Preface Introduction Abbreviations Literature P A R T I: P H O N O L O G Y § § 1. Preliminary remarks 2. Consonants: a. 1 andT h.w c. Proto-Semitic ft/ dpandr e. Proto-Semitic f. Proto-Semitic / § / g. P r o t o - S e m i t i c / V a n d / h / 3 . Consonantal changes a. Assimilation and non-assimilation o f / n / b . Assimilation of consonants other than / n / c. D e g e m i n a t i n g / n / d. Phonetic reality of degeminating /n/ e./tV>At/
f. Partial assimilation /t/>/t/



1 2 3 6 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 12 13 14 16

g./b/>/p/ h. Progressive assimilation i. Dissimilation j . Spirantisation k. Possible weakening or elision of gutturals L A p o c o p e of /V m. Syncope of / V i) V + / y + C > V C n. ii) C + / y + V > C V o./V>/y/ p . V + /y/ + V > V + />/ + V q. Syncope o f / h / r. Metathesis

17 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 25



§ §

4. 5.



§ §

7. 8.

§ §

9. 10.

s. Fluctuation between Iml and Inl t. Word-final cluster of two identical consonants Vowels Word-final vowels a. Word-final Y o d = r b. Word-final Y o d = y c. Word-final W a w = u d. Word-final W a w = o e. Word-final H e = a, e, or o f. Word-final Alef = a or e g. Multivalence of word-final matres lectionis .. h. Word-final long a graphically not visible? i. Spelling of unstressed word-final long a j . Pronouns i n ' h e ' a n d ' s h e ' k. Pleonastic word-final Alef following Word-medial vowels a.Yod = i b. W a w = M c. W a w = o d. Frequent defective spellings e. Contraction of diphthongs and word-medial YodorWaw f. Alef or H e hardly used as word-medial mater lectionis g. Y o d or W a w = historically long i or u h. Consonantal Y o d or W a w Vowel length Contraction of diphthongs a. / a y / b./aw/ Elision of short unstressed vowels Sandhi a. First word = preposition b. Second word = preposition c. Frequent in construct phrases d. First word = negator e. Second word = enclitic pronoun f Sandhi and asyndeton g. Sandhi assimilation

26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 38 38 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42



P A R T II: M O R P H O L O G Y SECTION A: THE NOUN, ADJECTIVE AND PARTICLES § I L Disjunctive personal pronouns a. 2nis.n3«
b. 2fs. •'H^N andn ^N c. 3fs. N^n (!)

A3 43



§ §

13. 14.

§ § § §

15. 16. 17. 18.

45 d. Ipl. mmN vs. ]raN 45 e. 2 m p . on^N 45 f. 3nip .iDn 45 Conjunctive personal pronouns 46 a.-b. General remarks 46 c. Isg. 48 d. 2 m s . -|48 e. 2fs. vs. -|49 f. 3 m s . n - v s . "-n50 g. 3fs. n- vs. nn- or ^rj50 h. Ipl. ]- vs. 52 i. 2 m p . • > and pD53 j . 2fp.p53 k. 3 m p . on-. Din-, ]n-, and pn54 1. 3fp 54 m. Object pronouns attached to the verb 55 n. Disjunctive instead of conjunctive pronoun... 55 Disjunctive possessive pronouns 55 Demonstrative pronouns 56 a. Near deixis 56 b. Examples 56 c. F a r deixis 57 d. E x a m p l e s 58 e. Phonetic differentiation between m. " { T and f. "ft 58 f. 3rd person disj. pronouns used as demonstratives 58 g. DDT and DDI 58 Relative pronoun 59 Interrogative words 59 Indefinite pronouns 59 THE NOUN 60 a. Declensional endings 60 b . m.abs.sg., du., pi 61 c. m.cst.sg 62 d. m.cst.du 63





e. m . c s t p l f. m.det.sg g. m.det.du h. m.det.pl i. Dual as distinct from plural j . f.abs.sg , k. f.abs.du 1. f.abs.pl m . f.cst.sg n. f x s t d u 0 . f.cst.pl p. f . d e t s g q. f.det.pl r. N o u n s with Yod or W a w as last radical s. Loss of or original final T a w of nouns with Y o d or W a w as last radical t. Derivation of s t d e t . from s t x s t u. Difference between nouns and adjectives V. M i s m a t c h between form and grammatical gender w. B a s e expanded in plural forms x. Suppletion y. Irregular nouns z. Adverbial t^'^D 19. Formal patterns of nouns and adjectives a. Biconsonantal roots b. Triconsonantal roots c. Roots or c o m p o u n d words with m o r e than three radicals d. W i t h suffix ^ e. W i t h suffix f. W i t h s u f f i x ] g. W i t h suffix p - h. W i t h suffix V 1. W i t h prefix-i^ j . With prefix-n k. With p r e f i x - n 1. W o r d s of obscure origin m. Loan-words 20. Prepositions a. U s e of conjunctive pronouns b. Proclitic prepositions c. Extra final Y o d before conjunctive pronouns

63 63 63 63 64 65 66 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 71 71 72 72 74 75 75 75 76 76 77 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 85 86 86 86





d. C o m p o u n d prepositions e. Prepositions + nouns = pseudo-prepositions87 2 1 . Numerals a. Cardinals b. "Tens," higher numerals, composite numerals c. "Eleven" to "Nineteen" d. "Hundreds" e. "Thousands" f. Ordinals g. Fractions h. Multiplicatives 22. Other word-classes a. Adverbs b. Status absolutus of the adjective used adverbially c. Adverbial/-a:/ d. Conjunctions e. Interjectiions f. Miscellaneous

87 87 87 89 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 95

P A R T II: M O R P H O L O G Y SECTION B: VERB § § 2 3 . The inventory of conjugational morphemes 24. Examples and discussion a. Perfect b. Spelling of the I s g , 2 s g suffixes c. Vowelless Isg. suffix d. 2 m p e.2fp f. Ipl g. 3fp h. Imperfect i. 2 m p and 3 m p spelled plene with W a w j . 2fp and 3fp suffixes k. Jussive 1. Energic m. Function of the energic n. Imperative o. Participle 97 98 98 98 99 100 101 101 101 102 102 102 104 106 106 107 107

Solecism 161 h. Perfect b. The passive voice 3 1 . The verb with suffixal pronouns a. Pe-Alef verbs 33. Pe-Nun verbs 34. Imperative e. Impersonal second person pronoun 161 g. Ayin-Ayin verbs 37. -fBinyan 30. Binyanim 26. Disjunctive personal pronouns with a finite verb i) Contrast or opposition 157 ii) Assertiveness 157 iii) Self-centredness 159 iv) Coordinate subjects 159 v) Authoritarian 159 vi-viii) A disjunctive resuming a conjunctive pronoun 160 f. B i n y a n D 28. Personal pronouns 155 a. an / Tin as object marker 156 e. mi as reflexive pronoun 161 . Infinitive 25. B i n y a n G 27. First and second persons 155 b .XII CONTENTS § § § § § § § § § § § § § § p. Imperfect without Energic N u n d. Lamed-Alef verbs 35. Infinitive f Observations 108 110 112 112 113 116 119 120 124 125 126 129 133 134 142 144 145 146 147 147 148 P A R T IH: MORPHOS YNTAX THE PRONOUN S E C T I O N A: § 39.Y o d verbs 38. B i n y a n H o r A 29. L a m e d . Ayin-WawA^od verbs 36. Pe-Yod verbs 32. Imperfect with Energic N u n c. in with extraposing function 156 d. Thrid person pronouns 155 c.

Grammatical significance d. Added to a personal n a m e c. Indefinite pronouns a-e. Relative pronoun a. "it"—feminine f. Gender of substantivally used adjectives 46.tD^« g-h. as against "ft d. Disjunctive posessive pronouns a. c. Gender a-b. State a-h. Demonstrative pronouns a. 7bi2 173 173 174 174 SECTION B: THE NOUN A N D THE ADJECTIVE § 4 5 . Substantival use 42. Conjunctive pronoun referring to the antecedent c. N a m e of a land or country e. Statistics of '^n forms d. as a general deictic f. Functional opposition 4 1 . State of the antecedent d. Inanimate referent h. Absolute state b. • n D / n n a a 162 162 163 163 163 163 163 163 165 165 166 166 166 167 167 167 168 168 169 169 170 171 171 172 172 172 f. W i t h cardinal numerals 175 175 176 176 176 176 177 177 177 § . Demonstrative ending with ">> e. Substantivally used f. Predominantly in the Arsames letters e. Grammatical gender and natural sex c. State of N . As an integral clause constituent b. Independent relative clause e-f. Deixis: anaphoric and cataphoric b. Preposition + n p g.CONTENTS XIII § § § § § 40. Non-restrictive relative clause 4 3 . Synthetic and analytical b. -QJ j . Asyndetic relative clause h. Interrogative pronouns 44. i.

Fern. st. Plural of majesty 185 e. Dual 184 c.]m 184 d. Anaphoric 180 j . Predicative adjective 178 fa. Classifying noun predicate 178 fb. adj. Collective nouns 185 48. Three numbers 184 b.XIV CONTENTS § § c. Lexicalised 187 d. Perfect or suffix conjugation 189 189 190 190 191 191 192 193 § § . Numeral for "one" as equivalent of an indefinite article 177 d.used adverbially 180 i-n.abs 177 e. Substantivised 186 c. Difficult cases 182 o. Difficulty in defining functions e. General introduction b-d. Construct phrase 184 47. Binyanim a. Determined for absolute state 179 h. + sg. Adjective 186 a-b. Further expanded 187 S E C T I O N C: T H E V E R B § 49. Generic 179 g-ga. Representative member of a class 181 m-n. sg. Distributive 178 f. Orthographic ambiguities 183 p. Comparative and superlative 187 e. w i t h n . Contextually determined 181 1. Number 184 a. Pluralia tantum 185 f. pron 181 k. Tenses 5 1 . -r binyanim 50. Loan-words 183 q. Factitive D f Causative H or A g. Noun phrase modified by a dem. Determined state 180 i.

Final d. In generic statements e. Subject of a nominal clause Imperative 193 193 194 194 195 195 195 195 196 196 197 197 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 200 201 201 201 202 202 203 203 203 203 203 204 204 205 208 208 208 208 209 209 210 210 . Peculiarities of legalese f. In apodosis d. Parallel with an imperative f. Marking of agent Participle a. Opposition with indicative breaking d o w n . Resultative b. Used to modifying a noun f Epexegetical i. Used to complement verbs like '7D\ c. S y n t a g m [Passive ptc. Actual present b . Substantivised d. Its functions c. Verbs of mental attitude d. Three varieties of prefix conjugaiton c. W i t h prohibitive d. § 56. g. •'O + I m p f to indicate a purpose g. § 55. § 57. + ^ ] d. Qualifying a predicate g. . Periphrastic tense Infinitive a-b. Not always clause-initial e. § 54. .CONTENTS XV § 52. § 53. Only one simple preterital tense b. Performative perfect c. Active-passive transformaiton c. Complementing an auxiliary verb Jussive and energic a-f Jussive a-b. Parallel with an imperfect f. N o optative perfect Imperfect or prefix conjugation a. G n o m i c perfect e. Implicit subject e. Attributive c. a. Historic present e. Energic Passive voice a.

] 215 60. By disjunctive possessive pronouns 214 a. B y nouns in the status constructus 218 c. Opposition to [noun + conj. Salience of noun + conj. Adjective in st. est 227 i. By the preposition L a m e d of ownership or affiliation 215 a-d. pron 213 59. est 227 . By conjunctive pronouns 213 a. + conj. Followed by a locative " " T phrase 215 f. Immediate constituent hierarchy of c o m plex 226 construct phrases h.XVI CONTENTS P A R T IV: S E C T I O N A: § SYNTAX NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED § § § 58. Logico-semantic relationships 218 i) possessive 219 ii) relational 220 iii) appositive 221 iv) origin 222 v) locational and temporal 222 vi) condition 222 vii) membership 222 viii) material 223 ix) time-span 223 x) partitive 223 xi) topical 223 xii) subjective 224 xiii) objective : 224 xiv) contents 224 xv) purpose 224 xvi) species 225 xvii) classificatory 225 xviii) qualitative 225 xix) miscellaneous 225 d-g. pron 213 b. Following a noun 214 b-d. Clause in st. pron 218 6 1 . Multiple N P s + + conj. Comparison with other types of noun 215 annexation i. Various structures of a preceding noun 214 e. pron.

abs e. B y adjectives a. Neither component is a proper noun 7 1 . Adverbial 'PD f. By [n + noun phrase] a. Further expansion of [ N P + cardinal numeral] i. By prepositional phrases b. B y relative clauses 65. B y : a-b. = indeclinable proper noun d-g. j . pron.CONTENTS XVII § § § § § § § § § § 62. N P usually in st.unit . pron d. Ordinal numerals 68. By attributive participles 228 229 230 230 231 231 232 233 235 235 235 237 238 238 238 240 240 240 241 241 242 242 243 243 243 243 244 245 246 246 247 247 248 249 249 249 250 251 252 253 .numeral/cipher f. B y nouns in apposition a-d. N . Semantic. Factor of genre 6 3 . Indeclinable 'PD c. Hierarchy of complex syntagms 66. Before or after N P b-e. B y demonstrative pronouns a. N P . '7D + conj. Position of an attributive adjective b-d. Demonstrative pronoun added g. logical constraints c. TH^ 70. Cohesion between N P and cardinal numeral . Interpretation of -\nm 'after you* c. Numeral for "one" d. A conj. Collocational constraints b. Indeterminate N . Ambiguity 69. A proper noun as one component e. ""t + locative phrase d. as first component g. Cardinal numerals following b . Proleptic noun phrases 64. Expansion of appositionsl structure h. i^bD e. Position in complex syntagmata 6 7 . By numerals a. h. Position of various types of additional modifier i.

L o n g sentences ce. Disagreement in gender c. Double objects h. Agreement and disagreement a. b of twofold function e. b marking dativus c o m m o d i vel incommodi r. Actions in immediate succession c. Expansion by adverbials 268 271 271 272 272 273 273 274 274 274 274 275 275 S E C T I O N C: O T H E R S Y N T A C T I C ISSUES § 76. Object ellipsis p. Expansion by noun phrases or pronouns a. Nature of object suffixes f. Infinitive and its object marking t.XVIII CONTENTS SECTION B: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED § § 72. Indirect government d. nn/inn 257 259 260 260 261 261 261 263 266 266 267 § i. Subject complement of a verbal clause u. Collective nouns 277 277 278 279 279 279 280 280 . Verbs of physical movement j . Centripetal q. Verb expansion 7 3 . Dual cb. Verbs of intellectual perception or communication n. Disagreement in number ca. Object complement 1-m. Direct government c. Cognate object o. Asyndesis a. Preliminary remarks b. b prefixed to a complement of a participle k. Expansion through an infinitive 74. Indirect object marked by prepositions other than 7 g. Accusative of limitation or specification 75. Prolepsis of object s.'PDV'pnD 255 255 255 § b. Preliminary remarks b. Partially transformed passive cc.

. V e r b following subject or object or both 299 cc. Scribal errors 282 ci.pron 292 bp. Preliminary remarks 296 b.CONTENTS XIX § § cf.P 294 c. Pptc 293 br: Circumstantial clause: S . Spers. Enclitic pronoun in third slot 295 7 8 . .P 287 be. mn 291 hi S. Padj. Bipartite nominal clause 285 bb. Categorical negation 302 ce. ub^ as predicate 283 cm.pron. S. P mostly indeterminate 286 bd. Generalising relative clause 303 ch. Adverbials 309 .pron. Existential nominal clause with"'n"'« 291 bk. Subject elision 288 bh. Dem..NP-P.NP 287 bf.NP . Cataphoric n3T/nn followed by a pi. Verb in clause-initial position 296 bb.NP 292 bo.Pprep 288 bg. Preliminary remarks 285 b. Sipers.NP 291 b m .) . Plurale tantum 281 eg. 284 d.S. .. Tripartite nominal clause 294 ca. V 307 cl. Double objects 308 cn..Spers. N P .V 301 cd. «n . Pptc.Pptc 293 bq.pron. Disagreement in state 284 77. Pronoun enclisis 296 be. A case study of the Bisitun inscription 305 c]. W o r d order: verbal clause 296 a. " T + NP or adverbial 286 be. W o r d order: nominal clause 285 a. . Multiple subjects 281 ch. . Infinitive and its object 308 cm. O . 283 ck. Imperative in initial slot 298 c. Double pronominal objects 309 CO.SOVoxS.N P 289 bi.

338 e. Final force of ""t plus the imperfect Conjunctions other than ""t and n compounds . ^« . Interrogative combined with n . 315 Impersonal constructions . IV. DS^ . 81. 337 c. Sentence adverbials cs. 334 e. 331 f. 336 a. 316 Coordination . 321 Circumstantial clauses .. 334 f. 339 APPENDICES I. 86. IV a n d n iv .. 85. 330 c m . 333 d. Beth essentiae . Preposition elided in conjunction with -D . 334 a. i^bii e.p'between' . 328 . 80. rh . Prepositions combined with n . 330 d. 84. 332 c.. Clause-initial adverbs . 334 c. III.XX CONTENTS § § § § § § § § § 79. 311 cq. 330 . . 336 b. 82. Kaf veritatis . -1 'and' . Adverbial cluase in relation to main clause 313 . 338 d o . . 330 b. II. 334 Some particles . 327 Direct speech Vocative and interjection . 331 n clauses . § 89.. 323 Conditional statementss . 331 . 313 Extraposition . 323 Negation . 1« 'or' . 83. III.. 87. V. 330 Prepositions a. § 88. 310 cp. Index of passages Index of subjects Tables of loan-words Concordance of principal editions Individual scribes and dates List of technical terms 341 360 370 384 386 390 . § 90.

as far as texts from Egypt are concerned. it suffers from one major drawback: it lacks syntax. but also old texts r e e x a m i n e d at their source and reedited. This is not a beginners' grammar. Dion's (1974) and Tropper's (1993) dealing with Samalian. whether single words.PREFACE W e have the pleasure of presenting herewith a comprehensive grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. wider geographically as well as chronologically. Moreover. soon to b e completed with its fourth and final volume. that the corpus represented b y Textbook justifies a g r a m m a r dedicated to it. . which incorporates not only many new documents which were unknown to Leander. for the benefit of those w h o are not trained as grammarians or linguists. Leander's classic Laut. S. given the nature of the texts in question it was often felt necessary to draw upon data in earlier or later phases of Aramaic and other cognate Aramaic dialects. phrases or clauses. In this grammar. O u r approach is essentially descriptive and synchronic. WTien c o m b i n e d with Degen's A r a m a i c g r a m m a r dealing with the 10th-8th centuries (1978). the present work fills a gap to provide an almost complete picture of Early Aramaic grammar. W e believe. Segert's Altaramdische Grammatik (1975) deals with Early Aramaic in a m u c h wider context. W e assume that the reader already p o s s e s s e s b a s i c k n o w l e d g e of A r a m a i c with s o m e vocabulary acquired from a study of an Aramaic idiom with a reasonably firm tradition of vocalisation. However. H e n c e there are no exercises. however. W e have also translated almost every Aramaic citation. This is. such as Biblical Aramaic. T h e present g r a m m a r is based on this edition. a simple glossary of technical terms has been appended. significant in quantity and quality alike. well-nigh half of its space has been allocated to morphosyntax and syntax. Although Leander*s g r a m m a r is a solid piece of work along the lines of historical grammar. by contrast. However. T a r g u m i c A r a m a i c or Classical Syriac. evident in Porten and Y a r d e n i ' s Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt.und Formenlehre des Agyptischen Aramdisch (1928). the past seven decades have witnessed a considerable increase in new A r a m a i c texts. Until now Aramaic and Semitic scholarship has had at its disposal P.

E.i n context concordance of the entire corpus. and assisting with preparation of Indices. Kaufman and Dr. and M r Alejandro B o t t a regarding the E g y p t i a n l o a n w o r d s . September. which has saved us hundreds of hours in locating and collecting words a n d forms. S. K. Leiden and Jerusalem Takamitsu Muraoka Bezalel Porten . w h o reviewed all the Persian loanwords. M r A. Prof. Keiko Muraoka. Hoffstadt and M s P. Prof. It remains for us to acknowledge our debt of thanks to a number of individuals and organisations: the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research ( N W O ) and Research School C N W S of Leiden University. w h o subsequently wrote a draft. with w h o m w e initially negotiated this project and its inclusion in the series. Shaul Shaked of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. and last but not least.XXII PREFACE T h e basic research for the purpose of this g r a m m a r w a s undertaken by Muraoka. B o t h of us therefore are j o i n t l y responsible for the data and their analysis and interpretation presented in this grammar. w h o patiently undertook the tedious task of keying-in A r a m a i c phrases and sentences anew.J. Radder of Brill's Near East section. 1997. Vittmann {Demotisches Namenbuch). formerly of Brill.M. Zauzich of Wiirzburg and Dr G. each for a generous grant supporting Porten's visits to Leiden. Prof. Dijkema. w h i c h has agreed to add the volume to its renowned series H a n d b u c h der Orientalistik. the publisher E. D r F . Brill. which was jointly a n d fully discussed by both of the undersigned at three intensive m e e t i n g s .-Th. C o o k of the C o m p r e h e n s i v e A r a m a i c Lexicon Project for a k e y w o r d . the spouse of one of u s .

1). An exhaustive catalogue of all "Egyptian Aramaic texts" is found in an entry by that n a m e in E . 18. lists and accounts. ephemeral items on ostraca. such as lists and messages sent from the mainland to the island (D7).28.4-16). legal documents and land registries (B4. w h e n A r a m a i c w a s the lingim franca Xst^^V^vsmn Empire. Unfortu-nately. ed.47. 11.6. France (D20. 6. 7.27. 6-12. 14).9J). m a d e available to us the original negatives.16-18.1. legal documents.41. B u t since w e . 8. T h e major find site is the Jewish military colony on the island of Elephantine. D l 1.1) or sixth century (D14.15. 22-24). 3 1 . A3. and left us letters. 11. T h e most recent discovery was of some papyms fragments and ostraca in 1988 by the German archaeological expedition at Elephantine (D3. T h e s e soldiers c a m e with their familites under the Saites. 29. 1997). 3 . 10..21. Harry Smith. 20. D1. The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Archaeology in the Near East (New York. 8.1-4. 16.5. M .16. V.6.17. D1. M e y e r s .2).33-35. and a single dedicatory inscription on stone (D17.1. 8. and w e published 26 of Segal's texts.1-2) and an historical text (C2)—all written on papyrus. A seal goes back to the time of Assyrian rule (D14.35. a few texts are palaeographically and/or historically dated in the seventh ( A l . 4. All of the Aime-Giron papyri have been newly collated.7. served their Persian successors.3-13. 5. 5. C 3 . both private and official. T h e excavation director. 9. At the same time there existed an Aramaean (and Jewish) centre at Saqqarah and this has yielded some 250 papyrus fragments and a handful of ostraca. 4. while several point to the fourth century (A3.1). Aime-Giron in 1931 and 1939 and by J.B. alongside its sister A r a m a e a n garrison on the mainland at Syene ( A s w a n ) .26. B5.10. T^ie dated documents spaiUhe fifth centu^^ (515-399 [B1.INTRODUCTION S c o p e of t h e c o r p u s T h e first discovery of an Egyptian A r a m a i c d o c u m e n t by a European w a s m a d e in 1 7 0 4 — a funerary stela n o w in the municipal library/museum of Carpentras. 393-410. 11.5). 21. l .9.23. Segal in 1983. 15. published by N .2) or to the time of Ptolemaic rule (C3.55-57. 11.2. the Segal texts were not reproduced 1:1 and lack measure. C3. 2. a couple of literary pieces (Cl . 3.

und Formenlehre des Agyptisch-Aramdischen ( G o t e b o r g . P o r t e n .22-25).28-29. 1906). but its title indicates that it is i n c o m p l e t e . Previous studies on the language of the corpus This grammar presents results of a linguistic analysis of the corpus of Egyptian Aramaic texts whose historical.7-11). geographical and literary scope has been outlined above and which have been published in B . and the tantalizing but all too fragmentary narrative from Sheikh Fadl (D23). 8.56-57. devoted a series of important studies to the newly discovered texts: "Die aramaischen Papyri von Assuan. complete. Bauer (Bauer Leander 1927). Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan (London. pp. particularly graffiti.S a q q a r a h (D20. h o w e v e r .25. Th. the funerary stelae. A n outstanding Aramaist of all times. the graffito from Giza (D22.55. Sayce and A. " AbhKWGW 14/4 (1913) 1-63.R o m a n .7-16) and pieces of unknown origin may have come from there as well (C3. w e decided not to reproduce any of them. l a c k i n g s y n t a x : Laut. Noldeke. L e a n d e r had c o authored a g r a m m a r of Biblical Aramaic with H.A. 1986-). Cowley. Yardeni's Texbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt (Jerusalem. "Neue judische Papyri.1-4). w h i c h is. Isolated items.17. Notable exceptions are the libation bowls from Tel el-Maskhuta (D15. 9.1-6). and e s p e c i a l l y " U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u m A c h i q a r . 7.3-6.E. 11.46-51). a couple from Abydos (D22. 27) and the ones from W a d i el-Hudi (D22." ZA 20 (1907) 130-50. A n attempt at a full-scale grammar was m a d e by P o n t u s Leander. H .XXIV INTRODUCnON were not given access to the originals and were therefore unable to vouch for the readings in many of the problematic texts.E. but for the most part they lack grammatical context.22-25. A sketch of the Aramaic language of the first batch of the corpus was attempted by A. Cowley and appended to A . 14-23. The primary source of Aramaic material during the Ptolemaic period was Edfu (D1. Given the limited amount of data preserved and their . 8.1). 1928). D7. p r o b a b l y all from M e m p h i s . except for a few ceramic pieces (D 11. 21." ZA 21 (1908) 195-205.15. T h e linguistic method and approach adopted in these two works is identical: an attempt to describe Biblical and Egyptian Aramaic from the perspective of a reconstructed historical d e v e l o p m e n t of the language. come from numerous sites throughout Egypt.

Baumgartner's 1927 study on the Aramaic of Daniel ushered in a new era of Aramaic dialectology. Segert's original intention was apparently to write a grammar which would replace and complete Leander's above-mentioned work. A comparative and historical approach is indispensable. Biblical Aramaic has always. offering a host of interesting and original observations on diverse grammatical. designed as a sequel to Degen's grammar of Old Aramaic of the 10th to 8th centuries.INTRODUCTION XXV antiquity. a purely s y n c h r o n i c a p p r o a c h is not capable of adequately describing and evaluating these data. Lindenberger's philological commentary on the proverbs of Ahiqar (1983) contains some valuable data. Hug's g r a m m a r of the Aramaic of the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. which constitute part of our own corpus. a study which has not been surpassed by Rowley's on the Aramaic of the Old Testament published two years later. represents a valuable contribution to A r a m a i c linguistics. lexicographical and philological matters arising from Egyptian Aramaic papyri. T h o u g h never published. Last but not least. Folmer's tome on the A r a m a i c of the Achaemenid period (1995) is a meticulous discussion of select linguistic issues arising from the corpus as delimited by the title . notably the Hermopolis papyri. Joiion published in 1934 an article of near-monograph length. but in the end his grammar (1975) came to cover a much wider ground. though Bauer and Leander went at times a little too far in this direction. Having a solid tradition of vocalisation. Kutscher's magisterial survey of 1970 on the achievements in A r a m a i c linguistics and o u t s t a n d i n g desiderata as far as Classical Aramaic is concerned still contains m a n y a valuable and insightful observation based on his first-hand familiarity with the subject matter. deals with a number of texts. and justly. Fitzmyer's 1956 Johns Hopkins doctoral dissertation on the syntax of Imperial A r a m a i c of Egyptian provenience presents a wealth of data and contains not a few illuminating observations. Degen's t h o r o u g h — 4 4 pages!—review article (1979) is an essential reading. and together with an appendix discussing some important linguistic issues and Aramaic dialectology. as a result of which the treatment of Egyptian Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic suffers slightly from dilution in depth. been accorded a prominent place in any study of Aramaic of our period.

O u r indebtedness to those n u m e r o u s studies is apparent at innumerable places throughout our present grammar. M e n t i o n ought also to b e m a d e of lexicographical work such as Baumgartner's contribution on Biblical Aramaic in Koehler . Her main thrust is to address the question of linguistic diversity which one might expect to discover in texts so diverse in chronological and geographical spread. highlighted by Kutscher in particular. scribal tradition and register.Kaufman's valuable bibliography makes plain. . as any casual glance t h r o u g h the p a g e s of F i t z m y e r . Another important issue. Vogt's excellent dictionary of Biblical Aramaic (1971) and the recent two-volume dictionary of N o r t h w e s t Semitic inscriptions by Hoftijzer Jongeling(1995). but also influenced langauges with which it c a m e into contact. The difference in grammar between the Ahiqar narrative and the proverbs ascribed to this sage had become accepted by Aramaic linguists. Folmer is not the first to speak for such diversity. however. but also affected depth and intricacies of syntax. In addition to the above-mentioned major studies touching on the Aramaic represented more or less by our corpus there is a considerable n u m b e r of Einzeluntersuchungen.B a u m g a r t n e r ' s dictionary (1953). non-Semitic as well as Semitic. did not remain a m e r e importer.XXVI INTRODUC^nON of the original Leiden dissertation. Persian. Such an absorption took place not only as lexical borrowings. Aramaic has proved to be very flexible and pliable in this respect in absorbing a host of elements from languages as diverse as H e b r e w . is that of interaction between Aramaic and contemporary languages. So also was the unique nature of the Aramaic of the Hermopolis papyri universally recognised almost with their initial publication. and s o m e more. Aramaic. Egyptian. Akkadian.

1929-37. Elliger.: century cp.ABBREVIATIONS I Q S : the Community Rule from Qumran Cave 1 IQapGn: the Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran Cave 1 A: Afel AAL: Afroasiatic Linguistics act. Biblia Hebraica (Stuttgart.C. Bib: Biblica BN: Biblische Notizen BO: Bibliotheca Orientalis B T A : the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud B Z A W : B e i h e f t e z u r Zeitschrift fiir die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft c : c o m m o n gender.D.E: before the C o m m o n Era. "approximately" C D : the Damascus Covenant from the Cairo Genizah and Qumran cent. consonant ca. B H S : W .E. C.: adjective AfO: Archiffiir Orientforschung AION: Annali dell' Istituto Orientale di Napoli AJBI: Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute AJSL: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures AN: Abr-Nahrain Akk: Akkadian ap. 1967-77). Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stuttgart.C. Rudolph and K. = A.: compare C A D : The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. . = B. 1951).: apodosis B A : Biblical Aramaic BASOR: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research B.: active (voice) adj. B H : Biblical Hebrew BHK: R. Kittel and P. century C: Cowley 1923.: the C o m m o n Era. Kahle.: = circa.

S t a m m .: imperfect impv. Y .: feminine fern.: Classical Ethiopic f. Official Aramaic. Kanaandische und aramdische Inschriften mit einem Beitrag von O. in 3 volumes.J.: construct (state) D: Pael det. B a u m g a r t n e r . Hebrdisches und aramdisches Lexikon zum alien Testament (Leiden: E.: feminine fjp: feminine plural fs: feminine singular Fschr: Festschrift G: Grundstam. H a r t m a n n . B . E .: conjunctive (pronoun) CPA: Christian Palestinian Aramaic est. determined disj.J. P h .: dissertation Dn: Daniel DN: divine name DS-NELL: Dutch Studies in Near Eastern Languages and Literatures Eth. Peal GN: geographical n a m e H: Hafel HAL: W . and W . Rollig. R e y m o n d . K u t s c h e r . Rdssler.: jussive K: Kraeling 1969 KAI: Donner. and J.: infinitive lOS: Israel Oriental Studies JA: Jewish Aramaic JA: Journal Asiatique JAOS: Journal of the American Oriental Society JJS: Journal of Jewish Studies JNES: Journal of Near Eastern Studies JS: Journal for Semitics JSOT: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament JSS: Journal of Semitic Studies JThSt: Journal of Theological Studies juss. Brill. 1967-90). H. Reichsaramdisch lEJ: Israel Exploration Journal impf.XXVIII ABBREVIATIONS conj.: disjunctive (pronoun) diss.: determinate. . lA: Imperial Aramaic.: imperative inf.



Bd. I Texte (1971), Bd. U Kommentar (1973), Bd. HI Glossare und Indizen, Tafeln (1969). Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz. Les'.Lesonenu m.: masculine M A : Middle Aramaic Mand.: Mandaic mas.: masculine mrg: margin (of a document) m p : masculine plural m s : masculine singular MUSJ: Melanges de I'Universite de Saint Joseph N : noun N C : nominal clause NESE: Neue Ephemeris fiir semitische Epigraphik N P : noun phrase O A : Old Aramaic O L A : Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta OLZ: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung Or. Orientalia OS: Orientalia Suecana. pass.: passive (voice) et passim: "and often elsewhere" p c : prefix conjugation, also called Imperfect including Jussive and Energic pf.: perfect ph.: phrase pi.: plural PN: personal n a m e prep.: preposition prep.ph.: prepositional phrase prot.: protasis PS: Proto-Semitic p t c : participle PY: Porten and Yardeni 1986, 1989, 1993 QA: Qumran Aramaic RA: Revue assyriologique RB: Revue Biblique RdQ: Revue de Qumran RES: Repertoire d'epigraphie semitique (Paris, 1900ff.) RO: Roznik Orientalistyczny RSO: Revista degli studi orientali. s.: singular



SA: Samaritan Aramaic sc: suffix conjugation, also called Perfect sg.: singular sim.: similarly SO: Studia Orientalia St.: status (of the noun: absolute, constructus, determinatus) suf: suffix; suffixed S.V.: sub voce, i.e., under a given lexeme in a dictionary Syr.: Classical Syriac pi.: plural tA: Ettafal TA: Targumic Aramaic TAD: Porten, B. and A. Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt. Newly Copied, Edited and Translated into Hebrew and English, vol. 1 (1986), vol. 2 (1989), vol. 3 (1993). Taj: a«n ... n n n TO I S D (Jerusalem, 1894-1901) TBA: the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud tD: Ethpaal tG: Ethpeel tH: Ettafal TJ: Targum Jonathan to the Prophets (ed. A. Sperber) TO: Targum Onkelos to the Pentateuch (ed. A. Sperber) UF: Ugarit Forschungen Ugr.: Ugaritic V: verb; vowel VC: verbal clause VP: verb phrase VT: Vetus Testamentum WO: Welt des Orients YBA: the Yemenite tradition of Babylonian Aramaic ZA: Zeitschrift fiir Assy riologie und vorderasiatische Archdologie ZAH: Zeitschrift fiir Althebraistik ZAW: Zeitschrift fiir die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft ZDMG: Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft

OTHER SYMBOLS + t following a reference or references, it means that the listing is not exhaustive, following a reference or references, it means that the listing



is complete. V root of a lexeme // parallel to > X > Y: X changes to X < X < Y: X developed from Y <:X> consonant grapheme X ; with a Hebrew letter for X, a letter assumed to be missing and to be supplied 1X1 phoneme X [X] phone X

M O D E O F C I T A T I O N F R O M TAD: T h e general style is, for example, A2.4:5, which means TAD, volume I, document no. 2.4, line 5. , W h e r e a cited phrase, clause or sentence extends over m o r e than one line, the line n u m b e r indicates that the first word of the citation is found in that line, except in cases where ambiguity could arise. INDEX OF PASSAGES The Index of Passages appended to this grammar covers only the data in the main body of the text, and not those in footnotes. D e s p i t e this imperfection, d u e to a technical difficulty which has proved insurmountable, the Index as it is is hoped to be of use for the user of this volume.


Alexander, P.S. 1978. Remarks on Aramaic epistolography in the Persian period. JSS 23:155-70. Andersen, F.I. 1966. Moabite syntax. Or 35.81-120. Andersen, F.I. and D.N. Freedman. 1992a. Aleph as a vowel letter in Old Aramaic. In Studies in Hebrew and Aramaic Orthography, eds D.N. Freedman, A.D. Forbes and F.I. Andersen, 79-90. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Originally published in To Touch the Text: Biblical and Related Studies in Honor of Joseph A. Fitzmyer, eds M.P. Horgan and P.J. Kobelski (New York: Crossroad, 1989), 1-14. . 1992b. The spelling of the Aramaic portion of the Tell Fekherye bilingual. In Studies in Hebrew and Aramaic Orthography, eds D.N. Freedman, A.D. Forbes and F.I. Andersen, 137-70. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Originally published in Text and Context: Old Testament and Semitic Studies for F.C. Fensham, JSOT Suppl. Series 48, ed. W. Claassen (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1988), 9-49. Aristar, A.M.R. 1987. The Semitic jussive and the implications for Aramaic. Maarav 4:157-89. Aro, J. 1964. Die Vokalisierung des Grundstammes im semitischen Verbum. Studia Orientalia 3 1 . Helsinki: Societas Orientalis Fennica. Bar-Asher, M. 1977. n'-nmon n^nmpo .b^-w p « b^ nmon Dnpnn n p n p i n nnn3] nvum [Palestinian Syriac Studies. Source-texts, Traditions and Grammatical Problems]. Ph.D. diss. Jerusalem. Barth, J. ^1894. Die Nominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. . 1 9 1 1 . Sprachwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Semitischen. II. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs.. 1913. Die Pronominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. Bauer, H. and Leander, P. 1927. Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramdischen. Halle: Niemeyer. Baumgartner, W. 1959. Das Aramaische im Buche Daniel. In id., Zum Ahen Testament und seiner Umwelt , 68-123. Leiden: E.J. Brill.



With short additions to an article published in ZAW 45 (1927) 81-133. _. 1953. A Dictionary of the Aramaic Parts of the Old Testament in English and German. In Lexicon in veteris testamenti libros, ed. L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, 1045-1138. Leiden: E.J. Brill. Ben-Hayyim, Z. 1951. n^]iDipn n'Dn«3 nnnoin [The feminine plural in Ancient Aramaic] In Eretz Israel (Schwabe Volume) 1:135-39. . 1971. H T D D nmnDn ]vrn DJJ [Comments on the inscriptions of Sfire .]Le5 35:243-53. Bennett, S.F. 1984. Objective pronominal suffixes in Aramaic. Ph.diss. Yale. Bergstrasser, G. 1918. Hebrdische Grammatik. I. Teil: Einleitung, Schrift- und Lautlehre. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. Bergman, B .Z. 1968. Han'el in Daniel 2:25 and 6:19. JNES 21:69f. Beyer, K. 1966. Der reichsaramaische Einschlag in der alteren syrischen Literatur. ZDMG 116:242-54. . 1984, 1994. Die aramaischen Texte vom Toten Meer etc. Erganzungsband (1994). Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupre^ht. Biran, A. and J. Naveh. 1993. An Aramaic stele fragment from Tel Dan./£/43.81-98. Blass, F. and A. Debmnner, tr. and rev. by R.A. Funk. 1961. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Blau, J. 1970. On Pseudo-corrections in some Semitic Languages. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Bloomfield, L. 1933 (1950). Language. London: George Allen & Unwin. Bogaert, M. 1964. Les suffies verbaux non-accusatifs dans le semitique nord-occidental et particulierement en hebreu. Bib 45:220-47. Borger, R. 1982. Die Chronologic des Darius-Denkmals am BehistunFelsen. Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenshcaften in Gottingen. L Philologisch-historische Klasse. Jahrgang 1982, Nr. 3. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. z Bresciani, E. 1960. Papiri aramaici egiziani di epoca persiana presso il Museo Vicico di Padova. RSO 35:11-24. Breuer, M. 1977-82. b^ nmofsm n o i D n ' ^ u D'osnn omnD n^K^n] niin "b D 'nnpn -V •'DnDi HDIU D I K T OHD, 3 vols. Jemsalem. Brockelmann, C. 1908. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen. I. Laut- und Formenlehre, Berlin: Renter und Reichard. . 1913. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen. II. Syntax. Berlin: Reuter und Reichard



1928 . Lexicon syriacum. Halle: M. Niemeyer. Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and Ch.A. Briggs. 1907. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament etc. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Brown, M.L. 1987. "Is it not?" or "Indeed!": HL in Northwest Semitic. Maarav 4: 210-19. Cantineau, J. 1930. Le Nabateen. I. Notions generates—^criture, grammaire. Paris: Ernest Leroux. . 1935. Grammaire du palmyrenien epigraphique. Le Caire: L'Institut Frangais d'Archeologie orientale. Caquot, A. 1971. Une inscription arameenne d'epoque assyrienne. In Hommages a Andre Dupont-Sommer, ed. A. Caquot and M. Philonenko, 9-16. Paris: Maisonneuve. Carmignac, J. 1966. Un aramaisme biblique et qumrSnien: I'infmitif place apres son complement d'objet. RdQ5:503-20. Cohen, D.R. 1975. Subject and object in Biblical Aramaic: a functional approach based on form-content analysis. AAL 2.1. Cook, E.M. 1986. Word order in the Aramaic of Daniel. AAL 9:111-26. . 1990. The orthography of final unstressed long vowels in Old and Imperial Aramaic. Maarav 5-6: 53-67. Cowley, A. 1923. Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. Edited with Translation and Notes. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Cross, F.M. and D.N. Freedman. 1952. Early Hebrew Orthography. A Study of the Epigraphic Evidence. New Haven: American Oriental Society. Curme, G.O. 1931. A Grammar of the English Language, vol. 3, Syntax. Boston etc.: D.C. Heath and Company. Dalman, G. '^1905. Grammatik des jiidisch-palastinischen Aramdisch nach den Idiomen des paldstinischen Talmud des Onkelostargum und Prophetentargum und der jerusalemischen Targume. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. . 1938. Aramdisch-neuhebrdisches Handwdrterbuch zu Targum, Talmud und Midrasch. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Degen, R. 1967. Zur Schreibung des KaSka-Namens in agyptischen, ugaritischen und altaramaischen Quellen: Kritische Anmerkungen zu einer Monographic iiber die Ka^kaer. WO 4:48-60. . 1969. Altaramdische Grammatik der Inschriften des 10.-8. Jh. V. Chr. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. . 1972a. Zum Ostrakon CIS II138. NESE 1:23-37. . 1972b. Ein neuer aramaischer Papyms aus Elephantine: P. Berol. 23000. NESE 1:9-22. _. 1979. Review of Segert 1975. Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. 231:8-51. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.



