collecting small funds from many multilateral agencies. As • Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) of UNFCCC- Ministry of Environment and Forestry started collecting small funds. • • • The government has implemented Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience from Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience under the Climate Investment Fund (CIF) of United Nations. Bangladesh government has taken multilateral grant to implement Comprehensive Disaster Management Program-project under the lead of United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Climate Adaptation Fund: Initiatives has been taken to get the Climate Adaptation Fund from the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Development partners and other organizations implement several development programs under their national policy. USAID spend a 100 million USD for development activities in Bangladesh. Bilateral development partners implements these projects by discussing it in the Bangladesh Development Forum and consulting with respective Local Consultative Group.
3.6 Climate Change Related International Framework 3.6.1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to 14, 1992. The objective of the treaty is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating speciﬁc international treaties (called “protocols”) that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC was opened for signature on May 9, 1992, after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York from April 30 to May 9, 1992. It entered into force on March 21, 1994. As of May 2011, UNFCCC has 194 parties. The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The 2010 Cancún agreements state that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level. One of the ﬁrst tasks set by the UNFCCC was for signatory nations to establish national greenhouse gas inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and
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COP 15 took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, from December 7 to December 18, 2009. The overall goal for the COP 15/MOP 5 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Denmark was to establish an ambitious global climate agreement for the period from 2012 when the ﬁrst commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires. Ministers and ofﬁcials from 192 countries took part in the Copenhagen meeting and in addition there were participants from a large number of civil society organizations. As many Annex 1 industrialized countries are now reluctant to fulﬁll commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, a large part of the diplomatic work that lays the foundation for a post-Kyoto agreement was undertaken up to the COP15. COP 16 was held in Cancún, Mexico, from November 29 to December 10, 2010. The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the states’ parties that called for the 100 billion USD per annum “Green Climate Fund”, and a “Climate Technology Centre” and network. However the funding of the Green Climate Fund was not agreed upon. Nor was a commitment to a second period of the Kyoto Protocol agreed upon, but it was concluded that the base year shall be 1990 and the global warming potentials shall be those provided by the IPCC.
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The 2011 COP 17 was held in Durban, South Africa, from November 28 to December 9, 2011. The conference agreed to a legally binding deal comprising all countries, which will be prepared by 2015, and to take effect in 2020. There was also progress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) for which a management framework was adopted. The fund is to distribute US$100 billion per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts. While the president of the conference declared it a success, scientists and environmental groups warned that the deal was not sufﬁcient to avoid global warming beyond 2 °C as more urgent action is needed. The 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference was the 18th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 8th session of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (the protocol having been developed under the UNFCCC’s charter). The conference took place from Monday 26 November to Saturday 8 December 2012, at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha. The conference reached an agreement to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol, which had been due to expire at the end of 2012, until 2020, and to reify the 2011 Durban Platform, meaning that a successor to the Protocol is set to be developed by 2015 and implemented by 2020. Wording adopted by the conference incorporated for the ﬁrst time the concept of “loss and damage”, an agreement in principle that richer nations could be ﬁnancially responsible to other nations for their failure to reduce carbon emissions. The overall umbrella and processes of the UNFCCC and the adopted Kyoto Protocol have been criticized by some as not having achieved its stated goals of reducing the emission of carbon dioxide (the primary culprit blamed for rising global temperatures of the 21st century). The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a multilateral body concerned with climate change and can be an inefﬁcient system for enacting international policy. Because the framework system includes over 190 countries and because negotiations are governed by consensus, small groups of countries can often block progress.
3.6.3 World Conference on Disaster Reduction
World Conference on Disaster Reduction is a United Nations conference bringing together government ofﬁcials, non-governmental experts and other specialists from around the world to discuss the growing trend of people affected by natural disasters. A WCDR conference was held in Kobe, Japan January 18–22, 2005. This conference took on particular poignancy coming almost 10 years to the day after the Great Hanshin earthquake in Kobe and less than a month after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and resulting tsunami. Japan’s long history of severe natural disasters, prominence in international humanitarian aid and development and scientiﬁc achievements monitoring dangerous natural phenomena also made it a suitable conference venue. To ﬁnd ways to reduce the toll of disasters through preparation, ultimately to reduce human casualties. Due to the proximity to the devastating tsunami, developing a global tsunami warning systems was high on the agenda. Other topics include: • pledges to reduce disaster damage • • • • • healthcare after disaster early warning systems safe building standards agree upon cost-effective preventative countermeasures a global database on relief and reconstruction and a centre on water hazards
The Paciﬁc Rim Tsunami Warning system is an example of a cost-effective warning system; its yearly operating cost is approximately USD 4 million. The yearly operating cost of a hypothetical global warning system is estimated at USD $30 million. This cost, compared to the international aid donations of nearly USD $8 billion for the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, clearly demonstrates the cost effectiveness of such a system. The Hyogo Framework for Action was an outcome of the 2005 conference held in Kobe, Japan. The HFA suggests ﬁve speciﬁc priorities for action: • Making disaster risk reduction a priority; • • • • Risk information and early warning; Building a culture of safety and resilience; Reducing the risks in key sectors; Strengthening preparedness for response.
3.6.2 United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were ofﬁcially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015. The goals are: 1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Achieving universal primary education, Promoting gender equality and empowering women, Reducing child mortality rates, Improving maternal health, Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, Ensuring environmental sustainability, and Developing a global partnership for development.
3.6.4 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
United Nationals International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) is the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It is the successor to the secretariat of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the purpose of ensuring the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Created in 2008, the functions of this post includes leading and overseeing UNISDR in the executions of its functions entrusted by the General Assembly (GA), Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), as well as policy directions by the Secretary-General, overseeing the management of the Trust Fund for the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and carrying out high-level advocacy and resource mobilization activities for risk reduction and implementation of the HFA. The Special Representative also ensures the strategic and operational coherence between disaster-reduction and humanitarian disaster preparedness and response activities, as well as socio-economic activities of the UN system and regional organizations.
Each of the goals has speciﬁc stated targets and dates for achieving those targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 Finance Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the African Development Bank (AfDB) to cancel an additional $40 to $55 billion in debt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to allow impoverished countries to re channel the resources saved from the forgiven debt to social programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty. Debate has surrounded adoption of the MDGs, focusing on lack of analysis and justiﬁcation behind the chosen objectives, the difﬁculty or lack of measurements for some of the goals, and uneven progress towards reaching the goals, among other criticisms. Although developed countries’ aid for achieving the MDGs has been rising over recent years, more than half the aid is towards debt relief owed by poor countries, with remaining aid money going towards natural disaster relief and military aid which does not further development.
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Disaster Risk Management & Climate Adaptation
4.1 Disaster, Hazard, Vulnerability & Risk Disaster
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing signiﬁcant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be extensively deﬁned as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, ﬂoods, catastrophic accidents, ﬁres, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions ‘Disaster’ is deﬁned as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover. Thus, by deﬁnition, there cannot be a perfect ideal system that prevents damage, because then it would not be a disaster. It has to suffocate our ability to recover. Only then it can be called as ‘disaster’. Disasters are not totally discrete events. Their possibility of occurrence, time, place and severity of the strike can be reasonably and in some cases accurately predicted by technological and scientiﬁc advances. It has been established there is a deﬁnite pattern in their occurrences and hence we can to some extent reduce the impact of damage though we cannot reduce the extent of damage itself. So the disaster is, Hazard X Vulnerability = Disaster, where Vulnerability is (hazard X Poverty) So, we can tell that when any occurrence of natural hazard comes together with human component, the vulnerability of human composition determines the degree of a disaster. So, if we can reduce vulnerability then disaster will be less or there will be no disaster.
A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however, once a hazard becomes “active”, it can create an emergency situation. A hazard does not exist when it is not happening. A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called an incident. Hazard and vulnerability interact together to create risk. The meaning of the word hazard can be confusing. Often dictionaries do not give speciﬁc deﬁnitions or combine it with the term “risk”. For example, one dictionary deﬁnes hazard as “a danger or risk” which helps explain why many people use the terms interchangeably. A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects (to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses).
Vulnerability refers to the inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. Degree to which people, property, resources, systems, and cultural, economic, environmental, and social activity is susceptible to harm, degradation, or destruction on being exposed to a hostile agent or factor. Vulnerability is a set of conditions and processes resulting from physical, social, economic, environmental factors (and development decisions) which increase the susceptibility of community (or project) to the impact of hazards. Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of a community to a hazard and the prevailing condition, including physical, socio-economic and political factors that adversely affect its ability to respond to hazards or disaster events. The community and its members may or may not be contributing intentionally or directly to the prevailing conditions. However, altogether, they create factors and situations that deﬁne the vulnerability of the community. Vulnerabilities can be manifested as physical, social, or attitudinal vulnerability. The disruption of a community can reduced if it is better prepared, e.g. if there is suitable infrastructure and human systems and coordination. Poor countries and citizens are always more prone to disasters through their greater vulnerability to hazard and risk than higher income countries and citizens. For example, epidemics within poor communities often increase during and after hazardous events such as ﬂoods, droughts and cyclones.
Types of Disaster Disasters are mainly of 2 types:
1. Natural disasters. Example – earthquakes, ﬂoods, landslides, etc. 2. Manmade disasters. Example – war, bomb blasts, chemical leaks, etc. The phases of all disasters whether it is natural or manmade, are the same. The disasters often differ in quantity of damage caused or in quality of the type of medical consequences. For example earthquakes cause a lot of physical injury and fractures, ﬂoods cause drowning deaths and infections, chemical leaks cause toxic manifestations, etc.
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Vulnerability in this context can be deﬁned as the diminished capacity of an individual or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural or man-made hazard. The concept is relative and dynamic. Vulnerability is most often associated with poverty, but it can also arise when people are isolated, insecure and defenseless in the face of risk, shock or stress. People differ in their exposure to risk as a result of their social group, gender, ethnic or other identity, age and other factors. Vulnerability may also vary in its forms: poverty, for example, may mean that housing is unable to withstand an earthquake or a hurricane, or lack of preparedness may result in a slower response to a disaster, leading to greater loss of life or prolonged suffering. The reverse side of the coin is capacity, which can be described as the resources available to individuals, households and communities to cope with a threat or to resist the impact of a hazard. Such resources can be physical or material, but they can also be found in the way a community is organized or in the skills or attributes of individuals and/or organizations in the community.