Dempsey, D. 1990. The "epistolary perfect" in Aramaic letters BN 54:7-11. Denz, A. Strukturanalyse der pronominalen Objektsuffixe im Altsyrischen und klassischen Arabisch. Diss. Miinchen. 1962. Diem, W. 1986. Alienable und inalienable Possession im Semitischen ZDMG 136:227-91. Dolgopolsky, A. 1994, The Aramaic reflexes of the Semitic glottalized lateral consonant. RO 49:5-14. Donner, H. and W. Rollig. 1969-73. Kanaandische und aramdische Inschriften mit einem Beitrag von O. Rdssler, Bd. I Texte (1971), Bd. II Kommentar (1973), Bd. Ill Glossare und Indizen, Tafeln (1969). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Dotan, A. 1976. o'Drton n p ' D n n t o M n^pmn o^mnDi n^t^^] m m l^^^y':^ T nnDn •^m p rroo p ]nn« miODm. Tel Aviv. Driver, G.R. 1957. Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. Abridged and revised edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Driver, S.R. '^1913. Notes on the Hebrew Text and Topography of the Books of Samuel. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Drower, E.S. and R. Macuch. 1963. A Mandaic Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dupont-Sommer, A. 1942-44. La tablette cuneiforme arameenne de Warka RA 39:35-62. Eilers, W. 1935. Das Yolk der karka in den Achamenideninschriften. OLZ 38:201-13. . 1940. Iranische Beamtennamen in der keilschriftlichen Uberlieferung I. Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes XXV/5. Leipzig. Eph'al, I. and J. Naveh. 1989. Hazael's booty inscriptions. lEJ 39:192200. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 16 vols. Jerusalem, 1971-72. Epstein, J.N. 1960. n'^^Dn n^Dit^ p n p l [A Grammar of Babylonian Aramaic]. Jerusalem: Magnes. Pales, P.M. 1986. Aramaic Epigraphs on Clay Tablets of the NeoAssyrian Period. Materiali per il lessico aramaico 1. Roma: Universita degli Studi "La Sapienza." Fassberg, S.E. 1990. A Grammar of the Palestinian Targum Fragments from the Cairo Genizah [Harvard Semitic Studies 38]. Atlanta: Scholars Press. . 1991. b"Tn "T T " T O " '7i)iDn nt^in. In]icD'73 n m o Q^DDn, ed. M. Bar-Asher, 95-97. Jerusalem: The Institute for Advanced Studies, The Hebrew University of Jemsalem. . 1992. Hebraisms in the Aramaic documents from Qumran. In



Studies in Qumran Aramaic [AN, Supplement 3], ed. T. Muraoka, 48-69. Fitzmyer, J.A. 1956. The syntax of Imperial Aramaic based on the documents found in Egypt. Ph.D. diss. Johns Hopkins University. . 1962. The Padua Aramaic papyrus letters. JNES2\:\5-1A. . 1971. A re-study of an Elephantine Aramaic marriage contract {AP 15). In Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright, ed. H. Goedicke, 137-68. Baltimore /London: The Johns Hopkins Press. Reprinted in Fitzmyer 1979, 243-71. . •^197la. The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave I. A Commentary. Biblica et Orientalia 18a. Rome: Biblical Institute Press. . 1979. A Wandering Aramean. Collected Aramaic Essays. Missoula: Scholars Press.
2 • • •

. 1995. ThePontifical Aramaic Inscriptions ofSefire [Biblical et orientalia 19-a]. Rome: Biblical Institute Press. Fitzmyer, J.A. and D.J. Harrington. 1978. A Manual of Palestinian Aramaic Texts. Rome: Biblical Institute Press. Fitzmyer, J.A. and S.A. Kaufman. 1991. A« Aramaic Bibliography. Parti. Old, Offical, and Biblical Aramaic. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Folmer, M.L. 1991. Some remarks on the use of the finite verb form in the protasis of conditional sentences in Aramaic texts from the Achaemenid period. In Studies in Hebrew and Aramaic Syntax Presented to Professor J. Hoftijzer on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday, eds K. Jongeling, H.L. Murre-van den Berg and L. Van Rompay, 56-78. Leiden: E.J. Brill. . 1995. The Aramaic Language in the Achaemenid Period. A Study in Linguistic Variation. OLA 68. Leuven: Peeters. .. 1996. Instances of so-called ik)zy-recitativum in Aramaic texts from the Achaemenid period. DS-NELL 2:145-55. Garbini, G. 1993. Aramaica. Studi semitici NS 10. Roma: Universita degli Studi «La Sapienza». Garr, W.R. 1985. Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 B.C.E. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. . 1990. On the alternation between constmct and di phrases in Bibliccal Aramaic. JSS35:2\3-3l. Gesenius, W. and F. Buhl. '^1915. Wilhelm Gesenius' hebrdisches und aramdisches Handwdrterbuch iiber das Alte Testament. Leipzig: F.C.W. Vogel. Gibson, J.C.L. 1975. Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Vol. 2. Aramaic Inscriptions etc. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

third edition (1969) with supplement. 427-30. and S. Analecta Orientalia 38. On the root pDU/pu in Ancient Aramaic and in Ugaritic. 1937-39. II. Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to Demosthenes. Pritchard. 1965. Porten. Aramaic Version. Goshen-Gottstein. . 280-89. The 'periphrastic imperative' in Aramaic and Hebrew.B. In Actes du premier congres international de linguistique semitique et chamito-semitique. eds M. Greenfield. Hebrew and Aramaic in the Persian period. Introduction. 1900. C H .C. The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great. Standard Literary Aramaic. Practica 159. third edition with supplement. . Princeton: Princeton University Press.C..D. Translation and Commentary. nnnpn rrni^n w^pbi^n nmp [Dialect traists in Eariy Aramaic]. 77-81. / £ y 19:199-210. The cuneiform Aramaic incantation. . Jemsalem: Academon. Janua Linguamm. J. The Aramaic incantation in cuneiform. Pritchard. Ugaritic Textbook. In The Cambridge History of Judaism. ser. 1972. 1969. Ginsberg. JBL 68:35-47. H.LITERATURE XXXVII Giidersleeve. In Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. B. Gordon. JNES 37:93-100. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. 633. Paris: Cerf. 1978. ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. M. . 1956. Davies and L. Les 32:359-68. In yzn n"n'? Studies on Hebrew and Other Semitic Languages [Fschr. Grelot. Caquot and D. Aramaic proverbs and precepts. 115-29. 1982. In Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 1911. New York: American Book Company. J. Documents arameens d'l^gypte. and J. Aramaic letters. m n bmti-) nt^unnn n«iD 0"Dit^n nncDtDn npnn n-nii'p [The infinitive in the Aramaic documents from the Judaean Desert]. Greenfield. Introduction.L. Aramaic dialect problems. 1975. Afterthought and the syntax of relative clauses. 1949. 49If. 1968. . . Kogut. The Hague: Mouton. London: Lund Humphries. presentation. 2 vols. . Greenfield.C. 7551:202-5. Cohen.H. The dialects of early Aramaic.B. Volume One. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. J. traduction. Rabin]. Morag. eds A. .. S. ed. eds W. Goshen-Gottstein. J. The Persian Period. 1969. and B. 1955. 1936. 1974. AJSL 52:95-103. 1990. C. Finkelstein. Text. P. J. Naveh. . AfO 12:105-17.L. Or 9:29-38. 1940.

Analytical Syntax. 1993. Hoftijzer and G. Jespersen. 1992. The Philosophy of Grammar. London: George Allen & Unwin. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Brill. Hoftijzer.XXXVIII LITERATURE Gropp. 1975. Jemsalem. Hoftijzer. 349-61. Le5 57:7-15. In Aramaic Texts from Deir ^Alla.P. OS 18:101-27. the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi. 1969. A Dictionary of the Targumim. J. K. A. In Massorot IX-X-XI. 1886-1903. S. London:Trubner/New York: G. 1987. Haneman. 1992. Notae hermopolitanae. und 6. 2 vols. Hug. Vr20:98-106. 1976. V. Allen & Unwin:London/New York: H. Bar-Asher. Heidelberg: Orientverlag. Putnam. G. The language of Samaria papyri: a preliminary study. Hoftijzer. O.Chr. Leiden: E. M.23-32. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. R. . . 1983. and Jongeling.M. and J.J. 1970. Parts 1-7. Arameese brieven uit Egypte (5^ eeuw v. r r o i i a "c?n^n "yD id©" fCC^ WO f]rv)sn bv [On the construction Snieh l-gahra "the name of the man" in Aramaic]. . In Schrijvend verlden. Altaramdische Grammatik der Texte des 7. Maarav 5-6:169-87. D. W. Quoted . Des noms d'annee en arameen. 1933. Chr. 1997b [= 1997a]. ZDMG m-. JSS 42. Leiden: Ex Oriente Lux. ed. The feminine plural jussive in Old Aramaic. J. Veenhof. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. . and the Midrashic Literature. J. Essentials of English Grammar. 1975. t^ipom TOon "yn" on^n-n'^a bv [On the preposition in the Mishnah and the Bible]. 1924. Harrak. ed. Hetzron. T n^mt^n "ntoin" n ^pnpi miK—{^nn =) "'jno" [{'1212 (= *"'3np)—a 'new' grammatical form in Elephantine Aramaic]. Brill. 1997a.C. van der Kooij. WO 23:68-74.266-11. M. Studies in Language Traditions and Jewish Languages. & Holt Co. J. Huehnergard. 1990. G. 1937.P. On the constmction Smeh 1-gabra 'the name of the man* in Aramaic. 1909-31. J. 107-19. 1995. Hesterman.R. K. Jastrow.s v. Altiranisches Sprachgut der Nebeniiberlieferungen. Mosak Moshavi and B. A.).J. K. Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten vertaald en toegelicht. Leiden: E. Les 40:33-53. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions with Appendices by R. Porten. Hopkins. . Jh. Third person singular prnoun suffixes in ProtoSemitic. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Hayes. De Hermopolis-papyri. Steiner. Hinz.

Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press. Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale. Or 58: 473-92. J. In Arameans. Construct state and di.L. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1977a. lexicographiques et philologiques sur les papyrus arameens d'figypte.LITERATURE XXXIX from a reprint: 1969. 2 vols. 1987. Klein. The history of Aramaic vowel reduction. Hamden. . 1969. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Semitic Studies Held in Jerusalem. P.phrases in Imperial Aramaic. Kaufman. Kaddari. Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. In Arameans. M. An Assyro-Aramaic egirtu sa sulmu. M. Kienast. The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic. MUSJ 18:3-90. 1963. Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition. ed. Joosten. 1982. 19-23 July 1965. 43-46. G. 1993. Atti del convegno intemazionale (Napoli. ed. . Maarav 3:137-75. The function of the so-called dativus ethicus in Classical Syriac. Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition. ^-a. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reflections on the Assyrian-Aramaic bilingual from Tell Fakhariyeh.Z. . Sokoloff. Munchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 10:72-6. 102-15. Cagni. Joiion. . In Essays on the Ancient Near East in Memory of Jacob Joel Finkelstein. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. CT: Archon. 2 vols. Muraoka. 1986. The existential verb HWH in Imperial Aramaic. ed. de Jong Ellis. 47-55. Sokoloff.m.sg. 37-47. Died anni di studi linguistici e filologici. 1989. Segert 1975 in i?0 34:92-97. 1977. Khan.A. . Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. In Ebla 1975-1985. Reprint of 1st edition [1991] with corrections. B. . M. Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 19. Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. M. 1934. Genizah Manuscripts of Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch. Joiion. am pluralischen Nomen des Maskulinum in Siidostaramaischen. Studies in Semitic Syntax. .T. 1983. M. Tarbiz 32:232-51. Das Possessivsuffix der 3. 1957. ed. . 1974. Notes grammaticales. Assyriologiccal Studies 19. L. . 119-27. Studies in the syntax of Targum Onqelos. P. S. Ramat Can: Bar-Ilan University Press. und der aramaische «status emphaticus». 9-11 ottobre 1985).. 1983. 1988. Review of S.

New Documents of the Fifth Century B. Onomastica aramaica aus Agypten. Giitersloh: Gerd Mohn. 320-47. Die chaos van die 'genitief in Bybelse Hebreeus. New Haven: Yale University Press.2. Kouwenberg.ym-^ [The Hebrew and Aramaic letters of Bar Koseba and his contemporaries: Part I. Studia Semitica Neerlandica 32. Sebeok. New Aramaic texts [review article on E. 3.C. Beriin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. 75 5: 68-88. Komfeld. E. Paris: Mouton.G. 19-23 July 1965. Aramdische Chrestomathie. Kroeze. Chr fiir das Studium der aramaischen Sprache gesammelt. Two 'passive' constructions in Aramaic in the light of Persian. Semantic relationships in construct phrases of Biblical Hebrew: afunctional approach. vol. The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri. ZAW 100:21744. Die Geschichte und die Spruche des weisen Achiqar. O.A. 753:129-43.H. W. n n rrnoiD n v D i « m mnnun nnri^n b\D p^ m n i r n nna^^n :^2\D news [The Hebrew and Aramaic letters of Bar Koseba and his contemporaries: Part II. . Anmerkungen zu Pap. ed. Jahrhundert n. Leiden: Nededands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten.XL LITERATURE Koopmans. 1954. T.Z4// 10:27-41. In Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. BZAW 194. Kraeling.Y. from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine. Hebrew letters]. I. 1997. Ostraka und Papyri) bis zum 3. 1993. . .J. 1953. 1990. . J. .G. . . ed. Die Sprache der Ahiqarspruche. In Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa [Current Trends in Linguistics]. The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri]. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Semitic Studies Held in Jerusalem. 2 vols. 1961a. Les 26:723. Weisheitstexte II. Vienna: Verlag der osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenshcaften. 1991. 1997. . . 1961b. Ausgewdhlte Texte (Inschriften. 6: 347-412.J.. Kraeling.C. Les 25:117-33. Amherst 63. N. 1962.. 1969. 1988. J. Aramaic. Kutscher. Kaiser. JAOS 74:23348. . 1991. 1970. Underlying syntactic relations in construct phrases of Biblical Hebrew. Assen: Van Gorcum. Kottsieper. Gemination in the Akkadian Verb.Tin nnoiD ii^n nvmt^m mnnun nnri^n b\D p'wih nrD-i»n nnr^n -. E. Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. 1978. Aramaic letters]. .

Weitzman. J. Ben-FJayyim. .ODDDD /d/ i/T 'Dib^n inon [The Zayin/Daleth interchange in the Elephantine documents: an alternate (sic!) explanation]. Goteborg: Elanders. Y. In Atti del secondo congresso intemazionale di linguistica camito-semitica. La correspondance des sibilantes dans les textes arameens et les textes cuneiformes neo-assyriens. eds . Lemaire. 1910. 1995. The junctural origin of the West Semitic definite article. Ed. H. 201-10. A new translation and introduction.]np'?/«]nD'?. The Old Syriac Gospels or Evangelion da Mepharreshi etc. _. In Le Language dans I'antiquite. 315-333. A. 1994. Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters. Goedicke. A Dotan and G. Levy. 1977. Lemer. Fronzaroli. Les inscriptions arameennes de Cheikh-Fadl (Egypte). eds M. P. 1928. T. Neuhebrdisches und chalddisches Wdrterbuch iiber die Talmudim und Midraschim. Les 46:57-64. H867-68. 197 L The Hermopolis papyri.S.P. Charlesworth. Baltimore / London: The Johns Hopkins Press. In Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright. n. The gods of Ahiqar. 1975. Z. I. Geller. Chalddisches Wdrterbuch iiber die Targumim und einen grossen Theil des rabbinischen Schriftthums. Richards. Lindenberger. J. Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics. lOS 1:103-19. The Aramaic Proverbs of Ahiqar. ed. Greenfield and M. Hebrew and Aramaic Studies. pbn . . 77-132. Leipzig: Brockhaus. Laut.H. 1990.479-507. Leander. w-i'?/n. Part /]. Arameen d'Empire. ed. UF 14:105-17.n^mt^n nn'^in [A History of Aramaic. Lambdin. 1982.und Formenlehre des Agyptisch-Aramdischen. 1972. 1985. 1981. 1983. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Les 47:62-65. 1978.C. Atlanta. London: Darton. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Quademi di semitistica 5. . no. Sarfatti.C. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Longman & Todd. Ed. by K. Jerusalem: Academon. Writings from the Ancient World. 1982. J. . Leuven: Leuven University Press. Florence: Istituto di linguistica e di lingue orientali. Lipinski.). GA: Scholars Press. J. In Studia Aramaica: New Sources and New Approaches [JSS Supplement 4]. . 2. P. 1876-89. Ahiqar (Seventh to Sixth Century B.LITERATURE XLI _ . . E.H. vol. . 4. A.M. Jerusalem: Magnes Press. OLA 1. London: Williams and Norgate. Lewis.J.O. ed.

R. Bib 48:546-622.-M. Altheim and R. Le nom des Cariens dans quelques langues d'antiquite. 1990. 927-30. W. Hebrew Union College. . In Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau. Adverbial kulla in Biblical Aramaic and Hebrew. 537-57 Berlin: De Gruyter. 407-18. Berlin: De Gruyter. Montgomery. diss. Morag. Laperrousaz. 1964. Moscati. S. 1976. A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. I. vol. Some orthographico-phonetic problems of Ancient Aramaic and the living Aramaic pronunciations. Ph. Assyrian royal names in Biblical Hebrew.D. . Biblical Aramaic in Geonic Babylonia: The various schools. Maarav 5-6:22137. 1991. Moscati. An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages.A. Gesprochenes Aramaisch und aramaische Schriftsprache. A. II. M. Swiggers and A. Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute. Monosyllabic nominal and verbal roots in Semitic languages. 1965. 1961.R. A. 1971. J. The hitherto unpublished columns of the Genesis Apocryphon.S. . 117-31. Sh. Paris: Cerf. II. Sivan. J. Paris/Louvain: Peeters. . In La Palestine a I'epoque perse. Morgenstern. . Macuch.. 1964. 1975. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. eds F. In Studies in Egyptology and Linguistics in Honour of H. Leuven: Peeters. .. Spitaler.XLII LITERATURE P. Aramaic epistolography: The Hermopolis letters and related material in the Persian period. In Melanges linguistiques offerts a l^mile Benveniste. E. Leuven: Peeters.J. ed. L'arameen d'empire. AN 33:55-73. Kaye. Handbook of Classical and Modem Mandaic. Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics. Stiehl. 1988. Collections linguistiques 70. G. E. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert. 94-133. (ed. nnoDn '^uisn-nniim nann m m . 225-43. Masson. Qimron and D. Les grottes de Murabba'dt.vcnn . Millard. E. A. OLA 57. 1994. Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society. von Soden]. Margain. 1967. Cincinnati. JSS 21:1-14. 2. Milik. Phonology and Morphology. 1994. JAOS 43:391-95. Moriya.) [S. In Christentum am Roten Meer.''^nnn no'^nn yfrb p m . 1996. ed.T. Polotsky. 1923. J. Les papyrus arameens d'Hermopolis et les cultes syropheniciens en Egypte perse. UUendorff. Wouters [La Pensee linguistique 3]. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

1995. AN Supplement 3:99-118. 1987.C. 1977. . 1993a.LITERATURE XLIII Muchiki. Grammatik des Christlich-PalastinischAramdischen. . . AJBI 5:88-104. Knudsen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. . A Basic Grammar. . 1972. 1997c. Lautlehre. RdQ 29:7-52. Wardini. . . In Arameans. Brill. In Narrative Syntax and the Hebrew . . North-west Semitic. . A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Twelve Prophets). Formenlehre. 755 40: 332f. With a Chrestomathy and a Select Bibliography Compiled by S. . 1992. 1991. Muraoka. Emphatic Words and Structures in Biblical Hebrew. 1983-84. JSS 11:151-67. Schriftlehre. Teil 1. [Fschr E. ed. . Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press. Spirantisation in fifth-century B. On the so-called dativus ethicus in Hebrew. 1997b. Review of Israel Oriental Studies I in JSS 18:169-72.79-117. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press / Leiden:E.J. . 1979. ed. Further notes on the Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon. Review of Kottsieper 1990.E. VT 27:375-80. JNES 53: 125-30. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. RdQ 16:39-48. The verbal rection in Qumran Aramaic. In Built on Solid Rock. _ . JfhSt 29:49598. Classical Syriac for Hebraists. On the morphosyntax of the infinitive in Targumic Aramaic. T. 1978. 1974. Notes on the Aramaic of the Achiqar proverbs. AA^ 22. Miiller-Kessler.]. Brock. 1993b. Sokoloff. Leuven: Peeters. Ch. 1973. The status constructus of the adjective in Biblical Hebrew. The Aramaic of the Old Targum of Job from Qumran Cave XL 775 25:425-43. . 75-79. E. Oslo: Novus forlag. Notes on the Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon. . The alleged final function of the Biblical Hebrew syntagm <w + a volitive verb form>. Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition. 1983.P. M. Y. . 1966. 1994. 206-15. 1997a. Hildesheim/Ziirich/New York: Georg Olms. Hebrew philological notes. 1985. Notes on the syntax of Biblical Aramaic. Classical Syriac. Porta Linguamm Orientalium 19. The Tell-Fekherye bilingual inscritpion and Early Aramaic.

1982. Hallesche Beitrdge zur Orientwissenschaft 4:13-39. Manddische Grammatik. 1928. Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache am UrmiaSee und in Kurdistan. Die israelitischen Personennamen im Rahmen der gemeinsemitischen Namengebung. Leipzig: O. [Forthcoming]. 1868b. Die aramaischen Papyri von Assuan.J.. Leiden: E. Steiner. G. 229-4]. . Papers of the Tilburg Conference 1996. H. . Leiden University. Noldeke. Nyberg. BO 54:464-68. Review of Tropper (1993).H. Tauchnitz [1966: repr. The palaeography of the Hermopolis papyri. ZA 20:130-50. Leiden: E. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der aramaischen Dialekte. Schall. T. Leiden: Department of Near Eastern Studies. in The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Leiden University.H. 1907.C.S.2-3.d. A paganized version of Psalm 20:2-6 from the Aramaic text in Demotic script. 150-57. Brill.F. 1997.J. Die hebraische Sprache der Naljal IJever Dokumente 5/6Iiev 44-46. [Forthcoming]. 1994. Kohlhammer. Naveh. Kurgefasste syrische Grammatik. Elwolde. Muraoka and J. I997d. Leipzig: Ch. van Wolde. . Naude. . Untersuchungen zum AchiqdiV-Romdin. Jemsalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. On the Classical Syriac particles for "between. Berlin: Weidmann.XLIV LITERATURE Bible. Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament 46. 1913. 1983. The Development of the Aramaic Script. Neue Beitrdge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. J. with Anhang prepared by A. Mustafa. . 1970. 1875." . JNES 103:261-74. J.A. . Nims.en de Babylonische versie van de Behistun-inscriptie. Weigel. C. BrilL . The verbless clause with pleonastic pronoun in Biblical Aramaic. and R. A. The tripartite nominal clause in Biblical Hebrew revisited. 1938. eds. 1910. 1971.W. . Deuteronomium 33. Noth. J. T. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft].F. Strassburg: Triibner. 1868a. Die sogenannte Geminatendissimilation im Semitischen. II Uber den christlich-palastinischen Dialect. Stuttgart: W. lOS 1:120-22. Saale: Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses. De konstituenten-patronen van de verbale zin in de Aramese. Opree. . 756:74-93. . 11-14 December 1995. ed. ^1898. M. Abhandlungen der Kdniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissen-schaften zu Gottingen 14/4:1-63. E. ZDMG 22:443-527. Nebe. 1997. ZDMG 92:320-44. Halle a.

. 2. G.J. B. 1968. Napoli: Istituto Orientale di Napoli. 1987. Vol. In Boundaries of the Near Eastern Word: A Tribute to Cyrus H. 15:54-57. Studi sui pronomi determinativi semitici. Essays in Jewish Studies in honor of the Ninetieth Anniversary of the Founding of Gratz College: 1895-1985. 1. B. [with J. Pennacchietti. and Translated into Hebrew and English. BASOR 288: 67-84. BASOR 258:41-52. Brill. Vol. . OLZ 14:497-503. and A. Edited. 1.C. ^1960. Texts and Studies for Students. The Jews in Egypt. 372-446. Hermopolis Letter 6. . 1968. Martin. Philadelphia: Gratz College Seth Press. An Aramaic deed of bequest (Kraeling 9).LITERATURE XLV Pardee. . Porten. B. N. lOS 4:14-30. Paul. 1987. 1986. Or 56: 89-92. B. The Aramaic papyri from Hermopolis. Szubin. F. Cowley 7 reconsidered.49). Texts and Studies for Students. Greenfield. Perles. 1976. Contracts. the Persian Period. 1911-12. Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte. Zu Sachaus 'Aramaischen Papyms und Ostraka'. . Introduction. UF 8:215-322. and Translated into Hebrew and English. Three Millennia of Cross-cultural Continuity and Change. Leiden: E. Porten.D. Department of the History of the Jewish People. In Community and Culture. 1989. Gordon . Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.. Two Aramaic contracts without dates: new collations (Cl 1. Z4W^ 80:216-31. Archives from Elephantine. 1968. Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt Newly Copied. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1974.8 = Cowley 31). The revised draft of the letter of Jedaniah to Bagavahya (TAD A4. eds M. 1996. . Waldman. An Aramaic joint venture agreement: a new interpretation of the Bauer-Meissner papyms. H. and H. The preposition in Ugaritic. and J.Four Score and Eight. Jemsalem: The Hebrew University. Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt Newly Copied. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. C. Lubetski et al.A. Farber. In The Cambridge History of Judaism. F.M. D. Vittmann et al. . vol.Z. 179-92. ed. Department of the History of the Jewish People. 1984. Yardeni. .J.J. 1998(7). eds W. Davies and L.] The Elephantine Papyri in English. Letters: Appendix Aramaic Letters from the Bible. The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Porten. Porten. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer. . 1992. 1985. Edited. Jemsalem: The Hebrew University.

DiD'o ]V0': . 1895-98. 1972. London: Egyptian Exploration Society. Die Sprache der palmyrenischen Inschriften und ihre Stellung innerhalb des Aramaischen. Vol. Segal. H. London: Oxford University Press. Harvard Semitic Studies 29. A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Leech and J. A Grammar of Contemporary English. . R. Mitteilungen der vorderasiatisch-aegyptischen Gesellschaft 41/1.^Diunn 'onn DDDD n«npn"mn'K r^mi [The origin of vowel letters in West-Semitic writing: a tentative recapitulation. Greenbaum. 1993. Geisteswissenschaftliche Klasse.J. Mohr. Department of the History of the Jewish People. . Les 46:27-38. Quirk. Noldeke's Verdffentlichungen. Tubingen: J. E. Leiden: E. G. Memoir 6. E.B. and Translated into Hebrew and English. G. 1930. Edited. Qimron. Leipzig: J. S.B. 1961. Hinrichs. Schaeder. Aramaic Texts from North Saqqara with some Fragments in Phoenician. 1994.J.H. . Jemsalem: The Hebrew University. CD (and -"i) introducing a main clause]. ed. Jemsalem: The Bialik Institute. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Grammatik des christlich-paldstinischen Aramdisch. 1986. Atlanta: Scholars Press. Leiden: E. Texts from Excavations.C.XLVI LITERATURE . H. A Grammatical and Lexical Study of its Relations with other Early Aramaic Dialects. In Studies in Qumran Aramaic [AN. Studia Orientalia Fennica 38. 3. London: Longman. Jahr. T. Die aramaistische Forschung seit Th. Lists.H. The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls. 1992. Die Grufi. 1967."KD» nt>^n [im. J. F.. Muraoka. Reckendorf. 1929. . Supplement 3].. 119-23. Schulthess. 1993. Svartvik. 1983. 6. Konigsberg. Heft 5. n^m^m nnnuB np'v CDSc?n m^^•3 n . The Aramaic of the Old Testament. Accounts. n^K-ipn n^f3-i« [Biblical Aramaic]. Rosenthal. Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt Newly Copied. Irdhische Beitrdge I: Schriften der Konigsberger Gelehrten Gesellschaft. 1936. F. Literature.B. . Syntaktische Verhdltnisse des Arabischen. Pronominal suffix in Qumran Aramaic. Brill. Brill. 1924. Rowley. . Salonen. ]Les 58:13-24. Texts and Studies for Students. Helsinki: Societas Orientalis Fennica.C.und Hoflichkeitsformeln in babylonischassyrischen Briefen. H. 1939. Sarfatti. 1981.

BASOR 269:29-45. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopadie. Jildisch-aramdische Papyri aus Elephantine. In Arameans. Helsinki: Societas Scientiamm . . In Hoftijzer . . Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamin. 1995. Sokoloff. Progress in the study of the Hurrian language. Five ostraca re-examined.C.C. R. M. ^1995. K. Moshavi. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 58. M. H. ed. Staerk. A life estate of usufruct: a new interpretation of Kraeling 6. Marcus und E. 1991. 1983. Acta Societatis Scientiamm Fennicae. Speiser. Y. Possessives with predicative function in Official Aramaic. ^1912. Skaist. 1965-81.Jongeling 1995:124966. Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition. P. 1988. 31-41. Addenda to "The case for fricative-laterals in Proto-Semitic.Z. 1984. 2. Analecta Orientalia 33. Assyrian Personal Names. Altaramdische Grammatik. A Basic Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. W. A. and C. A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period." In Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau. Segert. Steiner. Tallqvist. vol. Sokoloff.H. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press. S. The Hermopolis papyri III and IV. yyV£5 43:89-114. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. Grundrifi der akkadischen Grammatik. Szubin. 1499-1514. Silverman. You can't offer your sacrifice and eat it too: a polemical poem from the Aramaic text in Demotic script. 43. 1985.M.A. W. Spitaler. Aramean name-types in the Elephantine documents. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Nims. Indogermanische Forschungen 61:257-66. Kaye. .S. 449-61. A.1. BASOR 74:4-7. Zur Frage der Geminantendissimilation im Semitischen. Weber. 1988. In Fucus. Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press. 1939. 1982. 1969. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University. Bonn: A. AION 42:135-40. R. 1914. The clasula [sic!] salvatoria in the Elephantine and Neo-Assyrian conveyance document. E. t. 1990. R. A Semitic/Afrasian Gathering in Remembrance of Albert Ehrman. von Soden. A. 1975. Maarav 4:69-74. Porten. M. 1987. Arbeitman.LITERATURE XLVII . Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassov^'itz. Steiner. Steiner. 1954.C.L. and B. and A. A selective glossary of Northwest Semitic texts in Egyptian script. JAOS 89:691-709. ed. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Orthographic des Reichsaramaischen.F. Swiggers. ed. Akkadisches Handwdrterbuch.

1988. Oxford: Clarendon. 1971. M978. In Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau. de Goeje. and O'Connor. Wesselius. Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-SyrienPalastinas 6. R. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Miinster: Ugarit-Verlag.G. vol. Zadok. J. Voigt. 2 vols. E. Philonenko.D. 1992. 1984. D. . 1990. 1964.Porten 1982 in BO 41:440-45. 1985. Diss.W. Yaron. Lexicon linguae aramaicae veteris testamenti documentis antiquis illustratum. .D. Early Aramaic epistolography: The Arsames correspondence. 1993. Testen. 1983. 1985. 221-31. S. Wolters. Review of J. Waltke. 1985. Aramaica et Syriaca. nwnn lY^b «nn [Introduction to the Vocalization of the Mishna]. The signifiance of Aramaic r < *n. R. eds A. W.B. 261-306. De joodsche kolonie van Jeh-Syene in de 5'^^ Eeuw voor Christus. Yalon. R. Robertson Smith and M. In Biblical and Theological Studies by the Members of the Faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary. 1971. Neue Edition und vergleichende Grammatik des phonizischen. Reste einer Kasusflektion in einigen fruharamaischen Dialekten. SO 40:236-45. Tsereteli. K. Groningen/Den Haag: J. ^1896-98. Amsterdam: Juda Palache Instituut. The Aramaic of Daniel.. 1974. M.XLVIII LITERATURE Fennica. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute. G. OLA 28. 2. Introduction to the Law of the Aramaic Papyri. About the state of nouns in Aramaic. A Grammar of the Arabic Language. New York: Scribner. Review of Greenfield . J. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. . sam'alischen und aramaischen Textkorpus. Schreibfehler im Altaramaischen und ein bislang unerkannter Lautwandel. 1571-76.J.W. Kaye. Die Lateralreihe im Semitischen. Vogt. 1988.P.S. ed. Segal. Die Inschriften von Zincirli.G. Wright.B. 1912. Wagenaar. J. A. 1991. 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.K. 1928. Die sog. and J. On West Semites in Babylonia. WO 16:173-76. The Pre-Hellenistic Israelite Anthroponomy and Prosopography. Wesselius. Studies in Papyrus Amherst 63. the University of Chicago. C. 1991. Widengren. . An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Leuven: Peeters. Vleeming. H. 7^^544:143-46. R. Whitehead. 1961. Caquot and M. AION 40:265-68. Paris: Libraire d'Amerique et d'Orient. In Hommages a Andre Dupont-Sommer. . Wilson. Revised by W. Tropper. ZDMG 142:37-52. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute Press. B.

LITERATURE XLIX Zuckerman. . Newsletter: The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon 10:1-7. B. A fragment of an unstudied column of llQtgJob: a preliminary report.

do the letters represent phonemic entities. no two languages possess an identical phonological system. or are they a mixture of phonemes and allophones? Thirdly. Even then. like Greek and Akkadian. T h e adoption of such an approach m a y b e considered almost mandatory where the text corpus is rather limited in extent. to what extent does the Aramaic alphabet of twenty-two consonant letters represent the phonetic reality of the language of a given document? Is there one-to-one correspondence. not m o r e n o r less? Secondly. so that the language possessed twenty-two consonants. A study and description of phonetics and phonology of an ancient language attested only in written form is beset with familiar problems and difficulties. there are bound to remain a great deal of uncertainty and more than an element of circular argument. vowels and prosody present particularly difficult problems. or A r a m a i c w o r d s b o r r o w e d by other languages. In order to deal with these questions. . a strictly descriptive approach does not s e e m to b e adequate. however. the information to be gained from that source is extremely valuable. one's description would gain extra clarity and perspective b y judicious and controlled use of comparative and historical data. In addition to comparative and historical data to be found in ancient c o g n a t e S e m i t i c l a n g u a g e s and d i v e r s e dialects of Aramaic. w e are also in possession of data available in the form of non-Aramaic names (and occasional loan words) used in our corpus. W h e n those other languages. what can one learn about the phonetic character of each consonantal phoneme and/or allophone? Fourthly. since our k n o w l e d g e of the phonetics and phonology of those ancient languages is also incomplete. Preliminary remarks. use vowel graphemes as well. Moreover. but k n o w n in their original form in the source languages. so that due allowances need to be made for the incongruities between the two systems. Even if one's primary interest is confined to the language as used in a delimited corpus of written texts dating from an equally delimited period of time.PART ONE PHONOLOGY § 1. Firstly.

There is hardly room for doubt that they represented a minimum of 22 different consonantal p h o n e m e s .(") plosive fricative lateral latera. It seems to us that the Aramaic of our corpus possessed 26 distinct consonantal phonemes at an early phase of the period covered by it. These consonantal p h o n e m e s . the same number of the letters of the alphabet. ^ = PS /§/ and /§/. although one is naturally m u c h in the dark as to the precise phonetic nature of many such phonemes. 1 1 .rolled nasal frictionless lised? continuant bilabial interdental dental and alveolar palatoalveolar velar t p.(') Four out of the 22 letters of the alphabet are bivalent: i = PS /d/ and /d/.2 PART I: § 2 a § 2. including semi-vocalic or semi-consonantal / w / and /y/. C D . \ T. s . V. n. and that of "emphatic" as °. n. 3 . \ D.0 ) b^ 0 ) i m (D) w (1) (n) (D) d^ (T) (n) s d^ (1) r (ts) (0 (^) kO) pharyngal laryngal b (n) c+ (N) h (n) J palatal y C) ' Segert (1975:93) admits only 22. Consonants Our starting point is tiie familiar 22 consonantal letters: K. The feature of voicing is indicated as * (voiced). p = PS /q/ and /^Z. n. b. i. p. n = PS ft/ and /t/. 0.' (unvoiced or voiceless). . may be set out as below.

( 3 ) T h u s o n c e in A2. nnm n"? ]n3n m j n m -["p-t m-n 'the house is yours or your children's or his to whom you give (it) affectionately' (B3. often of the same w o r d ( s ) . "hyper-archaic form" according to Blau (1970:47).1:9) // n3T.12). S o m e of them also use both the older and younger spellings side by side.3 (4) // (7). Strangely.15.4:5) // *Tn« (e. followed by Hug (1992:51). written by same scribe in same year (420 BCE).7:7. n m 'gold' (B3. here inadvertently writing Zayin instead of the correct Dalet. namely B3. 10.1:5) // n (ib.t ( i b . and n (2.16. T h e later spelling with i is confined to a small n u m b e r of texts.2:7) and // n3T (B3.2). This would indicate that. ' Beyer (1984:100). the sound in question was considered better represented by i than by T. o ' ? n (B2.9.11) and consistently n (5x).8) and -]\ (ib. n (ib.6) // n^T (ib. passim) and // 2m passim in the corpus. B3. on the alert for the c o m m o n misspelling by i for the correct T. M o s t instructive is one of the abovequoted documents. often provide a valuable glimpse into possible changes taking place in the language.4.4) and IDT 'male' (ib. Folmer 1995: 49-63. 14). s o i (ib.11 \lbis. there is no mention made of a reasonable case made by Degen (1969:32-4) to the contrary. an attempt ought to be made to account for the co-existence of variations. The spelling here with T is best interpreted as hyper-correctionC*): H a g g a i . holds that as eariy as in the 9th century BCE the earlier dentals /idp had shifted to / 1 d t /.9.4:12) // n (passim in B3.12) and 'this' (13).8:2. B8. the earliest being that of /t/ > /t/ .10:10) and -pn •your' (ib. by 437 BCE when the document was drawn up. demonstrative pronouns (B2. as Beyer (1984:100) does: whilst innovations. which h a s i n n ]n 'suit or process' (17) // n n n yi (12. Sbis.8:9).21).6:17.5:7) // n (passim).g. .l 1. int^ 'to take' (B3.PHONOLOGY 3 Problems of interpretation arise regarding the following letters: a) 1 and t C ^ ) The hypothesised Proto-Semitic voiced interdental /d/ or 161 is spelled in our corpus mostly with T as in Old Aramaic.13) and -T (passim).17). if genuine. U ) .(') 2 Cf. Moreover.10:3 et passim).6. 16) // (ib. passim and // HDT ib.2:8. n i (A2.12:30) // n (passim in B3.9:4 // CDi B3. 6) and 'this' (ib.7. DDT 'selfsame' B2. 20 // " " T ib. There is none that uses i exclusively. iDi 'male' B2. when one studies the evidence presented by Beyer. ^ It does not seem to us right to ignore counter-evidences altogether. one notes that the dates apparently evidencing the changes in question vary significantly from one dental to another.14.1 (B3. ] O i 'pure' (A4. S o Kutscher (1954:235).11:3) // n bis (A5. p 'that' (B3. n n (A5.l4) / / l ^ .

This orthographic fluctuation gives rise to a couple of questions as regards the phonetic reality lying behind it.5:7. followed by Nathan (459-446 BCE) (5x) and M a u z i a h (446-406 BCE) (3x). a thesis corroborated by the subsequent neat correspondence in Middle Aramaic. nii) C3. namely (e. one must also take note of names containing some of the roots already mentioned above: i T r n n D14. In addition. since the root ]T«. n n t r C 3 . from the mid-5th century BCE. but even here absolute dogmatism is to b e avoided: cp. However. and the question is to what extent their names had been Aramaised. n'3T. which generally agrees with what we see in our corpus as well. unlike in Hebrew. in one and the same document. There is no absolute reason for assuming that phonetically kindred sounds underwent a certain change at the same speed. A m o n g our scribes. Silverman (1969:697) would derive the name from the root yi. * This last form also occurs in a variant spelling. bpcj > bpr\).2.8IIIA:8 (471 BCE). n i r n t . the remaining examples are mostly.g. a degree of abstraction and etymologisation on the part of the Aramaic-speaking Elephantine Jews. On the one hand. n'm' vs. niv^n:. some examples from the Hermopolis papyri datable to the late 6th or early 5th century have been noted above: e. mm. however. and 498) thinks the spellings with a Dalet are Aramaising forms. the Alef in the middle of the form is hardly a vowel letter. the earliest dated instance of i for T is imub 'to seize' B4. Apart from these.4:17 (483 BCE). as far as they are datable. niv. A4. n''3i«'(^). it appears almost certain that by the end of the fifth century BCE i had c o m e to b e felt to stand closer to the phonetic value of the consonant in question. In general.4 PARTI: §2« Chronologically speaking.9:4 and iDi 'to remember' D7. Grelot (1972:390 r. is not used as a verb in Aramaic: the Biblical name 7]]'m'[ must ultimately derive from this root.1 vs.40:9. However. however. F r o m the first quarter of the 5th century c o m e :^"n 'arm' D7. This presupposes. It is quite possible that the grapheme <z> represented two distinct sounds or p h o n e m e s . proper nouns tend to be rather conservative. N o n e of them.. Haggai (446-400 BCE) stands out with 10 examples of Dalet for Zayin. uses Dalet consistently. . whereas the syncope of a word-medial Alef is commonplace: a spelling n'Dr also occurs. namely /d/ and /z/. although such awareness appears to have existed already about a cenmry earlier. In addition. 'this' A2. 1 3 : l l (411 BCE) vs. somewhat later. it is not to be assumed outright that some significant phonetic or phonemic change had taken place in the course of the fifth cenmry. A complicating factor here is that some of these names are borne by Jews.g.

though not every case of such a "I lends itself to such an explanation: e. which occurs countless times as against n n i ( I x . '"ID (with a so-called "vocal shewa") A2. attempts to account for the variation in terms of the position of the sounds in question within a word..g.('^) For a similar argumentation. see Lemer 1981. W e may suggest tentatively that this had to do with the onset of the spimntization of the plosives. ^ Cf. see above). which occurs 2 3 times in our corpus.. in other words this spelling is historical and etymological. however.4:8).g. for there he states that "das alte | um 800 v. and verbs and nouns normally use <d>. oder 9. Chr. /d/ > /d/ after a vowel. Whilst Leander (ib. 3rd century BCE. bereits geschwunden war.. e. is puzzling.). and he ascribes the use of < z > to the conser-vatism of the administrative officialese register of Aramaic. t/ could not have coexisted with the phonemes / 4 t/. Folmer (1995:61f. Thus Kottsieper (1990:30) is not very precise when he says: "Da im .' O n e may apply the s a m e interpretation to cases of sandhi as well. Should this explanation b e found acceptable(^).8:9. Die Dentale t wurden also > f ^ f im 10. which is said to be the date of the disappearance of the latter phonemes from Aramaic. his dating for the onset of the spirantisation is rather late.3:4. the majority of the names and actually occurring forms of the verbs and nouns are those in which the grapheme in question does follow a vowel: e." " Kottsieper (1990:30) dates the completion of this process to as early as the end of the 7th century BCE For a possible explanation. His cross-reference on this point to p. Whereas Beyer (1984:127) also rightly holds that the spirantised allophones of /d. W h y /d/ b e g a n to be spelled with i is puzzlesome. The issue seems to us basically a phonetic/phonemic rather than graphemic one. see Kottsieper 1990:27. v.g. most forms of the verb TO 'to seize. Chr. ^ See also Schaeder 1930:244. and the noun pDT 'record' (12x) and the verb IDT (TiDr C l . 100. l : 5 3 ) as against n D i ( I x : A4. For a similar view. it would give us a plausible and rough post q u e m for the process of spirantisation (see below § 3 7). private letters.PHONOLOGY 5 IdJ ~i and /z/ = Tf)..) rightly draws our attention to the fact that this <z> occurs mostly with the high-frequency pronouns. although it is true that the innovative spelling with < d > is first attested in the H e r m o p o l i s papyri. Jh. initial or medial/final.f) In fact. Muraoka 1983-84:90..4:12. 7mm B2. see Kutscher 1972:69. the adverb p K . n ]&> B3. eher im 9.('") The position of Leander (1928:9 i) is that the living language of our period had already undergone the change I6J t o / d / ( " ) .C^) Note also nnt. is spelled with < d > without exception. instead.

Segert's scepticism (1984:91) is unjustified: "Es ist ungewiB. 'to b u m ' A4. 23. 10*. The situation in Nabataean is more complicated: see Cantineau 1930:42-44. See Beyer (1984:102f. Thus 'flesh' C l . HtDm 'side' B2. " Cf. and Heb.1:5. *:^-n 'arm' D7.). *n3iD 'altar' A4.l:173t . and very rarely with D. ]fc«!ffiQ 'shoe' A3. *UT\ 'to shine' C l .1:8). representing two distinct phonemes.2:2("). all meaning 'shoe. lOD 'to destroy' Cl. 2 : l l .Q^) T h e only certain exceptions are fDO Rarm. see HAL. T O 'witness' C l ." H o w would one otherwise account for an etymologically neat orthographic distinction in later Aramaic between t D and o? Note that the earlier sibilant phoneme /§/ distinct from / s / still lingered on in Palmyrenian (Cantineau 1935:41-43 as against Rosenthal 1936:25f) as well as in old Syriac inscriptions (Beyer 1966:243 and Muraoka 1997b: *9.10:3. *'?m 'to fear' C 1.9:2.50. 4 8 ) ..7:26+. n n o 'east' B 3 .1:45. l : 3 and3nnt^]0 ib.9:4. l : 1 3 8 t . n.('*) T h e n a m e of the Assyrian king Sennacherib is spelled in t w o different ways in the Ahiqar narrative: 3nnw2? C l . s.1:215). pmi 'Damascus' A6. conventionally symbolised as and / § / . w 'May they put!' A6. *nDi 'animal sacrifice' A4. This applies to p-'SK? 'sufficiently' (A6. 1 : 1 3 2 ( < n^DiD 'hate').1:83+. pv^ 'barley' (pi. 1 : 1 4 0 .g.6:3 (400 BCE). QA Jnoq (IQapGen 22.Q^) Unlike in Middle Aramaic('^). mati. An idiosyncratic view of Garbini (1993:43-49) on the evolution of sibilants in Northwest Semitic may be safely left out of account. /suna:/. Akk.5t.' which is spelled only onceC"*) with T.7:12.4. and Beeston (1977:56). p.8:27. n. This g r a p h e m e also appears to b e bivalent. C 1.." "B8.g. B8. on which latter see below at § c.21).6:l i<aD 'to put'). In BH the name is always spelled with Samech: see Millard 1976:8. nn^jr 'ten' A 6 .3:17+. umw 'what h e hates' C l . /msa:na:/. Syr. * p N 'ear' (e. verb m 'to carry'. l : 8 8 .' On the etymology of the word.28 //(?) moo B4.7:15. ob das ^ sich erhalten hat oder ob es mit dem S zusammenfiel. /§e:nu/. but some 2 6 times with i. 'much' A 6 .-eri\ba. . 'sackcloth' A4.N'3t!. 3 : 1 .7) as well.v. PN C3.) A4.15:21.10:14. the P S phoneme /§/ is fairly consistently spelled with ^ . "^iiv 'assistance' C 1. V 313 'to tell lies' B2.b PARTI: %2b-c The following w o r d s are consistently spelled with i: 'then' (e. 1257.10:3. whilst the Akkadian form is Sin-ahhe'. 7 : 7 t . jiKOls 9.. die Schreibungen mit d fiir /d/ bei weitem iiberwiegen . W e would mention here *tnK 'to seize.