Disaster management institutions at local level
Community with risky livelihood option, risky working environment, lack of conception about the risk, lack of institutional framework are the most vulnerable in the socio-economic context.
Logging of trees, groundwater pollution, air pollution, deforestation, worldwide climate change etc.
Risk essentially, is the probability that injury to life or damage to property and the environment will occur. However, in disaster management, risk refers to the combined susceptibility and vulnerability of the community to potential damage caused by a particular hazard within a speciﬁed future time period. Risk is rooted in conditions of physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerability that need to be assessed and managed on a continuing basis. Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss. For example: The risk of developing cancer from smoking cigarettes could be expressed as “cigarette smokers are 12 times (for example) more likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers”. Another way of reporting risk is “a certain number, “Y”, of smokers per 100,000 smokers will likely develop lung cancer” (depending on their age and how many years they have been smoking). These risks are expressed as a probability or likelihood of developing a disease or getting injured, whereas hazards refer to the possible consequences (e.g., lung cancer, emphysema and heart disease from cigarette smoking). Factors that inﬂuence the degree of risk include: • How much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition, • How the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapor, skin contact), • How severe are the effects under the conditions of exposure.
Highly Vulnerable Sectors
Poor farmer, ﬁsherman, slum dwellers, indigenous community, women, children, old and disabled portion of the population are the highest vulnerable group in Bangladesh. This portion is the major participant of the Community based disaster risk management (CBDRM) process. This portion is also called ‘exposed to risk’. This portion of population lives under the poverty line and have very low capacity to face any hazard. As a result, every hazard come to them as disasters and makes them more vulnerable dealing hazards in future.
Least Vulnerable Sectors
Least vulnerable sector of a population means they have the capacity to face hazards and have more capability to recover the damages after a disaster than the vulnerable group. These include: Teacher, Nurse, Trained midwife, small entrepreneur, rural physician etc.
4.2 Major Concerns Analyzing Vulnerability
Vulnerability is very much important in disaster management. The factors should be considered to analyze vulnerability are given below: • Geographic location • • • • • • • Environmental condition Physical infrastructure Socio-economic conditions Skilled manpower/ Working force Service provider organization Gender equity and diversity Behavioral/ Modal condition
Disaster Risk = Hazard X Vulnerability
The below ﬁgure denotes the relationship between vulnerability, risk and hazard.
Physical infrastructure Conditions
These can be analyzed under three heads: • Communication and transportation system: Roads, highways, railways, bridges, airport, sea port etc. • Service Sector: Water supply, Sanitation system, Gas and electricity supply In analyzing physical conditions the possibility of property, crop, livestock must be considered. Socio-economic conditions Factors that must be considered in analyzing socio-economic conditions are • • • • Highest vulnerable portion of the population Occupation of the population and income source Types and modes of poverty Conception about risk
Natural/ Manmade Disaster
So, managing the damages from a disaster is basically managing the vulnerability of the community. So, disaster management is basically reducing disaster risks. If risks are minimized less possibility of damages from the disasters. As for example, cutting down trees loosen the soil and maximizes the possibility of landslide. On the reverse side tree plantation makes soil to hold together and reduces the risk of landslide. If the community is being aware then the risk is minimized to a great extent.
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4. 3 Community Based Disaster Management – CBDRM
Hazard X Vulnerability Risk = Raising people awareness, capacity and skill
Disaster Risk Management is the systematic process of using administrative decisions, organization, operational skills and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. This comprises all forms of activities, including structural and non-structural measures to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse effects of hazards. The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development. The disaster risk reduction framework is composed of the following ﬁelds of actions: • Risk awareness and assessment including hazard analysis and vulnerability/capacity analysis; • • • • Knowledge development including education, training, research and information; Public commitment and institutional frameworks, including organizational, policy, legislation and community action; Application of measures including environmental management, land-use and urban planning, protection of critical facilities, application of science and technology, partnership and networking, and ﬁnancial instruments; Early warning systems including forecasting, dissemination of warnings, preparedness measures and reaction capacities.
It is to be mentioned that, risk management helps the stable development activity. The disaster risks can be divided in three type: • Physical • Social • Economic
House, building, roads, highways etc. Public important places food storage, power station, airport, industries, pump stations, sluice gate, ﬂood protection dam etc.
Vulnerable community as children, old, women, disabled etc. Low income group people, livelihood options, income generation source, occupation. Moreover, living environment, conceptions on risk and poverty, disaster management organizations etc. are social risk sectors.
The main objective of community participation is to reduce the disaster risk of vulnerable people and their capacity building. So that, people can reduces the impacts of disaster and make the conditions favorable for them.
The major features of this program are:
• • • • • It considers the existing disaster coping capacity of community and take initiatives to strengthen that. Searches the basic causes of vulnerability. Ensures community participation in disaster management. Take steps to establish root level organizations to battle disasters. Linkages between least vulnerable group with the most vulnerable group is possible through the program.
Economic risk are divided into two parts. Visible risks invisible risks or measurable losses and immeasurable losses. Visible economic losses can be measured economically. Visible losses can be divided into two parts. Direct and indirect losses. Direct losses are damage to property, livestock, crop etc. and indirect losses include loss of livelihood, expenses of relief and rehabilitation, cost of renovation and replacement etc. Health and sanitation conditions deterioration, malnutrition, inﬂation , psychological disembarkation etc. are immeasurable losses. Depending upon character disaster risks are classiﬁed as: • Destruction of public important establishment • Damage of production system • Damage to personal houses, buildings • Private property damages • Threat of death or to be injured.
This is a kind of program which can identify disaster risks of vulnerable community and take appropriate steps to mitigate them. Community as a key resource in disaster risk reduction. The community is the key actor as well as the primary beneﬁciary of disaster risk reduction. Within the community, priority attention is given to the conditions of the most vulnerable as well as to their mobilization in the disaster risk reduction. The community participates in the whole process of disaster risk management from situational analysis to planning to implementation. Before implementing CBDM it is important to know who in the community should be involved. The most vulnerable are the primary actors in a community. The focus should be at the household level. As all individuals, houses, organizations and services stand a chance of being affected they should all be involved for effective CBDM. But before working on disaster risk reduction differing perceptions, interests, and methodologies have to be recognized and a broad consensus on targets, strategies and methodologies have to be reached. It can be possible by: • Taking appropriate measures for disaster risk reduction and reduce the possibility of failure of hazard prevention. • • • Reducing the impacts, as lesser death, lesser injury, and reduction in direct and indirect losses. Reducing the reconstruction and rehabilitation period. Changing the type of vulnerability.
Risk assessment is a step in a risk management procedure. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat. Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R):, the magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the probability (p) that the loss will occur. In all types of engineering of complex systems sophisticated risk assessments are often made within Safety engineering and Reliability engineering when it concerns threats to life, environment or machine functioning. The nuclear, aerospace, oil, rail and military industries have a long history of dealing with risk assessment. Also, medical, hospital, and food industries control risks and perform risk assessments on a continual basis. Methods for assessment of risk may differ between industries and whether it pertains to general ﬁnancial decisions or environmental, ecological, or public health risk assessment. 50 I Hand Book
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The community should be able to directly gain resulting from improved disaster risk management. This in turn will contribute, to a progression towards safer conditions, security of livelihood and sustainable development. This underlines the point that the community is not only the primary actor but also the beneﬁciary of the risk reduction and development process. The community has a central role in long term and short term disaster management. The focus of attention in disaster management must be the local community.
(e.g. the designation of non-essential land like parks to be used as ﬂood zones), and insurance. Mitigation is the most cost-efﬁcient method for reducing the effect of hazards although not always the most suitable. Mitigation includes providing regulations regarding evacuation, sanctions against those who refuse to obey the regulations (such as mandatory evacuations), and communication of risks to the public. Some structural mitigation measures may harm the ecosystem.
Analysis of present vulnerability & Capacity
Peoples Awarenes Rising Preparedness is how we change behavior to limit the impact of disaster events on people. Preparedness is a continuous cycle of planning, managing, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, creating, evaluating, monitoring and improving activities to ensure effective coordination and the enhancement of capabilities of concerned organizations to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, create resources and mitigate the effects of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters. In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action carefully to manage and counter their risks and take action to build the necessary capabilities needed to implement such plans. Common preparedness measures include: • Communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods. • • • • Proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams. Development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans. Implement and maintain an emergency communication system that can help identify the nature of an emergency and provide instructions when needed. Stockpiling, inventory, streamline foods supplies, and maintain other disaster supplies and equipment
Information form emergency relief and rehabilition
Taking Realistic Steps Prepaedness, Prevention Early Warning Environmental Management Landuse Planning Create unity Financial assisstance Poverty alleviation
Hazard Analysis and Evaluation
Policy for poeple’s capacity building, Development planning
Activities to provide outright avoidance of the adverse impact of hazards and means to minimize related environmental, technological and biological disasters. Depending on social and technical feasibility and cost/beneﬁt considerations, investing in preventive measures is justiﬁed in areas frequently affected by disasters. In the context of public awareness and education related to disaster risk reduction, changing attitudes and behavior contribute to promoting a “culture of prevention”.
4.4 Three pillars of Risk Management
• • • Pragmatic planning for risk management/ disaster risk reduction. Community capacity building (Disaster prevention and mitigation) Community awareness rising regarding disaster risk management.
The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures.
Considerations needed to select population for risk management are:
• • • Highest vulnerable group The portion will be most beneﬁted from risk management Preparation of the community for being involved in risk management program.
4.6 Resilient for disaster management
Resilient means the community with grater response capacity and can reduce damages of disaster in a great extent.
4.5 Disaster Risk Management Mitigation
Mitigation efforts are attempts to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether or to reduce the effects of disasters. Mitigation is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. This is achieved through risk analysis, which results in information that provides a foundation for mitigation activities that reduce risk, and ﬂood insurance that protects ﬁnancial investment. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases in that it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. The implementation of mitigation strategies is a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs. Mitigation measures can be structural or non-structural. Structural measures use technological solutions like ﬂood levees and building retroﬁtting for earthquakes. Non-structural measures include legislation, land-use planning
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According to UNISIDR, Resilient must have 3 characteristics, as:
• • • Skills to reduce hazard impacts, so that hazards don’t turn into a disaster. Capacity to face during disaster and post disaster conditions skillfully and reduce the disaster impacts. Post disaster change and adaptive capacity, changing type of vulnerability and reducing rehabilitation time.
First Phase: Pre Disaster Phase
Skills to reduce hazard impacts, so that hazards don’t turn into a disaster. In this phase have to ﬁnd out a way that the community being courageous and strengthen and don’t panic about the results of a disaster. Ways to reduce the disaster impacts and being united in a disaster event below activity should be done:
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• • • • •
Making work previous knowledge of disaster and adapt with it, Making emergency store for probable disaster, Family and community disaster plan and using practical knowledge to combat disaster; like strengthening houses. Get a training on ﬁrst aid Evacuate vulnerable community from unsafe and unsecure locations and prepare a permanent habitat for them.
and awareness and also can communicate her opinion to other.
4.7.3 Disaster preparedness in family level
Women play a vital role in family level preparedness. Women prepare mobile burner, collect fuel wood, store dry food etc. They also deposit a portion of their income. They prepare jute products which are used to hang goods during ﬂood. Women also plant trees to reduce disaster impacts around the house. They also work in repairing the house and other odd jobs with male.
4.7.4 Impacts of disaster on our daily livelihood
Second Phase: Skillfully handling during disaster and post disaster conditions The way community adapts during disaster and post disaster phase are: • Depend on the capacity of community, • • • • • What they have and what they don’t at present, Reestablishing communication for relief Mitigating future risks Creating probable income generation source in physical rehabilitation, Taking total experience as a learning process. Disaster occurrence and its impacts on human life are increasing worldwide. Vulnerability to natural disasters continues to increase, severely compromising the achievement of poverty alleviation goals in many developing countries. A more effec tive approach is needed to reduce the impacts of these disasters. This publication proposes an approach that integrates ecosystem manage ment, development planning and risk reduction strategies to reduce disaster impacts and improve both livelihoods and biodiversity outcomes. The serious human consequences of these extreme natural events are also increasing due to the greater number of people in high-risk areas such as ﬂoodplains, coastal areas, small islands and steep slopes. Nearly three billion people — almost half of the world’s population — live in coastal zones (ISDR 2004). Many of these areas were settled long ago and continue to be densely populated, as they provide either fertile soils or proximity to the resources that people need to sustain their lives. Populations adapt their livelihoods to hazardous conditions in spite of the risk because most of them do not have an alternative. People have always found ways to adapt to new situations, although climate change is creating unprecedented human conse quences. It forces already vulnerable populations to quickly adapt to new and greater risks that affect them and their livelihoods. Nor do the ﬁgures adequately reﬂect the millions of poor people whose lives are indirectly disrupted by the economic impact of natural disasters. Some people have a greater relative risk because social or economic inequalities create more vulnerable everyday living conditions (ISDR 2004). In terms of the toll on human lives, there is also considerable geographic variation in the impact of natural hazards. Asia was affected by ap proximately 43 per cent of all natural disasters during the 1990s but accounted for almost 70 per cent of lives lost. Floods in China affected 200 million people during El Niño periods of 1991–1992 and 1997–98 (ISDR 2004). In relative terms, however, Africa is the worst-affected region, due to the impact of drought, epidemics and famine (ISDR 2004).
Third Phase: Post disaster changes and adaptation (Long term rehabilitation) phase Characteristics of prevention after a disaster being taken place: • A people based integrated reconstruction plan needed to be formulated which encompasses social, infrastructural, economic and environmental aspects, • • • Taking infrastructural reconstruction as probable income generation creating and learning point of view. Evaluate Resilient in combating disaster, as they can take decisions what is needed for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Taking steps to reduce future vulnerabilities along with rehabilitation works.
4.7 Disaster Preparedness at institutional, social and family level
The beneﬁt of disaster preparedness is it helps affected community to come to normal conditions and increase the capacity to minimize the damages caused b disaster. As a result, impacts of disaster are lessened and demand of humanitarian aid is less. Secondly, it increases the capacity of response and when it is needed it is available effective, timely and qualitative manner. Measures that we take traditionally to manage disaster risks here it has been brought up which will help to build a Resilient in terms of institutions, society and family level. This information’s will help us in this issue.
4.7.1 Institutional disaster preparedness
Government and private agencies involved in disaster management take many preparedness programs for rapid and timely warning signal, rescue & transfer and response. Establishment of cyclone warning signals broadcasting system and strengthening them is one of the major preparedness programs. One of mentionable emergency preparedness is cyclone preparedness in coastal region. They prepare emergency plan. Agencies train their own employee so that they can work effectively during disaster. Moreover, they collect accessories; as they store boat for rescue and food for relief. Special subjects are included in the training to make the rescue operations more women friendly.
Probable Loss of livelihood and migration due to severe climate change
Climate induced event Loss of livelihood (per year) Coastal and river erosion Salinity Cyclone and stormy sea 50,000 -2,00,000 1,20,000 60,000 10,000 -15,000 Annual Annual Mig ration Degree
4.7.2 Disaster preparedness in social level
The main objectives of preparedness works done by NGOs and government assistance are to reduce loss of life and property and sorrows of human. This includes local disaster management committee and voluntary group. Disaster risks are determined by them and activity plan is developed. Training and rehearsal for the committee members and volunteer group is arranged. Rescue, transfer and response accessories are collected also. The participation of women in these activities must be ensured. As a result, women can enhance their knowledge, skill
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Per three year
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We can see that the livelihood of ﬁfty to two hundred thousand people been hampered among them sixty thousand have left their home. Similarly for salinity one hundred twenty thousand people faced their loss of livelihood and ten to ﬁfjuvenile thousand are being migrated. Storm surge have hampered livelihood of three hundred to four hundred thousand people among them hundred to hundred twenty thousand people are being migrated outwards. Water logging caused hamper to livelihood of three ﬁfty thousand people and thirty thousand among them are being migrated. In Bangladesh, ten major disaster events has cost nearly 2.9 million lives among them 1.9 million died in the 1943 famine, .4 million died in 1918 epidemic and .3 million died in 1970 cyclone. Here is the complete list of death toll from ten major disaster in Bangladesh.
Generally, the important information about what is hazard, when occur and their frequency and magnitude of an area can be collected by following the methods given below: • Hazard list chart (draw this picture on a large paper and list out the opinions of the participants)
• • • • Inform the participant about the purposes of the practice at start level. Clear the idea of the participant about the hazards Know about the hazard of the locality and list out in a chart Then make a request to the participant for arranging the hazards as a priority basis. In case of priority basis, the aspects are needed to consider by the participant, such as, is the hazard occurred in regularly? Are the maximum community affected and are the amounts of loss huge? That is, the hazard which occurs in regular basis and the large number of community is affected by the effects of a hazard and severe loss is done the hazard on the basis of priority, will stand in the ﬁrst place. Know the opinions of the participant and make an arrangement for voting if needed. in case of voting, provide tamarind seed or ﬁre sticks to the participants and making a request to the participant for categorizing the most severe disaster, medium disaster and least severe disaster use 3 tamarind seed or ﬁre sticks, 2 tamarind seed or ﬁre sticks and 1 tamarind seed or ﬁre sticks respectfully. indentify the hazards on the basis of the obtained results from the participants
4.8 Participatory capacity building and vulnerability analysis
Steps in participatory capacity building and vulnerability analysis
First Step: Hazard identiﬁcation
The ﬁrst step of participatory capability and vulnerability analysis is the hazard identiﬁcation. That is, to identify that which events are considered as a hazard by a speciﬁc community of an area locally. The objectives of hazard identiﬁcation are: 1. Identifying hazard 2. Determining probable risk detail 3. Identifying capacity and vulnerability 4. Gathering information 5. Information validation 6. Determining risk reduction activity 7. Determining risk reduction stakeholders 8. Developing risk reduction action plan 9. Preparing reports
Hazard Calendar Chart
We can collect information very easily buy using hazard calendar chart and get the idea about the change in climate change.
Agrahay an Poush
River Erosion Drought Cold breezing Storm surges Tornado
year and the possibility of risk of these hazards by the next decades. it is important to mention that the local community understanding about the hazard may not be same with the another community or area, such as, we think ﬂood as a hazard in some area but the local community of that area may not agree with it.
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Hazard occurs in normal way Hazards due to the climate change
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-To identify the hazards of an area, collect the information about the magnitude and frequency of the hazards in the
Time trends chart (severity)
No. of hazards in Hazard Floods River Erosion Drought Cold breezing Storm surges Tornado Duties: • Inform the participant clearly about the purposes of usage of hazard calendar method. • • • • • taking planning how to use this calendar According to the information from the chart, list out the hazards on the priority basis When the hazard will occur in the year especially in which month, identify ththis marking it on the chart. Use the distinct color during the hazard, when the temperature variation is observed due to climate change Observe the spontaneous participation of the participant in the discussion 1980 Severe medium No. of hazards in 1990 Severe medium After the decades No. of hazards in 2000 ` Severe medium
Second Step: Determination of details the probable risk Hazard Map: at ﬁrst, what are the various hazards in the area or community, when they occur, their frequency and magnitude of this hazard increasing or decreasing, we have learnt. Now we will know, for which hazard, the area or community will be under threats. Normally hazard map indicates the impacts of hazard on speciﬁc sectors in society.
• • • • • • • • • • Inform clearly about the purposes of your map drawing method Make a plan to draw the map Inspire the participant who has the idea about the village Use different colors pencil and required papers to draw a map at ﬁrst, put down the name of the ward, unions, Upazilla on a legend point out the direction (north, south, east and west) Mention the name of place the outside the line Now, draw the main road of your village Point out the roads associated with the main roads Mention the households, crops and crops ﬁeld, shelters, union board, educational institution, religious institutions, govt. and non govt. organization etc. mention the hazard prone area with different colors
Time trends chart (Loss)
Hazard No. of hazards in 1980 Severe Flood River erosion drought Cold breezing Storm surges Tornado If have the amount of loss, then mention the causes and should be la listed down —————————————————————————————– —————————————————————————————– —————————————————————————————– —————————————————————————————– Duties: • Inform the participant clearly about the purposes of usage of hazard calendar method. • take plan for applying the revolutionary method • give clear idea to the participants about decades • Observe the spontaneous participation of the participant in the discussion
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Scope risk and details determination:
No. of hazards in 1990 Severe medium Least After the decades No. of hazards in 2000 ` Severe medium Least Amount Sl no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Scopes of risk Serious risk No. of family No. of risk community No. of households Cultivable la Roads (km) No. of educational institution No. of religion institutions No. of tube wells nd (acres) Medium risk Risk free Determine which area is mostly affected by hazard and the risk probability or approximate amount after the drawing of the map discuss with the participant. In this case, list down the information from them in the chart:
Third Steps: Identiﬁcation of capacity building and vulnerability context We know that the risk magnitude of a risk prone area depends on the disaster reduction capacity building and the vulnerability context of that area. In the second step, we have known how to identify the scope of risks in the area due to the hazard.