58 (n.1:17.(^'*) c) PS FT/. 3in 'again' B7. B3. /nadasa/ 'to throw down. 49).3:8.Buhl 1915:465. B3.D7. either. B3. One may assume a PS /if in this name: see Degen 1967:55. /S/ = Heb.2:11. 60 and also Beyer 1984:100.(^*) The only certain exception is the ubiquitous monetary unit. the PS unvoiced interdental FT/ is consistently spelled with n("): e. bpn 'to weigh' B2.(^^) N o satisfactory interpretation has been found of at A4. but "historical spelling": Kaufman (1974:29).3:5. The simplest etymology.9:7.6:24. see Gesenius .10:17 // IXD •old man^ C1. snatch away. T h e influence of the A k k a d i a n SIQLU is s u s p e c t e d .(2«) Kottsieper's identification of a root V j ^ o convince.' Cf. l : 1 3 ^ w . 'to cut' (1990:36) does not []invo D7.16. 1 : 1 2 6 // Katj.8:2. . Even the Ashur letter of ca. for Arb. Folmer 1995: 70-74." though the sibilant is no problem.g. T h e interpretation of '73non at C l . MO 'SUN' B3. Another instance where foreign influence has often been suspected is ptoscr 'they will contest' C l .1:84. which would be in favour of Kaufman's position.1:10.16:5. U n l i k e in the case of the voiced interdental /d/. in each d o c u m e n t // bp^ B1. B3.2:16(^^). rbn 'three' A6.19.10.-7 'he returned' B2.2:23t.1:5. Fales (1986:65) suspects that the Assyrian word may have sounded [siqlu].C') Possibly also ]RVD •barle/ D7. C1. 6 5 0 BCE attests to 3nn^ (11) 'he shall return' alongside "wm 'Assyria' (ib. D7. /§/.88 (Heb. r^'^H) and 30 'oW B3. which seems to have remained unnoticed so far. -nn 'bull' A4. of the verb ©13 'to destroy (?)' A4.1:3.1:5.3:5. l : 8 8 .). as Cowley (1923:205) does. See also C D D © 3 1 'and we shall contest(?)' C3. mo. So already Schaeder (1930:243). See a discussion in Lindenberger (1983:147f. There is no need to invoke. Knt^n •ewe' D7. bring to the ground.).6.12:4 might also be considered if it means 'barley. A6.4:2.9:3. /nataSa/ is difficult for a couple of reasons: /t/ for /dJ and its meaning "to pull out. form A beginning of the development is foreshadowed by an exceptional " P N 'let him not inherit' Sefire I C 24 for the regular m\ Cf.'he shall proceed' C l . is Arb. bp^.2:10. Persian influence to account for the spelling "iiriK in the Ahiqar document.. 3-n. p r e ^ On the etymology of the noun. 1 : 1 4 7 is still disputed.6:9 for the usual still remains a puzzle.5:24 etc.PHONOLOGY 7 •knife' Cl. ( " ) N o t e four cases of bpn at B l .1:12.12:4. often abbreviated as ^.]nnoQ 'nails^ A6.' The usually cited Arb./Aram..

]pr. yv) is always spelled with p as the second consonant. timber' in all its forms (pr. From this spelling fluctuation and the historical development P > V Segert (1975:91) concludes that the consonant in question must have been a postvelar spirant. ^pii. see.(") T h e word pr 'tree. Also spelled with p are p 'sheep' A4. and particularly M I D I 'nn M K ' . it appears that the speed of the c h a n g e w a s not the same.4:3.45:8. A s far as Egyptian Aramaic is concerned. so that w e cannot tell whether this idiom still retained the earlier /t/ spelled with W or not. One possible way-out of this enigma may be to postulate a variant lexeme (with a prosthetic K ? ) *nwii^ related to the pi. Incidentally. See further Steiner (1991) and Dolgopolsky (1994). '"Cf Folmer 1995: 63-70.1:10. ' v//^ . if the reading be certain at ybnw D7. for example. sg. the preservation of /nJ against its near total assimilation in the Hermopolis papyri (see § 3 a) indicates the presence of a vowel after the /n/.^') The spelling with p is decidedly more frequent. . d)pandrn The Proto-Semitic voiced emphatic interdental / ( ^ is represented by these two graphemes. /taljla:/ 'cress. for instance.' But that would make the logical sequence of the three terms in our Hermopolis document somewhat unusual. his theory is not supported by the available evidence. This may be right for this transition period. K'pj:. .' but then it would make a most unusual phonology (nnK73N = nnn^K).' which occurs but once in his corpus.(^^) Finally. relatives. ^ . Yet o n e should not b e dogmatic. ]upv. See also Swiggers 1982:136. means 'servants.) that the word is cognate with mxsi^. which does not display a neat graphic distribution as Voigt would have. Voigt (1992) arguesjor a voiced lateral for Egyptian Aramaic as well as for Proto-Semitic. Folmer (1995:73) favours Kutscher's view (1971:115f. ym.det. no interdental.' Whilst both of the t w o Proto-Semitic interdentals would eventually b e c o m e corresponding plosives. and the only instance for such a voiced lateral is vbv 'rib. since a m o n g the Hermopolis papyri there does not occur any other word or form with n corresponding to the primitive /t/.8 PARTI: %2d-f In nr\m) 'nn 'nw 'my brother Bitia and his ?' A2. and his children' A2. which in Syriac. Hug (1993:51) apparently assumes a historical spelling. Kutscher 1972:16. family. On the question how the phoneme so represented may have sounded in OA. Furthermore.1:14. the context requires 'his wife. it is not likely that the g r a p h e m e \D ever represented three phonemes in our period:/s/. but it is not clear how the consonant may have sounded earlier when it was consistently spelled with p. . it could be a form of J A ''^I7n and Syr. a n d / t / .

On the other hand.n~in 'you will wash it' D7. Ix (C2.11:6 and p^r 'hurry' C l . say ca. dila'') 'rib' occurs only once at C 1.8:7 and ni^mut 'I will wash it' ib. C f also Vleeming .11 with both Kp-)K and Nr-jK shows that the process had begun by the beginning of the 6th century at the latest . but TiV 4 times in Hermopolis papyri (A2. suggests that at least at the t i m e of the writing of the Elephantine copy of the document. 7-6th centuries BCE. i^Tb 'to guard' ib.5.7 (475 BCE).16:2 // i^ivb ( I x ) . "pbrn 'your shadow' C 1.1:12+ 5x). p-ijA? (6x) 'to meet. T h e word s n o 'east' is always (16x) spelled with V.10 (458 BCE).16. never with p . on the strength of this evidence.1:8. this one is also difficult of interpretation.16) just as in B A Jer 10.2:6. i. 'Meet!' D7.57.PHONOLOGY 9 K3p.l 1.7) and four times in C3.p i r i m p v . n Graphic alternation occurs in three words: p i N (22x) 'ground' // r-iN (9x). but generally by £ D as in later Aramaic. D7. fs.9. l o p (21x) 'wool' // I D : : (lOx). r'pr (Arb. B3. Chr. 4. go quite as far as Beyer (1984:101): "g wurde also um 600 v.11. > ^" Degen 1969:35f. As in the case of the spelling flunctuations discussed above. Is the u s e of p an archaism? The presence of both in a single document.2:6. 191.4 0 0 BCE (A3. near 'advice' ib. f)PS /g/ There is n o direct evidence whatsoever to be found in our corpus for the existence of a Proto-Semitic /g/. Chronology does not offer a satisfactory explanation: p~iK and occur in the same d o c u m e n t dated to 4 6 4 BCE (B2.e. N o t e also rr3i. but pir*? in the same document (the Bisitun text: C2. A2. l : 8 7 . Perhaps also in Deir Alia: Hoftijzer 1976:284.8:6.8:9. 421 BCE. See also Beyer 1994:42. o::. pzvb 'quickly' B3.'('*) Despite the often-quoted article by Perles (1911-12) and one by Grelot (1956).'counsellor' i b .1:9).2:7.1:90. the Bisitun text.CO e)PS/?/r f ^' The Proto-Semitic emphatic interdental /zJ is still represented once by :i as in 0 A ( " ) : 1:^] 'he preserved' A 1. which is sometimes postulated for a word such as nvn 'to seek. the phonetic development was not complete yet.1:4.6:7.Wesselius 1985:25f ^ Note a cuneiform transliteration a-ra for r i N 'earth' of the 6/5th century BCE. ~iDp occurs in two documents datable to 4 2 0 . l 2 . e. IKQD 'they reached' ib. Jer 10. t o w a r d s ' and . ^ Even for an earlier period. 'gazelle' C l . l : 1 6 8 . Noldeke (1913:12) confesses to his ignorance of the Arabic root "bd or gbd. covered by Hug .9. Grelot's etymology is based on a supposed Ugaritic word. though one should not.g. The idiom appears in its late form insb at IQapGen 20.6:10) and at B2.

.1:2 // ]Q]n C3. Ah/ 'brother' but Anljn(h)/ 'we': for references and more examples.g. 1 0 : 1 3 . 9-7th cent. However.40:2. ]r.Moshavi 1995.C) § 3. . See also Fales 1986:73f. Contra Hug (1992:49). Consonantal changes It appears that some consonants undergo certain changes due to contact with another consonant. nariN (= nOTt^) 'I will give it' A2. the papyrus Amherst 63 of the late 2nd cent. However. /jj/ is not uniform in this text: thus <'rq> 'earth' on one hand and <gn> 'flock' on the other.1:5. of V ps3 'to exit' (1992:50). mpl. the papyrus Amherst 63. whether in direct and immediate contact or at some remove.g. see Steiner . W h i l s t it may b e dialectal. the assimilation of /nf is quite c o m m o n in the Hermopolis papyri of the late 6th/early 5th century BCEC*"): n33riN 'I will give it' A2.Steiner 1983:263. "^^N probably Afel. the Bauer-Meissner papyrus of 515 BCE: ••n33riN 'I shall give it' (11). esp. KHK? ( = myn) 'the year' D7. It is attested in B 1.i (= p::) •we shall give' A 4 .4:5 ^wC'). whether identical or different. 'I shall r e c l a i m ' (14).10 PARTI: §2^-§3a g)PS/h/and/h/ T h e same reservation is in order as regards the possible distinction between /Ij/ and /h/. ]Ttn. /zgyr/ 'small' but Aim/ 'eternity': for references and other examples.1:5. for instance.28:77 a n d t*ncD3n C l .g. see Steiner . C f Folmer 1995:74-94. The same applies to a slightly earlier time span. But note that the representation of the PS emphatic interdental. This and the following case are merely two random examples disproving the theory of Gropp (1990:173-75) that the non-assimilation/dissimilation is typical of Elephantine legal papyri and the Arsames correspondence. n^n ( = ]n) 'if not' A2. 1:129. BCE from Thebes still retains the distinction: Steiner Nims 1985:93. its existence may be assumed only on the strength of cuneiform transcriptions with <h>. «tDn 'you shall carry' (13). E. E.1.. M3n3 'we shall give it' ib. [= hn3K] 'the wife o f A4. 3mpl (C1. still retains the distinction: Nims . a) Assimilation and non-assimilation of/n/Q^) An /nf followed immediately by another consonant sometimes assimilates regressively to the latter.(= ])m-') 'they will descend' G impf. p n (= /hitti:n/ ?) "wheat" B4..2:10. 76-84.Moshavi 1995. BCE: see Beyer 1984:101. This is the traditional and probable explanation for there being no graphic trace of such an /n/: e. ]pSQ A ptc.2:6). mentioned in the preceding note. Leander's position that the assimilation is largely confined to late documents (Leander 1928:14) is no longer tenable.7.

that np'pQ necessarily belongs here. 29) and za-ki-it 'I won' (Syr. '•^ See Degen (1969:39f. hi fact. with independent personal pronouns of the 2nd person: n3K. for w e also find forms such as ]nDK (10). It should not be taken for granted. ha-al-li-tii 'I entered' (BA rhv) (line 4. this aspect and the associated one of degemination by means of /n/ (see below § c ) prove the western origin of these papyri. for the assimilation of / ] / in this case in Semitic is strictly not of the same order as that of /n/. BCE Tel Fekheriyeh bilingual.7:13 the Nun has been added above the line.' np'PD 'to take. 35).a regular and k n o w n feature of Old AramaicC*^) points rather to the reverse of Leander's YlSSl-OO That the chronology is only one of several possible factors involved is indisputable in view of nnano 'to bring down. whereas that of the Bauer-Meissner papyrus is mixed.C^*) This is true.5:3.PHONOLOGY 11 A2. is unquestionably towards writing 3 in such cases. 2 : l .). also npb^ (9).4.C*') T h e general tendency in our corpus. . preceded by a vowel. 19.5:2.' which is considerably more frequent than raUD: 79 vs. "CSK 'your face' A2.3:10 and p i n 'you will know' A2. the language of the Hermopolis papyri is consistent in this regard^'). see below § 31 a.44) leaves the Fekheriyan evidence out of account. for instance. h o w e v e r ." I do not see on what basis Segert can say this. however.C*^) N o t e also riDn3 'you gave' B 4 . nmb A inf. An important exception is nvD 'now. as in later Aramaic. and inf. -3pE« 'he brought m e forth' A2.5:6. . these private letters might display spellings which are more phonetic than historical and "correct.' and the h k e in the 9th cent. the fact_that t h e ass^imilation of M is als^o . zke:t) (line 10) in the Uruk incantation text. for he lists the assimilation of /n/ as one of the traits typical of Western Aramaic. At least in this matter. At B3. I fail to comprehend Hug (1993:53): "Etymologische Schreibung mit n ist in alteren Texten die Regel und nimmt in HermB [=Hermopolis papyri] etwas ab" '•^ For Kutscher (1971:106). '•^ See our discussion in Muraoka (1983-84:91 f. 1 :2. TI3NC*'). Is morpheme /-t/ was. esp. for it was most likely triggered by a semantic analogy to f\\ In his characterisation of Old Aramaic Garr (1985:42. Dn3t^ (see below § 11). Cf. On forms such as uvin A2." Segert (1975:112) "Die assimilierten Formen kommen im Rahmen des RA fast ausnahmslos in den Ostraka vor.. One could thus take a spelling rmt 'I bought' as an indication that already at this early stage the Pf.. O n j h e contrary. cf.6. Of more than 100 occurrences of the verb )n3 in G impf. with n. of V nm 'to bring down' A2. we find only five examples of the assimilated first Nun.

A2.16:12. see a discussion by Degen (1969:40 with n.B2.8:l.2:3. though it is going a little too far to condemn Tip impv. D 6 .).3:12.27:2. Thus Leander (1928:14) suggests a scribal error in minp' at D4... at D20.6:2 and WDK 'our presence' C 3 .2:2.4:11.39:6.^) verbs in this respect.3:10 + lOx as against ''ED A2. 9 1 ) .8.2:5 // NDE. Ezr 6. shows n o Lamed: np D 1. D7. " On this exception. 2 8 : l . pS3: 9 casesO of assimilation as against some 73 o f : remaining. 1 : 1 6 7 .6.7:6. Take another high-frequency verb.14 ^ The assimilation is not infrequent in BA: e. NT3i: 'the goat'. N D T I Q (and not * K n n o as in I Q a p G e n 22.. your face' D7.40:2. A2. the only exceprion being n3inp -i D 4 . a text which is difficult anyway is hardly good evidence for a single exception: B4.2:4. 1 4 : l .12 PARTI: %3b-c 4.inpb-' D7.1:2.6:4. Note also the usual spelling -S3Q 'Memphis(?)* A3. Dn 4... D 7. Unlike in OA our idiom does not attest to the assimilation of /I/ of the verb pbo 'to ascend' as in Sefire III 14 p O \ though we do find two cases of .S:36. and inf. inn]K 'your wife' B2. though not without an exception such as npb' for np-" at Sefire I B.(*^) In our corpus b is consistently written(**). however.. 38). ••SDK 'my face . A2. D3. r n ^ a K m m 'rent(?)' A 6 . Bergstrasser (1918:108) and Jouon . who thinks of the analogy of the antonym ]n3 with ]n% a proposal followed by Brockelmann (1908:176).g.2:3.4 ]in-iQ) 'the province' A6. of the type n n 'Come down!' and I D 'Watch!' See below on Pe-Nun verbs: § 33. np 'pD '7 inf. Dn 6.22 VI'JQVi "pqq. D5.3:2. possibly twice attested.1:4 b:yn 'food' rather than = bz> ]Q.1:2. 5 : 3 : see § 33 d. A2. A2. The impv. ppbn € 1 .9 and several forms of the noun (as against the consistent spelling without N u n of the noun in the HermopoHs papyri: A2.2:8.8.(^') b) Assimilation of consonants other than /nf In O A the verb npb G 'to take' shows the assimilarion of /l/(") in impf. Tip D 2 0 . np'TB3. see below § 33.1:9.5:3. 8 : l : np'PK B 1. NDDCD 'the year' C1.35.5:3.5 cjiis DV^n\ "TMiSr n'j'N nrD-]Q. D7. Absolute consistency is not to be expected: thus O'SK .5:2. 1 3 : 3 .14:3. " Segert's explanation (1975:113) that this is due to the proximity of the points of articulation of /I/ and /q/ is less likely than that of Ungnad (1905:278). A2.5:3 also as an error for Tip'? for one would not correct every impv. The same holds for nouns: ]' S J N 'our presence' A4.Muraoka (1993: § 72. ^' Pace Greenfield (1968:366). N n r s o (and not *«n''ED) 'the boat' A6. T h e r e is not a single case of < n > of the p r e p o s i d o n p assimilated to the following consonant(^): thus TD p 'from Syene' A2. nto"?!? I>IO.14:2..

30.etc. 1 : 1 0 7 .8 (// TiTb 1= ^m*?^] ib.. ^ Likewise n ni^i Dn 4. "dissolution of gemination" (Kaufman 1977:92). On our view that there most probably intervened a vowel between the last radical of a verb root in the perfect tense and the personal suffix for Isg.G pf. Amherst 63:6/14. See n. r\ny±f\ vbv pom"? N-a psM"?! 'to go up and down and go out' ib." even granting that it is a pf.(^) "pDnQ 'relying' A2. /Id/ . hence no likelihood of assimilation.bmnb G inf. ^ Contra Segert (1975:114). namely < *imm.28:112C*2).g. 13.5:5 // Knr^2in3 C3.(5«) That the assimilation of /I/ in np-. Note also n3Tr 'until this (day)' A4.(^') There is evidence for mere graphic simplification with no phonetic implication. ^' Other terminologies are also used: e. l : 6 8 = *nnci? 'I thought.7:10. i. m s < -DinK (V T[) 'Approach!' C l . See further Kutscher (1970:374). who thinks that ncr C l . N o t e also ^bDnn "PK 'Do not rely!' D7. The initial <m> is not a root letter. See also Kottsieper (1990:40).I 3 i r < 1 3 1 bv 'on account o f B7. Likewise pT = *p3T 'we sold' B3. ^[nrcn " Rather than Afel (Lindenberger 1983:175). A possible case of /zd/ > /zz/ is " i h t n 'Guard yourself!' C2. Note also 'and during your years' (< " [ H K ? bii) Pap.7:28. /td/ .6:5.n ^ t G C ) impv. forms of the verb V bbi^ 'to enter'(") . kandu). does not appear to have any phonetic motivation is another reason to suggest that the assimilation is due to the analogy of jD"' etc. 52 above. not a p t c . "substitution of nasalization for gemination" (Rosenthal 1961:16). 265. p03Q with a typically degeminating <n>: see below.12:3 a n d ^ n r 'we sold it' B3.7:20 where I has been added above the line. unless one postulates spirantisation.7Gr2:8 etc. on which see Barth 1894:252. According to Degen (1969:41) Spitaler sees here an analogy of nni Note a juxtaposition of the two verbs as in vm±r\ po3Q[^ 'to go up and down' B3. § 29.PHONOLOGY 13 Assimilation seems to be conditioned by the presence of a dental consonant as one of two contiguous sounds: /dt/ .e. c) Degeminating /n/(*') It is a well-known fact that the nasal /nf is sometimes found in l A w h e r e it is not etymologically expected and instead of gemination: p D 'jars' C3.16:4.1 :3n. the text is broken just after the Taw..(> Akk.14 //n rrai Dn 2. for the word is .6). See below. thus /*mitlkel/ > /mittJcel/. 2fs 'you gave birth' B3..1:65. nr^:i3at3] 'in t h e m i d d l e o f A4.'•n'^"' < -nib.4:5 = *^rT333T. j^DDD 'talents' A4. " This must be a noun of a rather rare pattern /mVqti:l/. n3T IV.7:2 is a mere short-hand for *^3nnQ.. see below at § 24 e.

198) is an infix. Cf. t>V2T] H impv.10:7.Leander (1927:50.3:10 + 4 x and nviTi A4. kussU) is debatable: see Kaufman (1974:28f.(*^) However. 55 above. B2. Brockelmann (1908:245. A4. however. Note.g.3:10.6:6.5:4 (Hermopolis). and pa±> inf. Kottsieper (1990:51-54) has m a d e a reasonable case for an alternative etymology of the word.5:2 (all H e r m o p o l i s p a p y r i ) . the nasal of the word .' its antonym. e. no e x a m p l e such as r i ^ n .4.). See n.7:12).(^') d) Phonetic reality of degeminating Inl The difficult question to answer is whether these degeminating derived from V r:in. ^ The forms such as po"* G impf.f ^) pmil 'Damascus' in Late Biblical Hebrew (Chronicles) for pmi is an assured case of such process.25:l DU13Q['7 the text is too fragmentary for us to determine precisely what the form is. As against the c o m m o n view which derives the word from VT 'to k n o w ' w i t h a n o m i n a l prefix / m . On the other hand.1:3. that Arabic. 142). l : 5 3 . pi^TT Himpf./ . the indefinite pronoun for 'something' occurs in two forms: UVIO A2.14 A6J:L\RBMT] PARTI: §3J H pf. 1:205 is debated: see Lindenberger (1983:205) and Kottsieper (1990:51).24. /darmsuq/. " Note. has '^uspw. 1:133 attests to a case of degemination by means of Ixl (cf. B4. m. as pointed out by Lipinski 1994:63. on which Kottsieper's argument rests quite heavily. 3fs. H e b .pl. At D4.1:82.I S K 'bird' (€1.8:12. g.186.7:10 // p'Tod? B3. yiVI}^. z) and Bergstrasser (1918: § 20b). (< VT) of BAC^*^) occurs in our corpus. also Syr. Here also belongs p O D Q ^ G inf. A2. 'knowledge' C l .7. and below § 31 a. So also Spitaler apud Degen (1969:41). ^ The form «0"1D is attested already in Fekheriyan (line 13).r. All the examples of the assimilation of Inl are to be found in early documents dating from the late 6th or early 5th century BCE: A2. however. 3mpl. may be due to the analogy of nn"* and nnn"? respectively from nriD 'to descend. A6. According to Kottsieper (1990:54-58). A2.2:2 and C l . «D3 and Akk. A3. " The interpretation of b]iT C l . D U i m A2. cf. . according to which Inl would be part of the interrogative / m a n / 'who?' Then the /n/-less form could only have resulted from the assimilation of Inl to the following /d/. of p'TO 'to ascend' B3.1:10. See Bauer . not a result of the degeminated /p/.7:14 + 20x (including the declined form ^ n Q u i D Q .10 :15n.(^') W h e t h e r « DID 'throne' occurring at B2.

of vy would have been vii as Beyer (1984:91) would require: "diese Aussprache [= without /n/] wird durch den Imperativ qal In bestatigt. the Tiberian tradition of Biblical Aramaic with the use of shewa as J'iViT. or as s o m e authorities argued.(") Besides. lacking any phonetic reality. as well as etymological <n>'s discussed above (§ a ) . though the latter has subsequently reassessed his position in favour of the former (1990:232-37). carried their usual consonantal value.16 //naifii Dn 4. pa:. the hypothesis of mere orthographic convention(^'') w o u l d not adequately account for the reading tradition as preserved in. Unless one postulates.(^') Whilst one may agree that in Early lA the etymological /nJ tended(") to assimilate. having concluded that this kind of <n> in the dialect of the Vorlage of the proverbs of Ahiqar was clearly audible. for it may represent a stage prior to the onset of assimilation. It is not. that here also we have to do with a case of degemination. were a mere orthographic device for indicating the length of the following consonant. it is patently untrue that the < n > in forms such as t>V7] H i m p v . As an argument for his position. by contrast. a secondary root *'7V^ on the analogy of its antonym. for instance. T o disregard such evidence seems to us to be tantamount to throwing out the baby with the bathwater. See our discussion in Muraoka (1983-84:9If. of V'p'pu is etymologically conditioned. ]raN. der im gesamten Reichsaramaisch ohne n gebildet wird.14. so [yinten]. So also Folmer 1995: 89f. Furthermore. so [yittenj. especially < n > . goes on to say that. This inscription contains three examples of the b of the verb npb G preserved. one would have seriously to take into account the possibility of two alternative forms existing side by side as in BA: ]nr Dn 2. who was harshly criticised by Macuch (1965: XLVIILIII). mpl.(") Tiberian scholars could always ''^ So Spitaler (1954). which shows that the picture is not clear-cut.C") Kottsieper (1990:58). What appears in small print (ib. certain." without mentioning a single case of the kind.M::nK vs. of course. which is in contrast to . it was nothing but a matter of etymological orthography. where one finds nmnn 'bringing down' (line 2). in lA. c) shows that he is somewhat hesitant.) writes: "sie [= l A scribes] oft genug ein etymologisch anzusetzendes /n/ vor Konsonant nicht in der Schrift ausdriickten. along with Bergman (1968). He who takes the Tiberian tradition as the starting point for a discussion on Biblical Aramaic would not necessarily have to postulate that the G impv. that the antiquity cannot be the sole relevant dimension is proven by a much earlier Aramaic document. the Tel Fekheriyeh bilingual (9th century?)." Likewise. We mentioned already conflicting evidence in the Bauer-Meissner papyrus (late 6th century) .PHONOLOGY \5 consonantal graphemes. Kottsieper (ib..).

23)C^) is going t o o far in the other direction. n. does admit the existence of an earlier Babylonian substratum of l A . Kottsieper (1990:145)..) on the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud. one may conclude that the Aramaic idiom in question was in the habit of assimilating an /n/ in a phonetic environment such as presented here. however. Taj.16 PARTI: §3e-/i have resorted to the Qre/Ktiv device if such <n> had been transmitted to t h e m as silent. See also Morag (1988:169f. as Kottsieper (1990:60. an Inl was phonetically present before the 161.4:6. not written" (Kaufman 1 9 7 4 : 1 2 1 . mentioned by Kutscher (1970:374). and esp. pace Kottsieper (1990:59f.). Assumed on the basis of later Aramaic traditions. n. In any case. Likewise non^ < not^n^ 'he will be restrained' C l . as in some later Aramaic dialects(^^): nnn« (< nnt^nt^) 'they were seized' A4. On Syriac. Nu 31.). whilst the Yemenite vocalised Targum Onkelos. probably indicates the phonetic reality of the <n> of the Aramaic word. n. Dalman (1927:298) assumes. On the other hand. a cuneiform representation such as manf}alu 'entrance' for Aram. e. in the Aramaic idiom represented here. it must have been an attempt to reflect a certain phonetic reality. To say. On the contrary.(") e) fVf > IVU This type of assimilation('^) happens to be confined to tG (Ethpeel) of Pe-Alef verbs. i.30 inm\ Dt 23. 236) does with respect to another Assyrian/Aramaic contrast. which did not assimilate /n/.26isnn*° See Lindenberger (1983:46f. Approvingly cited by Kottsieper (1990:59.g. the absence of /n/. that..e. Anm. the gemination of Itl as compensation for the loss of /V. see Noldeke (1898:113) and Widengren (1971:221-23). the only example of tD(**) in o u r corpus has retained «: ^^r? 'he Beyer's position: "eine einheitliche Aussprache des Reichsaramaischen vorausgesetzt" (1984:91). Beyer (1984:90f . if not from V lo^ 'to disciphne. F o r at the time w h e n the practice of not writing such <n> was first introduced. points the Taw with a dagesh in those examples mentioned by Dalman when no Alef is written. 1). O n the other hand. 233). such as Syriac. . Kottsieper (1990:42) does not take into account the fact that this verb is most likely of a different binyan than the two remaining ones mentioned above. "prM.'('") The evidence available is too scanty to allow us to determine whether the assimilation w a s conditioned b y the presence or absence of a full vowel immediately after Z'/. daB der assyrische Schreiber den Namen anders aussprach als der aramaische" may be dogmatic.92). That ha-an-du-a-te on a cuneiform tablet from Nineveh is represented in Aramaic as mm does not prove. l : 175. "nichts spricht dafiir. " Thus pace Degen (1969:40. for Palestinian Jewish Aramaic. to suggest that "nasalization w a s a l w a y s present but often .

It appears that. all by same scribe. A4. " C f also Beyer 1994:278f See also below. in fact more often w i t h s than w i t h n : 23x vs.4) or s (Nathan son of Ananiah in B2.sg. B2. ntDDQ B3. is not followed by a vowel. who regards p'nr as dissimilated from p'CDr. "lapri [hezber] 'explanation.g. / b / . which appears to be by a different hand.7).^') f) Partial assimilation l\J > IXJ T h e adjective p ^nr 'old' is also spelled p ^c::: B3.3:2). 79. 1 2 : 2 9 — assimilation of n to its emphatic counterpart to in the vicinity of the emphatic p. The picture in the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud is not clear-cut: see Morag (1988:174).' speaks against Segert (1975:108). B 3 .1:8 where l\J has b e c o m e its voiced counterpart Id/ under the influence of the v o i c e d sibilant /z/. This looks like a case of partial and optional—note pTii. Syr.15:25 with 3 . /t/.3 and B2. is spelled rrntDSQ (e.m. it undergoes partial assimilation to the following voiceless consonant.11:15. Atq/. which occurs many a time in our corpus (e. Scribes for w h o m w e possess m o r e than one document write consistently either 3 (Attarshuri in B2. § r on metathesis.4 0 0 BCE. An obviously Jewish name n^ntODQ. The name of the scribe of B5.5 has not been preserved. where the voiced labial.3:36.(^^) g) / b / > / p / Another interesting variation involves a personal name.C''') Both spellings occur on a roughly comparable chronological span: n 4 6 0 .: /netC)allaf/. 14x. 'Take care!' (V "ini) A2. f.(^^) L i k e w i s e n m m t D impv.1:5. For the form with 3 at B2. l 4 in the endorsement.12:31 (// p n u i b . both 'to pass by..10:22. n ^ p ? n [hiftiah] 'he promised'.4 0 0 and D 4 8 5 (or 445) .' See below.6:17. 2 9 ) t . but with s at line 138.(^) Note a similar alternation with respect to the feature of voicing in M o d e r n H e b r e w : e.PHONOLOGY 17 will be instructed. h ) Progressive assimilation Tliere is found in our corpus one instance wherein a consonant closing a syllable influences the immediately following consonant: in n m m ( < nrrnm) t D i m p v .g.' /yiPallap/C?).8:2. one with 3 occurs at i b . B3. /ete:qu/ and Ugr. B3. That the word is most likely cognate with Akk. See our reference to Dalman's view cited above in n. .pl. § 7 . B2.6 and B2..g. The only exceptions are C3. A similar alternation is attested with their shortened forms: ntDiQ B2.6:3).

4. ^ The word bap. .' T h e obviously secondary forms with /r/ instead of /nf seem to have something to d o with the (virtual) absence of a vowel before the original /n/ and the word-initial consonant. but t w o identical sibilants is mao B3. if it mean 'its seals.6:9 for moD. ^)ro < "-li-ip 'calumny' D20.' seems to attest to unconditioned dissimilation.(^*) Three such examples occur in the Proverbs of Ahiqar: nDiiD 'his anger' C l . Moreover. l : 127.e. These few examples do not allow us to determine with certainty whether the sequence of the emphatics is a determining factor or not. 168. N o t e also ]rp C3. 170. TliD bz) iiiDn 'Harvest every harvest!' C l . and that a different mode of dissimilation compared with brpi< just quoted.11:9 // T\mp 'its part' or 'the part' (= \?mp) A2. immediately or otherwise. see Kutscher 1972:22 and Garr 1985:72. Cf. l : 8 5 . T h e consonant p sometimes dissimilates to its non-emphatic counterpart. e.2:7. and see Brockelmann (1908:159). should the former also mean •flax. Arabic /§ams/. See also below at p. 75. for derivatives of V piK with p following another emphatic. C f Brockelmann 1908:230.18 PARTI: §3i-7 i) Dissimilation{^^) The process opposite to what has just been described above seems to occur less frequently. does not show dissimilation in our idiom as in OA.Jongeling (1995:1040) its meaning is unknown.g. The same phenomenon is attested already in OA: Kii'D 'summer. /§im§a:V or /§an:^a:V. Tel Dan line 6bnpKi 'and I killed. n.' though we do find "ji'pcDD"' 'may they kill you' in an early 7th century document. KQ-CJD 'upright' C 1 . though with < q > preceding.(^) Finally. the Nerab example would present a complex process: assimilation followed by dissimilation! ^' Folmer (1995:99) assumes that it does. the original shape of the root is disputed: brp or bap. n. a discussion by Kottsieper (1990:42). when it is followed. by another emphatic within the same word. 1 : 1 5 8 .' and ~13 'son' over against ]"'D3 'sons. not from Egypt. 0 The only other examples to be found elsewhere are niiDn 'in part' C3. i. for /*sams/. On this last issue. but from Nerab in Southern Syria.(^) On the other hand. whereas for Hoftijzer .' See Degen (1969:42). TVO'^v D1.'(^') An e x a m p l e which does not involve emphatics. Cf.11:12 // ]nD ib. w e would note in passing ]nn 'two' over against ]"'n 'second.5:2. never show similar dissimilation.(^^) ^'Cf Folmer 1995:94-101. If it were brp. 3 ..51:l (for the standard spelling n^nptiJ).

C. possible that members of the speech community of Egyptian Aramaic perceived the Egyptian h.PHONOLOGY 19 j) Spirantisation The origin and date of the process whereby the six plosives fb. It is thus not clear whether these spelling variations represent the phenomenon familiar in H e b r e w and A r a m a i c conditioned by a preceding vowel or not. There is no telling whether or not the partial assimilation of 3 to s. Segert (1975:96." The fact that in 37 cases of Egyptian words or names containing hot t our Aramaic sources use n. /b.f") On the basis of the fluctuating transcription of the names of the Persian kings Xerxes and Artaxerxes in a sixth century Akkadif»Ti document with < k > and <h> Eilers(^0 concluded that the process had aheady begun by then.D A n early 7th century document from Nerab with -[iT^y 'may they kill you' (Nerab 1. ^ Kaufman (1974:119) rejects the Akkadian origin of this development. Besides.6. d. This personal name of apparently Anatolian origin is thought to be related to Luvian hant(a) and Hittite hanza. yet it is also spelled with Kaph: c n o m A 6 . d. § 2 a. in all likelihood. Eilers (1935:207.^^) It occurs in a d o c u m e n t dated to the late 5th century BCE.7) shows that the spirantisation had not See Kutscher (1971:374). n. possibly relying on Speiser (1939:5). was under way in the sixth century B. though he does not mention a study by Eilers (1940) showing Aramaic influence in this respect in Akkadian transliterations. k. as identical with f}. however. if this were phonetically equivalent to a spirantised /k/. g. and not D as in comparable Phoenician transliterations leads Muchiki (1994) to conclude that the spirantisation was not yet operative in Egyptian Aramaic. p. tl developed each its positional variant. in the speech habit of the a n o n y m o u s scribe concerned. there is no vowel preceding it. under certain conditions. which conceivably penetrated Old Aramaic. 6). It is. 1 4 : 1 // DTOi^m ib. 1 1 : l . p . Rosenthal (1961:13) holds that this is "an Aramaic development which. pronounced similarly to n. see Grelot (1972:476). n. discussed above (§ g). N o t e that.118). mentions Hurrian as a possible source of this development. Driver (1957:78) considers the spelling variation C T D I 3 D T A 6 . Muchiki does not appear to be aware of views of scholars such as Eilers and Kutscher. and Kaufman 1974:151f . t/ immediately following a vowel has been much discussed. 5) and Eilers (1940:70. T h e assumption would be that. On the literature. k. See also above. D was. was realised as /v/ (or bilabial /b/) > /f/. in yet another variant spelling of the name. g.

5:20 shows that the s t det^ niorpheme spelled with Alef no longer carried any consonantal value. l 0 9 attest to the weakening of the consonantal n as part of the theophoric name. or vice versa: ^n3N KCD"''ptJ? 'you are e m p o w e r e d ' 63. thus making the Alef a m e r e vowel-carrier. see below § 28. the Alef having become a mere vowel letter. see above § /. but cf. 12 ("|1K). On the dissimilation of /q/ to /k/.20 PARTI: § 3 it .10:16.h // vm] A4.(^*) k ) Possible weakening or elision of gutturals T h e conditional particle is consistently spelled ]n (once D7. the abnormal spellings t*^3T A4. XJ respectively. one cannot cite these n a m e s as evidence for the coexistence at an See also Muraoka (1983-84:90) and our remark below (§ 31 a).3:4 for the expected n^na 'its breadth' // H D I N 'its length' ib... '"'Cf. C f Lindenberger (1983:134). m 'this' (repeating the preceding n:T at the end of the preceding line) B3. where. D1. the words in question are immediately followed by a phrase <]Q« + cipher>. one of the Hermopolis papyri. Cf. " f .1:9./nd[a:'/= JA«71. w e note Dt2J\T B3. va^b mnn "PK ' D O not lead astray the heart' C l . 1 : 1 8 7 . with the sole exception of at A2.5:12 // M O T H 'its boundaries. u^-'b^ ib. In this connection w e ought to bear in mind a point aptly m a d e by Degen (1979:2If.. 3 : l + as well as t^''73!i P N C3.('"') Since the root v^ is foreign to Aramaic. however. 11. n\m for the expected nnnEJD 'its measurements' B3.14.y^ /^aggi/) is an unlikely collocation.6 Frag. which suggests that they may be adjectives rather than the corresponding abstract nouns.Ti7K?in A 3. l : 1 3 7 ( ' ^ ) .12:7f.) that positional allophones of the plosives could only begin to function after the interdental phonemes /d.9:18 l/vw A3. ^rbr\ n 'third' C l .)(^). ^ See also B3. XJ had shifted to /d. b+ as variants of . just as in B3. § 1 8 / F o r m s such as TV^y^ B2.6:18 (in the e n d o r s e m e n t of a document) for M ^ n ^ elsewhere in the document. B2.56:7)./ yet b e g u n in this p e r i o d and/or in Southern Syria.8:2 P N for H T i " ' A 4 .15:96 for n^'^sii i b . which also prefers Afel to Hafel.4:5.6:5. Furthermore.8:6 Cns) and ib.15 // 'm.10:13.4:5 probably attest to the weakening of the initial H e .. Syr. 100 ^. in a generally similar context (B3. An abnormal spelling such as n'?D nn^n (= «rra) 'the entire house' B3. .i N ^na . Another possible case of a weakened n is Tfl B2.' Also at the end of a word (a personal name).12:7f.3:14. Hence KJCnn = n^cjnri. T h e same applies to the occasional use of at the end of a word where the standard orthography has n.

Is it at all possible to infer from this that the widely accepted development (^alpu/ > /'alp/ > /'alep/ or /'alap/ > /'alep/ or Aalap/). Because -rcriN is no part of the ancient H e b r e w onomasticon.' The phrase recurs at A6. viz.1:2 for^b n^K 'I have . nnn 'sister.13:3. had already occurred? That is perhaps going a shade too far? As regards p T r a A6. On this spelling instead of n-nca?3. n. The n a m e of Esljor's wife. w e may note ^'^n^ B4. n. n^ntDDQ. are probably two distinct lexemes in origin. § g. See Dion (1974:118) and Tropper (1993:184f). n ^ntDSD. this must have resulted from an inner-Aramaic phonetic development. See also § 12 c. r n n . see also Porten 1985:50.2).8f:2 As it is thus confined to the three related documents.A r a m a i c word. see above.8b ahd nn^TtDD D6.('°^) Is it possible to speak of hypocoristic or endearing syncope? T h e aphaeresis of in the numeral for 'one' is a universal Aramaic phenomenon attested from Old Aramaic onwards. '""Cf Folmer 1995: 102-23. i. (1957:76.I1:2 Ginsberg (1969:633. The two forms.12:2 (nn-n ^©3) and may be restored at A6. T h u s 'much' A 3 . 5 : l (// ib.("^) Finally. The name is misspelled atB2. 79).8:10asTnc3Q.4. an alternative form of ^ n o D n n R A6. another p a n .e. 4) suggested a Babylonianism /ni§e: bi:ti/ 'household members' instead of 'women of household.32. f. is spelled twice n ^ t D s n B2. namely the shift of penultimate to ultima stress. C"'") A similar aphaeresis may b e considered possible in a personal n a m e T D m n n A6. Ginsberg's view is more likely than the assumption of aphaeresis. . See a discussion by Driver ad loc. It also occurs in ]rrym D6. n. but rather they evidence the phonetic change /h/ > /•/ or /h/ > / 0 / already in our period.6:3. On the other hand. On n ' for n'K. 216.11:4 (ditto).'C"^ 1) Apocope of^n The glottal stop at the end of a word-form not followed by any sound is often elided.4. Both occur in Eshor's personal reference (direct speech) to her. The one is not derivable from the other.14:l. a l o n g s i d e the usual spelling in this d o c u m e n t . since that would leave too many words and forms unaffected by such a development. 23.' appears in our corpus as nm A2. -^7^ > 'BD.2:5 et passim. "in.PHONOLOGY 21 early stage of two separate A r a m a i c causative binyanim Hafel and Afel. shared also by Samalian('°^): m. /ba:ta:/ and Aatia:/. The long internal /a:/ of the first is genuine in view of the Hebrew /'a:bo:t/ < */'alja:t/. C f also our observation at § 21 c. The shift of the stress to the ultima can hardly account for the aphaeresis.

The occasional use of n instead o f « for the st.13:9.25 //KtD[DD'7 ib.). 4 0 2 BCE) // imnb B4.1:4. Likewise the disjunctive personal pronouns for 'he' and 'she.2:4. nm'? G inf.39:10. /*qa'n/ (= PS /*(JaW) > /*qa:n/. e.3:4 + 9x and nDmb = 3D©« v^b l shall not sleep' D23. if < K'PDKQ.10:3 and KiJin B2. Of course. det. /*Ci»C/. of "IQK (B2. i. Cf. D7.6 (< /*bi'r/)C'^). ind7 G inf.22 PARTI: ^3 m-n A4. never spelled -1D««. l : 163.g.4:22 (437 BCE) // nn»^ Cl. ( ' ^ ) T h e glottal stop at the end of a syllable m a y be elided. presumably of an identical structure. which Kottsieper (1990:46) neglects altogether. /*malk/ > /mlek#/ and /malk-/. which takes two forms. 'well' A4. (i)V + /V + C > V C . K O T D 'bronze vessels' A3.10 where an Alef was added later above the line. historical spelling Kto«~i.g. see § 1 8 / . later than 4 0 7 BCE) // -^md? C l . ( " ' ) '"^ E.9:2t.' in. morpheme. A3. C f Degen (1969:54f. 2 : l .' spelled once without Alef. especially in the Hermopolis papyriC"^). Here also belongs p 'sheep' A4.5:Sbis as against its historical spelling n « 3 ib. by our period. ^n respectively (§ 11). of nn« 'to seize' (B3. and the only /Ca'C/ type is attested in our corpus . ""Cf. if the morpheme was -a' or -a:^.g.4:9. e. and Dion (1974:58). m ) Syncope ofH.1:213+. we could perhaps extrapolate from this and suggest that the same process applied to all segholate nouns. but remained /Ci'C-/.e. Isg.14:34. M o r e examples may be found below in § 5 g.g. D7. which are both spelled in O A as t^n.13:10.10:2. In the light of the OA forms. This occurs with Pe-Alef roots. Ktt7n 'the capital' B3A:6bis II the more c o m m o n . nn^n 'the house' B3. ntDOO'^ 'to reach' C2.1:20. his hypothetical Proto-Aramaic /huwa/ and /hiya/ are unacceptable. had elided. Likewise i^bDt2 'food (?)' C3. of s a m e (A4. it is not absolutely certain that the / V has been elided also where w is still written: e. See below § 1 8 / .2:8// HiJiQ B2. See also under Lamed-Alef verbs: § 34. nsoD (= KEOD) 'the silver' A2.3:4. •"^ C f Folmer 1995:106-9.10:6. iJio 'exit' B2. which probably shifted to / O i C # / or /(?eC#/. [The symbol # signifies that there is no further inflectional addition to the stem. B 2 .10:10.3. also J K D 'vessel. 4 7 1 BCE).4:17. Given the fairly frequent spelling without the odds are that forms with it are more likely historical or correct spellings. Though w e have only two nouns. B3.] It so happens that the absolute or construct state of a typical Aramaic segholate noun shows Id as its vowel..1:12. bDi2 < bom. For more details. Thus ~1D« G impf. the glottal stop. i.111:15. same word.C"«) Note also n'^ (= vb) 'not' A2.1:3.41. B4. Sefire I B 34 K i u .6.e. nn^ •he will come' B3.9:5. B3. Segert (1975:17). shows that.

7:8. synchronically speaking. Our assumption is that. noun 'hate' in two different w a y s : wtt? (8) and n^tt? (9).1:7.10. 1997b:13). could be scribal errors for nwa?.4:10 probably attest to a syncope of /*/ rather than /h/.8:40 ^n«32) < nK]t2J. T h e spelling not^ (= /losiri/?) 'to Osiris' D20.2:10. the prefix of the i m p f and ptc.1-7. namely /§ina:hi/ < /Sin'aihi/.' In the following cases which occur elsewhere in our corpus.s. im ( < *"i2?i«n) A2.sg. |nD{j. See also Folmer 1995:112. Lindenberger's alternative (1983:79). by ]p 'sheep.2:15 and n:xDr\ 'you will find' A2. /r'pfl'arh/.17.' which does not show the type of orthographic alternation as the other two nouns under discussion. it is hardly possible to determine whether it is A/ or /h/ that is to be assumed to have been syncopated: pnD2JnA4. nD{j . forms such as HDS?' 'he will find' A2. though the first form may attest to a syncope of the glottal stop. Both. C f Folmer 1995: 109-15. /sin'a:/ > /§ina:/. he spells a f.C*") N o t e also n^sn 'cure.' which is always (7x) spelled with Alef.' f.2 for the expected '-idik':? m a y indicate that the proclitic preposition had already lost its vowel.PHONOLOGY 23 n ) (iiOC + /V + V > C V ( " ^ ) An example illustrating this process is bl'i 'Babylon' A6. but added subsequently by way of orthographic correction T h e frequent word tt7^«3 'evil.abs. as o c c u r s several t i m e s in the same document. l ) typically prefer Afel to HafelC"). however. O'-n is attested in a 5th cent. e. j u s t as in the D stem. of the A or H stem was. becomes unlikely.("^) A l t h o u g h the p e r f o r m a n c e of the scribe of B 3 . This is a phenomenon well known in Classical Syr.9:6.15:l as against its historical spelling bi^n2 ib.("^) Since the Hermopolis papyri (A2.^ D7.nB3. with the Alef added above the lineC'^): the /V had probably been syncopated. . L i k e w i s e in^ (< *in^«0 'let t h e m bring' A2. D l . is probably a case of historical or etymological spelling. 3 leaves something to be desired.: see Muraoka (1987:12. however.1:9.2:7 'she shall dispatch. as corroborated by B3. See below § 2 8 . 5. BCE document from Asia Minor: KAI 258:3. If the glottal stop had already syncopated.g A6. Interestingly the accompanying Egyptian text shows Wsir. though the standard spelling of the divine name may simply be a graphemic accommodation to the Semitic principle of using an Alef to indicate a word-initial vowel.

n«m?2 'the oath' 82. Such a view cannot account for the Yod. This form. ' n o < ' n « D 'my pain' C 1.) cited by Folmer (1995:114) is better explained in terms of the merger of original Lamed Alef roots with Lamed Yod roots. m o . See also Widengren 1971:228-31. D 7 . l : 177.) view that in BA every Alef of this lexeme was etymological and that the st. This is attested.10:4+). '"ID represented a mere secondary formation. undermines Schaeder's (1930:239f.10:2. H K O I D 'his throne' B2.4:4. HKtDa G ptc. m o r p h e m e /ay/ had contracted to /e:/. 7 : l l //nn«tt7B3.cst. by the noun K H D 'master'C^"): HD 'my lord' D 7 . .2:6 (det. Interpretation of other Lamed-Alef verb forms is debatable: e.4:8 can be considered a haplography for Dn-no ( = OTKiD A6. This change m a y be a case of a weak glottal stop assimilating to the following homogenic vowel i or e.sg. 2 1 : l . The spelling n'no suggests further that 'my master' was probably pronounced ma:ryi: rather than ma:ri:. '^^ Cowley (1923:129) and Grelot (1972:397) restore A4.k i d elsewhere in the letter..pl. KID. for instance. ma:re:.C'^) A word with Alef as final radical appears to retain the glottal stop not only graphically. whilst DiTlKno on the same lineC^^) and jmn 'your sins' C 1. B2. C f Syr. and that despite cuneiform evidence mentioned by Tallqvist (1914:135a) and Zadok (1978:64f. l : 133. 1 5 : 3 . the apocope of the final radical y had not yet become universal. appearing in a text which was unknown to him as well as to Baumgartner. ' Cf Folmer 1995:113f unpn 'declaration' B7. l 5 4 .f.). /ma:rya:V with reference to the God of Israel or Christ. n n D 'its (f.24 PARTI: §3o-r vowelless . 1 1 : 5 . l 6 5 // ]1ST 'they will heaf i b . Note also n o 'my lord' Ashur letter 6 for .4:8 instead.8:26.sg.2:2. 'arriving' A2. also rrT^ 'the remainder of A 4 . w h i c h implies that the m. There is no compelling reason for seeing the form as singular.('^') • n n n 'their owners' A4. Cf.g. -]]KnDK 'I will hit you' C l . which occasionally occurs in B A in the Tiberian See also below § 30 e on the binyan -tA./cst. see § 34.) master' A3. as Folmer herself indicates.abs.2:19.2:6. ]i «npn 'they will call' i b .1:50 could be a historical/etymological spelling. F o r m s of the noun «-iD (/*ma:ri*/) are split: see the following subsection. For details. p ) V + /y/ + V > V + AZ + V TTiis feature. whom he criticises. '3«tDD 'he reached me' B 2 .8:5. but also perhaps phonetically when it is followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel: N K D H D •the throne' C l .

('^*) It is m o r e likely.1:176. In our corpus we find two synonymous verbs for 'to be able': briD and "^D". whilst the former occurs also as participle (twice out of 47 occurrences of the verb: brio B3.15.sg. seems to be unknown in our corpus.g. which of course is a different kind of 'error. So Kraeling (1953:253). B5.sg. appears to be confined to the imperfect('^'). is not attested in Ettafal elsewehre in Aramaic. on the basis of a sole instance (Sefire I A 29 rcccn""). K ' ] V 'the lonians' C3.7Jv2:10: cf.10:17.Leander (1927:51). for otherwise there would result a most extraordinary case of hiatus.26. bD^ demonstrates that the impf.7:15.PHONOLOGY 25 Qere traditionC^^). . The slight difficulty is that this frequent verb. On the other hand. 3m. BenFJayyim (1971:249) sees here a form of Ettafal..e. See Bauer .7:14. Dn 4. The question is whether a form such as bji^ could b e interpreted as derived from *b7iDt>i with a syncopated n.1:5. q) Syncope of/h/ The only certain case is that of sandhi in "b ]n 'if not' C1. § 18 h. See also Kaufman 1977:93. by a t B 2 . though brrD is of rather rare occurrence. rather than the ptc. e. of by is just as firmly established. below. p^D B3. B5. Dn 5. even including ]'«7in^ Dn 3:12 where the Ktiv is in keeping with the general trend in question.8:12('"). occuning 25 times. not fDKii A4. '^^ In the Tiberian tradition.10:7. i. '^^ Pace Kaufman (1977:92) and Fitzmyer (1995:87) it seems to us too daring to say.8. Kntp?. that O A was not subject to this/ule. possibly a mason's slip (so Degen 1969:67). preserving the original Yod. who also mentions nn'n B2. B2. 7 : l l . see § 35 h. then.' See § 8 a. m. Old Aramaic knows only the bnD type as in buy Sefire I B 25. See also a form such as p ' i i . « m n \ not H K I L T 'the Jews' A3.11:5). or pf. Kutscher (1972:33) has other reservations. this gentilic as well as *'}'? 'Levite' are exceptions.15. t> < in W e are probably dealing with a scribal errorC^^) in D'Tn 'between them' (B3. B A has no example of the bro' type.4:22).3:2 is most likely impf. The latter. 3m. causative passive: /yittasma*^/. the Tiberian tradition of Biblical Aramaic with its by.sg. that bDi>i and the like are derivatives of V r) /Metathesis Our idiom attests to a pan-Semitic('^^) phonetic feature whereby /t/ of the prefix of a t-binyan swaps its position with E.C^") Thus we find. attested only four times as a participle: Dn 2. also in the causative Afel.g.

Thus (= pl. 12 i. and subsequently Cy > Ci. tD impv. + ^ 'my') > 'my sons. s) Fluctuation between Iml and Inl The change ImJ > In/.) were interrogated' B2.3:4. simplified. nban" 'will be sent' A6. l : 8 1 .5:13. A2.). l : 124. Segert (1975:110) admits that this is a morphologically conditioned phenomenon. '^^ It is assumed here that the pronoun for 'my' had already lost the original a of ya.vs.'their' and Wtrmi 'you (m. and quite a few similar examples. of V nnt w e also observe partial assimilation of /t/ to /d/ under the influence of the voiced JzJ. p . namely those of the second and third person plurals at word-final positions: e. 24 d. if t h e r o o t b e V K I ^ D . n m t n D7.8:3.C ' ' ) t) Word-final cluster of two identical consonants A word-final consonantal cluster consisting of two identical consonants is. and not a case of genuine metathesis.pl. See Driver 1957:54. k. -m-m 'remained' B3.8:4 vs.f. ]n-. iJM^ "will be listened t o ' B 3 . nirm 'they intervened' A4.9:8 vs. is particularly c o m m o n with pronominal or personal morphemes.9:9. By analogy this process affected a noun whose est.2:10.vs.2:17. l : 147.'C") § 4. r:i:w 'they succeeded' A6.7:7 seems to be the only certain case of this change in word-medial position. In nmT« 'Take care!' A2.'your' (m. ] i n n T 'you bought' A3. p r © K 'we reached an agreement' B2.12:6. 8 : 4 2 .cst.sg.or ] 1 D . For details and discussion.Muraoka (1993:74). 3mpl of V boo ( C l .11:2. Whatever the precise phonetic nature of the sound represented by 0 may have been. see Jouon . l : 7 3 ) ( ' ' ' ) .26 PARTI: §35-§56 the initial radical when the latter is a sibilant(''°): ybnno' 'are supported' tD impf. it is clear that it shared a certain phonetic feature with the other sibilants.g. borcD 'you will be c l e v e r ' C l . see §§ 11 e. ]TTbv A2.1:200. Our main sources of knowledge On the possibility that we might be dealing here with a residue of an infixed t. Vowels What information we can retrieve from the written texts of our corpus about the vowels of their language and their behaviour is naturally meagre in the extreme. .pl. p n r o K 'was abandoned' A6. t>mm 'you will be called to account' A6.10:5. nonnvi 'was found' A4.11:4. nimn 'you will change' C 1. •in. form ended in a vowel. D D . as in nrbv 'on them' A3.. n o r m 'Guard!' C l . See also vnrw^ 'he will be sated' C l . as in Hebrew. Dn-.1:8. ]in.2:21.

Forbes . rendering s o m e significant revision of Cross and Freedman's theory necessary. the latter by default. matres lectionis. '^^ In contradistinction to Beyer j(-1984j. hardly Aahaitiya/ or the like. namely the use of n.. F u r t h e r m o r e . possessive suffix. h) Word-final Yod = /y/ A word-final Yod probably indicates a semi-vowel /y/ as in a gentilic such as mn^ 'Jewish' A2. Since then.1:6. Sarfatti 1995 is an insightful survey in the light of these recent advances. .B_8). 'she' A2. especially /a:/. especially as a result of the discovery of new texts such as the famed Tel Fekheriyeh bi-lingual (9th century BCE?). See Freedman . for they have lost their original consonantal value as a result of s o m e phonetic d e v e l o p m e n t or other('^'). and b) cases in which those letters appear where vowels can be assumed to occur. especially alternative spellings of what m a y be assumed to be an identical phonetic entity.2:3. The former are matres lectionis b y d e s i g n .3:12. and that generally for historical or etymological reasons. w e m a y draw upon our k n o w l e d g e of vocalism in later Aramaic dialects and also take cognate languages into account. 1 : l . f. who holds that unstressed wordfinal vowels were ^^nly^raphically represented in order to avoid misunderstandings.. the relative pronoun or conjunction.(''^) a) Word-final i vowel A word-final Yod indicates i as in " " T passim.2:19. impv.e. it is imperative to distinguish two types of data: a) cases in which these letters are used deliberately to indicate vowels. X and \ and (b) features of spelling. were often not graphically represented in OA and lA. W o r d . some significant advances have been made.Freedman (1952).Andersen (1992). especially where no such letter was used at an earlier phase of the language or they alternate within the corpus itself with cases where no such letter is used. which most likely ended The classic treatment of the subject is Cross . '^^ The fact that " 1 3 'foreigner' or p 'upright' is never spelled with a Yod. i.C^") In any discussion of possible use of certain consonant letters to represent vowels. does not invalidate Lindenberger's suggestion (1983:281) that rT'n might contain a vowel letter. Cook (1990) agrees with Beyer that final unstressed long vowels. ^nn« 'my sister' A 2 . "Ub^ 'Send!' A2. but have not been used by design in order to indicate vowels. a personal name.sg. m m n 'Hadadnuri' A2. § 5. as pointed out by Kottsieper (1990:78).PHONOLOGY 27 are (a) the use of the so-called matres lectionis.f i n a l vowels A word-final vowel is mostly spelled with a vowel letter. however. Isg.

cst. Whilst the absolute number of occurrences of the m o r p h e m e is rather small.pl.10:2. But if the original diphthong had already contracted to / e : / .pl.3 // ~\b i b .3:l 'Nabu. noun as in is likely to have ended with /ay/. excepting s o m e p r o p e r n o u n s . G juss.5:3. Similarly a n i s b e h ' n n n 'lower' A3. O n the other hand. n n n D 'Bactrian* D 2 . as just stated. o n s 'Persian' C2. there is not a single case in which the Yod is wanting.5:4. see § 34 b) verbs. There is no internal clue for determining how the m. C f the preposition n n « 'after' C l . in which case the letter would be. not every word-final W a w is an indication of an u vowel. So m o s t likely w 'May they come!' A6.1:8. -niiJ 'Arabian' C l .1:l m a y h a v e sounded. ending as in n s o 'the scribes o f A6.5:8.pl. d) Word-final Waw = o A word-fmal W a w . l : 83. contrasting pairs such as -m^K B 3 . 'H'K 'Sidonian' C 1. n : i D 'Egyptian' C 3 . 3 : 3 . 6 : l l / / m n s i b .Y o d and .pl. -DV 'Greek' C 3 . ^3Dm 'Plyrcanian' B 8 .pl. m.Y o d and L a m e d . see below § 6 e. ^DiJii 'Zoanite' C 1.pl.' a divine n a m e . Thus the ubiquitous Tetragrammaton in% ending rather with o. ^ D D D 'Caspian' B3. bj 'they detained' A4. c) Word-final Waw = u A word-final Waw may indicate u as in in 'he' A2. l : 5 9 . as is evident from the alternative spelling UTT: see below § 5 e./du. a mater lectionis by default only. l 2 both 'his father' and "Db B3.28 PARTI: §5f-c with /-a:y/: likewise -o-iK 'Aramaean' B2. n D « 'they said' A3. synchronically speaking. of nn«. of K^D. 1 9 : 3 3 . C f § 8 c(.. in other words. Likewise I3n 'they built' A4. Whether or not every word-final / vowel was indicated by a Yod is s o m e w h a t debatable. This may be the case with s o m e forms of L a m e d . impv. the conjunctive pronoun 'my' with a m. "Dnn 'Khwarezmian' B2. on the contraction of diphthongs. the reverse is not always true. though historical spelling usually retains the Yod. Did the length of the vowel concerned and/or the position of the stress have anything to do with this fluctuation? Later Aramaic shows little trace of such a vowel. p f 3m. "in 'Median' B3. the spelling with Yod would be merely traditional/historical.2:25. every word-final u v o w e l is represented by a mater lectionis W a w . may indicate o.1:207. l 2 'to you' (both referring to a woman) deserve our attention.7:13. In this regard. O n e may safely assume that.2:15.A l e f (on the latter. G 3m. See further below at § 34 on L a m e d . 1 : 2 0 7 .1:2. U] A2. See below § 12 e. ending with aw or o.4:2. ^v^D 'Hear!' C l . 3m.1:19. On the other hand.2:2./du.6:17. 7 A r 2 : 2 1 . I 2 : 2 ..

8:9.PHONOLOGY 29 Lamed-Alef verbs. (1) The co-existence of defective spellings and occasional plene spellings. a few observations must be made. are w e to interpret every n]« 'you' (2m.5:20.10:15 (with dittography). or o A word-final H e may stand for a.e. That the Heh is a vowel letter is evident from the way in which "pVi 'those' is formed. l : 184. conjugation including a form such as "Diy 'he brought (suit) against you' B2. ibD nn-D (for the standard S'PD m2) 'the whole house' B3. As emphasised by Kutscher (197L103. T h e two forms may have coexisted for quite some time. 7ib 'not. nm That the final He is a mere mater lectionis is apparent from its absence in the rest of the Pf. which had never earlier existed. despite the fact that the pronoun is never spelled plene in Early A r a m a i c ? (2) In addition to theoretical considerations on the history of Aramaic phonology and orthography. even if diachronically the one developed from the other.1 :72C'^).3:12. .7:14('^").105f. namely by adding <k> or <ky> to a form of the near deixis (§ 14 c). l : 1 7 1 . e. n]K T passim. unstressed long vowels.s. every single -[ in O A and l A is a defective spelling for /-aka:/.) in Q A . on account of n D . 'our' (§ 12 h) does not have to mean that the long form. only to b e replaced subsequently by the shorter variant as a result of apocope of unstressed word-final vowels. For e: n n K 'a lion' C l .). 18/. each individual case must be considered with reference to general orthographic patterns of a given document or scribe and the professional quality of scribes.('^*) ^ As regards an attempt to admit a m u c h m o r e widespread defective spelling of word-final.'your' (m.or o. The use of He for a word-final a is one of the well-recognised hallmarks of the Hermopolis papyri. /a:/ in particular.' often in the Hermopolis papyri instead of the standard vh. of mn 'to be' C1.vs. '^^ See especially Cook 1990. npS3 G ptc.sg. For a: n i s o (the first w o r d for the standard « " ) S D ) 'this document' A2. 3m.s. e) Word-final He = a.sg. f. See also § 14 b. than the orthography of our corpus seems to suggest('^^). m a d e its appearance out of the blue late in the history of A r a m a i c . of psD 'to exit' C l . « n o «3T 'this house' B3. nb^ 'these' B3. mn G pf. Otherwise one would be compelled to assume that. whereas not a single case of plene spelling for this morpheme is attested in O A and lA. Likewise. such as |.) in O A and l A as Aanta:/ on the strength of B A Ktiv and Q A nn3«.

of i^bn 'to b e full'.16. (/»arye:/ ?).'to build. 1 : l l . For o: rather exceptional is n m . f) Word-final Alef =^ aor e A word-final A / ^ / m a y also stand for either a or e. though for different reasons. see under § 37 d-k. m)' 'he will proceed' D7. For more examples of this type. morphemes. obviously instead of im. TKT 'will be.(*'"). namely the apocope of the final vowel. the n a m e of the J e w i s h deity at Elephantine—^B2. l 1:1.D7. But the rare spelling of the plene forms of the conjunctive pronouns. 3m. which probably indicates that the phonetic process in question w a s effectively complete by then.30 PARTI: § 5f-j 'coming' G ptc.abs. which probably dates from a period when the originally consonantal word-final Alef had. «n^^ at C l . § 3 /. however.7:14.h. of mn A4. n.4:2.2:7. m.see below § 46 jb). most likely Kip^ B7.7:23.are found in documents dating from as early as the 5th century BCE.1:2 (495 BCE) // ™ m B2. 2 : 7 . as a consequence of a phonetic development.and Kn.3. B3.sg. b e c o m e a virtual mater lectionis.sg.' G impf.11:16 (410 BCE). n o genuine mater lectionis. non-standard spellings «3T 'this' (§ 14). (generic? . whereas nnn ib. 197. see above.7. l : 1 8 3 .21:3. Isg.3fs. 3 5 : l t . § 37.("*') In most of these cases. In conclusion.* is likely to be in the stdet. came to preclude such a spelling once and for all. See also m«nm 'Jehour' B5.' G inf. i^b 'not' passim. On the interpretation of the st. On the last verb see below. D7. the final Alef is essentially historical or etymological. For e: i>bm B 3 . and 'here' (§ 22 a) must b e considered cases of Alef as genuine mater lectionis.6:3. of Kip 'to call' B12\l{'eqre rather than ""cqra: see § 34). being parallel to k'^'K 'gazelle. 2m.5:6. In point of fact. l : 2 ( " ' ' ) . A2. 165 is in the st.18:3. See below § llg. K r i 'here' D l . D7. g) Multivalence of word-final matres lectionis Thus each of the four matres lectionis is multivalent. G impf. s o m e of the cases of K3. i^can 'the sky' A l . there See a recent reconsideration by Andersen (1992:79-90) of Cross and Freedman's position regarding Alef as a mater lectionis in Old Aramaic (1952).8:9. «]Ipl.{^^^) F o r a: K U Q 'he arrived' B 7 . Andersen agrees with Cross and Freedman. but the conservative scribal tradition prevented further spread of this spelling innovation until another phonetic development. m3Q':'. Kin 'a daughter' B2. .sg. of m n A3.3:2. tG impf. and Kn.emph. D 7 . This is an archaic Hebrew form of the n a m e .



b e i n g no o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . T h i s m u l t i v a l e n c e is compounded by variations and inconsistencies such as nmo'^ 'to reach' C2.1:20,25 // minnb i b . 4 1 ; N^nnn'^ nbv ]D 'from "above" to "below"' B3.12:16 / / i^'bvb N^mn ]D^ ib.8; ™ n^D 'east' B2.10:6 // WHD NiJiQ B2.3:6 (two different scribes of 416 and 460 BCE respectively); even with a personal n a m e and in same document— nniK D 7 . 9 : l // «mK ib.3.('^') Note also t^s-DT B2.8:2 for the usual 'Jedaniah'; 'an Aramaean (woman)' ib.3; nnn'^t^ 'the goddess' for the usual mnbvi ib.5; t^-Q 'daughter' ib.9 for the usual mn. O n e can hardly speak of scribal consistency, as is clearly illustrated by the just-quoted scribe of B2.8. However, the Hermopolis papyri are consistent in their spelling nb for the standard v6 'not.' h ) Word-final long a graphically not visible? Whether a supposedly long word-final a m a y occasionally have not been graphically indicated will be discussed later under Pronouns (§ 1 1 a ) . i) Spelling of unstressed word-final long a Kottsieper (1990:80) cites n]n]t^ 'we' as the sole exception to his rule that an unstressed word-final a: is spelled defectively. However, one should include here i^t)"] 'our' A6.10:2 (see below § 12 g) and the adverbial i^hD 'entirely' (see below § 22 c), the latter of which, according to the Tiberian accents, is mil'el, i.e. stressed penultimately.(*''^) j ) Pronouns in and T h e forms of the p r o n o u n s in 'he' and M 'she' indicate that by our periodC''^) a word-final, short vowel had been lost. Their earlier forms are generally assumed to have ended with a short a preceded b y a glottal stop. T h u s the subsequent d e v e l o p m e n t was probably: * / h u W > /huV > /hu/ and * / h i W > /hiV > /hi/. Since in OAC"*) suggests that the Proto-Aramaic 3rd sg. disjunctive pronouns had, like the Hebrew counterparts, a glottal stop as their component and thus differed from Classical Arabic with / h u w a / and /hiya/, the W a w and Y o d in our forms are
On the fluctuation in spelling of the theophoric element, cf. also Folmer 1995:121. On the stress position, see Bauer - Leander (1927:88). •''^ By any account, Beyer's view (1984:88) that these vowels must have dropped by the 12th century BCE at the latest seems to be too extreme; see also a critique by Kottsieper (1990:83). Segert's reading of m at Sefire III 2 2 (Segert 1975:166) is now generally rejected.





genuine v o w e l letters, though they do not necessarily indicate ; long u and / respectively; they may simply be a graphic distinctioi b e t w e e n the t w o v o w e l qualities, k ) Pleonastic word-final Alef There are t w o e x a m p l e s , both in a s i n g l e document, of ai otiose word-final Alef f o l l o w i n g another mater lectionis: nr~i! «1D] 'Pharaoh N e c h o ' D23.1 V a : l l , XII:7 / / I D D n r n s ib. VIII: 12

'she' ib. XIII:4.C^^)
§ 6. W o r d - m e d i a l vowels a)Yod^i A Yod is often written in the m i d d l e of a word to indicate what is presumably /. Thus ^n^N 'there is' A5.5:8; mrin 'province' A6.1 :l; « n r a o 'boat' A3.9:7; DnnTDi? 'their work' C1.1:207C'«); m a n y qatti.l pattern adjectives such as WDU 'wise' C 1.1:35; ]'on 'strong' C l . l : 8 9 ; T p 'precious' C l . 1 : 1 5 9 ; nv 'strong' C l . l : 8 3 ; :)^niJ 'old' B2.7:6; K T H P 'rich' C l . l : 2 0 6 ; p n i i 'righteous' Cl. 1:126; brbp 'light' C l . 1 : 1 6 0 ; yip 'near' B2.1:9; p^nn 'distant' B2.1:9; p t j n 'evil' C l . 1 : 1 0 4 ; 'abundantOy)' C l . l : 2 9 ; 'empowered' B2.1 :l 1; TSto 'beautiful' C 1.1:92; passive G - T H D 'was 'written' B2.1:10; t?'^ 'were killed' A4.7:17; r^DtJ? ptc. 'heard' A3.3:13; hollow-root verbs - rro 'he died' B2.1:8; 'they will put' C l . l : 163; mpn 'I reestablished' C2.1111:1. Unusual is p 'if D7.56:7 for the standard ]n.

b) Waw = u
A Waw is often written in the m i d d l e o f a w o r d to indicate what is presumably u. T h u s ]Din« 'your brother' A 2 . 5 : l ; 7t>^tn 'virgin' C l . 1 : 1 3 4 ; pnD 'tunic' A3.3:9, A3.8:9C''); "nnr 'grain' A 3 . 1 0 : 5 M " ' ) ; «nDi':'Q 'reign' B 2 . 2 : l ; i^m3« 'temple' A4.7:17 et
'''^ An orthographic practice, known as digraph, typical of Qumran Hebrew and Aramaic documents: e.g., Klin for lin 'they were' IQapGen 19.24 and the ubiquitous n o for Once in BA: Ezr 6.15 K':i'tD. See Qimron 1986: § 100.51. The word p' 'the right-hand side' is consistently so spelled: B2.11:4,6; B3.6:3. Cf. Arb. yaman alongside yami:n, Heb. ''JO\, and Eth. yama:n. as against JA and Syr. yammin. Also -jDiriD 'your tunic' A3.3:9. This is probably affiliated to JA wins (= as distinct from tons 'linen': c f Arb. katta:n. In Syr. kettaina:'conirz&i^ with kuttina:', for the latter of which we find a variant kytwn' at John 21,7 in the Vetus Syra: see Lewis 1910. This useful orthographic distinction, however, is not observed in ]nD " " T i ]ro 'one linen tunic' A3.3:l 1.

Syr. Avura:V; J A i n i J .



passim (< Akk. ekurru)^^^, ]DOnoin] 'Nabusumiskun' C L 1 : 5 4 et passimC'^"); yp3D' 'they will release' A3.1r:6; xm' 'he will die' B2.6:17. c) Waw - o In -^m 'darkness' C l . 1:173 and ] n « 'chest' A2.5:4, however, the W a w most likely indicates d) Frequent defective spellings Spellings in which vowels are not graphically represented, are by n o m e a n s rare, even in the same words and forms as quoted above: mnri A5.2:7 (for ^nrio); 34.4:16,17 (for O'b^Y «n"in 'fortress' B3.4:4 (for N H T D ) ; o n « 'your brother' A2.1:2 (usually oin«). This is so even in the same documents: o n r a K 'your wifehood' B3.11:7 (supra-linear correction) // ^^X\^xm ib. 10; OT\T J e h o i s h m a B3.7:2 / / lityD"^T^' ib.8; 'given' G ptc.pass. A6.1:2 II yr? i b . 3 ; pnr 'old' B2.7:12 //p^nr ib.6; B2.9:14, B2.10:15, B2.11:10, B 3 . 8 : 3 l , B6.3:10, p r n « B3.7:17, B3.9:7, B3.10:20, B3.11:10,14, B3.12:30, B 5 . 5 : 6 , l l // p3n« B3.6:8,14, B3.13:6, w n n « B3.13:7("^); byiiv^ 'architect* B2.8:2 / / boiiv^ B2.6:2('"); ]TnD 'written' B3.11:7 // pnD i b . l 1,15; npn G impf. 3f.s. of Dip // Dip^ ib.7; n a m e s — a m i Vidranga B2.10:4 // am^i ib.2; 'HonnnK Ahatubasti A6.14:l,4// TOninn A6.13:3,4(''*); rmm B3.4:2 // rmm B3.5:3("^); pm 'beams' B3.4:5 // ]i\m B3.10:13, B3.11:2, B3.12:13 (B3.4, B3.10-12 b y same scribe); «ptt7 'street' B2.7:14 // «pitJ7 B2.1:14. O b s e r v e a variation in an idiomatic phrase: p^nm n n p B2.1:8 ( 4 7 1 BCE) / / p n m m p B2.7:10 ( 4 4 6 BCE), though of t w o different scribes("*°); 'Qnn 'boundaries o f
For the k/g correspondence, see Kaufman (1974:139). " ' S e e K o m f e l d (1978:61). See Bauer - Leander (1927:188). •'^ If the scribe of B3.6, Haggai, is the same as that of B3.10, Haggai son of Shemaiah, his spelling is not consistent. •'^ Borrowed from Akk. arad ekalli 'palace slave.' Cf. Driver (1957:76, 79). •'^ According to Grelot (1972:507), the u is short. •60 w^hiist Kottsieper (1990:74-7) makes a plausible case for the consistent plene spelling of this pattern of adjectives and its derivatives in the Ahiqar proverbs, rejecting the suggestion by Lindenberger (1983:281) to the contrary, one wonders whether a scribe can ever be thoroughly consistent: note "fehlerfreie Schreibung" (Kottsieper 1990:84). For one of the disputed cases at C l . l : 8 9 , Porten - Yardeni read u m i r t a K f o r Kottsieper's and Lindenberger's K m n r t ^vt. Another case of possible defective spelling, D m r r 'their paucity'





B3.4:7 // -mnn B3.10:8, B3.12:9 (same scribe), "-mDnn 'its boundaries' B3.4:17 // MiDinn B3.10:16, B3.I2:17+ (same scribe); Tton 'striped' B3.8:7 / / nton B2.6:7; p n 'palm-leaf B2.6:16 // p i n B2.9:6, B 3 . 8 : 1 7 ; n'^^np 'complaint' A 6 . 1 5 : 5 , l l // rhnp A6.8:3. The last pair may be two synonymous, but distinct lexemes. e) Contraction of diphthongs and word-medial Yod or Waw W h e t h e r a given word-medial Yod or W a w represents e, i or o respectively depends also on one's view regarding the possible contraction of diphthongs ay or aw respectively; see below § 8. Other than that, these two letters d o appear to be used to transliterate e, i or o of foreign names. E.g. nin H o r B 1.1:16+; •-TDitDD Petosiri B2.11:4+('^'); oiripDiDin Hermoniketos C3.29:17 ('"); the name of the 12th Egyptian month Mesore spelled rniDD C3.7Jr2:26+; v^^ob^u 'the Cilicians' A6.7:11 // v^^Dbn A6.5:3,4,5. f) Alef or He hardly used as word-medial mater lectionis Alef or H e is hardly ever used as a word-medial vowel letter. Rare exceptions are foreign names: e.g. ont^np^'^D Polykrates C3.29:16('"); and possibly mn^^ A4.2:17, which is spelled at ib.l without K . ( ' ^ ) T h e unique u^b B6.3:8, if genuine, for the usual marking direct speech, would be a more archaic spelling, if the particle g o back to -nfh. g) Yod or Waw = historically long i or u If one leaves out names and foreign wordsC^"*), a Yod or W a w , where it represents / or u respectively, seems to be used where one expects a historically long / or m , e.g., D^Dn (= /l)akki:m/)
C l . l : 9 0 is derived by Kottsieper (1990:77) from */zu^aa-u/, for which he cites Syr. /z5ora:V, which however is not of the pattern qutadu, but of quttadu. Pace Beyer (1984:414) there is no need whatsoever to see a case of defective spelling in ]T :i 'Sidon' C3.12:7+; cf. Syr. ^ydn. See Grelot (1972:486). '"Kornfeld (1978:117). Kornfeld (1978:118). According to Grelot (1972:390, 498), the spelling with Alef reveals the etymology of the name: "Que Yah ouTsse !" The form with Dalet, identical with (Jer 35.3; Ez 11.1), is said to be Aramaising. See n. 6 above. " " ^ mat^ 'temple,' for instance, is considered to be an Akkadian loan-word, ekurru with a short u: see Kaufman (1974:48). The first vowel of the Greek form for 'Cilician,' K i X i ^ , is considered to be short. The phenomenon is attested already in the Tel Fekheriyeh inscription: by\y (line 2) = Akk. gugalu 'water-master.' We are not convinced by Andersen - Freedman (1992:137-70, esp. 143, 145, 168f.) that the inscription uses < w > for long /u/ and/or short /u/ under stress. C f tss'Iis-n 'police' A4.5:9, which is spelledtss^nan at Dn 3.2,3.



•wise' C l . l : 3 5 a n d mp 'Stand!' D7.24:5. F o r this reason, the defective spelling of the m.pl. abs. m o r p h e m e /-i:n/, which is the m l e , is most strikingC^^): e.g. ]1D ' w i n d o w s ' B3.5:8 // pD (an exceptional spelling) B2.10:6. C o m p a r e also ynm 'anointing' A4.7:20 with the improved spelling ]nm A4.8:20; fiDH 'saying' A4.7:22 / / ] ™ A4.8:22; ]nD3D 'talents' A4.7:28 // pDlD A4.8:27. For further rare exceptions to this mle('*^), see below § 18 ^. On the other hand, the plene spelUng of a partly restored word nnii C 1.1:3 in an expression npTiJ n^nii 'seal-bearer' is puzzlesome, since the first constituent is generally assumed to be derived from Akk. saibitu with a short /.('^^) See also the unusual spelling 'if D7.56:6 for the standard p . h ) Consonantal Yod or Waw Needless to say, not every word-medial W a w or Yod is a vowel letter. Apart from cases of preserved diphthongs, / a w / or /ay/, such as KDV 'the day' and 'the house' (see above § 6 e), our decision in this matter is often informed by our knowledge of forms of lexemes and grammar of later dialects with traditions of vocalisation or pronunciation. T o give several examples and categories, n o vowel letter is likely in: K^ia 'inner' C3.19r:l (= /gawwa:y/?); p 'water' C l . 1 : 1 6 1 (= /mayyi:n/?); pD 'windows' B3.10:13 (= /kawwi:n/?); n i D 'thus' A2.3:7 (= /kwa:t/?); msts 'the lips of C1.1:151 (= /§ipwa: t/?); 'fasting' A4.7:20 (a masculine plural G participle of a hollow root, V D : ^ : /§a:ymi:n/?); '3n^n 'they obligated m e ' B8.6:10 (a D perfect of a hollow root, Vmn: /haybu:ni/?). § 7. Vovt'el l e n g t h Notwithstanding what w e have stated just above (§ 6 g) it is not likely that vowel length was phonemic in the case of Iii and /u/. Though there were most likely stable f s and w's which were not subject to the vowel deletion rule as in pTO 'written,' Peal passive participle, masculine plural (B3.5:12) and ]T\iy 'they will die' C 1.1:110, we cannot think of any minimal pair where the length of either vowel would have led to semantic opposition of two forms which would otherwise be identical. But as for /a/, such a
'P^ This orthographic feature is shared by OA, but not by Fekheriyan, which has pn'PK as well as ]n'?«, on which see Muraoka (1983-84:84-87) and Andersen - Freedman (1992:153). See below § 18

Pace Lindenberger (1983:281),

]'Dn C l . l : 89 is no exception to this rule:

the word means 'strong': see also Kottsieper (1990):74). Kaufman (1974:96) is sceptical about the suggested Akkadian etymology.


PARTI: § 8 a

phonemic opposition may be assumed: thus /malkat/ 'the queen o f vs. /malka:t/ 'the queens o f N o n e the less, we shall here follow the widespread convention of transliterating historically long / and u as / i : / and /u:/ respectively. T h e length of word-final vowels, especially those of inflectional m o r p h e m e s , is also uncertain. Their occasional plene spelling does not by itself indicate long vowels: e.g. mmt^ 'we' vs. ]n3b^; in 'he'; Ti 'she'; h d - v s . " j - 'your'; ^m- 'his'; 'mrD 'you (f sg.) wrote.' § 8. C o n t r a c t i o n of d i p h t h o n g s a) Diphthong /ay/ T h e d i p h t h o n g / a y / is likely to have been contracted or m o n o p h t h o n g i s e d to / e : / or the-4ike('^^) as is s h o w n by such u n o r t h o d o x s p e l l i n g s as Dn -n for DTTn B2.7:14, B 2 . 1 0 : 7 , B 3 . 5 : 1 0 , l l 'between them'(''°); pn ^3l3ptD 'they beat m e on the legs' B8.4:5(''') as against yyv 'eyes' C l . l : 157 and p T 'hands' B2.6:8; 'then' B 3 . 6 : l as against the usual p i K B 2 . 8 : 4 + ; ]" 'wine' (not st.cst.) C3.1:2,3,4,5. This feature is most prominent in the Hermopolis papyri: e.g. n n ni 'Temple of Banit' A2.2:12 // n n m i b . l ; nnin 'in his house' A2.2:15; TTzn 'in my house' A2.3:12 (with the m i d d l e Y o d written above the line by the same scribe); inn" 'let them bring' A2.5:4 //pTin 'you will bring' ib.5, both A of nm\ HTinb 'to bring' A 2 . 4 : l l // w^'d? ib., both A inf of same verb, at A 2 . 4 : l l ; nm{= nn^K) 'I shall bring' A2.1:10; mn 'I w a s ' A2.5:8 (§ 37 b) as against mn A3.5:4. C f also D^DT 'their weapons 'C'^) A4.8:8 (407 BCE) // w^T 'the weapon' D7.57:9; ^T\2 'our house' C3.28:53 // KDnn ib.48 (3rd cent. BCE); D D S D K 'your face' A5.1:4 (436/35 BCE) // pDb^ A2.5:2. S o m e n o u n s , including diminutive qutayl nouns, however, are regularly spelled with a Y o d : u^bv 'lad' A4.3:8+; nnybv 'his lass' C7.9:6; b^n 'palace' C l . l : 9 ; possibly T ^ T 'small' C l . 1 : 1 4 5 , D 7 . 5 : 3 ; the numeral
•'^ Cf Folmer 1995: 173-78. The last two examples, from a Kraeling papyrus (no. 4), were unknown to Leander (1928:16 g), who put down the other two to scribal errors, though holding it possible ("wohl eher") that the process of contraction had already begun. Something seems to be amiss with the text: parallel to the immediately preceding 6 "pjiQDn lo l-EDn "DicriD 'they struck me on the palm of the hand 10 (times and) on the sole of the foot 6 (times),' one misses a preposition with Rather than 'their kinds, types' ?



'two' ] n n A6.2:l&f, p m n B6.4:4+; pQ 'water' A4.5:7; yi^n 'Egypt' A6.9:2+; yOD 'heaven' A4.3:3+. All these are admittedly cases of word-medial diphthong.('") However, note noio 'a horse' </susay/ (?) A 6 . 1 2 : 2 ( " ' ) , C 1 . 1 : 3 8 . ( ' " ) There is no k n o w i n g with certainty how the m.pl./du. est. ending m a y have sounded.(''^) However it is always spelled with a Yod as in "^bv 'lads o f C3.27:30; 'sons o f B2.9:2+; w 'days o f A4.7:13; "T 'hands o f C l . l : 170. The same applies to a m.pl./du. noun with a possessive suffix for 'my' as in ^nt^ 'my brothers' A 3 . 1 0 : 1 ; "n 'my s o n s ' B2.10:9+; "T 'my h a n d s ' C l . l : 1 5 5 ( ? ) . ( ' " ) Significant is DDSDN 'your face' A5.1:4 (436/35 BCE), which w a s evidently p r o n o u n c e d /-pe:-/. N o t e also H3Sb^ 'our presence' C 3 . 2 8 : l , 9 1 = «Bt?5 (?)("*). This document, however, is of a relatively late date, 3rd c. BCE: see also wn3 'our house' mentioned in the preceding paragraph. More important, however, is the spelling pattern of the pi. tantum 'life.' T h e st.abs., which we may postulate as /hayyi:n/, is always spelled with a single Yod (A2.4:5, A 2 . 7 : l , A4.7:3, D7.21:2), but the e s t with a double Yod, (mr K I S D ) ^^n 'the life of (this document)' B 4 . 7 : 5 , as well as forms with conjunctive p r o n o u n s such as "n 'my life' B2.3:8 and yn 'your Hfe' B3.6:12. The est. ^--n could, in theory, have been spelled ^n, if the diphthong had contracted (/hayye:/), although one could explain the actual spelling as a result of scribal inertia, namely it w a s felt appropriate to add a second Y o d as a m e r e graphic representation of the m.pl.cst. morThe last three, particularly and yon, might have to be viewed separately, if they ended with /-ayin/ rather than with /-ayn/. See Driver (1957:73). So

pace Leander (1928:97 h "sein Pferd," i.e. <Dio). Notenoo Deir Alia

II 15. Also pace Leander (1928:15 c) one reads now yy2 'number, sum' at B4.5:3, which therefore does not contrast with ya 'minas' A6.2:17. The only sure case of conu-action of stressed, word-medial /ay/ that Leander (1928:15 c) was able to cite was mrn H pf. Isg. of n r at B2.6:35 // nnrn C 1.1:50, on which see below, § 37 /. C f § 8 fl and Folmer 1995:182-84. C f n n r 'my deeds' Gn 4.8 (Klein 1986: I, 7) for the standard ending /-ay/. This example is not discussed by Fassberg 1990:115. ™ Grelot (1972:13, n. o) offers quite a different interpretation: 'a echeance.' (At C3.28:l the form is prefixed by n and at ib.91 by b.) Pace Segert (1975:173), y±> B 3 . 1 3 : l l does not belong here, because it means 'bricks,' not 'to our son' (Degen 1979:26).




pheme.C'^) Note, h o w e v e r , "21 in "21 p i n 'one of the officers of m y father' C l . l : 3 3 : if it b e to b e derived from V "21, the final Yod c o u l d represent /ye :A('^°) b ) Diphthong / a w / T h e e t y m o l o g i c a l diphthong / a w / is m o s t l y spelled p l e n e , i.e. with a Waw('^'): ^mDn 'on m y death' B2.3:3; t^3TiD 'the balancescale' B2.6:24. T h e plene spelling is standard e v e n in the H e r m o polis papyri, regularly w i t h verb forms of the A o r H binyan o f 1^" 'to dispatch': iWM A2.5:4 (pf.), imn (impf. 3f .sg.), onmcjiD A2.5:7 (inf. plus suf.). T h e o n l y e x a m p l e s o f defective spelling are: "im A2.3:10 (juss. 2f .sg.); ]nim for ] n - i m K 'you had in abundance' A2.1:5 (A pf. 2mpl); ]"i2" 'days' B3.10:17('^'); n3T KQ^ 'this day' Dl24:3,4; "n^i2 {or"nmn 'its/his vessels' ib .7. O n e m a y c o n c l u d e that the speed o f contraction w a s greater with / a y / than with /aw/.('^^)

§ 9. Elision of short unstressed vov^els
This p r o c e s s m a y b e o b s e r v e d in our consonantal orthography through spelling fluctuations o f forms in w h i c h o n e m a y a s s u m e a short v o w e l to h a v e existed earlier b e t w e e n t w o identical c o n sonantsC^'): DTm 'their doors' A4.7:10 as against \^"mi i b . U (pl.st.det.) and ]mi B3.11:3 (pi. st.abs.); K I D 'the pitcher (?)' A4.2:13 / / p i D p i . D7.57:7; nbo2 'with h i s p r o t e c t i o n ' €2.1:10,16,26,42 / / n'?'?tD3 C2.1 1:2, 111:4. T h e s p e l l i n g s w i t h a single c o n s o n a n t indicate that the original short v o w e l b e t w e e n
The occasional use of Yod for the standard He in the Lamed-Yod verb ms ptc. may be an analogical extension of the contracted m.pl./du. ending. See below § 37 i. See Kaufman 1977:94. C f Folmer 1995: 184-88. '^^ Except Samalian with -n^ 'in the days o f and 'my days', on which see Tropper (1993:296) and Muraoka (1997:467), no Aramaic dialect attests to an alternative lexeme as in Hebrew crp;. In view of rat tssD' mentioned next, the complementary distribution in Hebrew —/yo:m/ sg. and /ya:m/ pi.—does not apply here. See also Folmer 1995: 2 1 2 f pace Beyer 1984: 596. '^^ W e have an examaple of the contraction of /ay/ already in the 9th century BCE (Tel Fekheriyeh bilingual, m n ra ' the house of Hadad,' line 17): see Muraoka 1983-84:87f. Within his overview of the diachronic phonetics of Aramaic, Beyer's position on the contraction of the diphthongs is conservative in the extreme: the earliest possible terminus post quem is the second century BCE (1984:118). See Kaufman 1983 and Muraoka 1997a: 206f.