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b b b b b
Use of separate chart for each of the main hazards Inform the clear idea about the purposes of using identiﬁcation methods for the capacity building and vulnerability context Take an action plan that will indentify the capacity building and vulnerable context Ask the participants about the capacity building and vulnerable context Generally, the vulnerability context of women, child and mentally sick are always neglected. Again, women such type of vulnerability that they don’t want to express. So, try to understand the women, child and mentally sick people.
50-100 participants. Participants for this workshop can be
b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
Representative from poor people of the selected implementation area; Representatives from most vulnerable groups (Women, children, elderly, disabled); Representative from different occupation (farmer, ﬁsherman, businessman); Elected members, chairman of union board; Field workers of government and private agencies; Locally respected persons like religious leaders, journalist, politician, social service persons etc.
Fourth Steps: Information Aggregation
Generally, the overall union capacity building and vulnerability context are identiﬁed by aggregating the collected information from more than one participatory capability and vulnerability context in the village and ward. Sometimes this approach is done in each union separately for aggregating the collected information to make a record for the Upazilla capacity building and vulnerability context. Then, based on these gathered information, disaster risk action plan is complied for the ward, union, Upazilla level. So information combination is important in these cases. Now, we will know how to use the combined collected information for that more than one participatory capacity building and vulnerability context.
Fix the date, time and the venue of meeting; Select participants according to the guideline and invite them all informing the date, place and time of the meeting; Prepare a written poster paper on primary data for presenting them; Select a courageous and capable poor male or female to present the data; Inform the objectives of the meeting at the beginning to the participants; Present the hazards, risk prone sectors, capacity and vulnerability related primary data of the area before the participants. Get the opinion on the data from the participants, if needed participatory discussion can be used to review and update the information. Maintain discipline in discussion.
b Inform clearly about the purposes of information aggregation b make a plan how could you apply the information aggregation method b For this step, use the charts containing information that are mentioned in the previous chapter. b Firstly, review the ﬁlled up hazard chart, then make a priority hazard list b at the same way, again ﬁll up the hazard calendar and time trends chart b then draw a combined hazard map for the area b Integrate the information about scope of risk and the amount by reviewing the every scope of risk and details
Sixth Steps: Determining risk reduction activities After getting a consensus on the hazard, risk prone sectors, capacities and vulnerabilities of the area among participants, attract attention of the participants for determining the risk reduction activities for the area.
b b b b b b
Make the risk reduction conception of participants clear again; Present the risk sectors before the participants again; Similarly present capacity and vulnerability issues before the participants Similarly, present suggestion form participants of participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis through a written poster to the participants again. In this phase take opinion for implementing risk reduction activities on priority basis and put them up in a poster. Take necessary steps to ensure active participation of all participants.
b At last, make list of overall capacity building and vulnerability context of the union using chart information
Fifth Steps: Collected information validation
A village o an area has only 15-20 people in any capacity and vulnerability analysis, these data are needed to be validated. If any working plan is developed without consulting the other village people then there is a risk of failure of the initiative. Especially in this type of risk reduction activity everyone from a village can never participate. So, it’s very important to validate primary information’s in a participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis. Below methods can be used for data validation: Data collection from other sources: Upazilla level government ofﬁces like statistics department, various government department, union board and different local organizations have demographic data like population, number of families, area, agricultural land, roads etc of Participatory capacity and vulnerability implemented for a area. So, related organizations can provide information’s which can enhance the quality of the data. Consulting with experienced persons: An area has such person who has more experience than other for their job type or age. As, elderly person, teacher, politician, member-chairman, upper level ofﬁcer of private agencies, root level workers of government and private agencies. These experienced persons can easily verify the information’s given by the participants and can enhance data quality.
Seventh Step: Determining risk reduction stakeholders
The population of the disaster prone area knows what activities are to be done for reducing disaster risk, capacity building and vulnerability reduction. But they don’t have the knowledge, resources and skills to fulﬁll the activities. Normally, government service organization and private agencies have this type of knowledge, resources and skills. But, in the most cases the local people don’t have the real information about those organizations. Moreover, the local public representatives have such knowledge which can be used for risk reduction. So, it is very important to determine which organization’s assistance will be used how to execute the risk reduction activities.
Present the disaster risk reduction activities marked by the participants through a written poster to the participants.
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Arranging data validation meeting is an effective method of ensuring quality of data. Normally, this workshop has
60 I Hand Book
responsible for implementing which activities and write it down on a poster paper. Write down the institution names which are needed to ensure services of government and private agencies by discussing it with participants. Take necessary initiative to ensure active participation of all. Eighth Step: Risk reduction working plan development Activity, who will do the activity, when will the activity done, how the activity will done, what is needed to do the activity is the most important elements of a development planning. By the earlier chapter we have knew what is to be done for disaster risk reduction and which government, private agencies or others assistance is needed. Now, we will know about how to develop a working plan for implementing selected activities. For this write down responsibilities of government department, private agencies, union board and social institutions by discussing it with participants according to working plan table 1.
Working plan table 4 (Private Agencies)
Sl 1 Activity Dam Construction Agency Name POPI What Attract the attention of union & Upazilla for dam construction and build consensus When Any time of year How Presenting it to monthly development meeting of union & Upazilla and including the issue with the agencies awareness campaign
Working plan table 1
Implementation Responsibility Sl Activity Government Department Name Respon sibility Dam construction Private Agencies Name Respons ibility Awareness Rising Social Institutions Name Responsib ility demanding a dam Bringing people Others Name Respon sibility proper authority Presenting it to
Working plan table 5 (Social Institutions)
Sl 1 Activity Dam Construction Agency Name Village disaster management committee What Build a concensus about it as demand of the region and demand it to proper authority When Any time of year How Discussing it in village level, rally with the help of local NGOs and presenting a memorandum letter to proper authority
Water Development Board
Dam Constructio n
Inform the participants how to ﬁll up the working plan table , ﬁ ﬁ Now, include the identiﬁed activities for risk reduction in the working plan and ﬁll up the table by participatory discussion; Different agencies may have different roles in a same activity implementation. So, mention schedule and responsibility of every agency differently in the working plan. Take necessary steps to ensure active participation of all.
Will continue as necessary
Working plan table 2 (Govt. Dept.)
Sl 1 Activity Dam Construction Training on improved farming Dept. Name Water Development Board Agriculture Department What Construct Dam Trai ning When when there is no disaster risk when there is no disaster risk How Including the activity in local development planning Including the activity in local development planning
Ninth Step: Finalizing report
Preparing report by properly writing the information acquired from the participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis program is very much important. Because this report will play the lead document for risk reduction of a speciﬁc area. It has limitless importance to ensure service of government department, private agencies, union board, Upazilla board and other agencies. Now, we will learn how to prepare a report from data acquired by a participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis program. Report contents: Introduction: Put past history, loss and damages due to disasters, how the integral development of the area is hampered for disaster, what are the vulnerabilities of area to combat disaster, why capacity & vulnerability analysis program is implemented and how it will help in risk reduction in the introduction. Area description: The information mentioned for a speciﬁc village/ward/union/Upazilla are area, population, major occupations, economic condition of the area, geographic description, geographic condition, major infrastructure etc. Major Hazards: Mention the hazards on priority basis from information acquired from the table. Description of major risk: Write the sector and description according to the table.
Working plan table 3 (Union Board)
Sl 1 Activity Dam Construction Union Name Chatir Char What When Before annual budget How
Attract the attention of proper authority
Presenting it to monthly Upazilla development meeting
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Major capacities and vulnerabilities: Write down capacities and vulnerabilities according to the table. Risk reduction activities: Write about the identiﬁed activities here. Risk reduction working plan: Mention the risk reduction working plan here Conclusion: Write about the importance of participation of local level GO-NGO, social institutions and the expected outcome
10wU cÖavb `y‡h©v‡M ÿwZMÖ¯Í †jvKmsL¨v
`y‡h©v‡Mi aiY eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v N~bx©So NyYx©So eb¨v mgqKvj AvMó, 1988 RyjvB, 1974 20 Ryb, 2004 †g, 1984 22 RyjvB, 1987 5 RyjvB, 1983 RyjvB, 1968 11 †g, 1965 29 GwcÖj 1991 5 RyjvB, 1998 ÿwZMÖ¯Í †jvKmsL¨v 73,000,000 Rb 38,000,000 Rb 36,000,000 Rb 30,000,000 Rb 29,700,000 Rb 20,000,000 Rb 15,889616 Rb 15,600,000 Rb 15,438849 Rb 15,000,000 Rb
4.9 History of natural and manmade disasters in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is being considered one of the most disaster prone countries in the world for its geographic location and climate change. Every year there is thousands of life losses and severs damage to property. Millions of people are being shelter less. Thousands of family suffers from water logging. According to ADRC there are 206 natural disasters during 1900-2000 which have caused loss of 6, 00,000 lives and 10,439,980 USD was property damage. The intensity of ﬂood and cyclone is much among the natural disasters in Bangladesh. 1988, 1998 ﬂood and 1970, 1991 and 2007 cyclone caused as much loss of life and property damage, which have left the country ﬁfty years behind. To these impacts the affect of SIDR and AILA is also added. Sir of 2007 and AILA of 2009 caused life losses and damage to the Sundarbans. The people of soothe western part of the country still could not recover the losses. Still now, numerous families are being poor to poorest by ﬂood, cyclone and river bank erosion and the number of landless & workless people is increasing. Statistics have shown, over 3 million people have died in ten major disasters and over 300 million people are being affected (same family being hampered repeatedly).