/§ela:lo:t/. who speaks of gradual reduction.Yardeni at C 1. private ocmmunication from Prof E. unless one should postulate t w o distinct variants." arrives at the same conclusion against the majority view as represented by. Menschheid.det.7 et passim. as in b^'Dpp Dn 3.2:23: the word. also Beyer 1984:590. pl. ]pp\D 'sack-cloths' A4. W e do have a pi. 94f.C"^) A spelling such as n D 'my lord' D7. Kaufman (1974:127f. nnnu.7:18. T o suggest a synonym ^aav 'gentile nation' might be too clever. W h e r e a s Beyer (1984:128-36) has collected a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of data s h o w i n g that short. e.PHONOLOGY 39 the two identical consonants had begun to be elided.det. In OA. JA vbb^ and Eth.20. nnnib 'their heart' Cl. Kutscher's attempt (1972:139). KQDi. at least w h e r e such a v o w e l o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t w o identical consonants. endorsed by Qimron (1993:25). present a morphophonemic environment different from that in view here. the process of elision had manifestly b e g u n in o u r period('^*). whereas the noun nv is spelled with a single Mem: v^av. postulating a separate lexeme *Dnr "Weltbevolkerung. ra-ba-ra-bi-e and ga-ab-ri-e. Cf. The second is the form attested in Syriac.7:15. :i'2b. with or without an inflectional ending or a conjunctive pronoun.) and Segert (1975:185). occurs some 33 times in our corpus.C^**) rt?on/rt>bo2 also shows that the p h e n o m e n o n is not confined to plural nouns. two alternative restorations suggested by Porten .st. 1 3 7 . Sefire. say -bo and -bbo/-bboC''). meaning 'shade. open-syllabic vowels were still maintained in various Aramaic dialects until the first half of the third century CE. according to van Dijk apud Beyer 1984:45. it is difficult to say whether the process of elision had already set in or not: "nnb 'my heart' A3. to seek ..) there is no need to take b«2f3i. 'their heart' (sg.21:1 (< *^Knf3) '^^ In the light of this. for are the proverbs of Jewish origin? Wesselius (1984:444) proposes to see a pl. 'the heart' C l . B A attests to '3*? (Dn 7.3:2. •'^ See Muraoka 1997b:206f. 1 : 8 8 . 89f. 'the people' C l .l:98('«'). the noun :nb is spelled with a double Bet. w h e r e no abbreviated spelling is attested. The often-quoted two cases from the 3rd c.' and cf.g.28) as well asran*?or the like. In the following cases. which latter occurs more frequently.1:48 instead of taking it as sg. but no instance of :ib is to be found. for example. bbo. one should perhaps prefer h t d tonn'^n. s. but unlike all the geminate root nouns mentioned above this one never appears spelled with a double Resh. See also Kaufman 1983: esp. 1 8 9 . here as late mO^. Gesamtheit der Menschen.v. 1 : 9 8 . In the h g h t of"2± 'my heart' and • n n i ' ? . ending /e:/ in vnii 'the nobles' C2. let us note. but used as collective noun. unstressed. Knudsen—in the cuneiform script. Uruk inscription—mid 2nd c. Kottsieper (1990:118-20). Vi^nv.E. form in tssmn' n n 'the nobles of the Jews' A4.

What vowel has possibly been elided cannot be determined or generalised. rruibii 'on account of it' B2. for the c h a n g e from the latter to the former is only possible after the loss of such vowels.(''') evidence for such a vowel syncope in cirmD 'their owners' A4."!? roots. ]D3Q 'on account of that' B2. however.1 1:3? Note also vt'^'i 'which are not' C3. A6.9. -QiiJ 'on account o f B7. D7. 'about this' A 6 . 12 e. urmibii 'on account of them' B5.1:3. irbv 'on account o f A4. h\ 24 b. see above § 3 o. Note also an Aramaism n©D3r 'for himself (= r T O D 3 bvi) in a Heb. See Noldeke 1913:11 and Lindenberger 1983:68f Segert (1975:115) is inclined to view these double consonants as indication of gemination. it is not always clear whether t w o successive words were intentionally spelled together or not. document from Nahal IJever (134 C.4:18.B3.8:4.'?i. So transcribed by Cowley 1923:89. This. ( i supralinear) 'until this (day)' A4. B2. Though both Nuns are identical and typical of the word-final shape.f.E.33:2. HDHi.): see Nebe 1997:153. d. 2 : 6 ( " 2 ) .7.3:3. Commented on by Driver 1957:83. In mm (= p wo) 'from the aftergrowth* C3.4:7.4:13.6:6.4:8 cannot be sustained in view of n-iD 'her [=its] owner' A3. T h e phenomenon of clisis mediated by clitics.3QB2.40 PARTI: § 10 - 10e presupposes an elision of /: /*ma:ri'i:/. does not necessarily mean that all word-final short vowels had been lost. B8.10. ('") a) First word = preposition T h e first w o r d m a y be a preposition: n^r'Pi.7:20. however. B2.13:5. See below: § il b. H o w ever.2:6.8. whether proclitics or enclitics. may also be s u b s u m e d under this heading.7Kr 2:13. why the feature is confined to i. yrbv 'to our hand' B4. § 10.28:80 the Nun appears to be different from its typical final form in the document.15:8("^).10:2.' Are -t and p at C2.3Q'above'B3.9:7. Sandhi Assimilation which may take place across a word boundary has been noted above: § 3 Z?.4 written as two separate words? How about ll'rt at C2. g.1 111:1. H D T Kf3V3Q 'from this day' B3.11:8. One wishes to know.ll .10:6.2:5.('^) Kutscher (1972:51) is right in seeing a spelUng such as n3tD instead of the earlier niD 'year' in S a m a h a n as an indication that the short vocalic case endings in the singular had already ceased to exist. T w o contiguous words which form a close grammatical or logical w h o l e may show a degree of phonetic cohesion.K'7i . in actual manuscripts. given graphic expression by being m n together. and one never meets with an example such as 'he received. .

Can the difficult bo A2. \^bnni 'the head of the detachment' B 8 . Grelot (1972:151) and Gibson (1975:129) insist on reading iVn 'behold. 6 : 1 0 . 1 : 3 / / N'^^n m B 2 . rbmor 'I swore to him' B 2 . B 3 .. I gave it to you' ib .('^') T h e last three are also cases of apocope and/or haplography. 1 V a : 1 0 . 3 4 ) . T h e ubiquitous. 3 4 . 14 and 15). ( ' ^ ) See also -no A 2 . bnrr 'he gave (it) to m e . d) First word = negator T h e first word m a y b e a negative: ivb 'not yet' B 3 . mnin 'the prince' A 6 . 1 II :10. 7 : 1 0 . K ' ^ T O T B 5 .1 11:10 may be of the same kind: colloquially put..('^^) c) Frequent in construct phrases This phenomenon is rather frequent in constmct phrases('^'^): bTini 'troop c o m m a n d e r ' A 4 . See § 3 n. 6 : 1 0 . B 8 . . B 8 . see Zuckerman (1993:5f with n. bn^D 'sole of foot' B 8 . + in "5 If correctly restored. ^D'^nran^ . 8 : 2 9 / / 'n^t^ i<b i b . 5 : 7 = "n HQ. mb 'they should not c o m e ' D 2 3 .25. C f § 48 b. with a conjunctive pronoun attached to it: biro 'he wrote to m e ' B 2 . must have had their origin here. T S D 'palm of hand' B 8 . n^D^b = nyrna ib 'I shall not lie' D 2 3 ." (Kraeling 1969:220). 4 : 4 .. Hora!" In any event. e. for otherwise t^~in would have no syntactic slot to fit in. 2 9 : 4 .[= participle] with object suff. 3 : 2 3 .PHONOLOGY 41 b ) Second word = preposition The second word m a y be a preposition.. n'^nnriD 'I wrote for her' B 2 . 8 : 4 0 ( = r^iD i b . e) Second word = enclitic pronoun T h e second word m a y b e an enclitic pronoun: ^nK3tD 'it is hatred' B 3 . § 14fl. b in particular.' indicating that the final Alef had lost its consonantal value. 5 : l l . 1 0 : 2 + .' The Akkadian etymology /mala/ 'whatever' suggested by Porten Greenfield (1968:222) leaves the final Waw unaccounted for. 4 : 5 . For an alternative interpretation. Sefire I A 28 mnri'b 'it will not be seen' and Deir Alia II 9 i'^dh^'p 'he will not consult. Cf. 7 : 7 . Possibly also in Deir Alia with nn: see Hoftijzer 1976:285. 1 3 : 8 . 1 I I : 1 5 represents a mixture of the two types. '^^ The proclitic spelling of this negative particle is quite common in OA. "No way! That bloke. [ " ^ l of W"r[^] D23.3:7(^°*^) b e decomposed into no + 'what is not?' > 'whatever'?('°') See § 1 3 . TPi^b 'there is not' D 7 .("^) nnmnnt^'? (= nnn^nn vb) 'you shall not restore her' D 2 3 . 4 : 5 . 3 : 2 4 . disjunctive possessive pronouns -p"^ etc. This is a much simpler solution than Kraeling's: "a part. the demonstrative must be attributive.g.

(^°^) Driver translates simply "Restore!": see his commentary (1957:83). g) Sandhi assimilation Kottsieper (1990:4If.) is probably right in seeing a case of sandhi assimilation in nuDp "fii 'drew his b o w ' C l .lO.15:7('°') // spelled separately at ib. namely voiced / g / > unvoiced /k/ under the influence of /q/. l : 128.g f) Sandhi and asyndeton T h e r e is one case of asyndesis: nnnnn literally 'Restore. It has also been suggested to restore n3[3 from *myi See Lindenberger (1983:118). l : 190 in contrast to "jUDp nnn C l .42 PARTI: § 10/. . give!' A6.

Qimron's speculation (1993:7) that the Ktiv form represents a variety of lA must also be evaluated in the light of the total absence of such a spelling anywhere in our l A (or OA.l).1:34+. Cook (1990:63f. xvi. as is generally It is understood here and in the following that 'personal' needs to be rather broadly understood when applied to the 'third person. see an instructive discussion by Kottsieper (1990:89-93). because both p r o n o u n s w e r e p e n u l t i m a t e l y stressed. S o m e authorities. Such a form does occur in the Ashur letter.17:3+ a ) 2ms. idea. C l . in (2°') -inn.6:9. line 12. condition. See also above at § 5 j . l : 3 . Kottsieper (1990:14. Singular Plural 1 n3« nnD«.1:207 (his Ko. ADJECTIVE. On the prehistory of the 3s. B A Ktiv nra«[^^]). on which see Hoftijzer 1976:286. T h e y further s e e m to think that. plene spelling n3n3K for ]n3t^. "n ? r ) Examples and discussion: n3K: A2.93f) reads ^an at Cl. postulate a defective spelling concealing a: (cf. D i s j u n c t i v e p e r s o n a l ( ^ ) p r o n o u n s . All these authors note the alternative. . etc.' for their referent can be a thing.g.). 4 2 3 ) . B5. forms.. raK: A6. for that matter) corpus. Kottsieper does not mention Kn in Deir Alia. The forms t^in and tis'n in B A are presumably influenced by BH.PART TWO MORPHOLOGY SECTION A THE NOUN. ]m« 2m. Beyer ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 2 3 . which is a mere speculative reading. B 2 .93).89. n3H cn^K f. C 1. TO. e. 1 : l l . and f. n3« ? 3m. an f. A N D PARTICLES § 11. both m. and Kottsieper (1990:89.3:7. D7. nothing particularly personal.1:7.

That n3b^ is always spelled with a He. it is never written nn3K.D2?nn^ n3« 'you. 3 : 9 . whereas the p r o n o u n occurs in our c o r p u s s o m e 5 0 times.Porten 1988: 36. o n e m u s t note that the professional standard of the scribe leaves something to be desired. 1 1 . Note also "]^n 11 and -pn 1 4 . does not show himself to be any better than his colleague. whilst it is rather unlikely that the shorter form w a s the form applicable to the whole of our corpus. it occurs fairly widely w h e n considered together with other f. note the non-standard m'b^ for five times (13. 2 6 : l + 17x.16).) once: -p 12 alongside the standard 2 . ra«: B3.sg. g. 2 2 . njb^ m u s t have ended with the same vowel as that of mnDK.sg. separated by a mere 16 years (420 and 404 BCE). As regards the first. ' b ) 2fs.44 P A R T I I a : §11 a-f assumed. However. Szubin .15. 3. ™ : B 2 . the majority spelling— even when it occurs in the same document with n3K (hue 8)—being historical.7:8.C^) T h e scribe of the second document. Cf. 3 t o . /'atti/. B3. is it right to assume that a given vowel in identical phonetic e n v i r o n m e n t s must behave in identical fashion and change at the same speed? T h e evidence of orthography needs to be accorded more weight: nowhere in our corpus or in earlier Aramaic texts is the pronoun in question spelled nm^.7. This general consideration also applies to the problem of interpretation presented by the conjunctive 2 m s . At B3. which concerns the same matter as that of B3. B3. l ) alongside mn^k^. 2 . as still reflected in later Aramaic dialects: n^K (milra) vs.7.4. sometimes (A6. Jehoishma m y daughter.10. D 7 . i.2. Besides four additions he m a d e above the line. as is evident in a solecism such as ' n i l i. W e have also noted above the p r o n o u n 'n3b^ with a hanging N u n added later. B 2 .21). F u r t h e r m o r e . Porten . pronoun"[: see below § 12 d.e. . 9 .7. 4. it could be phonetic. If the original spelling be genuine. are entitled' B3. 2 ^ Cf.Szubin 1987: 183. Moreover. C l .10:14 (// ^rat^ 13)t. HDn^i^ (mil'el). w h o penned B3. ( ^ ) T o sum up.7:13 the N u n has been added later above the line.12. T h e two documents are by two different hands. W e further observe t w o m o r e cases in the document where a final Yod is wanting: niDinn 'its boundaries' 9 and"]':' 14 (// the standard "Db 3.7:8. but ]nDt^ is not consistently so spelled may have to do with the difference in the positon of stress. B3.14^w. our scribe uses the shorter form of the p r o n o u n for 'your' (f. m o r p h e m e s such as a conjunctive pronoun (§ 12 e).

and thus can no longer be dismissed as "in einem Dokument auftretende Nebenform lediglich eine orthographische Abweichung" (Leander 1928:26). word-fmal vowels. A3. d) Ipl HDmb^ vs. D23.2) and B3. nn: B6. as such. Shemaiah ( n ™ B3. 1 X I H : 4 . K^n D 2 3 . always detached from the The second.11) is a ghost form. Barth (1913:5f. Historically speaking.1 XI:9. In terms of frequency. A2. there is no reason to suppose secondary addition of a vowel at the end of the form. by the singular n3b^. if genuine.6:l 1 (=Kraeling 5. B 2 .1:2 (= Cowley 1.1:8. ]nDK: A2.4:21.1:3+. c ) 3fs.(^'^) Hence. Both forms occur in some of the earliest documents of our corpus: r\irm B 4 . D 2 3 . Amherst 63:5/2. 4 : 7 .1:15+ (40 x in all). ^rab^. ]mK B3. a most remarkable spelling. /'anljina/.1. 1 : 1 6 9 . D 1 . 1 1 : 9 . B5. Cf.12:12 vs. used as a direct object. hapax. 1 5 (483 BCE) and |n3K B5. The reading ]n3K atD23. '•^ See Noldeke (1875:87). PARTICLES 45 and probably is a harbinger of what would later b e c o m e the standard as a consequence of the apocope of unstressed. Neither this form nor the masculine form is ever spelled with a final Alef.6:9. as a matter of fact.C'") T h e distribution of these two(^") forms is something of a problem. and |nDK twice in the HermopoHs papyri (A2.6. ADJECTIVE. is the normal form when used as direct object and appears. A2. 4 : 9 . The shorter form.1). T h e Alef. 88) is now read ]rwi. Later Aramaic dialects support such a supposition. which is always spelled plene. ^'^ The context is broken in p i p nn yns ]TD in[ D23. 1 XI:8 +. the defectively spelled ]n3b^ w a s hkely pronounced with -na. is unlikely. so^that the long form must be presumed to be the earher. l l .(^'^) T h e longer form. above. ]mK 17 X.).4:3+). Muller-Kessler (1991:67). is. N o form with l-nl is attested. C l . ^" pn3« given by Segert (1975:166) and said to occur at B5. n3mb^: A4. one and the same scribe does not mix both the forms except Haggai b. l l . the difference is significant: n3n3b^ 38 x. conjunctive and disjunctive once each: details in § 38 / . . B3. 3 2 : l l + .1. B3. and Fassberg (1990:113).6:9).6.(''''') f) 3mpl iQn: B 2 . Unlike n3K vs. e) 2mpl um: A4. which latter is the rule in O A and B A . which Kottsieper (1988:236f) wants to identify at Pap. iDn. See a discussion above (§ {b\) on 'n3b^. is most likely otiose as in t^iD3 (// I D ] ) 'Necho' in this document: see § 5 A. T h e plene spelling w a s probably triggered. at least partly.1 XLS considered by Koopmans (1962: II.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. graphically short form is attested in six documents (A2. irat^. however. 5.5:10. B3.4. also Folmer 1995:152-54.1:2 (495 BCE).4:8.

.' ""rvbv 'on him. ms. nn-. pn© 'names. b^n- 1 2m. ]1Dp-C^'") an-.g. We are referring to nouns such as f. ^^onn 'he loved me' C 1.) and /-ay/ (du.. conjunctive pronoun. any example for the former. or a verb. pi. *]n~a 'your daughter.used as an object of a verb directly attached to the latter: e. f. du.' At graphic level. 'them' refers to n-n 'house' and "il^t^ 'temple. pD 'words* ending in /-in/ a typically masculine pi.(^'^) nouns(^"): e.)(^'*).* f. and not necessarily in gender.' neither of which is known to be a feminine noun in Aramaic.. /-ayk/ as in later Aramaic dialects. pi. a preposition. and not used on its own. These pronouns are presumably attached to the construct form in the s a m e w a y for the sg. ^" Here we may include prepositions as well: e. "nn-.). For the 1 sg.' ^'^ One does not know whether already in this period there existed a contrast similar to /-a:k/ vs. "]T 'your hand.. C o n j u n c t i v e p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s Singular ^-[-D-.1:51.g. see § 39. a typically fem. l : 2 1 1 . not ^Qn-i. For the morphosyntax of the disjunctive pronouns.. however. without giving.46 PART II a: ^lla-b verb. ]in- GENERAL REMARKS a ) The above forms are used whenever a pronominal element is m a d e dependent on a noun.12:19 as the sole example of the morpheme in question.' ending in /-aai/. though lacking a typically feminine suffix. Only in the case of the first person singular is a separate form "3. rt? 'to him. ybi^ 'your god. m..' "|nn 'your daughters. 1n-. p .' yT 'your hands' (du. and fem. ^'^ Segert (1975:174) mentions ]rr'T:i 'between them* in vobn pm iratssiuti! p r n 'the temple of YHW and King's Stteet between them' B3. However. namely when vowels are left ^'^ Hug (1993:58) lists DD alongside p . Plural ]-. pntss 'earth. ending.g. Although the reading yib is secure a t C l . 3m. 'my' one can reasonably postulate an opposition between fil (sg. mn-. morpheme. there is no certainty that in this poorly preserved line this is the preposition b followed by what Kottsieper (1990:95) wishes to take as the 3fpl.' yn'^K 'your gods' (pl.). § 12. t^]DD-. p . and pi. ^'^ Feminine in form. f..



out, there is n o difference in form a m o n g the suffixed pronouns whether singular, plural or dual. T h e only exception is forms for 'his': nn'PK 'his god,' but ^mn'PK 'his gods.'(^'^) Otherwise, it may be assumed that the same set of suffixal pronouns was added to the noun in its construct form, w h e t h e r singular or plural.(^2") Neutralisation as in Hebrew sg. 13D1D 'our horse' vs. pi. irpio 'our horses 'C"') is unlikely in our idiom in view of the near-total (2^2) absence of erroneous spellings such as ^p'^D for fD'^J 'our kings.' Equally unlikely is partial neutralisation as evinced by the Qere of the Tiberian vocalisation of B A n^n'PK 'her gods' and nnbi^ 'her

b) It is scarcely to b e doubted that, as in all Aramaic dialects for w h i c h there is a k n o w n tradition of vocalisation, there intervened a vowel of one sort or another between the end of the
^'^ On the origin o f this striking form, see Dion 1974:154f. and Segert 1975:172. Cf. an attractive, new suggestion by Garr 1985:107: "*-ay-ha > (via regressive assimilation) * -aw-M > (dissimilaiton of u-u) [awKt]." His analysis of Samalian rPDi-n 'in his days' as [biyawmi:h(u/i)] is unlikely in view of rvbv 'against him.' See also Tropper (1993:189) with yet another suggestion— *ayhu: > *-ayhi: > -awhi: (a double dissimilation). Aristar (1987:184f.) would posit the dual nominative (casus rectus) -a:- as the base, thus -a:hu > -a:w > -aw, to which a conjunctive pronoun -hu was subsequently added, producing ultimately -awhi (by dissimilation of -hu to -hi). This would, however, create two quite distinct routes within Aramaic when one takes Samalian into account. Kottsieper (1990:121) holds that with the f.sg. also the base for suffixation was /t/, and not /at/ "ausweislich der spateren Vokalisierungen." But B A */malkle:h/ 'his queen' surely goes back to */malk^e:h/? H o w would one otherwise account for the spirantised ft/ and the /-at-/ in /malkathorn/ 'their queen'? And the fa/ of this latter form is hardly a helping vowel. There is no phonetic difference between the two forms: see Joiion Muraoka (1993:37, n.3). The only possible exceptions occur in K3SK 'our presence' C3.28:l,91 and 'your face' A5.1:4, though even here, in theory at least, a distinction was possible: sg. Aappana:/ vs. du. /'apperna:/ or the like. Although the Hermopolis papyri attest now to several cases of -ek with assimilated Nun, the reservation voiced by Leander (1928:31g) is still valid, pnb B3.13:11, which Segert (1975:173), along with Kraeling (1953:261,264), reads as 'our children,' is best interpreted with Porten - Yardeni (1989:98) and Grelot (1972:253) as the pi. of rvi± 'brick.' For a discussion, see Bauer - Leander (1927:77f.). See also Brockelmann (1908:480). Segert (1975:171) speaks of possible influence of Babylonian Aramaic, which, however, does not provide a full explanation of the phenomenon: see Epstein (1960:122f.).



§ 12c-e

base of the noun in the singular and the conjunctive pronoun to be suffixed to it, especially where the latter consisted of a single consonant, which is the case with "], " " D , n, j . The precise nature of such vowel must remain conjectural; see, however, on the 2fs. form below. Examples and discussionrC^^'^) c) Isg.: b 'to m e ' A2.1:4; 'my father' A6.11:2C"); ^nt^ 'my brother' A2.3:8; "inb 'my heart' A2.1:5; ^nnt^ 'my sister' A2.1:1("'); ["yinb 'anger against me' A3.3:10("'); "m 'my brothers' A3.10:1; ^'71; 'upon me' A2.3:7; "n 'my sons' B3.5:20; "n 'my life'

d) 2ms: "p 'to you' B4.2:10; 'your father' C l . l : 15; -\^m 'your brother' A3.3:14, D7.30: L O // A 2 . 4 : 5 0 and jmO) D7.57:2; 'your servant' A 2 . 4 : 1 ; ']ni2 'your daughter' B2.6:5;
Most of the following examples will be those attached to nouns and prepositions. Whether the former was mil'el as in BA in the Tiberian tradition, 'nti! Dn 5.13, is impossible to say. On this B A form, see Bauer - Leander (1927:77), In view of Ttm, and not nm, as in T]m^ m 'a brother and a sister' B2.10:11 et passim, the n in -\nm presumably did not carry a long a:. Hence, nm 'my sister' A2.1:l+ must be read Aahti/ and 'nnv^ 'my sisters' A2.5.1 as /'aharti/ or something like that. Likewise, the sg.cst. nm /'ahat/, and not /*aha:t/ as Hug (1993:70) postulates. So must the form be emended in the light of the idiom attested in A4.2:l 1; A3.5:4. See also Ashur letter 19: rm vba "nibn 'Are you filled with anger against me?' This is an Akkadian idiom as in ma:diS li-ib-ba-ti-ya ma-li 'he was very angry with me': CAD, L, p. 164a. So has the text been emended also by Gibson (1975:144). The point had already been noted by the editor of the text, Bresciani (1960:21). The possibility of defective spelling is highly unlikely, since the Isg. conj. pron. is never so spelled. The form - | " n 'your life' B3.6:12,13 shows that ^--n contains the pl.cst. form of the noun, n - in -Tn m n n s o D noD 'an amount (?) of money that was in my hand (hands?)' A2.2:4 is ambiguous. But m-n m n 'T nsoD 'the silver that was in his hand' A2.6:6 clinches the matter in favour of the sg., though not p i n T 3 in' 'let them bring through H.' A2.5:5 n o r O T nconn 'as much as you can' A2.6:5, as Hug (1993:56, n.) thinks, for these latter cases involve a different paradigmatic environment. We fail to see why ' T in n - ntsscon - ID 'as much as I can' A2.4:4 should be considered ambiguous in this regard. This last instance is wrongly given by Hug (1993:57) as "jm, though not in his transcription of the text (1993:30). ^^'^ Cf. ''Dm 'your (fs) brother' A2.1:2, also a Hermopolis papyrus. This non-standard form without a Waw (for -Dim) occurs also with the 3mpl. pronoun. See below § k.



-\nn 'your daughters' B3.12:26; ymv 'your servants' A 6 . 1 : l ; -[-n 'your life' B3.6:12.("') T h e unique, short form "]n« is typical of the Hermopolis papyri.C^') Also attested is "Dm A2.1:2, A 2 . 2 : 1 , A 2 . 3 : 1 . However, the standard form also occurs: A 2 . 7 : l , 5 ; ]ym A2.5:1 .(2") e) 2fs: "D- v s . " ] - . "ob 'to y o u ' A2.2.7; -p A3.4:2, B2.7:9 (2 ^),12,16, B3.6:8. B3.7:14, B3.10:12, B3.11:7,9; 'DD 'in you' B3.6:6 // ID ib.; "D>^ 'your' B2.3:12 // "yb"\ i b . l 9 ; -p") B3.10:11, B3.11:4; 1312 'from you' B3.11:10; 1"1D 'your son' A 3 . 4 : 1 ; 'DniD 'your daughter' B3.6:4 // i n n D ib.7; "D"bv 'on you' B3.11:15 // -]"bv i b . l 2 ; 0 ' ] D 'your sons' B2.7:7 // JODD 'your possessions' ib.6; 'D-SK 'your face' A2.2:2, A2.6:2 / / A 2 . 1 : 2 , which in turn // -DnK ib., a n d i ' D ^ A2.3:2 // o n D i D 'I have blessed you.' T h e anomalous short m o r p h e m e spelled only with D is decidedly in the minority. It is, however, frequent enough to speak for its genuineness.("^) O n e m a y hypothesise that the shorter spelling indicates blurring, if not total loss, of the original final /: see above at § 5i?. It is further possible that such a shortening of the vowel resulted from the change of pitch accent to stress accent. Such a reconstmction would confirm the antiquity of the traditional position of the stress, namely penultimate. (2^^) Cf. § 11^. The short forms are confined to a small number of documents, and they are used side by side with the corresponding, standard forms with Y o d , as is apparent from some e x a m p l e s quoted above. Furtherniore, the fluctuation between ^niDb^ and niDK 'his father' (see below at § / ) in a document which also attests to a fluctuation between "]- and O - suggests that the p h e n o m e n o n is phonetic, and not o n e of grammafical incongruence or careless syntax. On the striking form, "D"b"^ 'yours,' see § 13 below. If genuine.
On the question whether"] could be a defective spelling for ka:, see below, § g.

Once also in

]\n:iv>i 'their father'DL 17:12 .

N o relevant example of ntis occurs in the Hermopolis papyri. Or should one possibly restore ["]Dh7 Thus Cowley's restoration at his 13.12 (=B2.7:12) [']Db is misleading and to be rejected: see Porten - Yardeni (1989:35). Folmer (1995: 167), who cites M n n n - 'you (f.sg.) gave it' B5.5:7 as evidence for the length of the vocalic suffix of the verb, has not taken the position of the stress into account: in this particular form the verb suffix was likely stressed.


PART II a: § 1 2 /

the form points to an /-type vowel after b, and also indicates that the form was stressed on the penultimate syllable. f) 3ms; n - vs. nb 'to him' A2.3:4; m n 'his son' A6.14:5; ' n n « 'his f a t h e r ' B 3 . 6 : l l / / n n t ^ i b . l 2 ; ' m n « 'his brother' B2.10:21 // mnt^ ib.3; nrm 'his daughter' C3.9:18; n m r 'his colleagues' A 6 . 1 : l ; -mbu 'about it' A3.10:7 // nbv D7.15:12; "mn 'his sons' A2.4:3; "nbn 'his feet' A4.7:16; 'its walls' B3.4:4; mmnn 'its boundaries' B3.7:9 // the standard 'mmnn B2.3:5+; nnncjc 'its measurements' B2.3:4.(^^') A possible case of contraction of the diphthong / a w / is 'n]KQ 'its/his vessels' D7.24:7: see § 6 ^. T h e longer m o r p h e m e , Ti, occurs where the stem of the noun ends in an originally long vowel or diphthong aw: e.g., ^nnt^ (= /^abu:hi/), "nm (= /banawhi/). The short spelling of this morpheme such as mnt^C^^") m a y be explained in the same way as that for the 2fs: see above under § e.{ ) g ) 3fs: n- vs. nn- or Kn-. nb 'to her' A2.1:5; n T 'her hand' B2.6:6; n n « 'her father' B2.10:7, B3.8:28, C l . l : 5 5 ; K n w 'her brother' D7.57:4; nmi 'his daughter' B 2 . 3 : 3 ; nnnnK 'her sister' A2.7:4; n"n 'her children' A2.7:3; TDD3 'her possessions' B2.6:21; i^rrbv 'upon h e r ' D 1.17:11. e^)
The noun is likely pi. in view of the parallel ' m m n n ib. as well as nncD pro [nrron =] B3.5:12, and the pronoun masc. in view of "(t t*n-3 num B2.4:4. Forms analogous to nn3t* are known to OA, Fekheriyan, and the Deir Alia dialect: e.g., m m p 'before him' Nerab 2.2 (7th c ) ; mntss 'his brothers' Sefire III 17: see Degen (1969:57f.) and Muraoka (1983-84:94). Samalian is unique in proffering a form such as n-nv 'his days' (casus rectus): see Dion (1974:151-55) and Tropper (1993:189). Dion's view that the element -ay- has been preserved in Eastern Aramaic dialects ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 5 4 f ) clashes with the picture presented by Fekheriyan with m - . Pace Garr (1985:107) we prefer Hug's (1993:70) analysis of Tel Halaf ostracon 4.3 n m as 'its interest, interest on it,' and not 'his elders.' Pace Hoftijzer (1976:286) m'^tss in Deir Alia I 1 cannot mean 'to her.' Nor can TOD ib. IXa 3 mean 'her hands.' We would not, as Degen (1979:24) does, dismiss as a mere late innovation a form such as /ya:tibayhi/ in the Uruk incantation text and analogous forms in Palmyrenian (Rosenthal 1936:47). Nor would we follow Degen (1979:26) in dismissing the short morpheme as mere scribal error when it occurs four times (three or four different scribes). It is probably unwise to build too much on a most striking form, rvrDW D7.57:7, should it mean 'its seals,' spelled in the manner of late Aramaic dialects, n-rotr, with a possible dissmilation of /q/ to /k/ (see above § 3 0The last text, though broken at this point and // nrm line 10, is to be



The long spelHng in nnnnK, «mnK, and t^Tbv attested thrice onlyf'") in a Hermopolis p a p y m s , a Strasbourg ostracon of the late 3rd cent. BCE, and a text likewise of the 3rd cent. BCE, is most remarkable. It is generallyC^''^) assumed that the original ha: of this m o r p h e m e had lost its vocalic component already in O A , apparently on the ground of its spelling with a simple n. The form in our corpus must represent this morpheme. On t h i other hand, a total innovation cropping u p after the elapse of three centuries or so sounds rather unlikely, all the more so in view of exactly the same p h e n o m e n o n surfacing four or five centuries later in Q u m r a n Aramaic as nn-/i^n.(2''^) Is it possible that this represents an ancient feature preserved as an undercurrent in living speech cropping u p from time to time? Let it be noted, however, that Q u m r a n Aramaic attests also to 2 m s . i^D-/nD-(^'^\ no trace of which is to be found anywhere in our corpus, even in the Hermopolis papyri, nor in earlier Aramaic documents.(^^) T h e w i d e l y a s s u m e d u n d e r l y i n g c o m m o n shape of the t w o conjunctive p r o n o u n s , Ca, anceps or otherwise, might suggest

dated to the third century BCE. In 1979 Degen could state (1979:26) that tssmntis is the sole instance of thf morpheme in l A , and that in a document of the Hellenistic period. But we have two more now, one of which is of an early date, attested in a Hermopolis papyrus. 2^^' Kutscher's wording (1971:106), "A further trait that does occur in the other papyri is misleading. Gibson (1975:143) dismisses the first as a scribal error. So Hug (1993:57). In fact, many think that the referent of the pronoun, tssoi-nn, is an Egyptian male, hence 'his sister': so Grelot (1972:472). The matter, however, is debatable. Cf. also Folmer 1995:237-41. ^ ^ ' ^ E.g., Brockelmann (1908:312) and Barth (1913:56). But Bauer - Leander (1927:79) and Leander (1928:31) suggest an anceps form. The short a attested in B A in its Tiberian tradition, for instance, is probably a linking vowel in origin, the vowel of the suffix itself having been apocopated. ^ ' ^ ^ Spelled Vhi. W e pointed this out in our review (Muraoka 1973:171) of Kutscher's study (1971). Discussed in Fassberg (1992:51-54), Qimron (1992:119-23) and Muraoka^ (1993:40-42). ' As justly emphasised by Fassberg (1992:52), who is inclined to consider a combination of (Qumran Hebrew influence with its ubiquitous riD and internal Aramaic pressure, i.e. a:, a plausible explanation for the long morpheme in Qumran Aramaic (1992:53). There is, of course, no question of Hebraism in our form in the Hermopolis letter. Qimron is inclined to the view that the feature in QA is genuine Aramaic (1992:121f).


PART II a: § 12/2-7

that the t w o ought to be viewed togetherC^"^), though their later reflexes are not uniform (2 ''0, but these new data w h i c h h a v e emerged after the traditional view w a s formulated seem to call for revision of it. It is certainly too daring to generalise on the strength of this sole instance that every n- of the m o r p h e m e in question in our corpus is defectively spelled. Statistics must be given some weight: our treatment of unrm and KmnK, assuming of course that they are not scribal errors, must differ from that of "[- for (see above at § ^) and K]'?^ for p'^ (see below at § h).^'^) W e would also note that the feature represented by unnm, t^mnK (and is the reverse of that represented by"] for "D: the former is, so to speak, s w i m m i n g against the stream, whereas the latter is a harbinger of what w a s to b e c o m e m o r e or less universal in subsequent phases of Aramaic. (2''^) On the thrice-attested mib^ 'her father,' see our discussion above. h ) IpL: ]- vs. p 'to us' A6.1:2; jKiD 'our lord' A6.10:2; wn^D 'our h o u s e ' 0 3 . 2 8 : 4 8 ; b^^ni ib.53; i^b'\ 'our' A6.10:2, 03.28:108,112; ] n n 'our daughters' B2.9:10; ybv 'on us' A3.9:7; yTn 'between us' B2.1:13,14; 'our wives and our children' A4.7:15; wsb^ 'our presence' C 3 . 2 8 : 1 , 9 1 ; pun 'he let us see' A4.7:16 / / K r i n 'ditto' A4.8:15 (407 BCE). Here again, as in the case of nn- 'her' discussed above (§ g), the long form, though, in contrast with the disjunctive pronoun for "we," far less frequent than the short form, raises the same sort of questions.("°) Diachronically, na: is the primitive form.
^^So still Qimron (1992:121, n. 9). ^ ^ ' ^ E.g., B A n- vs. "I; but Syr. a:h vs. a:h. (None of the three cases in B A mentioned by Bauer - Leander [1927:73p], the Codex Leningradensis as printed in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia or Adi edition of A. Dothan or the Aleppo codex as edited by Breuer [1977-82] displays qamatz.) For a useful listing of comparative data, see Fassberg (1990:116). Has the Tiberian tradition of BA possibly preserved something genuinely archaic? According to Qimron (1992:121), QA has as many as 38 cases of HD-. Beyer (1984:122-25) not only postulates the general preservation of word-final, unstressed long vowels for l A and earlier, but also holds that their shortening occurred only around 100 BCE. Cook (1990) also maintains that -[ in OA and l A is a defective spelling for ka:. On the basis of the assumed unstressed, long, word-final a: in the papyrus Amherst 6 3 , Kottsieper (1990:88f.) argues equally for the defective spelling of our morpheme. See also above at § 12 a. "° C f Folmer 1995:155-58. For the spelling alternation between w - as a



The long spelling is first attested in the late 5th cent., and is particularly frequent in C 3 . 2 8 , a 3rd cent. d o c u m e n t ( " ' ) : A4.8 and A 6 . 1 0 (both late 5th c ) , C 3 . 1 8 (end 5th c ) , C 3 . 2 8 (3rd c.).("^) i) 2mpl.\ D D - vs. p - or pD-. U±> 'to you' A3.10:2, B2.9:12, D7.29:10; D D J D 'from y o u ' A3.10:8; D D D K 'your father' B2.9:6; • D T 'your hand' A3.10:2; 'to you' A2.2:13 (preceded by cn'them'), A2.4:12, A3.3:5; |DO-iD 'your salary' A3.3:4; jDQ'^tD 'your well-being' A2.2:17 (in a letter addressed to a w o m a n ^ " ] ) , A2.4:13; DDnriD 'your province' A6.9:2; uoTcb 'anger (pi.) against you' A 4 . 2 : l l ; •D^'^i; 'to you' A4.3:9 // yybv D7.56:14; DDnnt^ 'after y o u ' B 2 . 4 : 8 ; DD -Jin 'your c h a m b e r s ' A4.1:8; nym 'your brothers' B2.9:12, p D m 'your brother' (sg.!) D7.56:3; uyn 'your sons'B2.9:14. M a n y examples of the m o r p h e m e with final N u n are from the Hermopolis papyri.(^'') Let us further note that these papyri also contain the 3mpl. m o r p h e m e with final N u n (see below at § k).(^^) Both morphemes are perhaps best interpreted as precursors of the corresponding forms in later Aramaic dialects.("^) j ) 2fpl.: ]D-. ]ym 'your brother' A2.5:l('^'); 'your well-being' ib.9; ]D'Sb^ 'your face(s)' ib.2. One cannot say with absolute certainty h o w the masculine
conjunctive pronoun and rxrm (never mm), see Folmer 1995:160f. Folmer's explanation applies also to the only case of tssn- 'her' in tssn™ 'her brother' D7.57:4 (3rd cent. BCE), not discussed by Folmer. Not "erst in dem jungen Papyrus C81 [= C3.28]" (Degen 1979:26). B A shows /-ana:/, the last vowel spelled plene with Alef. Bauer Leander (1927:72,79,81) gives the form as l-k.na.-J, though noting /-ana:/ as a variant reading (1927:73r). Rosenthal (1961:26) also records wn'pK Dn 3.17, where Biblia Hebraica (ed. Kittel), on which Rosenthal (1961:If.) states to have based his grammar, reads the form with a patach, though Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia does indicate ad loc. a variant reading with a qamatz. Hug (1993:56f.) includes this, along with A2.4:13 and A2.1:12, among cases of the masculine ]D-. Note iQiin bvi A2.2:3. Already Baumgartner (1927:106), without the Hermopolis papyri, had indicated the 5th or 6th cent. BCE for the onset of this development. Note an inconsistency in nnnicin'p 'to dispatch them' A2.2:13 with a Mem, followed by p"? 'to you (m.pl.). The -n forms do not occur in any text dealt with by Hug (1993:56f.) except in the Hermopolis papyri. Grelot (1972:163) is probably right in interpreting the suffix as fem. pi. and the preceding "rm as pi. "my sisters.'



§ 1 2 ^ - § 13

p - and the feminine p - were possibly distinguished. The analogy of later A r a m a i c dialects suggests a vocalic difference. T h e presence of n n - and p - next to each other (A2.2:13; see n. 52 above), both referring to masculine, cautions us against concluding that the i d i o m of the H e r m o p o l i s papyri m a y h a v e totally neutralised the distinction between the two genders in the 2nd and 3rd persons in favour of the masculine forms. k ) 3mpL: on-, Din- vs. ]n-, pn-. nnb 'to them' B8.4:7-i-; nnn 'in them' C2.1:21, C3.7Kr2:4; DnQU 'with them' B8.9:2-i-; pncr 'with them' D7.56:11; umnvi 'their father' B 8 . 4 : 1 4 / / ]inDH D l . 17:12 and jinnn 'the t w o of them' i b . U ; anm 'their mother' B 2 . 1 1 : 1 3 ; ]r\b 'to them' A2.3:8, A4.2:4,14; pchm 'their well-being' A2.3:3; p n c n p 'ahead of them' A2.3:9; mncpsD^ 'for themselves' A4.7:13; Dnnncc? 'their names' C3.11:12; n^bv 'on them' A3.8:4 //mrbv A4.7:24 //]Tbi) A2.2:10(?); ]TT2 'between them' B3.12:19,21; mnn 'upon them' A4.7:17; ambti 'their words' A3.8:13; Dnbn 'their weapons' A4.7:8 // Din^DT A4.8:8; QTnm D I T D D D 'their possessions and their houses' C2.1111:2. The morpheme ]in- is late, first attested in 3rd cent, documents, D 1 . 1 7 a n d D7.56. T h e occasional s p e l h n g with a W a w , mn and pncrf^^), provides a vital clue to the vowel of the morpheme, u or o. T h e same applies to the occasional ]1D-. On the consonant alternation, m or n, see above at § i. N o scribal consistency is to b e sought in this regard: in o n e and same document w e find ]nb 'to them' A4.2:4,14 and ujrab 'anger against them' i b . l l ; Dnno . . . p 3 'in them ... their owners' A4.4:8 and ]T\b ib.9. N o r is there consistency between the final consonant of the conjunctive p r o n o u n for the 2pl. and that of the perfect: DD^m 'your brother' A3.10:1, D D T 'your hand' i b . 2 , cob 'to you' ib.2 vs. ]^T]b2''^ ... j i n n i 'you b o u g h t ... and brought' ib.5, nnpSD 'you went out' A3.3:3 v s . poiE} 'your pay' ib.4 and pb 'to you' ib.5. 1) 3fp. There is n o assured e x a m p l e of a 3fp suffix. T h e gender of bn in the sense of 'foot' cannot b e determined on the basis of internal evidence, so that Dnmnn^D 'to put them [= nnbn 'their leg(!)'] d o w n ' C l . l : 170 cannot b e adduced as evidence. The suffix of pobm 'their welfare' is probably masculine, for, according to Grelot, only o n e of the four persons mentioned, Isireshut, is female, thus masculine gender as genus potior.Q^'^) Pace Joiion (1934:10), hardly an erroneous spelling.
"^Grelot 1972:475.

except for the first person singular: see below § 3 8 .14 (= B2. see § 4 0 . These pronouns are sometimes spelled as two separate components. O n their morphosyntax. C'K rob C 20.9:13. Singular Plural 1 "b^"^') A6.3:19 ? O'pn B 2 . 7 : l l .8:1 p-^\ B2. see above § lOfe. O^'^^T B2. Disjunctive possessive pronouns T h e use of disjunctive possessive p r o n o u n s c o m p o u n d e d with L. however. See above. m a y be accounted for b y the e m p h a s i s laid on w h o is to o w n the property: 'yb^^ "JT «p -is 'that land is yours. ADJECTIVE.10:8 f O*?-! B3.26 (= B2.3:19. see above § 2 a.20 "n Krnna «'n n"? the strength is his' where. PARTICLES 55 m) Object pronouns attached to the verb The conjunctive pronouns suffixed to the verb are basically identical with those suffixed to the noun and the preposition. §38. Barrakkab II 7 • n . It could be feminine.8:15). On the graphic separation of the two components.3:26). A6. The spelling in Vogt (1971:88b) is misleading: r\b n 12 C 8. as in Old Aramaic: Tel D a n 10 D l .8:4 ? T h e striking form O'-'pn. the pronoun is predicative. 1 0 : 1 4 DD':>n B2.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN.5:22 f n'?-T D7.10:lie^2) 3m n ' ? n B3.n!2. n) Disjunctive instead of conjunctive pronoun N o instance of a disjunctive pronoun notionally dependent on the preceding noun or preposition is found in our corpus. .' T h e transfer of the On the forms with i .11:5 n"? D23.|^26o^ and the appropriate p r o n o m i n a l suffix is very frequent and characteristic of l A .piK 'their land'. see below.mDnc 'their armies. On this question. which occurs only at B2. 4 : 1 6 . i ' ? n B3. . Hence only a handful of e x a m p l e s have been quoted above of p r o n o u n s added directly to verbs. see Dn 2. T h e forms and problems presented b y them a r e identical with those of t h e preposition b with t h e pronominal suffixes.] ' ? n B 3 .10:2 2 m l^T B 3 . Zakkur A 9 m . F o r a fuller listing of conjunctive pronouns attached to verbs.5:4.111:11 C«) •n'?-T B3.. Only in o n e instance we find a long suffix attached to a verb («rin 'he showed us' A4.' § 13. § 12 e.9:14) where the gap ought to be closed.3D 'their souls'.

n 'your big sheep' D7. according to some partially pointed examples collected by Bar-Asher (1977:326).1 n :10. ^ The feature recurs in a much later idiom. too. (^^) a) F o r an object physically o r mentally near: 'this. 2 ^ ' S e e § 10^. It is precarious to postulate on n'7« B3. ^ This last form only at D23. 4 .56 PARTIIa: §14a-c property from M a h s e i a h to his daughter Mibtahiah is mentioned more than o n c e in the d o c u m e n t : lines 3.. Pace Beyer (1984:451) this is hardly a suffix attached to a plural noun. The striking t in .20. n'7K occurs in our corpus 21 times. forms.. for the meaning is apparently "which w a s mine. on your account' IQapGen 19. a similar form has now m m e d up in Q A : "D-'^nD .10. where. Demonstrative pronouns The pronouns for deixis in our corpus present a remarkably rich variety.s. Lipinski's (1994:17) suggestion of a possible Phoenicianism does not materially affect this interpretation.: n3T. w h e r e a s in mn bi B2. n i C n Pl.c. BCE inscription from Gozan suggests that already at this early period and in this area the consonant had quiesced in this word-final position. does not know]'7K of O A and BA.m.3:3. Vi^iC^) f. the first word is to b e understood as *b n. no mere vowel letter (pace Garr [1985:83—"a secondary.(^^) In «n3~i 1 «nt«. Samalian and B A alongside pt^. though BarAsher is mainly interested in the final vowel.9.4:7 where a He has been added below the line. including Fekheriyan PK? (on which see Muraoka 1983-84:93f).: n3T m s o 'this letter' A2.. 2 ^ Cf.7:15.. . however." in a ninth cent.8.: «T..8:2 the pronoun is broken u p into its etymological c o m p o n e n t s .f.. the shorter form being known in OA. but followed by rbi 'its' i b .. suggests its original consonantal character. see above § 2 cr.12f. m o 'like this' A4. CPA.1:12. WT. Our idiom. O ' t o 'thanks to you ."(^^0 § 14. : n '7K (2'°) Examples: b ) m. nm t 'this is the statue of. The consistent spelling in OA with Alef. syllable-closing aleph"). these' Sg. a measure of emphasis is not out of place. n 3 i ( 2 ^ ' ) . T h o u g h Leander (1928:32) regarded our ^ybl as a possible scribal error. Folmer 1995: 198-209. On the alternation between T and i.. which also applies to the sg.

See below § 4 1 ^ . C3. 1 1 : 1 5 .9. O T . 11.s. Leander (1928:33) is probably right in regarding this unique form as a scribal error for o n in the same document. the one shortened from the other. n i only once at A2.("^) f.st. In a very poorly preserved text. '^-i Pl. with the demonstrative. in our corpus and earlier phases of Aramaic. those': Sg. see Fassberg [1990:120]) cannot have resulted from B A njT by apocope of unstressed word-fmal vowels as in Aanta*/ > /'ant/.j : T O / : -[T.5 ["2j. H D T is the standard spelling.4.7:14. nn 'on this' A5.: NT N m : N 'this letter' A3. Then M A \i in QA and p in TA (on the latter.24:2). *]T as /za:/ + /k/ and O T as /za:/ + /ki/ rather than as two variant forms. Analogy of the feminine form? Then one would. : -pi^. Cook ( 1 9 9 0 : 6 4 f ) suggests that the original form was /^fna/. for n^mn is clearly f.c.' is extremely difficult: the spelling ib\ the form ]T. is always spelled plene with the very few exceptions mentioned above.11:3) and five t i m e s (B3.m. however. nbi^ i^ibfi 'these words' A3. one mil'el and the other milra. The spelhng with He in m A2.: IT.3:13. Hence Leander's observation in the paragraph q becomes redundant. 2" '3 j n 1*?' B5.C^^) Thus it would be more correct to view. for instance. whereas n n occurs only three times (A5. in gender: see HHca maiD 'the oath comes' B2. B3. 'that. In order to admit the former alone. D2. which admittedly does occur in a 5th c. have to interpret n n in QA as mil'el.16. .c: nbi^ «^ra 'these houses' B3. but unlike most of the forms discussed by him this demonsrative.9:5. analogous to n3« and In a rather poorly executed document and as a dittography following the standard spelling n 3 T at the end of the previous line. C f also above § 3 n. ^^'*o-rin 'D-F mm 'that oath' B2.MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N . o'7t<! The pronouns of this series appear to be composed of those given above under § a and the morpheme for the second person k or ky.5:7.6:4.2:9. inscription from Tema in the Arabian peninsula and in Samalian (Dion 1974:156) alongside the standard mr. .8:9 listed by Leander (1928:33) as masculine is actually feminine. ADJECTIVE.2:8.Yardeni (1989:128) tentatively render 'born in this house. It appears that one has to postulate for Early Aramaic two variant demonstratives. PARTICLES 57 wi^o 'this document* 6 3 . and the abs. which Porten .8:4. pl.5:7 is typical of the Hermopolis papyri: see § 5 c) For an object physically or mentally removed. the milra B A form would have to be accounted for.1 l : 1 5 P " ] .

referring back to the first line of the document. A3.1:3.s.§ 17 Ti3« or -p and 0*7. both 2fem. 2 : 4 t e) It is a fair supposition that the m.: fT KnrsD 'that boat' A6. 1 0 : 1 0 t f. c f Leander (1928:35).9:4.3:6. in K3'7D 'that half B2. Vf) The disjunctive pronoun for the third person may be used as demonstrative: so in «Dr 'that day' C3. ^ The etymology of the word is obscure.2:3 . not attributively. as Fitzmyer thinks (1956:58). f':'^ «n':5pn(f. and preceding. and in the second the emphasis is not on w'pd.4:6t(same scribe) ft «n^3 'that house' B2. its reference to a male remains problematic.) 'those fields'B8. 8 : 6 t n«DiD 'that oath' B 2 .) 'those doors' A 4 .7:3. i^bn DDT B2.sg. Pace Fitzmyer (1956:32f. 7 : l l . t^D being barely sufficient in the context. Indiscriminately with the name of a male: 'DT ["'DnD]c?oo[s] 'that [PJsamshe[khasi]' A6. "|T and the feminine 1? contrasted by virtue of vowel differentiation after T as in B A m.4:12. 'that time' D7.7:21("«) KDi mty\ti 'that oath' B 2 .: -f ]T «n^n 'that house' B2.15:123. in « n i .1:4. Even if Folmer (1995:199f) be right in seeing here an appositively.3:16 -ji t ^ m 'that stairway' B 3 . B2.s. V vs. . and in the third we do need a demonstrative pronoun.4:2.8:2.17:3 . see also A2.(2'^) g) A special form is DDT or GDI 'selfsame'(^''").8:8. B5. Whether the fact that a phrase containing this pronoun is always prefixed by a preposition is.10:4 'Dbi^ i^!'0D3 'those possessions' B2.: -pi^ i^'^m (m. NiSD "[T 'that document' B2. a l w a y s attributively with. ^bn 'detachment': vnbn GDI B3.58 PARTIIa: § 1 4 ^ .) we are hardly dealing here with an "emphatic" use: in the first instance. but on the following words as emphasised by the following ion. A 5 .f") Examples: d) m.4:4. B2. fornis. used pronoun.2:22 OT « n n 'that share' B5. OT p 'from that (time)' A4. the mimation is rather unlikely with demonstrative pronouns.(2«') On the m o r p h o s y n t a x and syntax of the demonstrative See above § 1 2 e .3:8. significant or not is difficult to say. the pronoun is simply anaphoric. Pace Segert (1975:193). f.c. 8 : 9 t pl.

1. Whither?' is used in our corpus only in conjunction with 1 in a generalising statement: n'3U n 'wherever you please (to go) to' B2.MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N .. On the alternation between /d/ and /zl. n3 mnm n Knf3i. ' n r n bui nvio 'Buy n o t h i n g ' A2.. the latter being dependent on the former. In essence it indicates a relation of d e p e n d e n c e between what precedes it and what follows it. For details.. Relative pronoun The so-called relative pronoun.7:8 (§ 4 4 a). For example: ^moip Dip^ in p 'Who is he that can stand up in front of him?'Cl. see above § 3 c.3:10. Joiion . a reason for action. . ADJECTIVE.29t.n3^ 'the things which w e r e found in it' C3. etc. 1:174 "[riDbn "j'K . The so-called independent relative clause lacking an antecedent can be regarded as elliptical.(^^^) This particle is also u s e d in a rich variety of other w a y s . translatable as 'something.. morpheme attached. Cf. § 15.Muraoka (1993: § 158a*). § 16. h o w your conduct is' C2. and a quantity of an entity. Indefinite pronouns DViTi/cvioC^*) is used to refer to an unspecified object... PARTICLES 59 pronouns. see below § 42 d. their nature. a m a n n e r of action. Syntactically different is niT iraOD D : .g. m n ' M a k e k n o w n .' D7. I 3 D 'Should there be any decrease' A6.1:10. see below at §§ 4 1 . Interrogative words A limited number of words are used to elicit information on the identity of persons or objects. 1:36 pnvn rm 'when you celebrate . On the etymology and the Nun of the form. their location. § 17. a place of action.1:91 nnn p in i^on nD 'What is more robust than an ass?' C l .' E.10:8 andtD^t«tn nviTi 'something bad' A6.6:9 (indirect question) 'Where?.66 ybv KHQ bnn' i n nob 'Why should he damage the land against u s ? ' C l .6:25. see above § 2 «.7Gr2.det. is used in ways significantly different from the way in which its Indo-European equivalent is used. a time of action. 6 5 . cvio pb nm 'I shall bring you s o m e t h i n g ' A2.23 represents an extension of the original indefinite use: 'something' > 'the thing' with the st. anything..

each noun is either mascuUne or feminine in gender(^*^). "^ejod r r n i o m n m 'and the interest on your silver shall be .8:l 1. est. Tsereteli (1991:1572) is confusing morphology and morphosyntax.. just as the categories of n u m b e r and state. ^VQ nviio C2?'« 'no one should do anything bad' A6. i n W 'one goat' D7.1:3. dual. Three cases of common gender are T3r 'goat'—m.' B4. only the typically masculine or feminine form is taken into consideration.. as in every Semitic language. The Noun The noun is declined with respect to number (singular. f mf3«i mv [rar] 'the goat [answered] and said' C l . so that "ba 'the words of. . f i i n n .7:12. or pi. and plural).5:23.(^''') § 18." the pi.' B2. n i c tz. In the following listing..60 PARTIIa: ^ISa-b Similarly in -|T K"naK3 mn n KfiQi^iDQi KDHT K^pntn 'the golden and silver basins and the things which were in that temple' A4. A4.2:3. and conversely feminine nouns which take typically masculine endings in one of the numbers.." See below at § 18 v.6:l 1.pl..2:5. C « i mn.(^") a) Declensional endings The sufformative exponents of the above-mentioned categories look as follows:(^^^) For more examples.Jongeling 1995: 119.3:5: "Din 'interest'—m... l : 165: i n n 'mirror'—m.' B3.. W'i^ 'person. rf?n.(the subject: n-nnn) 'it will become interest' B4.. marked by means of sufformatives..n31 i i n n '1 mirror of bronze worth . Judging from later Aramaic dialects with tradition of vocalisation. one' is also used in an analogous fashion: bO CJ^K n2 n 'H' n Dvm 'something whereby one could Uve' B4. also A4.7:8. pronominalis and constmctus as determinatus on the one hand and indeterminatus (our absolute) on the other.. It is understood of course that.(^''^'') Moreover. But see the following note. Therefore. By proposing a three-way opposition of emphaticus.cst. n i c '1 mirror worth .. and participles which are to a certain extent inflected like adjectives. constmct. and determined). Cf. Morphosyntactically also they are two manifestations of a single category. which is.. du. the above scheme may be taken roughly as that of (substantivally used) adjectives. f . see Hoftijzer .57:5. there are masculine nouns which take typically feminine endings in either the sg. Such a discrepancy does not arise in the case of adjectives. of a feminine noun.. the status pronominalis and status constructus constitute one morphological category. is listed under the category "m.. and state (absolute.

lO.22 (change of hand).pl.sg. Kutscher (1972:67f) had effectively laid this novel theory to rest for good. which Segert (1975:184) quotes as the earliest attesting to the plene spelling of the m. Kaufman 1974:128f and the literature cited there. T h o u g h not genuine duals. det.abs.' the pi.1:212.3:2. .86. than /-may-/. | n n 'two' are spelled in their du. morpheme /-a:n/ highly unlikely: see on this question. is inferred from cognates. however. whether or not the Yod was followed by I as in Targumic Aramaic fQ. pn3 'flagons' C3. \ : m + Q ' ' ' ) \ rnc? 'sky' A2. form with a Yod. ADJECTIVE.\ m 'brother' B2. 157.(2^^) Other examples of the plene spelling are: |nna The f.abs. p^r 'eyes' Cl.(^^) pi: pi] 'fishes' B7. So also forpo (1990:109). nouns ending in /-a:/.4 (437 BCE). " ^ ^ ^ These make Ginsberg's (1936:99ff) theory on a pi.4:5. liqa:' 'oar. ' ^ ^ ' ^ ^ It cannot be determined.7Frl:21 . c f Syr. B3. PARTICLES 61 m.1:l+.6:8.1:8. and not *]":q. gender of these lexemes. du. est.: p n 'two' A6.abs. r n « 'ears' ib.7 (407 BCE) and C3.9:8 11 yoyb ib.abs ending of regular nouns other than those f.6:5.215. det. however. « . excepting the numeral. For its meaning. ib. ]pb 'old poles(?)' C3. here also belong(]"'ECO) ' (calm) waters' C \ .87. This instance in a document datable to ca. pip"? 'formerly' A4. It is true. Of course the first word may end with /-a:n/. Singular 0 0 «-/nn-. that the plene spelling of this morpheme is common in later texts such as A4. ]1D 'years' B7.8:8.. 'son' B3.28 (3rd cent.1:4 // p i 3 ib. 475 BCE is eariier than B3. all the remaining lexemes and the masculine du. T h e fluctuation between the plene and defective spelling can be observed even within the same documents as in the above quoted 3i3/|^3ii(^^') S o also ]-in« 'say' A4. est. BCE) as can be confirmed by a glance at the examples cited above.7:4 // ym. pn 'legs' B8.abs.C«*') Except the last item (scribal error?). S e e a l s o pp^ni.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. as in Arb. of which ends in e. Kottsieper (1990:113) regards /-ma'-/ more likely.28:85 / / p i 3 ib.1:8 / / p B6./ n nKn-/nn- Dual r- Plural ]-/r- 1n? Kn-/nn- Examples and discussion: b ) m.214.3.9:4. f. which m a y suggest that the original diphthong w a s still maintained.6. f T 'hands' B2.

62 PARTIIa: §\Sc-h •men' A4. Kraeling (1953:313) lists all under p . l : 157 can be feminine if we take IDDK^ of IDDK^ "PK as impersonal: 'Let them not darken (good eyes).: (n3K) 1 2 'son of (Abah)' B2. (n33) m 'the temple of (Banit)' A2. {"W) m 'the house of (Anani)' A4. /-a:n/. p D 'cups* C3. see above § 8 ^. p D ] 'possessions' A4.1:8. and Beyer (1984:449) quote jKion from Cowley's edition (81:16) 'she-asses' or 'pearls' as the unique example of the plene spelling of the f pl. a name such as 3CDinK 'Ahutab.8 is a revised draft of A4.8:27('''').7:28 // ]ID:D A4.13 // p D B2.10:5+. /-i:n/ or f. one can only resort to comparative/historical or syntactical considerations or look for pi. morpheme. or with conjunctive pronouns in order to tell whether the ending is that of the m.10:13(^^^).28:96. l : 2 9 by itself is ambiguous. BA Dn 3. but it is now (C3. .6:6.13:1.Yardeni (I989:xxviii) under niD.' /yhudag^in/ or the like? Cf. Hence one cannot say whether it differed from its abs. seemingly ambiguous. p a n 'beads* C3.15:2. state form. yrbn 'thirty' B3. Segert (1975:186).11. 9 : 2 . (mriK) -pn 'the king of (Assyria)' C l .3. pti 'words' C l . pD 'windows* B2.6:12.2:12. the two altemative spellings of whose plural are cited here.28:105. YTNV 'made* (ptc. form is *nK and *inK respectively. but its For a possible contraction of the diphthong. ]nD]D 'talents* A4. l : 1 and a form such as "ubn 'his words' C l .10:6// PD B3.20 // p i J A4. est. A4.12:21.(^^^) Thus p ' n s in p T i s pD B2. its est. B8. Therefore. Porten .10:17 (^^3) besides the standard p v (8x).7:15. 1:62 all point to the masculine ending /-i:n/. pDDD 'nails* A6. |^m^ *months' C3.3:10. The scribe of the second half of A4. form i>cbt2 B8.8 ]'KTtp3.g. po in po p'V 'good eyes' C l .' if it mean 'a good person's brother.2:16.7 appears to be fond of plene spelling. l : 10. forms in the det. C3.. Leander (1928:91).' might contain such a est. form bn 'the words of C l . pwTT 'Jews' B 2 .8:19.) A4.28:92) read as 40 ]VO M 'win(e) 4 0 ka's.( 2 ^ ) .7:20. yobn 'Cilicians' A6.abs.12Q ]'«-iin: vs. There is no instance in our corpus of or OK used in the sg. There are two variant lexemes for 'window': niD (so Vogt [1971:81]).7.7:3. may be usefully compared with p ^nB pD 'windows are open' Dn 6.10:6. A4.cst. p ^ 'days* 63. c ) rnxstsg.2:16t. form. Dn 3.' In so-called nisbeh nouns the Yod must be considered consonantal: e. Where no altemative plene spelling is attested. See Porten 1998.9:8.8:5t // ]OD: (16x). Or again. 'fasting' (ptc.) A4.7:16.. and JO as in i NYO r r n s 'its only window is open' B3. p ' l . T h e expected distinct est.28:97 // p T B7. whilst its det.i .

det.7:9.' is a H e b r e w name.3:l (but see Zadok 1985:174). 3°'Cf Folmer 1995:213-17. phrases.cst. 'eyes o f i b . K ' D .: «s':'K 'the ship' A3. penned by a scribe different from the one w h o wrote the other seven letters of the c o r p u s : «nDD 'letter' A2. ^ In terms of word-formation.) 3 'Carians' A6. /-k/ and /-kn/ (the latter of Persian origin) are also used to form gentilics: ^niD 'Cretan* B8. niuv 'the eve' D7. d) m. 1 : 1 7 0 . l 7 2 .1:l 1. In the Tiberian tradition of B A . C f Greenfield . (p«nnD«) 'DDK 'the face of (Esarhaddon)' C l . The dagesh in the Pe of the forms of the B A noun is said to prove that they are to be viewed as dual: Bauer . The occasional assimilation of the Nun as in "j'st^ 'your face' A2. T h e use of H e instead of the standard Alef is typical of(^) the Hermopolis papyri except the letter n o . est. l : 14. 1 : l . 53.2:9.pL: K'h'^k 'the gods' A 6 . See also Masson 1975:410.: i^cbn Cmnn) '(for a second) time' C2. and not st. \!f.abs. m. So-called nisbeh nouns. l : 1.b-n ^mnn 'a second time (?)' C 2 . ADJECTIVE. There is no graphic distinction whatsoever between this morpheme and that of the m.7:4 // n i s o A2.Porten (1982:29).MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N .(^''^) n«''n« B4." Noth (1928:67f) is firmly of the opinion that Northwest Semitic names with nt^ or as the first component are nominal clauses. p'O 'resident of Sais (?)'. m o r p h e m e of both genders and all three numbers.7:3. rariD 'the tunic' A2. f) m. A3.4:5. 1 : l . (3^0 h) m.det. K'pr 'the infants' A2. Zadok (1988:47-49. Hi^bn 'the words' B8. There are reasons to think that the two did not differ phonetically. ^ Though not confined to them: see above § 5 c and Folmer 1995:115f.10:3. 7. if il m e a n 'father's brother. if it is dual indeed. are problematic. A s can be seen from the above table. I : 8 .2:2. this m o r p h e m e is stressed.Leander (1927:226).4:2. PARTICLES C3 interpretation is in no w a y certain.4:2. A2.pL: n s o 'scribes o f A 6 .fc^'QV'the days' A 4 . k h k 'the stone* A4.du. form. bti 'words o f C l .du. •^S» 'face' one might postulate du.1:12.det. 59) wavers between a nominal clause and a genitive phrase. On the analogy of Heb. ( " J M d ) 'Sa^ 'the face of a (king)' ib.1:2 also favours such an interpretation.7:3 / / m p r A3. ]D31D 'resident of Syene' B5.2:8. or gentilicia('°^).8:15. this orthographic feature applies to the st.: 'hands o f C l .2:17.' and not 'my brother is father.1:4.du.sg. (3"') g) According to Grelot (1972:463) it rather means "Le Frere est bon.cst.85.(^^^) e) m.cst. . 1 : l l . t : . BA attests no st.det. mni) 'the wool' A2.

Whether it w a s pronounced /-ay(i)n/ or.8:20 is no dual.14. 8 : 8 t .1.pl. of the gentilic'D-is 'Persian': see Degen 1979:28. t h e vocalisation of w h i c h agrees with w h a t h a s been suggested above.det. typically East Aramaic morpheme.6:8.2.) argues for /a:yya-J.(3°^) i) Dual as distinct from plural The existence of dual as distinct from plural is not apparent from our consonantal texts. Beyer (1994:41) reminds us that the later. Lindenberger (1983:285).10:l as against Kn^iD 'the Egyptian' D8. 30^ Pace Segert (1975:185). and which would not apply to the f.) is expected.2:13.det. Kaufman ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 2 7 f . B A presents a simplified form: i^n^m E z r 5.5:9 is generally identified with B A «'n?n D n 3. form anyway.4:16. t^n^nnn 'the Lower (Egypt)' A6. but the m.Leander (1927:55. ts5't2[ip] ts ^nps 'the former (officials)' A6.64 PARTIIa: § 1 8 / . 3»* See above § 8 cr.16t. /e:/. /saypa: dalre:n pummaw/. ]'mn (5x).8:12. 1 8 9 . see above § 9. . l : 1 5 7 . 2 1 2 . 1 : 1 5 7 .30 «»». l : 8 4 there is no absolute necessity to take the second word as dual: cf.15:l and the pi. (K'?''n) Kmm 'the Jewish (force)' C3. l : 139 . W h a t about ^'iDb I D K '(What a m I supposed to say to) the s t r a n g e r ( s ) ? ' C l . B u t *nD0 'lip' is used in t h e ^ Is the st. ymi 'two hundred' A6.4:5 (3").(3"') A4.m T < m n ' + K ' . (3*^) The f. S o alsot».(3°') Etymologically. is amply attested already in the 7th cent. 2 1 5 t . In a case like this. 3" Despite the generally accepted interpretation of []J'QD j o o 'double-edged knife' C l . ]'-in (14x). it w a s not /-i:n/.4 ni's^s nnn with Pesh. generic in force? Then the sg. ) . 3«^ CL Leander ( 1 9 2 8 : 1 0 2 ) .204). f. but m a y b e assumed on the basis of later vocalisation traditions such as the Tiberian tradition of B A . 3'" See above § 6 b. in Aramaic place names written in the cuneiform. TTV 'eyes' 0 1 .abs. fD-is B3. B 3 . is more likely: see below § 46 L 3«5 See Bauer . Heb. (ion pmn" ns) « m T '(when) the J e w s (bring them in)' A3.3. and Muraoka (1997a:206f).10:7.pl. f T 'hands'B2. ending (3°^).15. which is only rarely spelled plene with a Yod (3'°). On the difficult ts5?2f:r 0 1 . s o m e w h a t like D n 2. * « . an assumption supported to some extent by the w a y the numeral for 'two' is spelled: m.abs. Pr 5. One may also note some nouns which presumably had a distinct dual form: p i K 'ears' C l . 1 : 9 8 . 3*^ Kottsieper (1990:130f.n:i?: ( n n n ) 'the Egyptians (rebelled)' A6.sg. 2 1 4 t .n (< ' 0 ) . but pn 'legs' B8.y Thus our orthography makes no distinction between the sg. the m.10:11 is regular. with contraction (3**).

1 2 : 1 . nn3« (b mnn rib) '(she shall not be my) wife' B3.sg.f •2): m s o e s t C l . 3 " Wesselius sees here a functional opposition./pl.6:24. morpheme spelled n.Leander 1927: 234 3''' At least w e have no relevant evidence from elsewhere in earlier or contemporary Aramaic dialects. similarly at i b . as an analogical development following the loss of the f.8:26 can only be singular. See also above at § 3 ^. form. though in 2 ]DD '2 ladles' B2. The addition of the cipher for '2' suggests that 'hand. this is hardly the case in Aramaic. D 1 . A6. 4 : l . Bauer . incidentally. was ever ncp or not: on the etymology of the word. l : 151. a form unique to Egyptian AramaicC^"') for the standard nm. 126. B3.abs. 19(3. On the expanded B A form. ADJECTIVE.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN.5:5. nm 'sister' B2. § / . 2 5 . as Garr (1985:93) does. Leander (1928:24) explains ' 3 'house' stabs. see Gesenius . C f also Folmer 1995: 252-57.6:3.1:3.l. Note also B A Dn 5.abs. 8 : l . see below.sg. though it had ceased to be pronounced in speech. the word does not mean 'hand. This.15:l +//n -i2« A3. morpheme ft/. l : 190.' and thus it cannot b e used to p r o v e the disuse of the du. rb^p here is hardly in s t est.27 i^-smb (v.abs.st. cf. the T a w of which should not b e confused with that which is about to be discussed. for later vocalisation traditions indicate /-a:t/. base expanded with Waw. with the following yo 'from you.8:22. l l . ( 3 ' « ) This feature is another trait On the pi. 3 : l .3:6. A4. Kaufman (1974:48). morpheme r\{^^^: ( m n ) maK '(one) letter' A3.6). of this particular noun. following ka:m sounds too ad hoc. Hence it is impossible to say whether its sg.: n5D'«3 nbn 'bad thing' A4. In our corpus we find only suffixed forms of the word for 'bow': nntDp 'his bow' C l . l 3 2 . nmD?D 'his lips' i b .Buhl (1915:733). As late as Classical Syriac we see remains of this old morpheme preserved as f-at/: Muraoka (1997b: § 47).8:3 (3'^) / / nb^jp A 6 . speaks against Gibson's (1975:128) suggestion that this spelling fluctuation reflects the contemporary. igirtu: cf. ywp 'your bow' ib. -iQ^j^. wnD 'scales' B2.128. 1 5 : 5 . D 1 . nbnp 'complaint' A6.6:16. B3. The form with He speaks for the naturalisation of what appears to be a loan from Akk.1:8+. distinction would have been neutralised.C^'^) j ) f. Otherwise the sg. O n e finds occasionally the archaic f.* for unlike in BH. nmcoi (nb^) '(well-being) and strength' A 3 . See also Sefire I B .7:18. Kutscher*s explanation (1954:236) that this is possibly a fossilised archaic accusative as in Arb. in which a est.sg. ending <t> was still written. palm. but see the following footnote. a long a as the vowel preceding the f. There is no ground for assuming. followed by a prepositional phrase is fairly well attested (Joiion . palm' was used in the pi.Muraoka 1993: § 129 m-o). A 3 . PARI ICLES 65 pl.sg. local Demotic substratum in which the fem.abs.

n. In any event.27:29. vs. it is not right.: pmn 'two' A6. T h e r e also exists the standard nriK./).g. (/). p t c C l . A2. ran' 'giving. if it is not a scribal error for an innovative n n n « .sg.12:8 // K'nnn'? nbi) p 'from above to below' i b . nnon 'striped cloth' A2.1:5. det. 2 : l l ( " 0 ) . Such is unlikely in private letters such as the Hermopolis papyri. ib. n:m 'the year o f A4. m) f. On the interpretation of this difficult word.9:5.29. nnx 'the wife of A4. i^'pm 'to give to drink' A4.2:14.("') But there is n o question of consistency: nnpn A2.28:104. 7. npD] nm 'another outlay' C3. nrh^ 'sending."j'avait fait opposition' (1972:190).9:3+3x. A2. C f also Hoftijzer . n'm 'seeing. 10 nrpn |fD 'from the valley. In the light of the alternation nnpn/rnpn cited above. on the substantivised adjective.' For a critical review of the thesis put forward by Wesselius (1980) as to possible case opposition (n.ms]B2.abs.B8. k ) f.33:2.Jongeling 1995:744. we are inclined to analyse it as a case of haplography: riit> < Dinbb 'for a slave girl' (with a radical Taw). missed by Hug (1993:65).l: 178.66 PARTIIa: ^ISk-p characterising the language of the HermopoHs papyriP"^).6:32 (m. 3'" C f Kutscher 1971:104.abs.cst.p^^) T h e form m n « 'other' in rnnK nnjt^ 'another wife' B2. does not belong here. There is n o knowing if this form phonetically differed from its st.' ptc.nom.107. See Porten 1968:267f.1:4 (?). A2.3:11. this Taw must represent phonetic reality. a possibility mentioned by Hug (1993:65).ntD3i2) A2.1:2.: (nnm) n-i3« 'the letter of (Arsham)' A6.a c e ) .Yardeni (1989:39) translate 'litigation' with some hesitation. 1 : l .' A inf.abs. pn 'words' ib.' p t c .4. i^bvb «'nnn p 'from below to above' B3. mi] 'wheat' C3. nmb 'to bring. pace Greenfield (1968:365).7:3. see below. n.pl. pnK) is highly irregular.. n. beside nnoo 'arriving. though not confined to it: n~iDC? i nnpn 'one pretty vessel' A 2 .du.8:3(3"). § 48 b.15:4. to correct n^n-ab toDnirn-D'?. I) f. n"a 'the daughter o f A4. see Folmer (1995: 2 5 2 f ) . form as given above. not a mere historical spelling. ViTin 'province' A4. e.4:5fer. A2. see Gibson (1975:138) and Hoftijzer (1983:115. l : 162. H inf. A2.: po -ion 'soaring'(?).4:l 1 // mrob ib.' p t c .2:6 w h e r e mno (st. Grelot makes a verb of it . This is another exception. .' p t c . tJtnn 'daughter' ib./gen.4:6. « DD 'jar (?)' D7. nobti 'the queen o f A 2 . which Porten .4:10. As regards the difficult rarf?Cl.9.) is expected. l 6 .4.5:7.8:3.p23) The occasional spelling with final Alef is a mere orthographic variantp^*): «'G-it^ 'an A r a m a e a n ( w o m a n ) ' B2. because the original Persian word is nifriti..

morpheme. B A nn? cst. with Kottsieper (1990:132).detsg. though he is probably right on nm 'portion' as in onm 'your portion' B5. ^nrso 'the ship' A 3 .1:7. est. 9 : 7 . n^p. 1 2 : 2 7 . nnE).pl.l5. -yr&D 'your lips' Sefire III 14f and mns27 'his lips' ib. */^afa:t/ as the sg. 3 : 9 .' B 2 . 3 " But c f below.3:3 cannot have r\r\nm (4) as its subject. 4 : 4 . ADJECTIVE.abs. 3 : 4 + . 8 : 5 / / vcbra. and the f..sg.' TiKnitc i mp^v 'the seal (or: seals) of Sennacherib' C l . makes it plain that the forms in our corpus. of nnm 'measurement. § 5 g and Folmer 1995: 118-20. 1 : l l ." Incidentally. o) f..pl. Comparison with forms occurring in OA. rmn C l ..263). We take exception to Vogt's proposed vocalisation of n r D D C l . 'the god' 0 3 . as a fem. The l A use of n n s in the sense of 'governor' must be elliptical for n n s "prn or such like. reference m a y profitably be m a d e to jTHD (mnm =) nnm 'its measurements are recorded' B 3 . The st. jurisdiction': on its form and usage. 3" Another reason that mn B2.: nnoD 'the n a m e s o f A 4 . are pi. Whilst the sg. see Beyer 1994:285. mD. not "wie im Aram. andKnins det. 6 .: 'n-in'two* C 2 . 1:151 (est. Brockelmann 1908:412f 3 ^ See above. see von Soden (1965-81:862) and Kaufman (1974:82. The attested and/or vocalised examples indicate (or such like) and *pnB (or such like) as their respective pl.abs.) i b .abs./cst. l 9 .st. § 70 g. A similar problem arises for * n D (?) 'colleague' and n n s 'governor. t P ' ) . nnnbv^ B 2 . For nnm. Knn'?« 'the g o d d e s s ' 0 3 . 1 3 : 3 .: ^rrm 'the letter' A 3 . n n ^ seemingly presupposes the analysis of /t/ in Akk.sg.' both Akk. but pace Leander (1928:92k). . 1 2 : 2 6 . l : 9 9 .csLdu. not du. n. and other later dialects. PARTICLES 67 n)f. Syriac. whilst BA knows nni.cst. p) f. Since there is no graphic distinction between the f. nm. since the Akk. c f Syr. ending -d:t. from the 3 " The latter with Yod is known from B A nnR and Syr. f>ii.cst. of the noun. ( " ' ) O n e would postulate /-at/ for the former and /-a:t/ for the latter as in B A . Graphically one cannot always tell the sg. but this does not make any synchronic sense. do not lend support to the view that the underlying base of its sg. l : 3 gets clarified by npw (sg. nnK.abs. /mna:ta:V. /^hre:ta:V The phonetic shape of the morpheme is unclear: cf. word means 'responsibility. form. of the former is not attested anywhere in Aramaic.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. Beyer (1984:443) lists a whole range of nouns as having a fem. 1 8 5 as /kina:teh/ (Vogt 1971:84): /kinteh/ might be suggested instead.) and nniD27 ('his'). 4 is ambiguous of interpretation: 'the rent (or: rents) of the estates. nii2 K':D A 6 . there is no basis for regarding. 5 : 1 2 . etc. iiberhaupt.pl. C f further Kutscher 1961.cst. loanwords.. form was conceived as having /-a:ta:/' with a long a: before the t. synchronically the Taw ofriM is no longer a f morpheme. 4 : 4 + and mnwfi 'its measurement(s)' B 2 . for Beyer's revised view.

Syr. f. n'mo B4.det.3:5 (33^).pl. same. n-'^n 'sweet' Cl.det. C 3 . In in]K 'wifehood' it obviously is not. yoi 'pure' A4. f.pl.) corner' ib. sg.1:8.' B3.abs. 3'^ /binnu:y/ according to Leander (1928:83). m. needs to distinguish three groups: 1) nisbeh words (see above [b.det.pl. 1:209. 3'*^ On this interpretation.. noun ending with /-ay/. 2 : 7 ( 3 3 ' ) . form as ]rpi ib. n n s 'sulphur' A6. m. s. "yOD 'your covering' C l . o n 3 'your kid' C l .8:15("").abs. l : 4 6 .2:6.sg.abs.sg. f.2:5 p\.abs.12:3+.abs. 3'^ Possibly masculine: see § 46 o. sg.. « n p c m. m.sg.sg. « m n ' (K'p-n) 'the Jewish (army)' A4. l : 168..10:12+.+suf.9:2. ynbp ib.det.B5. pace Cowley (1923:97).cst. p'PD 'full' A 4 . 32^ Etymologically such a Waw may or may not be part of the root of the noun.l4. n.pm' B. 'the declaration' B7..sg.2:20 does not necessarily allow one to vocalise its pi.' for the pl. 2 : l l .sg.pl.2:15. m.T 'their paucity' C l . m. h]. K-ncD 'gazelle' C l . and 3) those whose final Yod or W a w is a root letter. m.sg. thus derived from Lamed-YodAVaw roots.det. 3^' The form is hardly m.sg. (?) nnn 'snake' A 2 . see Grelot 1972:410. mV) (i TO) '(a mirror) worth . 'innocent' C l .S: 10.5:2. nnnr 'its (m.4.sg.abs.sg. sg. on which see Brockelmann (1908:412) and Barth (1894:378f. nbn 'worn out' B3.4+ (3) m. «'n'73 'doglike' A4. «nnnD sg.). f. l : 167. f. « ' i n 'the building' 6 2 . m. f.det. 2 : 3 + . n m n .10:l 1. would be « ' D 5 D in view of its pl.C^).68 PARTIIa: § 18^-r(3) but i^D'W A4.sg.det.: ^nnat^ Otsn) 'the letters (arrived)' A4.1:10. 1 5 : 1 .10:8 (2) possibly nv] in DTn:.3:2 // |XD B7.sg.10:4. -nnn On) 'lower (house)' B3.(1) mbn ib. but rather an abstract noun morpheme.1:5. t^n-nnn 'the L o w e r (Egypt)' A6.f. 'nbp an unknown liquid measure C3. n i T 'Jew' 6 2 . Some examples follow. 12. 2) other nouns or adjectives to the root of which a Yod or W a w has been added. n-iT 'corner' B2. \^r\piVi 'the lands' A6.det.pl.7:16 // A4. B6... ib. 5 : 8 ( 3 3 3 ) . vcn[ip] 'the former' A6. 335 Cowley (1923:34) and Leander (1928:112d) regard abs. r) Nouns with Yod or Waw as final radical There are a fair n u m b e r of nouns w h o s e basic form ends with Yod or W a w ( 3 2 ^ ) .1:2 must be sg.abs.abs. m. n n o 'interest' 6 4 .sg. tJsn-Dnn 328 Hence.abs.sg.det.abs.sg.l:l3l. 1 : 9 0 ( 3 3 ' ) . With Yod: (1) m. pl..1:5.pl.abs.sg.2:17. ^rhpn (-]bi?i) 'those fields' B8. m.det.abs.abs. q ) f.21.+ suf. 33'' C f JAt^n'mn.. 4 : 1 2 ( 3 3 ^ ) . m.sg.abs. but possibly an abstract fem.2.abs. 'the year.15:6. . Knrp-i A6.sg.

t^-Dp ib.n A2. m.cst. sg. noio 'horse' C l .det. ^ n n « 'a lion' (sg. gender. 'nc?. f. n-n':' i b . DTO and pace Leander (1928:70. /susya:'/ and JA. m.det. l : 1 0 1 . p i D C2.abs.7:7. 'DO 'a kind of iron' C3.suf 'n'nb i b .pl. «'3!: 'the thickness' A6. In spite of the Heb. T h e m. .20. ^fcn^ 'captives' C1.sg. 7 : 1 1 . C9 B3. Syr. jii^-i.3:5+. m. 1 : l l . «':.pl. l : 134.) Cl.2:16. |'SC2? 'calm' C l .sg.) C l .cst.det. 4 : 3 .MORPHOLOGY: TOE NOUN. A6.) is most unnatural.sg. m. probably because the /r/ was primitively not followed by a vowel. 290). B 8 .sg.7:6.sg. 97h) the basic form must have ended with /y/. possibly also in 'adversaries o f Deir Alia I 12 and 'saturated with' ib.2:18t.pl.sg. sg.1:3. m.sg. 15.sg. II 4. mbv A 6 . l : 8 5 .50 because of the extremely fragmentary nature of the document. l : 199.. i^n'ub C l .1:161 ("«).1:2 (// pQ} 'camels') is most peculiar. f.sg.pl. mpi 'lamb' A2. l : 3 8 . This is clear from O A n'OO (Sefire I A 22). l : 1 6 1 . ( ? ) -"^n 'weapon'(?) D7.plabs. l 3 9 . of Lamed-Yod nouns. 2 2 1 . A D J E C l l V E .1:6. t^'DD 'the bramble' C l . On JA..sg. n-TC? 'remainder' A 4 .det. The form KDID in 500 KDID '500 horses' D22. f.abs.1:16. 3'" The etymology of the word is disputed: see Gesenius . ] nnKtz. l : 3 8 + .2:3. yvi 'shepherds' C1.) interest' B3.abs.pl.2.abs. m. K n « 'the lion' (sg.det. suf UT\bn A4. hence rroiD = suse. m. 'the interest o n y o u r silver' B4.sg. on which see Beyer (1984:644f) and Sokoloff (1990:371).12:2. rwp 'rough* C l .1:44.det.ynv 'thick' A6. i^bv 'upper' B2. m.det. sg. pron. m. det. n-nr 'naked' or 'cold' C l ./pl.1:165 vs.sg.nDiD at C 1. The certain data currently available are too scanty for us to come to a firm conclusion on the shape of the m.2:14\ f. PARTICLES sg. of these nouns in group 3 is spelled with H e .2:8+("^).abs. sg.n D 7 . t^-qp B2.det. l : 9 4 is an exception.. 3 " An irregular spelling for /raibye:/ or the like? S e e also urv'Tn 'their weapon' A4. sg.abs.sg.. mi 'the region' f. Hug 1993:148 is in favour of the m.det.' and 'his horse' (Leander ib. but c f IQapGen 22.1:38 cannot mean 'mare./pl.2:l 1. perhaps /-ay/.1:4 (3^"). m. min A5. N-nn 'the y o u n g m a n ' C l . l 7 2 . see Dalman 1905:193.Buhl (1915:538) and Driver ( I 9 5 7 : 7 3 f ) .7Fv2:14. 1 : 3 . pp ib. On account of the following bbp nn.7:8. but without Y o d : m n 'happy' A4.2:5("^). f.abs. nn-Dnn 'its (m. and possibly IQapGen 22. a scribal error.abs. nbi).abs.det.det. inrnb A4. nnb 'evil' C l . n . For the collective force of the sg.1 p m n r i 'one of the herdsmen of the flock'(?) with our comment (Muraoka 1972:37).13:6.det.('^') Not m u c h can be m a d e of nyp C3.cst. c f Ashur letter 15. plabs. 2 0 7 f In many late dialects w e find pl.7:8. with or without a conj. whereas in the words mentioned above the second root consonant was followed by one. l : 1 6 6 t .abs. 33C").sg. m ib.abs. If one is to follow Hoftijzer (1976:210. even if they are all forms of nap 'rod'.

abs.?>Q'\ and Syr.det.det. The phrase is usually understood to mean 'flour of inferior quality' (but Grelot 1972:311 . smn:i B8. QA forms.3:6. pc? B2.abs. f.cst. sg. belong here. see Driver (1957:60).abs. N o declined form is attested.g. nbl) 'burnt offering' A4.cst. nnc? B3.abs.8:2to.det.9:3 may be seen in this light. e ] ) . 1 : 2 1 0 . most likely /zakka:y/ as in Syr.' discussed above {[b. to emend the MT to rvvB in conformity with QA forms like -niEj.abs. dialect shows a segholate of this word.11:3. bpn 'burnt offering' A4. D of the root in the sense of "caluminatus est. Spracligebrauch. Although Syr. m^bn sg. «-nD e. m n and noiD.abs. of Lamed-He verbs is regularly spelled with He (see below § 37 J). mo? The disputed-D"! nop A6. sg. 3) sg.' seemingly ptc.sg. along with 'width.abs. rmTT] 'his tmstworthiness' C l .2:18) indicates a vowel of different order following l\J than the o n e to b e postulated in the analogous position of. affair' A5. sg.4. excellent. l : 123.det.8:4. however. /pta:ya:V (3^) With W a w : 2) Tm 'wifehood' B2. e. ^_\\rrm sg. see Driver (1957:47). l : 132. A6.. m. but rejects the interpretation ("da letzteres [= ""mi] diese Bedeut.1:106. 'matter. with a secondary shortening in JA (Dalman 1905:161).7:28.sg.(7) On the etymology of the word.' and a few other derivatives of related meaning.abs.g. omn ^K B 4 . 6 : 5 . sg.'? Ezr 7.26. If it is a loan from Akk. m a n 'likeness' B3.' e.) lists. suspect. 1:123. mn:i 'thirst' C l . der Prov. sg. who took in Trg Pr 10.7tC'*^) The consistent spelling sg.sg. and c f B A 'to'ic.{l) 'foulness'(?) Cl. wonach das Trg. There is no absolute necessity. Ezr 6.pass. p 'water' and yuD 'sky. 14. . l : 7 9 .det. Though not of Lamed-Yod roots. also has a synonymous segholate. mi^ sg.8:6 (det. sg.10:10 (3'»'). Leander (1928:77) assigns our ""Dt to the qatil pattern. and.7:25. but how would he account for the consistent spelling with He of all the remaining words in that category such as nn*?. as also supported by the spelling of the abovementioned 'DT. the pattern qVtad seems more likely.1:3. /putya:'/.6:13. 1:89.25 in this sense. f plabs. as does Vogt (1971:141). 'bittemess' C l .. of no") 'to throw'.sg. 'kingdom' C l . Brockelmann (1928:733f. maqluitu. dubious' instead. Levy (186768:427) mentions Buxtorf. But in our corpus and B A the m. N o Aram. A6. f. nicht hat"). man 'crying' C l .det . caluminator. Note also KH-^Jno 'punishment' A6.g.' must be treated separately. mmn sg. -ns 'width. ma:: 'poverty' C l .'see Hinz 1975:198. B3.6:8.70 PARTIIa: § 18r[3]-/ B2. m\bv A4. of the ptc.pass.3:8t. The latter m a y be assumed to have been /a/. whereas for the former we may note B A n-ns D n 3."farine grise") on the basis of JA 'f3"i 'rejected. mc? 'worth' B2.3:5." a noun /ramma:ya:V 'fraudator. im syr./pldet. W e would rather suggest 'QT 'fraudulent. sg. For a totally different interpretation of as meaning 'fine.4:21t. thus /ay/ > /e:/.1.