Type of Disaster Famine Epidemic Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Flood Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone
Period 1943 1918 12 November, 1970 29 April, 1991 October, 1942 11 May, 1965 July, 1974 June, 1965 28 May, 1963 09 May, 1961
Number of deaths 19,00,000 3,93,000
Dsm t EM-DAT : The OFDA/CRED: 20, †m‡Þ¤^i 2006
10wU cÖavb `y‡h©v‡M Avw_©K ÿwZi cwigvY
`y‡h©v‡Mi aiY mgqKvj AvMó, 1988 RyjvB, 1974 20 Ryb, 2004 †g, 1984 22 RyjvB, 1987 5 RyjvB, 1983 RyjvB, 1968 11 †g, 1965 29 GwcÖj 1991 5 RyjvB, 1998 Avw_©K ÿwZ (gvwK©b Wjvi) 7,000,000 2,137,000 2,000,000 1,780,000 800,000 727,500 579,200 500,000 330,000 229,000 eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v eb¨v N~bx©So NyYx©So eb¨v
3,00,000 1,38,886 61,000 36,000 28,700 12,047 11,500 11,000
Dsm t EM-DAT : The OFDA/CRED: 20, †m‡Þ¤^i 2006
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4.10 Disaster Management Policies and Act
The Govt. of Bangladesh has prepared many the Disaster Management Policies, Act and Legal Bindings. These are as follows:
3. National Disaster Management Advisory Committee (NDMAC) headed by an experienced person having been nominated by the Honorable Prime Minister. 4. National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR) headed by Secretary, DM&RD and DG, DMB functions as the member secretary. This platform shall coordinate and provide necessary facilitation to the relevant stakeholders. 5. Earthquake Preparedness and Awareness Committee (EPAC) headed by Honourable minister for MoFDM and DG, DMB act as member secretary 6. Cyclone Preparedness Program Implementation Board (CPPIB) headed by the Secretary, Disaster Management and Relief Division to review the preparedness activities in the face of initial stage of an impending cyclone. 7. Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) Policy Committee headed by Honourable Minister, MoFDM and Secretary, DM&RD act as member secretary. Disaster Management Training and Public Awareness Building Task Force (DMTATF) headed by the Director General of Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) to coordinate the disaster related training and public awareness activities of the Government, NGOs and other organizations. 8. Focal Point Operation Coordination Group of Disaster Management (FPOCG) headed by the Director General of DMB to review and coordinate the activities of various departments/ agencies related to disaster management and also to review the Contingency Plan prepared by concerned departments. 9. NGO Coordination Committee on Disaster Management (NGOCC) headed by the Director General of DMB to review and coordinate the activities of concerned NGOs in the country. 10. Committee for Speedy Dissemination of Disaster Related Warning/ Signals (CSDDWS) headed by the Director General of DMB to examine, ensure and ﬁnd out the ways and means for the speedy dissemination of warning/ signals among the people.
Disaster Management Policies, Act and Legal Bindings:
• • • • Disaster Management Act) Standing Orders on Disasters (SOD) National Disaster Management Plan Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme
Sixth Five Year Plan (2011-2015) attached Disaster Management Strategy:
• • • • • Community level preparation, response, recovery and rehabilitation Reduction disaster risk Priority based urgent response Prioritization on post-disaster recovery Institutional capacity building
4.10.1 Permanent orders about Disaster (By Bangladesh Govt.)/ Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD) Background and deﬁnition:
The Disaster Management and Relief Division (DM&RD), MoFDM of the Government of Bangladesh has the responsibility for coordinating national disaster management efforts across all agencies. In January 1997 the Ministry issued the Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD) to guide and monitor disaster management activities in Bangladesh. Standing Orders on Disaster mean standing orders issued by the National Disaster Management Council under the direction of the Government. The Standing Orders on Disaster outlines the disaster management arrangements in Bangladesh and describes the detailed roles and responsibilities of Committees, Ministries, Departments and other organizations involved in disaster risk reduction and emergency response management, and establishes the necessary actions required in implementing Bangladesh’s Disaster Management Model, e.g., deﬁning the risk environment, managing the risk environment, and responding to the threat environment. The SOD has been prepared with the avowed objective of making the concerned persons understand their duties and responsibilities regarding disaster management at all levels, and accomplishing them. All Ministries, Divisions/Departments and Agencies shall prepare their own Action Plans in respect of their responsibilities under the Standing Orders for efﬁcient implementation. The National Disaster Management Council (NDMC) and Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC) will ensure coordination of disaster related activities at the National level. Coordination at District, Thana and Union levels will be done by the respective District, Thana and Union Disaster Management Committees. The Disaster Management Bureau will render all assistance to them by facilitating the process.
At sub-national levels
1. District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) headed by the Deputy Commissioner (DC) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the District level. 2. Upazilla Disaster Management Committee (UZDMC) headed by the Upazilla Nirbahi Ofﬁcer (UNO) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the Upazilla level. 3. Union Disaster Management Committee (UDMC) headed by the Chairman of the Union Parishad to coordinate, review and implement the disaster management activities of the concerned Union. 4. Pourashava Disaster Management Committee (PDMC) headed by Chairman of Pourashava (municipality) to coordinate, review and implements the disaster management activities within its area of jurisdiction. 5. City Corporation Disaster Management Committee (CCDMC) headed by the Mayor of City Corporations to coordinate, review and implement the disaster management activities within its area of jurisdiction. According to this orders activities will be under the following levels Normal time Precautionary and warning period Disaster period After disaster period
“Any event, typically occurring, that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services and which exceeds the capacity of the affected community on a scale sufﬁcient to require outside assistance is called disaster.”
At the national level
1. National Disaster Management Council (NDMC) headed by the Honourable Prime Minister to formulate and review the disaster management policies and issue directives to all concerns. 2. Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Co-ordination Committee (IMDMCC) headed by the Hon’ble Minister in charge of the Disaster Management and Relief Division (DM&RD) to implement disaster management policies and decisions of NDMC / Government.
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Disaster management means to perform the whole range or pre-disaster, disaster and post-disaster activities such as planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling, implementing and evaluating with a view to mitigating the
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severity and extent of disasters.” So disaster management is the policy and administrative decisions and operational activities which pertain to the various stages of a disaster at all levels.
Chief of Staff, Navy Chief of Staff, Air Force Chairman, National Disaster Management Advisory Committee Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture Secretary, Ministry of Finance Secretary, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Ministry Secretary, Ministry of Defence Secretary, Ministry of Local Government Secretary, Roads and Railways Division Secretary, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources Secretary, Ministry of of Food Secretary of Disaster Management and Relief ministry Member, Socio-Economic Infrastructure, Planning Commission P.S and Arm forces division
When no chance to occur a disaster but a long term measures are taken in consideration that those can come in the future.
Precautionary and warning period:
Measures that are designed to ensure that communities will have the knowledge and understanding of their risk environment to enable them to better cope with potential hazard impacts by taking necessary steps to warn the people about upcoming disaster.
The period during which the direct impact of a natural calamity is felt. The disaster phase is long in the case of slow on-set disasters (droughts, normal monsoon ﬂoods) and short in the case of rapid on-set disasters (ﬂash ﬂoods, cyclones, earthquakes, ﬁres, industrial accidents, landslides etc)
Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
The period following the emergency phase, during which actions are to be taken to enable victims to resume normal lives and means of livelihood, and to restore infrastructure, services and the economy in a manner appropriate to long-term needs and deﬁned development objectives. Recovery encompasses both rehabilitation and reconstruction, and may include the continuation of certain relief (welfare) measures in favor of particular disadvantaged, vulnerable groups.
NATIONAL MECHANISM FOR POLICY GUIDANCE AND COORDINATION
The Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee is established at the national level to facilitate policy making, planning, programming and implementing measures relating to disaster risk reduction and emergency response management in Bangladesh.
• • The IMDMCC may invite any experts or professionals for brieﬁng and expert opinion. The IMDMCC will meet at least twice a year or it may meet when the chair desire.
Responsibilities of IMDMCC
Different Council and Committee introduction:
The following council and committee work for the policy making and incorporation of disaster management in the national and local level:
• • • • • • Act on advice of the National Disaster Management Council Recommend enactment of legislation, policies, Standing Orders and national level plans (sector and hazard speciﬁc) to the Cabinet Committee / Council of Advisers Review, revise and approve contingency plans of various First Responding Organizations Approve guidelines and templates prescribed by the NPDM and SOD Approve City Corporation Disaster Management Plans and District Disaster Management Plans Recommend an appropriate regulatory mechanism for the implementation of the Bangladesh Disaster Management Framework, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, recovery and rehabilitation Approve national and sub-national programs for disaster risk reduction Advocate and ensure disaster risk reduction is mainstreamed in development policies, plans and programmes Monitor DRR activities and programs, and keep the NDMC informed of their progress Review and promote emergency preparedness and public awareness capacity development in disaster management Promote monitoring, evaluation, education, and research on disaster risk reduction and emergency response management Emergency Response Evaluate emergency preparedness status and recommend corrective measures.
National disaster management advisory committee
Prime miniser Minister, Ministry of Water Resource Minister, Ministry of Finance Minister Ministry of Planning Minister, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives Minister, Ministry of Communications Minister, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Minister, Ministry of Home Affairs Minister, Ministry of Food and Disaster Management Minister, Ministry of Education Disaster management and relief Minister Minister, Ministry of Agriculture Cabinet Secretary Chief of Staff, Army
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President Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary Member
• • • • • •
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• • • • •
Approve response and recovery plans. Promote preparedness activities, such as ﬁre evacuation drills, search and rescue mock exercise, etc. Ensure whole-of-government coordination in emergency response, relief and rehabilitation operations. Approve guideline for multi-agency incident management. Establish Urban Search and Rescue Taskforces.
b Ensure that the risk factors of disaster and the possibilities of reduction of risks have been fully considered while
preparing and implementing development programmes at District level. Ensure BNBC is fully met while constructing public or private structures. compilation of ‘Hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment report’ prepared by Upazila and Pourashava (grade ‘A’) DMCs and submit the same to the DMB.
b Prepare a comprehensive report on “Hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment’ at District level based on the b Prepare a contingency plan (emphasis on earthquake and ﬁre) and update it regularly. b Prepare a comprehensive report on the lists of vulnerable community and location map’ at District level based
District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) Meetings
District Disater Management Committee
District commissioner District level departmental officer All Upazila Nirbahi Officers (UNO) Two Women representatives (Nominated by the DC) Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society Representatives of NGOs (one representative each from Local, National and International NGOs selected by the DC) District Relief and Rehabilitation Officer (DRRO) resident of the District Committee, Union Parishad Forum Representative of the Armed Forces Division (during disaster) • • • • • • • • • President Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
on the compilation of ‘lists of vulnerable community and location map’ prepared by individual Upazila and Pourashava (grade ‘A’) DMCs and submit the same to the DMB.
b Prepare comprehensive short, medium and long-term risk reduction action plans at District level based on the
compilation of short, medium and long-term risk reduction action plans prepared by Upazilas and Pourashava (grade ‘A’) DMCs and submit the same to the DMB.
review the implementation status of the short, medium and long-term action plans through coordinating the programmes of development and service organizations at District level. level fund appropriate for the implementation of the risk reduction action plans.
b Provide necessary support to Union, Pourashava and Upazila disaster management committees to create local b Inform the DMB on the progress of action plan and other activities at District level. b Disseminate forecasts and warnings regarding disasters and make the people conscious about them. b Prepare a District disaster risk reduction action plan (RRAP) including the following issues with a view to keep
the District authority and local organizations well prepared so as to meet the disaster effectively and efﬁciently in the light of warning signals about imminent disaster and the occurrence of disaster
b Ensure speedy and effective publicity of forecasts
During normal time, the committee will meet once in two months. During warning phase and pre-disaster period, the committee shall meet more than once a week. During disaster period the committee shall meet as and when needed (once daily), at least once in a week. In recovery phase the committee will meet once a week. The committee can meet any time if needed or part of the committee can meet with the other development committees bi-laterally or multilaterally. The committee can request any member(s) or specialist(s) of the locality to attend any particular meeting. Quorum will be constituted by1/3rdmembers of the committee during normal period and post-disaster period. During warning phase and disaster period, quorum will be constituted by 1/4thmembers of the committee. An updated list of members of DDMC will have to be submitted to DMB by 10 February of each year duly signed by the chairperson of the DDMC. The Pourashava DMC, UzDMC and UDMCs submitted by UzDMC will have to be sent to DMB. The list must be submitted irrespective of any changes in the composition of the committee.
and warnings relating to disasters (tornado, cyclone, tidal surge, earthquake, landslide, river erosion, tsunami, heavy rainfall, no rainfall, drought, flood, water logging, high tide, cold wave, etc.) among all officials of the District, relevant individuals/organizations and take measures to send the messages to the concerned individuals at the Union, Pourashava and Upazila levels; and assist the implementation of the action plans prepared by the Union, Pourashava and UzDMCs with the coordination efforts of District level government and non-government organizations. speciﬁc safe centers/shelters for evacuation of the people from District headquarters and to build capacity and assign responsibility to different individuals and organizations for rendering various services and securities at the shelters. Build their capacity and instruct all the departments to provide necessary support to the Union, Pourashava and Upazila DMCs. at the safe centers/shelters located in the District headquarters. And arrange similar services and facilities at Union, Pourashava and Upazila levels in communication with Union, Pourashava and Upazila DMCs. all necessary measures to activate Union, Pourashava and Upazila DMCs; at the same time, provide necessary support to the Union, Pourashava and Upazila DMCs in rescue work and emergency relief work and preparation of contingency plans for essential services in the interior of the District along with District headquarters, Upazila headquarters and Pourashava (grade ‘A’) and disaster occasional rehearsals or drills on the dissemination of warnings/forecasts, evacuation, rescue and primary relief operations with assistance from DMB and Upazila/Pourashava authority. DMCs (grade ‘A’) and submit a comprehensive progress report to DMB regularly.
b Ensure supply of safe drinking water, which can be ﬁlled in cans, ensure security and other essential services b Take
Responsibilities of the District Disaster Management Committee Risk Reduction
the constitution of UzDMC and Pourashava DMCs (Grade ’A’) with its activation, ensure receipt of directives and information and draw beneﬁts from available training facilities. b Arrange training and workshops on disaster-related issues regularly by keeping the DMB informed.
b Monitor the progress of the activities and implementation status of the action plans of Upazila and Pourashava
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EMERGENCY RESPONSE Warning Period
warnings/forecasts, evacuate the vulnerable people as per evacuation plan, check the overall preparation for rescue operation and prepare the rescue team.
b Supervise the distribution of materials under relief and rehabilitation activities and maintain their account and
send the same to national authority and other relief donor organizations.
b Take necessary measures so that people can return to their previous places after the disaster is over. In such
cases, if there is any dispute regarding the legality of the land that should not be an obstacle to returning to the previous place after disaster of experts and community elites.
b Engage trained institutions, volunteers and people in the ﬁeld for effective and speedy dissemination of early
warnings/forecasts and to coordinate and monitor the whole warnings/forecasts dissemination system. are alert and ready to provide essential services and security at the centers. nearby the safe centers/shelters.
b Arrange counseling for people suffering from psycho-trauma due to the disaster, with the collaborative support b Instruct the health-related personnel of the District and Upazila level to provide appropriate and adequate care
to disaster affected people and if needed, request the District health authority for assistance. and after the disaster.
b Visit the pre-selected emergency shelters/safe centers and ensure that different organizations and individuals b Review and take alternative measures to ensure the supply of safe drinking water from the selected places b Conduct a mock or drill, on a small scale, with the trained students, youths, club members and volunteers on the
community-based water-puriﬁcation techniques and ensure all the relevant preparatory measures for speedy supply of water after proper puriﬁcation.
b Arrange workshop with the participation of concerned institutions and individuals on the lessons learned during b Perform responsibility of overall coordination among various departments at District level.
Upazilla disaster management committee
Upazila Nirbahi Officer (T.N.O) Union Parishad Chairmans Upozila level departmental officer Representative of women Representative of upazila centre cooperative society Representative of Cyclone Preparedness programme (CPP) Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society Representative of the NGOs Upazila project implementation officer President Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
emergency measures to ﬁll up the stock of lifesaving drugs after carefully scrutinizing the stock of life-saving drugs at Pourashava level.
b Prepare a checklist of emergency activities including the time schedule of the assigned personnel.
b Operate “Emergency Operation Centre (Information Centre and Control Room)” for maintaining coordination of
activities at all places in the interior of the District in respect of evacuation, rescue, and relief and primary rehabilitation within the District. for rescue operations in severely affected Upazilas and Pourashavas.
b Operate emergency rescue work with the facilities locally available and coordinate mobilization of rescue teams b Coordinate all relief activities (GO-NGO) at Union, Pourashava, Upazila and District level so that relief materials are distributed impartially. b Ensure
dissemination of correct information for protecting the people from being upset by rumor related to disaster. in safe
b Take necessary measures for ensuring the security of local and external relief workers during disaster. b Ensure the overall security of women, children and persons with disability during disaster (residing
centers/shelters and other places). bodies and quick disposal of dead domestic animals. fuel, radio, etc.) to safe places.
Concerned Honorable Member of the Parliament will be the advisor of this UzDMC. The chairperson of the Committee can co-opt a maximum of 3 (three) more members and form groups and sub-groups considering the local situation and special circumstances.
b Take necessary measures to protect environmental degradation by arranging quick memorial services of dead b Assist people to transfer their essential resources (livestock, poultry, essential food, kerosene, candle, matches,
b During normal time, the committee will meet once in a month. b During warning phase and pre-disaster period, the committee shall meet more than once in a week. b During disaster period the committee shall meet as and when needed (once daily), at least once a b In recovery phase the committee will meet once a week. b The committee can meet any time if needed or part of the committee can meet with the other development
committees bi-laterally or multilaterally.
Post Disaster Period
b Collect and verify statistics relating to loss according to instructions issued by Disaster Management Bureau and
other national authorities from Upazila ofﬁcials and members of the Upazila/Pourashava DMCs regarding loss due to disaster according to directives of DMB and other national authorities; to determine priority and requirements through emergency survey by ofﬁcials or any other competent persons. work to the EOC at the MoFDM and DMIC of DMB.
b Supply information relating to loss, needs, available resources and priority needs for relief and rehabilitation b Prepare
contingency plans for rehabilitation work carefully based on priority measures for risk reduction at District level. other sources on realistic basis according to necessity as per directives issued from DMB and District authority.
b The committee can request any member(s) or specialist(s) of the locality to attend any particular meeting. period and post-disaster period. b Quorum will be constituted by1/3rdmembers of the committee during normal th
During warning phase and disaster period, quorum will be constituted by 1/4 members of the committee.
b An updated list of members of UzDMC will have to be
b Allocate and distribute the materials to Upazila/Pourashava, received from local source or Relief Directorate/any
submitted to DDMC by 25 January of each year duly signed by the chairperson of the UzDMC. The list must be submitted irrespective of any changes in the composition of the committee. The Pourashava DMC and Union DMCs submitted to Upazila DMC submitted by the concerned will have to be sent to District DMC.
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Responsibilities of Upazila Disaster Management Committee Risk Reduction
b Assist Union and Pourashava DMC to form and activate a comprehensive DMC at b Union and Pourashava level, so that the DMCs can provide proper guidance,
information and can exploit beneﬁts from imparted training. get the right and correct
b Ensure supply of safe water and if necessary other services from speciﬁc points near the shelters/centers with b Assist
Union and Pourashava DMCs to train the students, youths, local clubs and volunteers on community-based water puriﬁcation technology, so that during a disaster, they can supply water-purifying technology during emergencies in their community until external support reaches the high-risk people. as a playground in normal time and can be used as shelter during disaster period where livestock, poultry, emergency food, kerosene, lamp, candle, matches, fuel wood, radio and other important resources could be shifted along with the people. for use during disaster.
the help of Upazilla authority. Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to be more efﬁcient to do the same work at Union and Pourashava level.
Union and Pourashava DMCs to increase their efﬁciency in developing local warning system, risk reduction programming, rescue and recovery strategy and awareness raising strategy.
b Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to plan for preparing some community-based high land, which can be used
b Ensure that disaster risk reduction approaches are well considered during planning and implementation of development programmes of Union, Pourashava and Upazila. b Arrange training and workshops on regular basis on disaster issues and assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to
arrange training and workshop and keep the DDMC informed of progress and constraints.
b Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to stock emergency life-saving medicines at Union and Pourashava level b Prepare b Monitor
relevant plans for rescue, primary relief operation, and restoration of communication with District Headquarters and Union Authorities and local arrangement for rehabilitation of severely affected families. the activities and Progress of Implementation of Action Plans of Union and Pourashava DMC and submit a progress report of Upazilla Disaster Management Action Plan to the DDMC. for rehearsals or drills on the dissemination of warning signals/forecasts, evacuation, rescue and primary relief operations (if necessary committee can seek assistance from District Authority).
b Assist Union and Pourashava disaster management committees to hold a hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis at Union and Pourashava level; compile hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment of Unions and Pourashavas and prepare a hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment report for the Upazila. b Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to identify the most vulnerable area or people at high risk by sex, age, physical-ability, social status, occupation and economic status, compile the list of people at high risk at different Union and b Pourashavas and based on the lists prepare a report and location map of people at risk in the Upazila and to
send the report to the DDMC.