Then one could still regard the absence of the determined state in Samalian as indicaUve of the archaic nature of the idiom.1:6.. t) Derivation of st.3.. from st.sg. 1 : 1 3 1 . So argued for OA by. In the c u s t o m s account w e find a n e w word.) suggests /-hd:/ as a second possibility beside /-»a:/. e.abs.' eSru 'one tenth': c f von Soden (1995:117). If our Alef is no mere mater lectionis. Segert (1975:190) holds that O A scribes wished to distinguish between two similar-sounding endings.' This m a y be some unknown elliptical expression. n. 4) and Andersen .' but it is not followed b y any n o u n but by ^n 'herein.." Despite the final n. abs.(3^'). and the f. Beyer (1984:106) postulates /-hd:'/. ADJECTIVE. p np*? nrmi 'and he took a quarter out of. B3.g. its not infrequent replacement b y H e in our corpus suggests that The word.l:93+. /Sa-ruta'/ of similar meaning. a direct offshoot of the status determinatus morpheme /-a/ identified by him in Akkadian texts as early as the mid-third millennium BCE and borrowed even into Sumerian. Similarly Segert (1975:182).71) may be compared: . namely the st. it does not appear to be.7Gr2:6. however* attributes our sort of analytical grammar to ancient scribes. PARTICLES 71 dinner 'C?) 0 3 . f in ib. This. mnc? C3. Other examples in which the postulated Waw or Yod as the third root consonant is not evident includes Zakkur A. form by the addition of a m o r p h e m e c o m m o n to every n u m b e r and gender. apparently meaning *a sixth.' tiSii 'one ninth. apparently related to Syr. 9. .. ' m o is of mixed gender (m. s) Loss of original final Taw of nouns with Yod or Waw as last radical As regards nouns of roots with a final W a w or Yod such as D:^ 'matter' and inn 'mirror' (see above § [r]). they have lost the original Taw^"*) possibly by analogy with rhn sg. m a y b e said to be derived or derivable from the st.2:5. whereas Segert (ib.Freedman (1992:83f). versus nbn sg.C^''^) On the m o r p h e m e of certain infinitives such as nmn'^cyn 'repaying it' € 1 . always spelled in the same way.S nnxin ( < V'ln) 'his encampment' and ]«f3 ( < 'vessel'Cl. Degen (1969:25. if the form is in the st. occurs in this document five more times. Whereas its well-nigh regular graphic representation with Alef points to its original consonantal v a l u e ( 3 ^ ) .cst T h e s t d e t . Does the ending have anything to do with Late Babylonian fractions such as sebii 'one seventh.cst. n r m in an Ashur document (Hug 1993:25. 1 2 : 7 ( 3 " ^ ) .abs. in B4.det. Fitzmyer (1967:147).cst.MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N . pace Kienast (1987:45).det.. see below at § 24 p.

7:8+ is best taken as a defective spelling of yxs? B3. form of the adjective: e.pl. -cv A4. It is highly exceptional that a noun should be so declined without any semantic contrast: one such rare example is Dv 'day' . and 6) feminine nouns which are not marked in the sg. adjectives and nouns differ in three important respects. 4) feminine nouns which are not so marked in the singular (35''). ( 3 « ) Secondly. be acceptable. The f o r m p v B8. v) Mismatch between form and grammatical gender There are 1) masculine nouns which take the overtly feminine pi. 355 The references given in these listings are where the grammatical gender . as feminine and take the overtly masculine du. mvh.r\nw pl. the gender of a v e r b . and pi. Thirdly. 2) masculine nouns which take the overtly feminine sg.g. For an altemative explanation. If our assumption of tfie primacy of the st.pl.cst.v[5] in our period the m o r p h e m e sounded /a:/. TTb 'evil' and f. and vice versa.10:17 rather than = /yawmarn/ as in later Aramaic dialects. the adjective shows a regular match between its grammatical gender and its form.det. such as K»3C) with a geminated Yod might speak for a following glottal stop. the adjective is declined only in the sg. The grammatical gender of a noun can be syntactically recognised in the light of the so-called concord or agreement. or a pronoun to which it relates. endings.. 5) feminine n o u n s which take the overtly m. i. and pi. every adjective is declinable in both genders. ending and masculine pi. numeral. e. see Segert (1975:181). 288). m.cst.e. demonstrative p r o n o u n . ending. 353 Cf. yrvi -r^vi 'blind of eyes' C l . ending. -a^ for the gemination may have been introduced in order to retain the preceding short a: /*tai)aya:y > /Ja:bayya:V.f 5 ' ) u) Differences between nouns and adjectives N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g our earlier observation (§ 18. 2 1 5 . ( 3 " ) In our corpus there occur some examples of the est.g. ending. ending. whereas a masculine noun can take a typically feminine pi. 4 : 6 ( 3 " ) Whether the glottal stop of the primitive morpheme preceded or followed the vowel a: is debatable. n.pl. Firstly. 35'' For an attempt to determine which semantic categories of Aramaic nouns belong to this group. S o m e examples follow. A 4 .72 PARTIIa: § 1 8 « . nipv Ezr 4 . but not du. adjective. p i « mu 'deaf of ears' i b . 3) masculine nouns which t5ce the overtly feminine sg. see Segert (1975:184).cst.7:13 vs. the B A Tiberian form of the m. 1 5 . 3 " Note also p' Ashur letter 16. ending. 1:212. 1) m 'name' . Muraoka 1977.

9 : 3 ( 3 5 « ) . l : 121 5) nrat^ ' w o m a n ' — p l .2:14. pLabs.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN.2:7. DD ' m o t h ' C l . d e t ^nv^ D7. pace Hoftijzer Jongeling (1995:70). and in both clearly feminine (see Beyer 1984:643). ]KD B 3 . the f sg. r j ^ 'hand' B 2 . «mnD A 3 . 'tunic' A2.14.1:122 (3'^'). 1 : 4 . whilst its pi. pm n -ior ]m A6. A6. but m. + 3ms-m '7D C 1. «Di?2/n?2iD 'oath' B 2 .abs. C)S] 'soul' Cl. 'Eb^ C 1. ADJECl IVE. /sa:'V < /s'a:V = Heb. see Lindenberger (1983:153).15:6.n '7Q 'word'—t^-'^D p l . PARI ICLES 73 2) nm 'cubit' A6. d e t B 8 .1:43.10:2—pl. pl.abs. the second a phonetic: see above. p s 'bran' C l . 3 ^ The Alef is a radical. l : 153.Jongeling 1995:772) and Syr. d e t «npnK A6. (but treated as m.6:8. though unattested in our corpus. an equally unusual use of Ti in Une nit^ D3'?D " " n 'that I am wearing' ib.9:4. so that the first is an etymological spelhng. l : 161.det. 6 : 2 8 — ^ B D pl. (mn) i?^ 'a boat' A3. e. 'barley. 35^ Analogy suggests the existence in l A of TO st. S e e m n jsn A6.2:10. cf. B3. Other examples showing the masculine gender of the noun are: ]nn ]W. pn B4.' p l .det. in JA. 3 ^ We assume that the word for a dry measure 'seah' had. d e t . 3*3 On the etymology and semantics of the word.3:6 — p i . 'land' C2. ntDDH ] DK A6.l:2. at A4.Yardeni at B7. • « 'mother' D7. sg. r\m as elsewhere in l A (see Hoftijzer . in Syr. § 3 n. Ezr 5.8:9 is clearly a s t d e t form for t^nmn (note the attributive demonstrative pronoun 'DnXKnwDia restored by Porten .Jongeling 1995:934. nnn 'sword' C l .7:20 is obviously unduly influenced by the form: see below § 76 cf.g.5:6.1:87.1:4f. 3 : 4 ( 3 " ) 4) naiJ! 'wall' B 2 .' nns does occur in BA. 3 : 2 4 ( 3 « ' ) . 7 : 3 . n n s A 4 . C 1. abs. mo. t^'Mi •handful' B3. The corresponding word is f. pl.abs. in 'nm ib.abs.. For comparative data. 'colleague. pm 'land' B 2 .39:3.12:8 // nmn ]m A6. 2 : 6 — p l . B 6 .2 :12C5').2:14 3) *r7ns 'governor'. 4 : 4 ( 3 ^ 2 ) . A 4 . ]3sn A 6 . «no3n 'wheat' C l . 1 3 : 3 ended with /-i:n/ as in I'^D in Q A and a document from Naljal Hever. See also Folmer 1995:11 I f 3*' On the interpretive implication of the gender of the noun at C l .1:29. (mn) nts!3 'a well' A4. l : 129—pl.2:12.abs. 3 : 2 ( 3 ^ ) / / ]w of the noun in question can be determined on syntactical grounds. sg. 3^^ The ti-eatment of «-D3 as m. l : 1 6 0 ( 3 " ) . see Noldeke .6. Since rwDin B2. nw 'year'-^-3C? pl. but f 3sn in JA. 35^ Always spelled defectively. 5 . A6.9:4.7)("^). 35' This could be a highly abnormal use of M as a fs suffixal pronoun.cst.1:5 is a ghost form and should be replaced by mtm or the like. N o other noun belonging to this group is attested in our corpus. 7 : l . see the literature cited in Hoftijzer . who do not make it clear enough that there is a dialectal variation in this respect.suf.cst.

kina:tu) but nniD 'his colleagues' ib. Peshitta Aappe: bi§a. nNQ (1910:131). whilst some later dialects use the word clearly as f. 1 0 : l l .: Syr.8:10("««).(3*'*) ^ i j j ^ ^33^^ pl. 1:157. In the light of Akk. 7 : l 1 //A4. C f also Folmer 1995:21 I f 3'"^ For an attempt to establish semantic opposition between the two forms.(3'*^) T h e name of a country. l : 1 8 0 . forms—abs.4:4—J-T B2.67. see above (b). inflectional morphemes are added (3*^): [1] with H e . fniiD.det.19. /s£pfa:V the word must have begun with /sa-/. A 4 .2:2—pl. ]pi) C l . o f / s u a u / (von Soden 1965-81:1064) and Syr.1:ll. 3'*'See Grelot (1972:392). UD 'name' C l . F r o m the evidence available in o u r corpus w e cannot determine the gender of the noun in ]"'Q3K 'our face' A4. p p r A 4 .cst. v^-'pv A6. e. Thus distinct from later Aramaic dialects with a fem. /nahrawa:ta:V. 'their n a m e ' B8. S e e below at § 4 5 d.2:8 .z 6) T 'hand'A2.6:8C«). n « 'my father' A2. Vogt (1971:12) indicates m.23 and ' IEdkt jiiVT 'the look of his face' Gn 4. 'our fathers' A 4 . (as in Peshsitta Gn 27.:fc^n-nnn3fiiJDi 'the L o w e r Egypt' A 6 . ^bpn A5. see Jouon 1934:53f . morpheme.27)...2:18. and Brockelmann (1928:453). p t c . /nahra:V 'river' vs. m e a n i n g •coloured .det.l:l FAKl 1 1 a: § 18 v[6] . The available evidence does not allow u s to k n o w h o w to classify s u c h a p a i r a s sg.Buhl (1915:533). pi.10:4 +. 7 : 1 3 ..2:23 vs./4 Bl.5 of the Palestinian Targum (Klein 1986:7). nn:D 'his colleague' C l . v^rbpn B8.6:15 [2] with Waw—*n3D 'colleague' (cf. "-ant^ is perhaps m.2:10+ vs. /Ijaqla. /'afrawa: ta:V. Syr. w) Base expanded in plural forms S o m e n o u n s e x p a n d their b a s e before pi. DnnnDc? 'their names' A4.g. pv 'tree' with t w o pi. Aatra:/ 'land' vs. /sa:ti/. 3 ^ Syr.2:20. det. likewise in JA according to Dalman (1938:158) and Sokoloff (1990:213). 1 X I I : 5 ( 3 ™ ) . For B A and related idioms. ^ ^ " ^ Such a process is not necessarily confined to bi-consonantal roots: see.18. Dnoc. l : 8 8 + . line 3 npran. Gesenius . -pr A6.3:3 b e a defectively spelled p a s s . est. 16. /-ha:n/. bn 'time' (of frequency) C2. see also ib.V f.'(3'*') S o is v^i 'finger' in the light of i n iJ3:i 'one fingerbreadth* A6. and accordingly restored—in line with our (TM) private suggestion—in the Tel Dan inscription.*3« *father'(cf. l : 185 and A k k .ta:V in Pr 25. is treated as f. if in f]n:in^ A4. 8 : 1 2 .1:13) vs. On the gender of the noun at C l . Dn-nn^ 'their fathers' D 2 3 .

Thus the pi. 6 : 3 3 ( 3 " ) . t^-ts] 'the women' A4. x) Suppletion T h e p h e n o m e n o n of suppletion. riiDca C l . rrrat^ B2.sg.2l:9. ^ p l i e s to a mere two lexemes. npto. stressed penultimately or 3 " Comparative Semitics (Heb.cst. l : 151.g. e. -n]i^ 'woman' vs. they are certainly no active part of the language system. and K-ra pl. C3.n (e.Muraoka 1993: § 9 6 Ab.6:32 vs. of 'sister' (not nni*) is *]m. It r e m a i n s t o mention here only m. A spelling bwtm alongside btm and bhtm in Ugaritic leads Gordon (1965: Glossary. A4.* nmsc) ib . Syr. /sefta:'/) and historical developments in Aramaic (OA jriEO. vbv etc.12:26 and pn 'our daughters' B2.det. as in BAC^).(3''') z) It is of c o u r s e i m p o s s i b l e to s a y w h e t h e r i^b^ 'totally' (also «-a.Leander (1927:205).l32C''). pinn ( p i n ) *enormous (gates)* A4. if it represent a broken plural /malak/ + /-i:m/: see Jouiion .) w a s . but fossilised relics. is striking. n-n/DD e s t A2. 37If. Sokoloff 1990:46) and Syr. ~a *son' vs. whatever it might mean: see Porten .4:22 vs. according to later traditions such as B A «*n3 is further compounded on account of the geminated n and the first vowel .4:8+.abs.T"Q 'their sons' D23. 3^'* 3^^ See Bauer . pi. -^D: (e. If these be ancient accusatives. y) Irregular nouns W e have m e n t i o n e d a b o v e c a s e s of root expansion (§ w ) and root suppletion (§ x). A special form of root expansion is reduplication reinforced b y the addition of the normal pi.' Nor does Mandaic know such a gemination: see Macuch 1965: §166. rnv^m 'their centuries' A5. Cowley's reading (1923:186) nmnn has now been rectified by Porten . is pan-Aramaic with sg. ~13 B3. nstz) 'lip. safatun.8:9.abs. Pace Garr (1985:96) there is no reason for assuming the gemination of this infixal w. S o is the a b s e n c e o f " in the p L .MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N . + suf. KD-Ddet B2.2:14. e n d i n g ( " ' ) : m.' Testen (1985) attempts to account for this r-n alternation by formulating a phonetic law which.1 Va: 13 is most striking. mns© 'his lips') show that the Waw is a secondary increment. Lemaire (1995: 90) reads with a Pe. ADJECTIVE.g.4:12.abs. /»abwa:te:V. however.Yardeni 1993:244. C f . 'his.pl. in Cowley 75:8 is now read nnosii*. 'burnt offerings. D. .g. "|n33 'your daughters* B3. and nnn 'daughter* B3.* pl . 3'3 If read correctly. 'leurs agneaux. segholate nouns like CJD'pn etc. pi. 'house* B5. note B A jbv. H e r e the absence of n in the sg. n a m e l y complementary distribution of two distinct inflectional bases of one lexeme. PARTICLES 75 'century' A6.6:4+. sg.9:10).) to the view that the Hebrew c r r i a should be pronounced /bottim/..5:7. w h o s e peculiarity.6:5 vs. Arab. nmrn. and not ] m as in later Aramaic dialects (see. Just as Heb.4:4).Yardeni (1989:244) to nnosiH. ] n 'sons* 8 2 .2 :l+.

'mind' 0 1 ." for. However that may be. no attempt is made to classify lexemes in accordance with the conventional. 3tD 'good' A6. •!.1:126+. tDn(!)* 'arrow* 01. form.7:28-f-. 1 : 1 9 1 + . in any discussion of the function of in B A. qil. ]p 'sheep' A4.2:13+.10:10+.8:19+.8:24+. "^n* 'sand' 0 1 .5:2+. -n* 'water' 0 1 . i n 'one' A4. •-(!)* 'sea' C l . ]n(!) 'favour' 01.1:132.1:102+. 3 D ( ! ) * 'thorn' Cl. tant. In the case of nouns not formally marked as feminine. '?2i(!) 'leather' B3.8:20+.1:8+. In view of the considerable uncertainty and difficulty in identifying vowels of particular words in their basic form.9:6+. according to him.39:2+. would equally apply to "triconsonantal" roots. the m. 1 : 1 6 8 . diachronically and comparatively orientated s c h e m e in terms of qal. 3 D 'old' B3. np a measure B7. D D * 'worm' Cl. n 'house' B4. however. •D(!) 'mouth' C l .(!) 'people' D3.8:14+.10:17.cst. 3*?* liquid measure 03.6:9. ntJ./«j i " A K 1 11 a: ^ [9a~ b not. to ignore its consistent penultimate stress. bp* 'voice' 0 1 .2:17.1:119+. On their use. ^p 'chest(?)' B3.2:16. Lipinski (1991) prefers the term "monosyllabic" to "biconsonantal. I D * liquid measure D8.5:9+. it is not right. 'brother' B2. see below § 69 d. § 19. 1 : 2 0 7 + . Segert (1975:193).13:2+.1:8-i-. ' ^ D ( ! ) 'ladle' B3.28:2+. namely.5:9.) 'price' A4. 1 : 8 1 . qatl. middle vowels are also constitutive elements. kind of wood A6. boat part A6. b2{\)* 'all' A6. singular. Formal patterns of nouns and adjectives The following is a classified inventory of patterns of nouns and adjectives presented on account of some implications which our knowledge of word-formation patterns may have for grammar.1:1+. a) Biconsonantal roots{^^^) Without mater lectionis: 'father' B2.2:10. 3 6 : l . form has also been regarded as equivalent for our purpose to the abs.5:9+.l:168 -f-. 1 : 1 2 5 + .2:3+. D O * 'plate' A6.8:18+. 1:171+. This argument. 1 : 9 1 + .8:19. « D liquid measure C3. p 'chalk' D123'A. 1 3 'son' A3. b i * (pi. nn(!)* 'noble' A4. An asterisk (*) signifies that the form so marked occurs only with some inflectional increment or conjunctive pronoun. D l * 'blood' Cl. Would he prefer "polysyllabic" to "triconsonantal"? .10:7-f-. • ! ( ! ) * 'bear' 0 1 . An asterisk signifies that the basic form is not actually attested.3:18+. TO 'dead' A2. Lexemes of geminate roots are marked with !. b^{\Y 'shadow' B3.29:209+-. DD 'cup' B3. absolute state. (and masculine in the case of adjectives)("^). qitl etc. nD(!)* 'vessel' A4. pi? 'wood* B3. -n(!) 'aHve' A2.sg. T 'hand' D 7 . •«(!) 'mother' 04.

l : 1 4 2 + . nut 'cedar' A6. m n ( ! ) * 'window* 8 3 . 'satisfied' A 3 . n«n 'hundred' A6. n n s * 'bran' C l . n n » * 'saying' C l . n ? D N * 'lamb' C l . 1 : 1 6 5 11(1) 'great' C l . 1:164+.3:9 (probably error for'^c ^JK).8:18. T D * 'pain* C1. 9 : 6 . l : 8 3 + . l : 5 7 + . 1 : 1 0 0 + . ]n«* 'she-ass' See Lindenberger 1983:106. p « * 'ear' C l .26:3+. n3Q 'mina' A 6 .25:16. nm{l) 'fire' C l . *?-«* 'deer' C l . nssp* 'basket' D7. p« 'basin'(?) D7. -W 'wall' A4. p « * 'artisan' A6. 'god' A4. pr 'food' 8 3 .5:5+. Thus the lexeme DV 'day' is listed here.24:3.9:4 . nn^}* ' m e a l ' C 3 .5:7+.l:180+. 6 : 8 + .9:6+.57:7. n^n* 'ewe' D7.4:5+. ni 'high' C l . nD 'six' D3. p n ' t w o ' A6.t !X2? 'marble' B3. 6 : 2 6 + . ADJECTIVE. m a * 'death' 8 3 . m n 'wind* C l . p « 'tin' C3.1:2+. pca(!)* 'sack' D7. 1 2 : 2 8 + 0 . «n-ic? = nnnc?? "Mater lectionis" is meant here in its etymological sense. 'income' C3. nn« 'way' 8 2 . T : ^ 'hinge' A4.8:9+. nns! 'bar'(?) C l . p n * 'palm leaves' 8 2 . noi*!* 'oath' 85. ' s t o n e ' A4.2:5. 6 : 2 5 + . 1 : 1 8 3 . pst 'force' C l . ncK(!)* •cubit' 8 6 . ubnO) 'word' A3. D-CJ boat part A6. 1 : 1 4 0 . ground' 8 2 . 5 : 2 1 + .2^ 'oldman* C l .6:10+. 1 : 1 6 0 . . l : 6 0 + . the form is a dual of the root '-"i-D < '->n. n m * ' a n g e r ' C l . nn« 'threshing floor' 8 1 .2:10+. p 'lawsuit' 8 2 . m 'person' 8 3 . 1 3 : l l + . ' m a i d s e r v a n t ' B 3 . 1 : 1 6 9 + . l : 9 4 + .1:7+. 3 : 8 + .(3''') W i t h fem. 7 G r 2 : 2 5 . niv 'assembly' 8 2 . though in some parts of its inflection the Waw may not represent an etymological value of /w/ any longer.. W i t h m a t e r l e c t i o n i s : CJC)« ' p e r s o n ' C l .2:8.2:19. PARTICLES 77 r ]p(!)* water animal C l . 9 : 4 + . p-s 'tray(?)' 8 3 . 2 : 1 7 . l : 8 3 . n^D 'year* 83. 4 : 1 5 + . Diachronically speaking.11:5. im 'wormwood' D8. suffix n. n'ps. ' m u d ' C 3 .34:7+. u^DV* 'measuring rod' B3.31:3+. l : 14+. n M * 'portion' A6. p/rnt* 'earth. I D S . p3* 'fish' 8 7 . b ) Triconsonantal roots W i t h o u t m a t e r lectionisC'*"): p s . 1 : 1 0 + . mo* 'mountain' Cl. 1 : 6 + .7Dv3:10. 2 : 1 + . l : 8 8 + .or n-: nnK 'sister' 8 3 . 1 2 : 2 1 + .3:2+.4:8+.12:3+ nncy(!) 'Sabbath' D7. l : 9 6 .) C l .8:2. 3 : 6 + .2:4+. I J S . nnni 'ambush' C l . l : 6 + .l:62+. p 3 K * 'face' (pi. tant. 'DUt* 'physician* D2.8:9+. near 'advice' C l . l : 8 6 .1:69. nDQ(!)* 'measure' A2. p-i* 'comrade' ClA:22l+. m':' 'tablet' D3.D5ZJ 'name' Cl. noni* 'bond'B8.26:l +. ^bi>i 'thousand' A5. non(!) 'wheat' D4.2:10+. 'wages' C l . * 'farmer' D8.2:15+.10:3+. Qin 'thread' 8 2 . nnC!)* ' c o m p l e t i o n ( ? ) ' C1. 9 : 5 + . nDO(!)* 'nail(?)' D7. n « * 'Hon' C l .4:9+. nnn ' d a u g h t e r * 8 3 . n n ( ! ) * 'fleece' A2. 1 : 1 3 2 + . 1 0 : 6 + . mo* 'goodness* C2.4:3+. 3 : 2 + . i n « 'length' 8 2 .1:2+. 1 : 1 3 . 2 : 1 2 + . pits 'street' B3. nuiD* grain m e a s u r e 8 3 . 1 3 : 3 + . l : 104.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN.

Vii* 'arm' D7. «^on 'silver' B4. non* 'jewel' B3. "jDn* 'palate' Cl.1:5+. -nn* 'pure' A4. nsT 'loan' B3.2:6.3:15.11:2+.6:14+. nnr 'span' B6.4:21+.8:10+.9:4. lb^* 'fetus. p n part of a ship A6.10:10+.1:204. ]-T* 'weapon' D7. nnn 'new' B3. for the root is sr. nnn ' s w o r d ' C l . p D 'priest' A 4 . 1 : 1 6 7 . 6 : 1 2 + . b22* 'fetter' A4. 1 : 1 2 3 . '?-n 'troop. l : 8 8 . p n 'belly' C 1. -nn* 'happy' A4. 1 : 1 7 3 + .2:15+. -13* 'inner' C 3 .T * 'kid' C l . 'grits' D7. p i n 'lightning' C l . 1 : 1 8 6 + . nnn 'male' B2. p n 'hunger' C l .2:12+. nn^ 'high' C l . n m * 'sacrifice' A4.7Dv3:15+. 1 : 1 3 3 + . nan 'priest' A5. p 'gardener* B3. nnn 'gold' B3. l : 185. 1 : 2 1 5 . nso* '(toe-)nails' D3.78 PARTIIa: § 19^ B7.46:4+. l : 8 1 . rnr 'seed' A6.57:9. n^n* vessel C3. 1 2 : 2 1 . 2b2* 'dog' A4. 1 : 1 2 4 . ••^n 'dream' D 7 .7:10+.7:3+. m n * 'glory' C l . nuin 'well' A4.9:4+. . 1 7 : l . child' D 7 .33:3. im 'beam' A2. 1 : 1 2 8 . p'^n 'portion' B 3 . l : 9 1 .11:5.8:10+. l : 168.4:2+. iv] 'diminution' C l . n:: 'thief C l . 4 : 2 1 .1:97+.6:17+. ^)in 'coarse'D7. D P O 'order' A6.5:8. -nn* 'weeping' D8.9:4+. n m 'lawsuit' B2.7:3. n'^n* small weight B6. ion* 'garment' C 1 .2:10.7Gr2:8+. p 'wine' C 3 . i m ' m a n ' C l . mn 'five' A6. l : 140. mn 'sin' C l .1:163.1:5. Spelled y.8:19.'day' A4. nnn 'false t h i n g ' B3.3:4+. 0V2 'anger' C l . -in* 'snake' A2.1:3+.1:88. m. nnn* 'companion' D7. n-T 'olive' B3. bn:* 'camel* C l .11:16+.1:9+.2:6. 'ppn 'field'B 1. l : 161 +. n -n 'guilty' B3.3:6. mn 'delight' C 1. p n * 'window' B 3 . ihi 'gourd' D7. . nan 'ass' B l .1:4+. inn* 'crying'. mn 'deaf C l .7:3. l : 9 2 .2:10. m n 'shame' C l .5:8+.8:20+. l : 9 0 .2:7+. 5 : l l + . 6 : l . 1 : 3 + 0 . I '^n* 'tribute' A6. 3 3 : l .2:6. bv2 'husband' B2.7:16+.2:25+. bbso* 'protection' C1.5:3+. OQn 'violence' C l . mn 'white' D6. nn? 'gold' C l . mi ' h o n e y ' A4. mn 'debt' B 1. n n n * 'seal' D 1 4 .17:4. m^ 'unclean' D7.7:21+. l : 8 1 . 1 : 1 2 9 . l : 1 4 + . 1 : 1 3 1 + . l : 8 5 .16:3+. n i D * 'liar' C l .Dnn* 'fishing-net' D3. ptD 'rock C3. Dl* 'stairway'.18:10+. iDn 'wine' A4. p n 'pebble' C 1. 3 : l + . l : 107.2:l 1+.13:l. 1 : 2 0 4 C « 0 . 1 9 : l + . bn 'military d e t a c h m e n t ' B2.5:6+. lb}* 'skin' A6. 1 : 1 9 2 + . ppn 'fine' D7.1:9. r]Dn* 'wing' C l .1:205.27:5. Diachronically the Taw is no radical. non 'rod' C l . ran* 'spelt' C3. 3*'* Actually spelt ~pOD 'your garment' C1. "^nn* 'rope' A4. TO 'flesh* C l .7:3+. -on* 'cover' C l . m 3 * 'bone' C1. -"^n* 'sweet' C l .2:12+. mn 'heat(?)' C l . «qno* 'prey' C l .56:2. p r * 'child' A2. -n 'judge' B4.11:2.8:27+.-ntD* 'gazelle' C l . i m 'likeness' B 3 . l : 4 2 + . nsDn ' ? ' D8. nn'month' A6. pn* 'grain' C l .10:2+. -it* 'comer' B2. p n * 'son-in-law' A2.7:16+.1:3+C»^). p r * 'time' B8. 1 : 1 7 6 .1:19+. p n 'handful' A6. w e a l t h ' A 4 .6:3 .8:42+. DDn 'hot' D7. '':'n* 'worn-om' B3.44:7+. inni 'place' A6. nnt 'male' B3. 1 : 2 0 9 . non 'spice' A2.1:19+.

2:20+. o n i * 'friend' C l . n r 'thickness' A 6 .7:26+. nos3* 'passover' D7. 1 0 : 2 .8:6+. m a 'natron' C3.2:5+. K I D 'master' A4.6:8+. p^o '?' B3. mi5 'order' A 4 .2:14.27:3. l : 134. 1 3 0 * 'confinement' D 7 . ^-^D* 'anger' C l . 1 : 3 . lady' B3. 1 : 1 8 4 . 2 : 1 8 . 1 3 : l l + . 1 : 2 0 6 . nbn 'salt' C l .6:7+. ybz 'half B 2 . im 'handbreadth' B3. p * 'eye' C 1. «qDp 'chest(?)' B3. D i s small dry measure B 1. mn 'head' B4. 1 : 1 0 3 . -|03* 'libation' D 7 . i n o 'secret' C 1.7:15+. D i r * 'lot' C l . pjD* 'shoe' C 1. TO* 'ten' B 2 .3:9+. l : 9 0 . nOD* 'attacker(?)' C l . i D ^ * 'moming' D3.6:9+.2:9+. V2-:i 'finger' A6. D H D * 'vineyard' B8. -n':'* ' b a d ' C l . n s p * 'basket' D7. 1 : 1 7 8 . Dif? 'bread' C l . "D© .3:4+.8:4+.2:12+. bnv* 'labour' A3. Dip 'battle' C2.2:6. mD* 'death' B 3 . i^m '?' C l .8:8+. l : 9 5 . inD 'bride-price' B3.1:82+.1:57.2:10+.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. 'injustice' A5. l : 8 5 + . -n^* ' c h e e k ' C l . i/niv 'time.1:111+. i D r 'slave' B2. •'2V 'thick* A6. 2 : 1 3 + .4:6. -^m 'skin' A2. n r * 'cold' C l . number(?)' C 1. pb 'tongue' C l . ™ * 'rebellious' C 2 . DDI* 'horseman' A6. i i r * 'help' C l . 1 : 2 0 4 + .7:4. mp 'part' B4. 1 3 : 6 + . i D p * ' c u c u m b e r ' D7.p * 'covenant' B5.10:14.6:10. mb 'garment' B2. "^Di* 'peddlar' A4. ]iv 'set time' A4.r ) * 'thorn bush' C l .8:18+. 4 : l l + . Dii? ' g u a r a n t o r ' A2.1:210+.30:2. 1 : 1 9 0 + . mo* 'sun' B 3 . 1 : 1 3 8 + . ttJis 'horseman' A6. pi2? 'sharp cutting' C 1. l : 126. 1 : 1 0 1 + .7Gr2:9+. l : 9 2 .3:2. l : 8 5 .4:3+ (pi. l : 136. ]nD 'linen' A3.27:8. p3 'woman. n-3* 'quiet' C l . 1 : 1 5 6 + .l}]* 'mler(?)' Cl. b]V* 'cloth(?)' A 6 . -ns 'breadth' B3. PARTICLES 79 I D D 'compensation' A4.1:84. 3 : 1 4 + . bip 'neck' C l . n D * type of tax D7. D'P:J 'eternity'B2.27:6+.6:2.2:8+.9:3+. 120 'porter(?)' C3. I C D K ? ' s i d e ' B 2 .1:5+. bi^p ' e x e c u t i o n ' C 1.1:83.1:79. nqp 'flour' A6.1:170+. -1/13D'? C3.pTD 'damage' A4.2:14. -inD* 'river' D7. l : 6 3 + .7Fv2:14+. 'beam' B3.1:46.).5:3+.8:17.1:20+.1:212+.3 p ' r e e d ' C 3 .r i 'shepherd' D 7 . ADJECTIVE.6:7+. nm 'oil* A2. nK?p* 'bow' C l . TO 'suitable" A6. ™ 'witness' B4.8:18+. |«n 'vessel' B 3 . nm ' r e m a i n d e r ' D7. 2 : 1 4 . 6 : 9 .22:5+.47:9. .1:18+. 12)^ 'desire' A4.12:2+. l : 3 + . vbv* 'rib' C l .13:45. p i ' p o m e g r a n a t e ' B3.1:205.7:9+.9:4+. -cop 'hard' C l . -3D kind of iron C3.9:14 +.3:3+. D-p ' e n d u r i n g ' A 3 .14:4. 1 : 1 8 1 + . r3S Imeeting' C l .4:8+. 1 : 1 5 9 . 1 : 1 0 3 . i % D 3 type of lawsuit B2. i i i ? 'legal claim' C l . 9 : l + . y^v '?' C3. -po 'king' C l .3:6+. l : 172+. i s o 'document' B2. TD3 'receipt' B4.27:31+.1:10+. mi 'bronze' B2. 111?* 'wild a s s ' C l .6:12+. T31? 'goat' D7. ^31* 'foot' C 1.7Kv2:4+. . 5 : 2 1 .3:4.11:2+. D . iQp 'wool' A 3 .1:5+.9:9.11:17 +. 1 : 1 1 2 + . -p3* 'lamb' A2.) ' m e r c y ' B5. mi? 'wealth' C l . i i O * 'order' D6. 1 : 1 6 6 . . c n i * (pi. D s p 'granary'D 1. p o s 'section(?)' D3. 2)Di* 'horse' A3. m: 'soul' C 3 . V2)i 'colour' B2. tant. 1 0 : 7 .2:14. n D * 'stature' C l . nD 'produce' D l 1. 1W 'wool' B2. V2n 'fourth' C3. i s o 'scribe' C 1. 9 : 5 .2:5+. iD] 'leopard' C 1. 8 : 9 + .lO. 1 : 5 . mp* 'holiness' C 1. 1 : 8 . 22b 'heart' C 1.L. 13S* 'corpse' C l . Di53 'salary' A3.12:2.

nnnp* 'offering' D 2 0 .2:l 1. 2 : l . -itD 'equal' B2.3:2+. nD2) 'intoxicating drink' A6. 0327* 'ripped' A2.2:8+. tant. into 'bribe' A4. l : 7 9 + . nsisn 'cure'. n-DD 'large' C1. l : 1 3 0 . l : 6 0 + . nb>2D* 'burden' D l 1.4:5+. HKHD 'blow' C l . 1 : 2 0 6 .3:9+. n p . msK?* 'lip' C l . n)bv 'burnt offering' A4. l : 158. p n 'straw' C l .6:13+. nbnp 'complaint' A6.6:7+. l : 186. Possibly with a diphthong /ay/. 1:159+.7:4+.1:89+.3:8+. 5 : 1 2 .2:9+.1:4. nb^ifi* 'doe' C l .3:18+. 'seven' B3. CD-t!?* 'sailor'.9:8+. p n * 'chamber' B3. nn]* 'purchase' B 3 . '?3n* 'dry land' A6. 1 : 1 2 9 . pi?0 'load' C l . Knsii 'griddle' D7. m i D * 'lie' C l . bm* 'cress' D7. 1 : 1 8 2 . Tnn 'splendid' C l .4:10. nDOD 'support(?)' C3. n-n. DOn 'wise' C l .'exceding' A5. l 1:2. 'welfare' A3.1:9. nonp* b o w of a boat(?) A6.5:4. noip* 'stature' A6.* 'captive' A4. K?iQn '?' C3. n n r o * 'barley' D7. -Dty* (pi.7:2+.1:2+.8:20+. 3 : l .7Jv2:19+. mnb 'clothing' B2. pns. W i t h fem. "bn* 'weapon' A4. n-no 'skilled' C l . ^wn 'darkness' C l .6:12+.2:20+.or n-: mns. Tos. b^nn 'string(?)' A4. 'chest' A2.4:3+('^'). r703n* 'wheat' C l .45:8.7:8+.2:5. Lrm 'perfumed' D3. . nnon 'striped cloth' A2.4:21+. n n 'gateway' B2. npn:i 'merit' A4. m3r 'poverty' C l .42:24.8:3.1:16. 1 : 1 3 2 + . Trt 'small' D 7 .8:5+. 1:105+.7:28+.7:8+. noDn 'wisdom' C l . l : l + . n^ba* 'queen' A 2 . u^m 'evil' A6. 1 0 : l l + . n n 'bull' A 4 . l : l .* 'long' A4. n-np 'city' B6. l : 173.4:4+. nnp: 'female' B3. l : 8 9 . 1 0 : I 0 . nntDQ* 'measurement' B2.3t& 'hatred' B3.12:2+. rrDiD* 'blessing' D 7 .9:3+. nrpn piece of cloth A6.'right' B3. 1 : 1 2 3 .'heavy' C l . W i t h m a t e r l e c t i o n i s : En3N ' h u m a n b e i n g ' D8. -DK?* 'flat' C l . nntor* 'ten-weight'B3. DOon 'striped' B2. pon 'strong' C 1. see above at § 2 c.6:3+. bp^ 'shekel' B2.4:5+. npD3 'expense' C3. n . n-on 'leaven' A4.6:32+. suffix n. .d •captivity' C1. 'bw 'calm' C l . rTK?3«* 'wife' A2. |3t!.n o 'bitter' Cl. 1 2 : 3 1 . 'other' B2. nn3K 'woman' B2.16:8. l : 143.l:89+.7:14+. nnb 'female temple servitor' B3. rbn 'three' A6. T N D 'rebuke' C l .5:6+. niv^* 'barley' B4. bpn 'shekel' B1. 'pair' B3. 7ns. 1 : 1 6 0 .1:3+. nsiiQ* ' m i s t r e s s ' A3.8:4+.2:4.51:2.6:8+. n-iiD 'harvest' C1. nb2i* 'cake of figs' D l .80 PARTIIa: ^ \9 b . m 'sun' B2. nprr 'ring' C l .6:32+.7:3+.1:136+. 1 : l . ^"bn ' r e p l a c e m e n t ( ? ) ' B 8 . pnD 'tunic' A3. 1 : 1 7 8 .1:127. n3D 'construction' B2. m*?* 'brick' B4. 1 4 : l l + ( 3 « ^ ) .2:4. mm 'remainder' B3.7:27+.27:29+. nnn 'meal offering' A 4 . nnnn 'love' B3.f ]-ty3(?) 'pure' On the problematic spelling with Shin instead of Taw.7Dr3:17+.) 'heaven' C l . 1 : 1 7 8 . pQ. 7 : i n 'impudent' C l .3:7+. nnbif^* 'goddess' B2. rri^'PD* 'full value(?)' B 1.12:4. mnii 'thirst' C l .8:23+. vt>] 'jug'B2. n^bn* 'going' C2. D-nD 'liar' C2.9:3+. ns.2:10. o -ra* 'honest' C l .1:6. rrmnD* 'writing' D22. 1 : l .57:8. 1 : 1 5 1 + . nniK? 'strength' A 3 .4:12.1:13+. 1 : 1 6 1 .2:l 1.1:65.

1 9 : l . 1 : 1 0 7 + .7:3 +. rti: 'strong' C l . Tf2r 'fodder' A6. l : 8 3 + . W i t h f e m . -Qnn 'Khwarezmian' B2. T l O * 'hiding place' C l . n'p-os 'cut stone' A4. p r 3 * 'stoneinlay' B2. 1 : 1 8 0 . 1 : 2 1 5 + .l:134.8:21+. n^bn* 'kingship' B 2 .12:4+. m -D:.D5D * 'copious' C l . :J. and n. -o'pOn* 'Cilician' D6. V"2-\ 'fourth' B4. n3Tio* 'she-mule' 0 2 2 . n'pion'? C1.12:2+. ^ l i i 'refined' B2. The root isa-'^-r.1:9+.8:4+. ^""w 'having power' B2. 1 : 1 6 3 + .o r n-: n r n * 'spoil' C l . D -ip 'near' B2. n^-np 'complaint' A6.2:2+.6:15+. p -nr 'old' B2. 2 : l + . p . p n i s 'righteous' B7. "b"b* 'night' C l . T P P * 'rich' C l .5:4+.mnn* 'border' B2.2:17+. r'^in 'purple' A6. 1030 'talent' A6.C«^) d) With suffix --: nm 'other' C3.2:7+.p -n 'south' Cl.15:5+. -13 'inner' C 3 . ODis 'box' B2.7:10+.1:7+. 8 : l .2:17+. l : 8 0 . The noun is of qutayl pattern for diminutives. .8:16. 'abundant' C l . ^rW2 'finely-woven(?)' B2.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. T a p * 'pot' D7.6:16+. rrrsD 'ship' C3. s o i D 'throne' C l . D-Qn 'perfect' D1. V"m* 'wicked' C l .7:9+.2:2+.10:3+.9:6+. n m o * 'star' C l . fDO 'knife' C 1. suffix n. -1332^ 'bird Cl.12:2 +C8').20:2+.n 'decree' D 7 . n-nn 'beloved C l . TSK? 'beautiful' C l .3:3. mnv 'eve' D7. 341.1:88+. PARTICLES 81 D8.m 'distant' B2. suffix rr.27:29+. nn-32?* 'slave mark' B8. p -no 'worn-out' A3. rpn(?) 'firm' C2. 'shawl' B2. bi7p liquid m e a s u r e C3.n n 'white' A6.-3Dn* 'eight' B3. 3 5 : 1 1 . niybv 'girl' C3. "jOn 'soft' C l .4:6+. 1 : 1 3 3 + .6:10. o n o 'eunuch' C 1.9:12+. . rn^C?) 'licentious' C l .2:2+. m -no* 'writing' D7. -010* 'horse' A6. l : 9 0 + . biv 'child' C l . pK?S 'fail' D7. iiv 'blind' C l . bno 'support' B5. -iKK?* 'remainder' B8. . 2 2 : l .7Jv2:4+.3:16+. "bnn 'Babylonian' B2.1:70.7:2+. 'construction' C l . 1 : 1 7 9 .2:6.1:2+.2:4+. p-sty 'sufficient' A6. -30n 'Hyrcanian' B 8 .1:217.1:134. T I G ? 'firm' A4. 3 : 3 . liiiw 'treasury' B3. nbv 'boy' A4. 1 : 2 1 2 + . rrs-'?n* 'substitute' A6. 1 : 1 6 4 .3:6+.9:4+. ADJECTIVE.O I K 'Aramaean' B2. l : 104. 'grain' B2. W i t h fem. T p s 'official' A5.S O * 'sufficient' D 6 . n o r * 'column' A4.7:7. . l : 9 5 + . nbm 'virgin' C1. c) Stems or compound words with more than three consonants—^i-^nvn 'dye stone' A4.2:6.O D 'sulphur' A6. -mn3 ^ ' S e e § 1 8 r ( l ) . 1:127+.6:9+. l : 3 8 + . The root is Q-'^-r. "nns 'table' D 3 .2:13. m . l : 8 4 + .5:2+. mnb 'incense' A4.8:10.9:3.16:3.l:82+.8:7. p-ou 'old' B3.1:61+.3:8 +C««). l : 7 4 .9:4. ns'T'O* 'lentil' B4. ^^TTD 'iron' B2. b-)m 'netherworld' C1.3:5+. p . b"bp 'light' C l . 1 : 1 8 3 .2:19.o r n: nbniik ' w i d o w ' A4. 1 : 2 0 6 .1:l 1+. m p r 'scorpion' C l .26:37 +. -nnnn 'Bactrian' D2.7:20+.16:2. nmn 'resident'Cl.l: 160.2:15+. 1 : 2 . r^D-iD 'hat' A3.11:15.