Union and Pourashava DMCs to prepare a short, medium and long-term vulnerability reduction and capacity building action plan for the identiﬁed high-risk people with active participation of the people at risk; compile the action plans and prepare a Upazila level action plan and send a copy to DDMC. meeting and take decision about implementation of the short, medium and long-term action plan for risk reduction as well as review the progress of the implementation of the RRAPs. action plan. DDMC.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE Warning Period
b Disseminate warning and security messages, evacuate the vulnerable people as per evacuation plan, monitor
last moment checks of rescue team and its preparation and take effective measure to minimize gaps as a high priority. messages to the vulnerable community and monitor the whole security and warning message dissemination activities. organizations and volunteers are alert and ready to provide services.
b Facilitate coordination among the development agencies and service providers through Quarterly coordination
b Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to raise funds in a legal way at local level to implement the risk reduction b Update the progress of implementation of Upazila level action plan and other related activities and report to the b Prepare a Comprehensive Disaster Management Action Plan to enable local people, Union, Pourashava and
Upazila authorities and local organizations to increase the capacity of the poor and vulnerable people to enhance their income and other assets for risk reduction and also to take up security arrangement in the perspective of imminent danger-related warnings or occurrence of disaster including the issues already mentioned under this paragraph. authorities, volunteers and other people so that they can forecast and publicize warnings relating to hazards (cyclones, storms, ﬂoods, droughts, tidal surge, tsunami, over-rainfall, under-rainfall, water logging, high tide, cold waves etc.) in the quickest possible way and also inform people about their responsibilities of saving their lives and properties from disaster.
b Engage trained institutions, volunteers and people in ﬁeld for effective and rapid dissemination of early warning b Visit the pre-determined emergency shelter centers and be sure that for essential services and security different b Review the practicality of water supply sources nearby the shelter centers and if necessary, ﬁll the gaps that
people can get safe water supply during disaster from these water sources.
b Conduct a mock or drill to be ensured that the trained students, youths, with club members and volunteers can
prepare water-puriﬁcation technology at their locality and can supply the victims during emergencies and to monitor that adequate materials are ready to prepare such water-puriﬁcation technology. disaster.
b Take steps for capacity building of Upazila ofﬁcers, relevant persons and institutions, Union and Pourashava
b Review the stock of life-saving medicines at Union level and evaluate its adequacy to supply victims during b Prepare a checklist of emergency works to be done during disaster and be sure that appropriate materials and
people are available for use.
b Building the capacity of Union and Pourashava disaster management committees, local institutions, volunteers
and people in a way that they can help and motivate people to adopt disaster (cyclone/tidal surge/tsunami/earthquake/tornado/ﬂood/water logging/salinity/high tides/ cold wave) resistant housing features. can help and motivate people to adapt with disaster resistant agriculture and other livelihood options.
b Operate “EOC” at Upazila level to coordinate evacuation, rescue and relief activities. b Organize emergency rescue work by using locally available facilities in times of need and if directed, assist
others in rescue works.
b Building the capacity of Union and Pourashava DMCs, local institutions, volunteers and people in a way that they b Determine speciﬁc safe centers/shelters where the population of certain areas will go at the time of need and
assign responsibilities to different persons for various services and securities at the centers/shelters. Assist Union and Pourashava DMCs to be more efﬁcient to do the same work at Union and Pourashava level.
b Coordinate all relief activities (GO-NGO) in the Upazila in a manner that social justice (on the basis of who
needs, what is needed and how much is needed) is ensured in relief distribution; information.
b Protect people from becoming upset due to rumors during hazard period by providing them correct and timely
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b During hazard ensure security of local and external relief workers. b Ensure the security of women, children and person with disability during hazard. b Take necessary actions to protect environmental degradation by quick funeral of corpses and burying the animal
During normal time, the committee will meet once a month. During warning phase and pre-disaster period, the committee shall meet more than once a week. During disaster period the committee shall meet as and when needed (once daily), at least once in a week. In recovery phase the committee will meet once a week. The committee can meet any time if needed or part of the committee can meet with the other development committees bi-laterally or multilaterally. The committee can request any member(s) or specialist(s) of the locality to attend any particular meeting. Quorum will be constituted by1/3rdmembers of the committee during normal period and post-disaster period. During warning phase and disaster period, quorum will be constituted by 1/4th members of the committee. An updated list of members of UDMC will have to be submitted to UzDMC by 15 January of each year duly signed by the chairperson of the UDMC. The list must be submitted irrespective of any changes in the composition of the committee.
b Help people to transfer their essential resources (livestock, poultry, essential food, kerosene, candle, matches,
fuel, radio, etc.) to safe places.
b Enforce Union and Pourashava DMCs to prepare water puriﬁcation technology (tablet) at local level with the help
of trained students, youths, clubs and volunteers; and distribute those products at emergency among the people at risk before being caught by diarrhea or other water borne diseases.
b Collect statistics of loss incurred in disaster in the light of guidelines of Upazila Engineer, and DDMC and send
the same to DDMC.
b Provide data and statement to the DDMC regarding damage, need, received resources and priority for relief and rehabilitation works. b Plan the rehabilitation work in a way that essential measures for future risk reduction is well considered. b Take steps for distribution of articles for rehabilitation received locally or from Relief and Rehabilitation
Directorate and from any other source following the guidelines from Upazila Engineer, and UzDMC. agency (if the donor provided relief fund).
Responsibilities of Union Disaster Management Committee Risk Reduction
b Ensure that local people are kept informed and capable of taking practical measures for the reduction of risk at
household and community level and also disseminate the success stories of reducing disaster risks at household and community level widely among the local people.
b Supervise and keep accounts of the relief and rehabilitation materials distributed and send it to DDMC and donor b Ensure that people displaced from hazard can return to their previous places; in this case, disputes (if any)
regarding the land of the displaced people should not be an obstacle to them returning after disaster.
b Arrange training and workshops on regular basis on disaster issues and keep the UzDMC informed. b Hold a hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis at Union level and prepare risk reduction action plan (RRAP) and
contingency plan for earthquake and other hazards. economic status.
b Arrange counseling for people suffering from psycho-trauma due to the disaster, with the collaborative support of experts and community elites. b Ensure that the injured people are getting fair and just treatment from health service providers, if necessary;
committee can recommend for Upazila and District level assistance.
b Identify the most vulnerable or people at high risk by sex, age, physical ability, social status, occupation and b Prepare a short, medium and long-term vulnerability reduction and capacity building action plan for the identiﬁed
high-risk people with active participation of the people at risk.
b Arrange a lesson learning session with the participation of concern institutions and individuals on learning from b In addition to the above, follow the SOD and in standing orders of appropriate authority.
Formation of disaster management committee and responsibilities
Union Parishad Chairman Members of Union Parishad Representative of teacher Union level govt. officer Representative of female Representative of Cyclone Preparedness programme (CPP) Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society Representative of NGOs Union Parishad Secretariat President Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretariat member
b Facilitate coordination among the development agencies and service providers through quarterly coordination
during hazard and after hazard. Coordinate the disaster relevant activities of different departments at Upazila level.
meeting and take decision about implementation of the action plan for risk reduction as well as review the progress of the risk reduction action plan.
b Raise fund at local level to implement the risk reduction action plan. b Update the progress of implementation of action plan and other activities and report to the Upazila DMC b Prepare a Comprehensive Disaster Management Action Plan with a view to enabling local people, Union
authority and local organizations to increase the capacity of poor and vulnerable people to enhance their income and other assets for risk reduction and also to take up security arrangement in the perspective of imminent danger-related warnings or occurrence of disaster including the issues already mentioned under this paragraph. a way that they can forecast and publicize warnings relating to hazards (cyclones, storms, ﬂoods, droughts, tidal surge, tsunami, over-rainfall under-rainfall, water logging, high tide, cold wave etc.) in the quickest possible manner and also inform people about their responsibilities of saving their lives and properties from disaster. adopt disaster-resistant (cyclone/tidal Surge /tsunami/earthquake/ tornado/ ﬂood/water logging /salinity /high tide /cold wave) housing features. adapt with disaster-resistant agriculture and other livelihood options.
b Take steps for capacity building of relevant persons and institutions, Union authority, volunteers and people in
b Build the capacity of local institutions, volunteers and people in a way that they can help and motivate people to b Build the capacity of local institutions, volunteers and people in a way that they can help and motivate people to b Determine speciﬁc safe centers/shelters where the population of certain areas will go at the time of need and
The chairperson of the Committee can co-opt a maximum of 3 (three) more members and form groups and sub-groups considering the local situation and special circumstances.
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assign responsibilities to different persons for various services and securities at the shelters/centers.
b Ensure supply of safe water and if necessary other services from speciﬁc points near the shelters/centers with the help of Upazila authority. b Train
the students, youths, local club members and volunteers on community-based water puriﬁcation technology. So that during disaster, they can supply water-purifying technology during emergencies in their community until external support reaches the high-risk people. be used as a shelter place during disaster period and where livestock, poultry, emergency food, kerosene, lamp, candle, matches, fuel wood, radio and other important resources could be shifted along with the people. disaster.
b During hazard, ensure security of local and external relief workers. b Ensure the security of women, children and person with disability during hazard. b Take necessary actions to protect environmental degradation by arranging quick funeral of corpses and burying
the dead animal bodies.
b Help people to transfer their essential resources (livestock, poultry, essential food, kerosene, candle, matches,
fuel, radio, etc.) to safe places.
b Plan for preparing some community-based high land, which can be used as a playground in normal time and can b Stock emergency life-saving medicines at Union level (Union Health and Family Welfare Centre) for use during b Prepare b Arrange
b Collect statistics of loss incurred in disaster in the light of guidelines of DMB and Upazila DMC and send the
same to Upazila DMC.
relevant plans for rescue, primary relief operation, and restoration of communication with Upazila Headquarters and local arrangement for rehabilitation of severely affected families. for rehearsals or drills on the dissemination of warning signals/forecasts, evacuation, rescue and primary relief
steps for distribution of articles for rehabilitation received locally or from Relief and Rehabilitation Directorate and from any other source following the guidelines from DMB and Upazila DMC.
operations (if necessary committee can seek assistance from Upazila Authority).
b Send accounts of materials received to UzDMC and donor agency (if the donor provided relief funds). b Ensure that due to hazard the people who were displaced can return to their previous place. In this case, dispute
(if any) regarding the land of the displaced people should not be an obstacle to returning to the place after disaster. of experts and community elites.
b Arrange counseling for people suffering from psycho-trauma due to the disaster, with the collaborative support b Ensure
that the injured people are getting fair adjust treatment from health service providers, if necessary; committee can recommend for Upazilla and District level assistance. during hazard and after hazard.
b Disseminate warning and security messages, evacuate the vulnerable people as per evacuation plan, monitor
the last moment check of rescue team and its preparation and take effective measures to minimize gaps as a high priority. messages to the vulnerable community and monitor the whole security and warning message dissemination activities.
b Arrange a lesson-learning session with the participation of concern institutions and individuals on learning from b In addition to the above, follow the SOD and instant orders of appropriate authority.
b Engage trained institutions, volunteers and people in ﬁeld for effective and rapid dissemination of early warning b Visit the pre-determined emergency shelter centers and be sure that for essential services and security different
organizations and volunteers are alert and ready to provide services.
4.10.2 Disaster Management Action Plan
The aspects which are discussed in the disaster management action plan are mentioned below in brief: Indentify the endangered area; The necessity of resources determination and planned implementation programme; Action plan for responses and method implementation; To implement the action plan and method to cope with the disasters; Discussion on disaster management action plan and update the data at least one per year; To ensure the easy access of disaster related information to all as well as the district level stakeholders and district; To ensure the capacity building program for all disaster management committee.
b Review the practicality of water supply sources nearby the shelters/centers and if necessary, ﬁll the gaps that people can get safe water supply during disaster from these water sources. b On a minimum scale, conduct a mock or drill to ensure that the trained students, youths, clubs and volunteers
can prepare water-puriﬁcation technology at their locality and can supply to the victims during emergencies and to monitor that adequate materials are ready to prepare such water-puriﬁcation technology.
b Review the stock of life-saving medicines at Union level and evaluate its adequacy for supply among the victims during disaster. b To prepare a checklist of emergency works to-do during disaster and be sure that appropriate materials and
people are available for use.
b Organize emergency rescue work by using locally available facilities in times of need and if directed assist others
in rescue work.
Infrastructural Disaster Management Framework of Bangladesh:
The infrastructural disaster management framework of Bangladesh are given below, so that the idea of the organization associated with disaster management in local level (Union, Thana and District) and also the department and national level related to it, can be obtained.
b Prepare water puriﬁcation technology (tablet) at local level with the help of trained students, youths, clubs and
volunteers; and distribute those products at emergency among the people at risk before being caught by diarrhea or other waterborne diseases. what is needed and how much is needed) is ensured in relief distribution.
b Coordinate all relief activities (GO-NGO) in the Union in a manner that social justice (on the basis of who needs, b Protect
people from becoming upset by rumors during hazard period by providing them correct and timely information.
Disaster Management Committee Formation
We need to communicate with the personnel of local level disaster management to implementation disaster management programme in ﬁeld level. From this necessity, the formation of disaster management committee is mentioned here, so that the people associated with the disaster management can know about the local disaster management.
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Disaster Management Committee District Commissioner Departmental Officer Related to District Level All T.N.O Two selected female delegates Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society NGO Representative District Relief and Rehabilitation Officer Arm forces Representative President Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
Disaster Management Institutions in Bangladesh
National Disaster Management Council (NDMC)
Inter Ministerial Disaster Management Coondination Committee (IMDMCC)
Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM)
National Disaster Management Advlisory Committee (NDMAC)
4.10.3 Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP)
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme is run under ministry of food and disaster management of Bangladesh in 2004. UNDP, DFID, and European Commission are the signiﬁcant development partner of Bangladesh, are ﬁnancing in this programme having 12 components. Ministry of Environment and Agriculture along with Ministry of Food and Disaster Management are related to the various government and private organization programme. The phase one of CDMP started in 2004 and had been ﬁnished in 2009. The phase two of CDMP has been started in 2010 and will be ﬁnished in 2014.
National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR)
Disaster Management and Relief Division (DM&RD)
Earthquake Preparedness and Awareness
CPP Impleme Ntation Board (CPPIB
Disaster Management Bureau (DMB)
Directorate of Relief and Rehabititation (DRR)
Director General of Food (DGFood)
District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) Municipal Disaster Management Committee (MDMC) Zone/Upazila Upazila Disaster Management Committee (UzDMC) City Corporation Disaster Management Committee (CCDMC)
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) Phase I: 2004-2009 Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) Phase II: 2010-2014
The targets have been set under CDMP project to reduce the impacts of vulnerability of Bangladesh by reducing the extreme events as well as the natural and manmade hazards induced harmful climate change impacts. Disaster management by the programmes and the related issues of disaster management will be incorporated with national policy and laws. For this reason, the phase two of CDMP is: the extended period or phase one that will forward the incorporation activities of disaster related programs to the national policy and laws. The possibilities and solution of disaster activities called Community Risk Assessment used in Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme. Community Risk Assessment is a participatory approach that is committed to implement an active action plan for solving dangers, problems, vulnerability, risk, the ways of risk reduction. In this method, the life and livelihoods and information of the organization including weather and climate, scientiﬁc information and prediction about hazards and disasters and the impacts of climate change are determined by the participating of local man and women along with the peoples from every class. As the vulnerability, risk and reduction strategy of the different people are not same, that’s why, stakeholder groups’ opinion are counted in the CRA to build up the local level people capacity and risk determination planning. In this method, the strategy that does not implement locally, are sending to upper level (Upazilla for union and district for Pourosova) of social and state framework a comprehensive, implementable risk reduction action plan is prepared based on opinions.
Union Disaster Management Committee (UDMC)
FPOCC NGOCC DMTATF
CDMP programmes expansion
The risk reduction action plan is introduced to the 622 unions of 16 districts of the country by implementing Community risk assessment (CRA) programme in the ﬁrst level of CDMP, where 562 Community risk assessment (CRA) programmes are implemented by the ﬁnance of CDMP. In the second level of CDMP, more than 2000 unions have been expanded in Bangladesh and the action plan will be implemented by performing CRA in these unions. The different projects will be implemented according to CDMP action plan.
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Photo : Oxfam
4.11 Disaster Management Related Websites
Organization Ministry of Food and Disaster Management Disaster Management Bureau Dirrectorate of Relief and Rehabilitation Comprehensive Disaster Management Program (CDMP) African Center for Disaster Studies Africa Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction Action Aid Bangladesh Asian Disaster Reduction Centre Asian Disaster Preperedness centre (ADPC) Asia-Paciﬁc network for Gloval Change Research (APN) Bangladesh Disaster Preperedness Centre (BDPC) BRAC University (Postgraduate Programs in DM) Aon Beniﬁeld UCL Hazard Research Centre (ABUHRC)
Website www.mofdm.gov.gd www.dmp.gov.bd www.drr.gov.bd www.cdmp.org.bd www.acds.co.za www.unisdrafrica.org www.actionaid.org/bangaldesh www.adrc.asia www.adpc.net www.apn.gr.jp www.bdpc.org.bd www.bracu.ac.bd www.benﬁeldhrc.org www.cepredenac.org www.colorado.edu/hazards www.cred.be www.cdera.org www.crid.or.cr www.duryognivaran.org www.drmonline.net www.dfd.gov.uk www.drought.unl.edu www.earthquake.usgs.gov
Organization Earth Summit 2002- Building Partnerships for Develolpment Economic Commission for Latin America And the Caribbean (ECLAC) Earthquake Hazard Centre New Zealand EM-DAT: Emergency Events Database Foot and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FEMA-gatdissaster information United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Geo Hazards international Glide Number- a Gloval Referencing System for Disaster Events Center for Hazards and Risk Research, Columbia University, USA Internation Development Research Centre Canada International Fedaration of Red Cresent Societies Indian Association of Social Science Institutions Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) IRI- The International Research Institute of Climate and Society Integrated Regoinal information networks (IRIN) The Center for isaster Studies at JCU- James Cook Univesity, AUS Center for Ecology and Hidrology in U.K NOAA’s National Wether Service Network for Information, Response and Preparedbess Activities on Disaster (NIRAPAD), Bangladesh Gender Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) Global Fire Monitoring Centre (GFMC) Paciﬁc Disaster Center (PDC)
Website www.earthsummit2002.org www.eclac.org www.ehc.arch.vuw.ac.nz www.emdat.be www.fao.org www.fema.gov/hazard freshwater.unep.net www.geic.or.jp www.glidenumber.net www.deo.columbia.edu/chrr www.idrc.ca www.ifrc.org iassi.nic.in ico.uncscu.org www.iri.columbia.edu www.irinnews.org www.jcu.edu.au www.ceh.ac.ik www.noaa.gov www.nirapad.org www.gdnonline.org www..ﬁre.uni-ﬁrebrig.de www.pdc.org
Steps of Community risk assessment (CRA)
b The planning meetings will be hold in district level and the action plan will be presented to TNO and Upazilla disaster management committee. b The decision of holding meetings in Upazilla on Community risk assessment should be informed via sending
letter to district commissioner.
Center the Co-ordination for the prevention of natural Disaster in Central America Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado at Boulder Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Responsev Agency (CDERA) CRID-Centro Regional the Information for Disaster Doryog Nivaran, South Asian Network for Disaster Risk Reduction World Institute for Disaster Risk Management Department for International Development (DFID) National Drought Mitigation Center, University of Nebraska-Lincon USGS-Earthquake Hazards Program
b Member b The
of Upazilla disaster management committee will create community based risk determination representative teams in the district level and the project should be determined and implemented for district and Upazilla and they will get orientation training for 2/3 days. Community risk assessment associated organization will collect the data and information from the secondary sources. report will be implemented for each unions.
b Community risk assessment and risk reduction action plan will be taken in the 9 wards separately and a b The reduction of action plan should be valid in union and Upazilla level. b The project should be determined and implemented for district and Upazilla. b The risk reduction planning of project implementation report should be submitted to TNO and a copy is to
store in union and Upazilla Parishad.
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