7:12+. p n r 'pledge' B3. -npQ* 'declaration' B7. 9 : l + .6:5+.3:4+. V^tDO 'roof A4.28:3. 2 : 2 ( ^ ^ . |-n^* 'desolation' Cl. p n 'surplus' C3. -tno 'mirror' B 2 . 1 : 2 0 7 + . 1 : 9 0 ( 7 ) . p n n 'merciful' C l . nno3D* 'watch' A 4 . pt^D 'delay'. With fem. ibmn* 'interrogation' D2.1 Va:8.2:3+. mno 'east' B3.S O D 'Caspian' B2. -nnn 'lower' B3. 'second' B3.3:9+. f) With suffix ].57:9. riTh^. sinpQ 'script' B2. n'pQns. M±>^* 'perfection' C3. 1 : l . ]-r.56:3). n o 'Median'B3. pDn 'memorandum' D 3 .6:24+.7:18+. mm 'oath' B2.8:104-.2:25.2:16+. O I D * 'Carian' A6.8:4.2:2+. n n n * '?' D7. 5 : l . 'foulness(?) C l . "bv* 'upper' A6.[= -a:n7]: ]nn« 'other' B2. pDT ' m e m o r a n d u m ' A 4 . f^n 'sea serpent' C l .8:4+. ntyro 'tithe' C3. ]m* 'scales' B2. nbpnn* 'weight' '^"See§ lSh. l3Q-n* 'tmstworthiness' C l .2:16+. pnm 'worn-out' D7.(^^^) j) Withprefixn:bji^n 'food' B8. nnm* 'ahar' A4.11:17+. c f Gesenius . ":v}i 'Zoanite' C1.m •Jew' B2.1:19+. sino 'east' B2.1:7. 'nip* 'former' A6. pmn 'withdrawal' B2. 1:159+. -DT 'Ionian'C3.n3DQ* 'veneration' B7.l:104. p p s 'deposit' B2. g) With suffix p . innQ* 'bitterness' C l .: V2li^ 'four' A6. e) With suffix "j-: -jnnD 'Cretan' B 8 .9:7.7Jr5:25+. 'shoe' A3. nn0Q(?)* 'secret' C l .3:3 .8:20. nbD* 'curlike' A4. 3 : l .82 PARTIIa: § 1 9 e .n. -nno 'interest' B4. nnc? ' w i t n e s s ' D1. p o n 'loss' A4.5:24+.n.p'?t!. -mnnns.7:16+.1:14+. 1 : 1 0 6 . p'pD 'division' B2.11:4+. b2^n* 'burden' C l . 1:207+.5:8+.11:6.D 'Saite' B8. 302.nQ0Q* 'nail' A6.29:3. 1 : 1 4 1 .v. l : 8 4 + .1:79. 2ivn 'west' B3.* (only in the pi. . 'number' B4.28:112. piV2* 'bowl' A4. ^Dbn ' k i n g d o m ' C 1.10:1. nD: ' f o r e i g n ' C l . . bnnn* 'basket(?)' D7.8:4+. bm* 'food' D8.7Ar2:18+. "m.4:3+. ]zb\fi 'discipline' C l .2:7.2:22+.m 'scented' B3. On the etymology of the word. p -nQ 'trustworthy' A2.: p:^D 'Syenian' B 5 .7Kr2:19+. nr-i :(3 )Q* 'middle' C3.5:3+.7:20+.17:6. 1:185+.2:3+.(''') h) With suffix T 1= *u:]: ™ 'wifehood' B2. 6 : l l + . iDns.7Kr4:21+. mxi 'Magian'B3.7Fv2:2+.* 'power' D7.30:2+. bbnn 'speech' C l . nmo 'seat' D23.19:33+.C O D * 'Nubian* D23. 'his colleagues' D7. rn3D 'intelligence' Cl. iTin 'province' A6. l : 178.l:53 . nijQ 'Egyptian' C3. p .26:3.D I D 'Persian' C2.8:9+.9:5+.5:7+.2:6. l : 5 3 + . niv 'Arabian' C l .Buhl 1915: s. D .1:9. -n-:^ 'Sidonian' C l .4:8+.1:13+. S e e § lSh. m n ^ 'sixth' C3.6:17+. 1 : 1 3 2 . i) With prefix s.4:22. 302.1 Va:9. . |p-n* 'empty' C3. f n * 'building' B3.56:12. 'widow' A4. suffix n or n: nnDSiQ 'bundle' D7.7:26+. . 1 : 1 2 3 . p p 'possession' B2.7:7.

pis. nnosiN '?' C3.1:12.2:5. siDQn 'bowl' B2. ^^Dl* '?' B l . -JI^DN 'presser (?)' A6.1:69. ^'"^ On the etymology of the word. . o p r s '?' A3. 'letter' A3. H T D .8:9.7Ev2:6+.9:6+.13:7+. '?' C1.16:9.2:17+. toiQ2? '?' C3.5:8+. im 'temple' B3.Buhl 1915: 2a.7JvI:28+. t^:Dn '?'. nnpn'?' D7.4:9+. l : 101 (^'^). b^:i 'sailboat(?)' C3.44:6.4:4. 'wall' B2.l:17+(^'2a).8:3+.1:15+. PARTICLES 83 A6.2:5+.33:2+. pan* 'protecting wall' B 3 .2:10.r i m e a s u r e C3.19:6+.i«* '?' C3.n r n s .6:12+. -jSiDS. k) With prefix -n: rrDiDn 'money' B3. "ppn 'legumes' D7.47:9.5:4. nsnnn* '?' B8.'?' D7. m'^T* 'sprinkler' C3.8:18+. cnn 'amphora' D7. nm 'free' B3. n n n 'interest' D7.2:20. l : 7 . 7 F r l : 2 3 + . byn* ' t e m p l e ' Cl. ovbp part of a boat A 6 .2:22+. 2 : l l . 'pdis.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. ni3S. ^'bn '?' B8. p n '?' A2. ntytD-s.1:13.11:4+. ni3«. '?' C3.6:3+.7Jv2:3+.mDS.5:12. '?' B8. C D t y '?' D1. . psos. rTD.3:9+. or •pDis. icy 'papyrus-reed bed' B2. ] m 'millet' B8.6:4. -Qrs k i n d of w o o d C3. f]D* 'jar(?) C3. 'ship' A2.9:5. a 6 .7:5. iDiTK* 'herald' A6. Wi/i '?' A6. b2V0 '?* A 6 . 'in Not quite of obscure origin. '?' A2. 5 : l l . of course.7Jv2:6. ' ? ' C3.5:12.30:3.47:9. omN ' i n v e s t i g a t i v e report' A4. 'area (?)' B3. ^^^^ . ^nis. 2 : 8 . nnm* 'baker' D8. nnns.11:12+. 7 C r l : 1 0 + . nno* 'neighbour' A2. iT« 'known' A4.7Fr2:23+. . 1 0 : 9 + . p r r n s . 9 : 3 . n'?p* h q u i d measure C3. p n * 'palm leaf B3.5:5.8:8. \mDn '?' C 3 .57:2.6:15. 1) Words of obscure origin n-as.57:6.1:7+.7Fv2:5+. } T 'kind' A6. 7 : 6 + . kind of g a r m e n t B 3 . -Qi 'of inferior quality' or 'refined' A 6 .9:7. NSD 'jar(?)' D7. p m / n '?' A 4 .8:9+.8:5+. nniDsis. nas. n^n* 'gift(?)' D 7 .7:10. p n * 'jar' D7. '?' D7.18:13+.6:9+. n m o * '?' C2. but a very early loan from Akkadian. 3:n '?' C3. '?' C3.8 IIIB:25. n .8 1:10+.1:4+. nosn ' ? ' A 3 . m) Loan-words(^^^) ]13('')DK 'penalty' B3.5:7+. 'sea-going vessel' C 3 .2:21+.1:70. f'^niD k i n d of g a r m e n t A3. 'guarantor' B3. 'plaster' D7. pm k i n d of tunic A3. i ^ s i « 'repairs(?)' A6. see Gesenius . Wi^i '?' C2.7Ar3:21+. 2 : l 1.8:17+.7Fr2:20+. as shown by the initial /h/: see Kaufman (1974:27). pb 'oar(?)' C3.2:18. ' ? ' Cl.57:6.7. rrosn kind of garment A3.5:6.12:3. rniDp '?' C3. 'reckoning'(?) A6.10:12. For a classified list of loan-words in our corpus. or -fSiDS.6:8+.1:3+. DOniJii.* 'route' A6. "^ns 'ration' A6. mM 'fishing boat' C3. i n m i s . p o s '?' B 1. D3«* 'fruit' C l . i l * '(panel) section'(?) A6. -toi/i '?DS ' ? ' C3.7Kr2:19+. 9 : l + . '?' C3. 8 : 7 .2:10. ADJECTIVE.16:6+. po boat part A6.l:89 .E l 'harmed' B8. liquid measure. c n s ^ '?' B8. t^isn 'excess' A6. pon '?' A6. see Appendix III. "^tos '?' D7.8:8.

niD-iDDi 'joint holding(?)' B8.3:2+.2:12.5:2+. i3K?n 'plenipotentiary' A6. 2 : l l + . l : 1 7 + . 1 3 3 * 'carpenter' A6.39:2+. m m 'paint(?)' A6. DDQ 'tax' C3. 'papyms reed' B2. jn* •vessel' C3. -Dn* 'praiseworthy' D2. H T D * 'fortress' B2.2:4+.7:5+. 5 : 3 .i s 'main beloved(?)' B 3 . pb 'temple servitor' B3. -snn 'offering-table' D 2 0 .4:4+.11:9+.2:3+. ]TDDI 'of every kind' A6.2:23. niDCon* 'crime' A 4 . lym* 'artist(?)' A6. nib* 'wrath* A3.21:8+.2:10+. i n i s 'openly' C 1.6:25+. n i 'wall' A6.12:2.1:68.4:23+. pro3* 'document' A 6 .3:3.8:3+.5:9.2:7+.9:4+.2:7+.6. DiD-ns 'investigator' 395 An Akkadian loan-word always in the sLcst.5:2+. "2 "c. nt weight B4. 1 : l .3:10+. 313 liquid m e a s u r e C3.'revolt' A6. 1 0 : l + . 1:185+.10:2+. D T I N 'ardab' B4.13:3+. -n-ss. "[tyiJ* 'hearer' A4. -oss.nsnnDrT 'guardian of the seventh' B. -52)3 'people' A 6 . n s .6:214+.7:16+. n 'domain' C3. t]tD boat part A6. TOD 'diminishment' A6.3:17+.28:2. UTB 'sentence' A6. -3-T 'damages' A6. m33i 'partner in chattel' B3.2:5.2:12+. -nrQ3 'the L o r d of the T w o Truths'. 1 1 : 4 + ( ' ^ 5 ) .2:9+.10:3+. sn-rr'?' B3. -3iQtDnD 'mooring post(?)' A6.15:8.5:2.6:5+.5:4. 1 1 3 P'zw |TDOT pn« 'staff of craftsmen of all kinds with sufficient numbers' A 6 .57:8 (TTtya^?). -D 'beam(?)' C3. 1 : 1 . 'architect' B2.5:5. "^n* 'gun-wale(?)' A6.2:9+. 32 'gate' C l . ]iQnD* kind of priest D 1 7 .4:l+. piD* 'slander' D20.2:12.1:75. 1D3D1S* 'foreman' A6.) 'property' A4. 1 : 3 .84 PARTIIa: § 1 9 m . nn 'region' B8.28:107+.13:4.11:8+.pC!Jn* 'ill-willed' B8.7Gr3:23+.] 'household s t a f f . lannsin 'accmed increment' A6.2:10+. un 'straw' B2. . niD3 'litigation' B8. inD3 'total' C2.2:20. n03 'harsh' A6.7Dr 1:9+.4:2. 7 : l + .1:49+. m n 'peace' D17. rt>n 'sailor' B 2 . 1 2 : l l . nsi3* 'boat-man' A6. pr* 'barley-house' A4.2:7. i7pn 'burnt offering' A4. M 'prD 'chancellor' A6. tyi(!) 'door' B3.10:13+. rrns* 'governor' A 4 . 7 D v 5 : l + . OTD measure of weight A3. -jnis 'foremost aide(?)' A5. i D i D l * 'accountant' D3. pD 'prefect' B2.1:5.2:17+. a tax D 6 . «n.10:10.28:85+. im* 'beam' D13:3.3:13+.D i m 'southern room' B3.2:5+. ]im 'carpentry work' B3. mn* 'magus' C2. m* 'treasure' B8. -bu* small weight B6.13:5. 3331 'partner in realty' B3. p s 'plank(?)' C 3 .2:12.8:2+. irao 'excellent one' D20. 1 3 : l . p i * 'gift' A6.10:18+.9:5+. DD3* (pi. -33* 'region(?)' B4. '?DC)ins. (-)innD 'stater'C3.7Gr3:25. ]DDD 'poor' C2.2:9. mD* 'colleague' C l .j i n i s 'governor' B2. m'?a 'board' C3. i / i n / i s 'prow(?)' A6. nmJDS 'after-gift' B3.3:6+.2:3+.10:13. '?' A6. . niarr 'order' A6. b^i>i* measure of area C3.s. |Dn-SD ' w h i t e n e r ( ? ) ' A6.§ 20 full' A6.10:2+.5:17. tant. -m3:iDnD3 'scribe of the book of God'.11:2+.10:5. T i 3 'domestic staff A6.1:67. -KniD* 'corporal punishment' A6.1:17+. -|3-D 'dish' D7.. 'necessary' A6. }n-in« 'brazier' A4.6:15. n i / i D T ' ? ' A2. 7 3 1 T 'arsenic' A6.

n M n 'divine way' B3. In ybv t^no b^n^ i n nn'? CI.g. 'to.g.. 7 E v l : 1 4 + .' e. Gn 24. m'ps ^bn 'in exchange for its half B7.1:36 the preposition indicates an effect or consequence to be borne. verbs etc.' e. ssrrn/i ^p large seagoing v e s s e l ( ? ) .7:5+.g. 1:81. n-DT bv mp.g. si-ns-n 'overseer' A4...g.g.16:4.'. 5 : l .. l : 4 1 .1:5+.10:4. 3inn etc. '^s. adjectives. nnpn 'vessel' A2.3:7. is unlikely in view of the similar expression elsewhere . The prepositions attested in our corpus with their necessarily approximative gloss are: ~in« 'after.' e. § 20. W K Q n '?' B3. 2 : 1 0 . see Joiion . -Ttom/i^p small s e a . These are a series of words which take on some meaning only by being prefixed to the following word or conjunctive pronoun. 7]b\^ S i . rrb 'towards. p 'from. P r e p o s i t i o n s .2:3..2:24.' an unusual sense.3:10.l 2. | n 'between'(^'^). pb 'but.5:17+. ib. siraQn 'the excellent one' D 2 0 .8:26 seems to mean 'next to.' e.' e.' e. p i n * 'court(yard)' B3. This is a Northwest Semitic lexical isogloss: on BH. except for you' B 2 . on Phoenician. 'garment' B3. 3 : 1 1 . o-Qn 'panemng(?)' A6. mD 'according to. pD iv 'until now' A4. n n « 'after.' e. nmo 'according to it' A6.5:9. i n « n m o 'after your death' B3. "^mb 'for your mother' A3. ]nb 'other than.2:19+. . 2 : l . . pw* 'groom' A3.MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N .' e. They are unlike nouns... n n 'room' B3. though well known to BH.. -D-i 'southern' B3..11:3.'shall stand u p against Jedaniah' B3. ' e. ADJECTIVE. rmn 'courtyard' B3.' and on Moabite. -tyn 'customs duty' C3. iv 'till. "jT «n3« ibv nnnb 'to build on that Cp.' e.2:13+. 'young man' C l . nv^'d '?' D 8 . on their own.Muraoka (1993: § 133/).7:4+.6:14. fmQ nns. -n 'in.5:3+. 'after your death' B3.6:4. beside. e. pron. rTDnDi 'market' (?) C3.12:2+. Description of these "meanings" is a lexicographer's task. -SQQD 'in Memphis' B 8 . ^bn 'in exchange for.n n yv bv A scribal error for 3 m n . 1 2 : l . -DTTDp 'divine shrine' B3. Mesha 14 bii n3: inK ram 'between Anani and Tamet' B 3.' possibly in -}QS nb 'towards your mouth' C l .g.7Kv2:8+. for.2:13+. ibv 'upon. -ton 'PS. PARTICLES 85 A4. -n3K pb 'other than you. npn 'castor oil' A2.g.g.9:7(^'^).g. siQV p n3T 'from this day' B2. 1 0 : l + ..8:11.2:18 (no example with a conj. -D 'as..g.g o i n g vessel(?) C 3 .3:8.13 D .t o 'like these words' A6.11:3. IDDS 'idol* A6.3:11 and '^:v p^ nnn |'3 bik-w. -b 'to. mean something.11:3+. and only in letter addresses).g.. m* 'rioting(?)'A6.g. which.g..' e. "iD-iDDS 'sculptor' A 6 . inons 'praiseworthy'A6.10:9+.«^12J *? A6.' e.21:2+. 'T O Tashai' A2. snrron 'royal barque' C 1 .. Ahiram 2 man nn] b2: bv 'may peace flee from Byblos!. if n o t . .10:9.. bv 'on.5:10+. against. h k e .' e. bv in wnn bv nnn B3.

. b ) Proclitic prepositions The prepositions 3.. 'it>v 'about it' A3. ibi^i nip 'before the god of heaven' A4. C f Syr. c ) Extra final Yod before conjunctive pronouns Some prepositions end with the letter Yod and behave like masculine plural nouns when they govern a conjunctive pronoun: nnK(^''^).g. -mns.g. j Q i p 'before you' A 6 . 14. np-ns.3:2 vs. n a n p n D T 'prior to this' A4. on the latter of which see Dalman (1905:229). -niD'pn 'instead of him' A 6 .86 PARTIIa: § 2 0 f l .1:11 vs.10:7. 'after m y death' B3.' "ion bnp " i n n 'homer for homer' B 1. Amherst 63:12/13. •n-nr'?3 'without them' D23.'after you' B2. "pvn. ^ N o example is found in our corpus of nnn 'under' with a conjunctive pronoun.1:49. bv. one may assume that J-D behaved in the manner of the second group only when followed by a conjunctive pronoun for the plural like Dn-rD 'between them' (B2.g.. ibvC^). Having regard to other dialects. Their graphic unity with the following word or words appears to indicate that they also formed a phonetic unit.1:5. 5 : l . ibv 'above that wall' B2.g. nnn 'under. bnp 'corresponding to.6:23). e. 4 : 3 . are prochtic. D .g. n]T bv 'about this' A3.' e. si'pn nnn 'under the gun-wale(?)' A6.3:4 vs. and b. It suffices to note a few morphological features which are characteristic of them. the latter is expressed in the form of a conjunctive pronoun: thus "to" + "she" = b + 'i> "to her" = nb. Aella:way/ and JA.§ 2 1 G wall' B2. A second group lacks such a Y o d when it governs a self-standing word.1:6 vs. 1 : l l . 1:62 vs. ^bn 'instead of Ahiqar' C l .. ynnr\b 'under you' Pap.4:13. "jT srn^s.7:17. nip 'before' (locative).1 XII:3. and D n p ( ^ ) : e.. § 74 i.5:21 vs. Note.. The loss of Yod in "^m with a noun as in o m o "iriK may be based on the analogy of its antonym Dip. nanp 'before' (temporal). mbv 'on it (= sinas.. pKnnc*^ uip iraip 'I presented him before Esarhaddon' C l . "ivbi ( p ) . but behaves like the first group only when a conjunctive pronoun is added: ^bn. l : 10. 'the wall' [a fem. 'with. e.. "pn nbn 'ivbi p 'except for (or: w i t h o u t n a m e l y without royal intervention) a king's word' B 1. Nor is the sense 'to return to' likely with bv + an inanimate object: see below. e.1:6. noun])' B 2 . however.2:12. a) Use of conjunctive pronouns W h e n an element following a preposition is equivalent to a personal p r o n o u n . nv 'with his brother' C 1. -mn -nns.' e. all monosyllabic just like the conjunction i . ^nns.g.

3:7 is better interpreted as 'in an assembly' (Porten .1:110.g. are not essentially different from other ordinary nouns.Yardeni 1989:33. b'bp.9 (see % 2 d).5:5. p nnn 'from under' B3. b^.2:6+.e.5:7.10:2 is to be vocalised 7 3 or-Dig. m p p 'from before' in O-Cnp p B3. -b i[v] 'until' C l .63) rather than 'in his favour' (Segert 1975:229). a) Cardinals These are often given as ciphers.10:8+.(^*^') T h e remainder of the prepositions display no such peculiarity. morphologically speaking.3:5+. bb^2 'with the help o f A4. As is the case in Semitic languages in general.MORPHOLOGY: THE N O U N . in addition to the traditional class of cardinal and ordinal numerals. vivb ib. Or some of them are not attested with a conjunctive pronoun.) S K ' ? 'in the presence o f C 3 .C"^^) d) Compound prepositions S o m e prepositions c o m e together to form c o m p o u n d prepositions: d i u s n n K p 'after m e ' C 2 . l : 5 2 . 1 : 7 7 .S K/ B3. I'b 'under the control o f B 8 . but these latter. E.10:13. . 7 : 5 . p i^bvb 'above' C l .4:2I appears to have been left incomplete: one expects 'biQ« "t nn n p -Q 'unless a son of A . 'riD A3. 2 : 2 1 . K-ac?. nr:i3QD 'in the middle o f A4. -b 'bv 'above' B3. hence their relative infrequency in spite of the nature of o u r documents where numbers figure prominently. Numerals One may include under this heading. 1 : 1 5 + . The correction of the text at B3.7:6. T2 'in the hand of. .4:18+.g. 6 : l + . niip. 'Tvb 'in the presence o f A3. nD2 'concerning' B2.U j ^ p L j -according to' A4.6. DS bv 'according to' B4.3:9. n-ivn B2. -b nnn 'below' B 3 . being run together. ODD 'at the instruction o f B3. except' Bl.q p ~a. § 21. 2 8 : 9 1 .3:13. C1. in 'inside' B 2 . 6 : 1 9 t . .3:12+. The degree of cohesion of some such combinations is shown in the way they are written.. pivb 'towards' C2. -DJ« bv 'upon' B 2 . e) Prepositions + nouns = pseudo-prepositions Another category of c o m p o u n d prepositions are combinations of prepositions and nouns.1 l : 1 3 t .9:9+.' i. PAR 1 ICLb.4:8. e. nDi bv^") 'on account o f B2.2:24+. 3 : 1 4 ^ ^ ) . n r ^ D p 'without. 1 : 1 6 2 . ADJECTIVE. I'bv 'by the h a n d o f A 6 . IV. 'above' B2. through the agency of.6:22 and B3. ^5 C f § 3 above. p 'except' B2. ( . some quantifiers such as b2. p 12 'except* in a c o m p o u n d conjunction p 12 'unless' 6 3 . ' for-'^iSH .1:15+.

/yawma:' dalre:n/ 'the second day' and /da:ra: dalma:nya:/ 'the eighth generation. is usually taken to refer to the weight of ten shekels." however.2:l\f ptoy A6. T h e marking for the numeral for "two.2:16 ^ On the etymological relationship between the cardinal root . A 6 .det. 2 : 1 1 0 pnmnnc?:.6:7.g. 1 : 6 7 0 "3" n':'nA6. Segert (1975:216). ." Thus: nbn ]33 'diree daughters' nrbn ]-n 'three sons' ]-rnn ] n 'two daughters' ]nn f n 'two sons' m n nnD 'one daughter' i n 13 'one son' UNMARKED MARKED .' which occurs in formulas for indicating a pecuniary amount to be paid as in t ^nicjr'? 2 i ^DD 'silver 2 q(uarters) to the ten' B2. l l t nmn^ nim A6. The form ^rnnv 'the tenner. But Noldeke (1898:178) mentions Syr.2:15+. of n'^n. one u n m a r k e d and the other marked with the typically feminine sufformative. When an object is counted.m n C 2 . the marked series is used with a noun whose grammatical gender is masculine and the unmarked series with a feminine noun. cf. . 234 come in two series. 1 : l l t nn ^n A 6 .8:16 n-3QnB3. 2 : 1 0 .2:16 "5" ? nnn A4.) see here the st. "1" nn A4. l : 1 8 7 t ( ' " 0 n u n i K B3. "third. not a substantive: e.9:3 "4" i J 3 n « A6.5:3 nv2^ B3.' This question calls for further investigation. but it is sometimes paralleled by a cipher for a numeral.2:16 nmm ]'wv A6. ''"^ This last form following n has the force of an ordinal. with the exception of the numerals for "one" and "two. ]nn. in «*jOD 10 2 -I B2. 23.5:15 "6" ? "7" V2\DB3J:4 "8" ? "9" 9 nntD B5.5:17 rnnn Cl. s n ' p n C l .2:3 "2" p n n C l .1:4 ncj?2nB3. is made by means of an infix: f m n vs.88 PARTIIa: §21 the cardinal n u m e r a l s for "one" to "ten" and any c o m p o u n d numeral which contains a unit numeral such as 12.8:16.23t 9 "10" "12" "15" "20" "25" • ? ? ? ? nnciJ A 6 . 2 : 1 0 .i n and ordinal -3n." Leander (1928:115) and Kottsieper (1990:104f.1:187. and the latter further holds that the gender of the numeral must agree with that of the noun in question. e s t .

which accords with B A spelled plene. 2 : 1 0 .' C f Degen 1979:30.2:11 p3Qn A 6 . For the possibility that the Yod may be consonantal. p\. 1966:93). " ^ ' ^ c stands for an integer from I to 9. which are bound to b e somewhat tentative on account of incomplete attestation: b ) Higher numerals. ^'^ Segert erroneously gives ywv K7.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. as in j'n'^n.det. PARTICLES "30" fn'^n B3.17 pnt^n. Syr. Porten . /tma:nin/ beside <tmn'yn> (unvocalised) (Noldeke 1898.2:15t "180" pom nsiQ A6. cp. It is not immediately apparent whether the form is. 1 W " ) "90" ? "100" n«D A6. .IS . 'their centuries' A5. B A Ezr 6.]mD D 5 .Yardeni (1993:263): 'fours/fourths'. See also (Degen 1979:30) and Beyer (1984:460).2:15 "400" n » Q :J 3.2:14 "275" nmm ]V3D ymn A6. composite numerals "Tens" (= 10 x c )C") are the plural of the form for the corresponding unit as in Semitic in general.2:13. ADJECTIVE. invalidates Leander's explanation: "pan im Gegensatz zu alien anderen Zehnern mit einem ruhenden vielleicht um die zwei ] von einander zu trennen' (1928:116). spelled plene or not. moreover. were intended.2:16t "425" nmn) pm r3 -i« A6.8 :27C'^) F r o m the table above one may m a k e the following observations. but vocalised as pi.2:15 ]ncyA6." spelled defectively p^v.28:1 as the only instance of the st. cf. This seems to apply to "20.5:7 is consonant ^'^ C 1.32 (= B3.: D n 6.Yardeni 1993:54) than 'thousands of (Leander 1928:116f.2 :12 "70" "80" A 6.2:16 "1000" A4.2:14.8:32). JA jDQFi (Dalman 1905:127). "250" pom fnuiD A6. Segert 1975:219). 'the forty' (so Cowley already).pl. mnm with the partly restored form given here.9:80 89 "50" "60" ^ ]mn A6. 4 1 : 1 C " ) "150" ]mm n«DA6. Grelot (1972:112): 'quart. yvbn.2:7 is more likely 'the ships o f (Porten . one would expect in our corpus: see above § ISi. the descending order is ' ^ " ^ Leander (1928:116) and Segert (1975:218) read the difficult form i<^V2m C3. A6. As regards c o m p o s i t e n u m e r a l s . of a ten.2 fitpr If the du.2:14 "200" fn«D A6. Though not strictly a numeral.

d) Hundreds "100" is nm A6. cf.8:6. On the latter. Hebrew influence is suspected. Nabataean (Cantineau 1930:95). mu 'IDV.' On the preceding ten.. Where a composite numeral ends with one for c .(^'^) The restoration ]DV niJ]nit^ 'fourteen days' A4. the "unmarked" column in the above table for "12" and "15" can be reconstructed as p m m "ynv and 2?Qm -mv respectively. 4. c ) ''Eleven" to "Nineteen" As regards " 1 1 " to "19" specifically. where rare exceptional cases in Syriac and Nabataean are mentioned. For "200" the dual form is used: ynm A6. and the gender of the two matches: e. see also Fassberg 1991:130. BTA (Epstein 1960:128). which has Dn 4./ used for the arrangement of their constituents.g. Mandaic (Macuch 1965:231). e. BA. m. The mixing of ciphers and numerals is attested elsewhere.900): nm rDn« '400' A6. Only one example is found for "hundreds" (300 . Syriac (Noldeke 1898:95).2:16. its abnormal syntax may be due to the influence of the biblical prescription concerned: Ex 12. with the last numeral. /asra utrin/ vs.6 ^nrt> nv "iter niJDiN etc.1:3.g. j o i n e d by the conjunction to the following cipher for a unit. All other dialects show the basic structure of m. This structure obviously differs from the only certain OA example in Zakkur A 4: p'7Q (or: n[V2p) 'sixteen (or: seventeen) kings. first put forward by Sachau (1911:38) and accepted since universally. Palmyrene (Cantineau 1935:126).^*'^) For " 1 1 " to "99" the conjunction W a w is proclitically added to the following unit numeral ( c ) and preceded by the numeral for 10 x c. IDV mun vs. the marked or unmarked form is selected in accordance with the grammatical gender of the noun which serves as the head of the numeral. /asar utartin/ "twelve."C*'^) Accordingly. We also find it odd that all other numbers of days in this document concerning the celebration of the passover are given by means of ciphers. and CPA (MuIler-KessIer 1991:136).32. The use of the singular (iT^Q) and the sequence of the components accord with what we find in many other Aramaic dialects.2:13.23. f. Mandaic is the only later Aramaic dialect whose numerals for these numbers show stmctural similarity to our idiom. If the restoration be correct. Alongside the gender-indifferent forms such as /hamisar/. also Noldeke 1875:188. Mandaic also has an altemative system in which the decade precedes. seems to agree with these dialects. . would go against this rule. f. n.C'^) Numerals for " 101" to "999" consisting of u p to three components use W a w only once. B3.2:14 without i n .26 "itoiJ'-Tn as the only relevant example. Exceptions are SA (Macuch 1982:314). and Galilaean Aramaic (Dalman 1905:127f). however. JA (Dalman 1905:127f).90 PARTIIa: § 2 1 c .

and CPA (1991:136). 0 A substitute for an ordinal is the syntagm n + a m a r k e d cardinal as in mbn 'the third (one)'Cl.000" is pj'^S!. Otherwise is almost always shortenedC"^) to ^ and preceded by a cipher. followed by a cipher as in K?inrii 14 nm 'in year 14 of Darius' A4.8:27.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. ]1 D 3 D 'thousand talents' A4. 1 : 7 . e. 3 thousand karsh' C3. l : l. Syriac (Noldeke 1898:94) attests to both sequences.l: 1 8 7 . ' ^ ^ ^ The twice-attested 'mp (A6.13:49.g.000" (Macuch 1982:315). BTA (Epstein 1960:128). C3. So apparently CPA. without i n : ^bv>. Delete the penultimate paragraph of the article: the cited example (A6. ' e..000." use the plural j-S'^s. of JA (Dalman 1905:128). but phonetic elision here in the manner of nn for *nnt^ 'one. est. Because of the broken context. including the n u m e r a l "2. mit 13 Jahren kam er.7Fv3:9.(^"'') Similarly at lines 4 and 5.' Cf. Koopmans (1962: II. fn. .g.8) means 'former. Syriac (Noldeke 1898:94). This seems to suggest that in contrast to ]-n«Q '200."O f) Ordinals The ordinals are only meagrely attested in our corpusC^^^): 132? f3n 'a second year'(?) B 3 . even one higher than ' 1 . though Muller-Kessler (1991:136) does not cite an example of the preceding pi.2:13) had been misinterpreted (personal communication: B.C^') This makes our idiom distinct from all later dialects which.000. PARTICLES 91 e) Thousands .000.' the dual of w a s apparently not in use in our c o r p u s and that the abbreviation stands for not]-s'7K. one cannot make much of the only other instance of the numeral at C3. l w e find a unique dating formula: p27n 'in years' followed by a cipher.10:1. 0 In B l . SA with a distinct dual for "2.iD "^ TID ^ 'iron. Muraoka I995:20f. Mandaic (Macuch 1965:231). for a multiple of "l.g. K?iii vchr:b 7 ]1D'2 'in year 7 of King Darius' B l . The standard formula is St. See above. which is also found in front of the head noun. and Kottsieper (1990:103-5).5:2. 95) mentions an Akkadian parallel ana 3 sana:ti 'in the third year' and Germ. see below § 6 6 a: this numeral is close in meaning to ] i n « . 204. Porten). previous. 3 ]2."1." which is always written as 2.. There are several examples for "2.(^^*^) Most Aramaic dialects place the plural form of in the second position. e.7Gr2:26. Segert (1975:218) raises the possibility of not just graphic. ADJECTIVE.' On this strange syntax.

1 : l t .9:3 and r\b^ ^'bnD in DD ]n 'if it is thus like these words' A6. See below. *VT\ 'quarter' is often abbreviated as l : e. bm.11:3? See below § b. thereafter' A4. ] i « B 3 . nnD 'so' A3. •DS. 1 4 0 t .8:3+. l : 5 2 . assuredly' B2. at D l . h) Multiplicatives The only instance occurring in o u r corpus is thousand times' A4. conjunctions. 10 (and) a quarter jars (?)' C3:7Gr2:9. 5 : l l . C3. l : 1 4 5 + . as in 2 ]iiT\ '2 quarters' C3.4:l 1. O n mrra 'a sixth. B 6 . without W a w — ± ^ 7 '7 and half B3. a) Adverbs Of time: p s . n^n 'here' A4.10:l-J-. form as in Knn t>E^ 'half of the house' B2.1v:7. p 'thus' C l . nnnD 'together'B 1. •3D 'thus' A6. pb 'then' A4. i n « 'thereupon.11:3t(''°). .2:8.' see above § 18 r. a s s u r e d l y ' B 2 . interjections and the like all of which are indeclinable and unchangeable. 1 1 '1 quarter' C3.1:6. For their morphosyntactics.7:6+.7:3.1:6.28:29. 'yesterday' D7.2:8.na« 'immediately' A 6 .7:8+.19 rriqK? i n 'seven "in 'one times .10:6. mD 'thus' A6. see Folmer 1995:661-71.92 P A R T I I a : § 21 ^ . 'still.7:25+.g. B3. 1 2 : 3 t .5 cubits' B3.5: e. non 'there' A4.'('2') § 22.§ 22 c g) Fractions The only forms occurring in our corpus are: t>B in the est.5:4+.. 6 : l .22. 11:1). B2.. Of logical r e l a t i o n : 'still. HDPD 'now' A4. inD 'tomorrow'B2. previously' A4. Here again their semantic description belongs to a dictionary. Of manner: i.20:7+.6:3. The conjunction W a w is optionally prefixed to to express a figure such as 7. Of place: yn 'herein' B 5 . Other word-classes Under this non-descript heading are covered words which are traditionally subsumed under groupings such as adverbs. ](^)nnp 'formerly. but spelled out in lo p o um iJD-i 'oil. P^ih Note the striking position of the numeral in: see § 67 b. iDHt 'then' C l . see below. 'then' A6.2:2+. nrD 'now' A3. Hence w e present a mere list of them with necessarily approximative translations. nDD 'so' A4. Note the lack of the conjunction W a w . § 9 0 Is the final /-ml some sort of adverbial morpheme as that of DD 'thus' in pON D3D 'we said thus' B8.7Kr3. p3Q 'therefore' A3. ^ ^ " ^ On the patterns of distribution of these three synonyms within the Achaemenid period. pD •now' A3. also pl.7Gv2:3.3:7 or with W a w — p « j'^si 8 '8.5:4 (only once with an Alef.7:5.3:22+C*^«).3:11C"). 'moreover' D7.g. C f B A Dn 3.7:6+.11:3(^^^). 7 : l l + .

Recognised. 1 1 : 4 . w e beheve that B A K'piD (and its equivalent in our corpus occasionally spelled n'?D[^^*]) is a special adverbial form meaning 'in every respect. 4 2 8 . s t .sg. ADJECTIVE. 0 SHghtly different is the pl. 1 : 7 .444). This appears to be a common Aramaic idiom: compare Is 65. yat/.2:8. This point also needs to be borne in mind in assessing the suggestion made by Driver (1957:84) to interpret H3in 'again' (mentioned below) as a long imperative. p n p A4.. however..sg. Here also belong forms which look like f.abs. by Segert (1975:193). l : 5 1 . 222) is mixed. see Folmer 1995:116-18. in^3) with Trg.15:6. n m 'affectionately' B2. but are in fact archaic f . What Fitzmyer totally left out of account is the fact(''") that o u r corpus uses a n u m b e r of other words ending with «.16:4.e.4:7 // n m D B3. A study the substance of which was first published in 1957 in Bib 38:170-84 under the title of "The syntax of kl. n-niN at Dn 2. 6 . restore. «'?D nnp*? ]nns." Fitzmyer was writing against Montgomery 1923. Of degree: arw 'abundandy' C l . rrum in our text is to be vocalised / . it can be observed that the st. with an adj. n n n 'I rejoiced abundantly' A3.8:8. a b s . b ) Status absolutus of the adjective used adverbially Beside a possible adverbial morpheme / . See Brockelmann (1908: § 225 A A 251 a) and also Beyer (1984:96. [D]viTi nsoQ*? nn nnn 'any other thing that you took.m / mentioned in n. See also Degen (1979:22) and also further below § 69 d Vogt (1971:83). mnnt^ 'in Aramaic' B 2 .2:5. altogether.MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN. c ) Adverbial /-a:/ (i. 'again' B 5 .'(*^^) F o r e x a m p l e .' B3.7:14. nn^iCi rt> ]im 'they call it in Egyptian . of the adjective is sometimes used adverbially: "itDD ]^Dn 'he guarded firmly' A6.25 "the wolf and the lamb shall feed together (Heb. give (it) entirely to M. ''^^ On the orthographic alternation here. TiK? 'equally'(?) B i . l : 6 C^'). l : 4 6 ..7:5. 3 : l . kl' in the Aramaic texts from Egypt and in Biblical Aramaic.' A6. see also A 6 . See above § 18 w [2] on reduplication as a device of pluralisation. O — n ^ D D J (/ganna:ba:yat/ ?) 'act thievishly' A4.7:25: see below §75.. / k a ^ a : / and Peshitta /'akbda:/. accented on the penultimate syllable) Despite a careful study by Fitzmyer (1979:205-17)C^). m^ inonD 'very praiseworthy' A6.10:2. pip 'previously' A4.5:2. PARTICLES 93 'quickly' A3.. and Beyer (1984:606) tacitly.4 is Hebrew. to which the context allows o n e to assign some ''^^ As against Porten . . The position of Segert (1975:193. C l . seem to have accepted Fitzmyer's view..Yardeni's translation "as one" and mvo in their Modern Hebrew version ( c f Grelot: "ensemble") one ought to note that the gender of the numeral is feminine.

10:5+.9:3..8:26+ • • T or n often combines with a preposition to form a compound conjunction: 'U 'inasmuch as' B8. 1 5 : l l . "but" as in "if I chastise you. n bnp 'because' B3. tabp b raro i s o 'you wrote for m e a document on it' B3. -^ ' a n d ' O passim. additive "and. i*bt> 'if.. n b^pb 'as m u c h as' A4." note: "or" as in 'b nnDl nn 'a son or daughter of mine' B3.1:20. For details.9:4. Thus HID pEiTh 'to go out' B3.1:9t. t> 'if A4. nD. who also postulates penultimate stress.7:14. 1:201. Thus. also ib. see above § 6 .8:6. T h e following are mere extensions of this usage: t^'pj) ]n T H D 'written above' B2. The particle has a wide range of nuances.' The process of fossilisation had already begun in our idiom as shown by p vbvb quoted above.b 'above' C l . nblD' i>b t^Din 'he will not send again' A 6 . ^'^ On the plene spelling. then it would be considered a merit for you ("p mn' npniii) . l : 9 3 . apodotic "then" as in "if you do thus .1:64+. see Hoftijzer Jongeling 1995:294-96. n p 'since' A2. also C 1. t^nnip 'he thereupon tore up' C l . t>r] 'behold 'A2.1:177. «n 'behold' B2.11:7t. n bv 'concerning the fact that' A6.59. nu 'until' A4. mosdy of place..7:13+. O 'because' Cl. 217f. n^ 'O!' JA has preserved a number of adverbs.. T h e position that these are all essentially st.3:9-t-.nD 'when' A2. l : 4 1 . cf. not' C1.2.det.11.1:5.3:4. p 'if passim.. in addition to the simple. with the same morpheme. see Dalman 1905:55.1:10." Cl. n 'that' passim.7:4+. 1:126. 188.3:8+. N ^X* poTb 'to go upwards' B3.7:13. though largely fossilised and combined with another preposition or prepositions as in vhfvh 'upwards. though without referring to B A vb^.3:264-. 'when' A4. see above.3:5. Subordinating: nn« 'when' D7. n p nn 'unless' B3. n iDn bv 'on account of the fact that'(?) Cl. ]rb 'but' B2. rbn 'if not' A2.94 PARTIIa: §22J-/ sort of adverbial function. but if (]m) I leave (you) to your own heart.7:27.4:4.2:8+. sometimes also called presentatives. For details.l :79+.. 5 6 : 7 0 .. l : 1 6 2 . forms becomes especially difficult to maintain when one notes the s a m e « with similar function attached to what is hardly a noun: t^niD b -\m 'he said to m e thus' C 1. t>M 'if A4.5:34-. mb 'lest' Cl. n nu. fn D 7 .56. 0 d) Conjunctions Coordinating: i« 'or' B2.. cf. p Kbs. 'if A2. you will not die.4:6+.8t.. 'until' C 1. my son.6:9. iv tubs^ 'upwards' B2.2:8. e) Interjections The following. are used to give expression to the speaker's inner tension or to draw the listener's or reader's attention to the situation in view: nn« 'behold' A2.2:4.3:14.. N i j npDDn 'Let it go out' C l .1:44.2:10t." A4.

nb marking direct speech. bv? 'I have' B4. (wi^h the prep. 'there is.1:2.4:3+(^'). bv> could have developped from ^bvi.I29t. ADJECTIVE. In other words. for instance. 'nu 'more' A 4 .MORPHOLOGY: THE NOUN.2:3 // 'T^rib ib. ':') 'have' A3.6. u^b B6. The shorter synonym ri'K may be an analogical development similar to the process whereby the prep. D 7 . 3 : 7 t .1:157+C"^). bi:^ 'whatever' A 2 .7:6+. f) Miscellaneous r?Vi. r?^b 'there is not' D7. A2. 4 : 9 t . L4 (Lipiiiski 1975:118). IQapGen. See § 5 c. 5th cent. TybT\ 'her legs': n-n""** 'she is' = by-\ 'leg': T?^ '(there) is. PARTICLES 95 Cl.3:8. . 2 9 : 4 . ^bIr\b 'not' passim(^^). A4. The form rb occurs already in a 7th century Tel Halaf tablet.' In our corpus no instance of 'n""** with a conjunctive pronoun is to be found.l:127. "vm B2. Cf. also Leander 1928:119 h and Folmer 1995:218-20.1:4+.: only in conjunction with -b). ^'^ Still sporadically turning up in MA.14] (beg.3:9. ' n o t ' C1.


m. and conjugation class. mood. § 23. 3 m f 2m f Ic n-n -n n^rilO-n nV ]0)-—' V ? ]n-/pn-/Dn.Y o d verbs. C^) a) Perfect sg. The following inflectional morphemes are attested. 50 of Leander 1928. f Participle B i n y a n G non-G n-/n- Infinitive Binyan G -bZ-Kh n~D ]-n non-G: V ? ]C)- ^ We find it more sensible to look at some aspects of the verb morphology across all conjugation classes.m. This way one could avoid a misleading use of asterisk with *DFi3n5 in the paradigm facing p. . f.PART TWO MORPHOLOGY SECTION B THE VERB The following description of the verb will be m a d e in terms of the traditional categories of tense. though the asterisk is correct. pl. and the particular form in question is not attested. binyan or pattern. as the paradigm is one of the regular strong verb. which will be examined below separately. 3 m f Imperfect Jussive Energic -]-/]—^ -n -3—n -n -3-/]-n ^—n (?)-3-/]-n -3-/]~« 1 -3—^ v-H?) ? 1—n -3-n ]—n ? ? -3-3 2m f le pl. excluding those of L a m e d .]0 )--n ]n]-—n ]-3 Imperative sg.

2 7 : l l .9:8. m n r at D20.sg.Tn and 5. •ran^ 'you gave' D 7 . that is to say.C"*) The presence of a vowel in the second person singular suffix makes sense. and Hunmn . 3mp ^nbw A6. pinn 'you s e n t . arh'm 'you were interrogated . 3ms ub^ 'he sent' A6. e:.10:9. b) Spelling of the Isg. stressed penultimate syllable. 1 5 : l . \\rhy . 2fp pnb^ 'you sent' A2. however.2:6. This does not. the neutralisation of the two genders is intrinsically more likely in the plural/dual rather than in the singular. Why the diphthong has contracted in B A in the plural forms (Krt?"! 'we threw'. /hzayt/: see below. satisfied' B2.2:17. (1992:52). Besides. Perhaps a chain analogical development: 'I saw' > KrTD > prT'trj? . |nDn-i 'you love' 82.4. see Bauer . suffixes Our corpus attests n o plene spelling such as D n 2. See also Fassberg (1990:165) and id.§ 24..] saw') is not immediately clear. G pass. which can best be read as the 3fs. brought' A3.7. § 37 b. Is nnb^ A2.. have to mean that the morpheme in question in our idiom was /-t/ with the loss of an original final v o w e l .3:5. form represents a stage following the apocope of unstressed ultima vowels. there is hardly a reason for questioning the phonetic reality of the vocalic ending of the 2fs sufformative ^n-.3:3.5:2.15:8. /-ta:/ forms outnumber/-t/ forms. Examples and discussion a) Perfect.) saw' (with a penultimate accent) and Syr. 3fs G pass.. N o w both dialects tend to retain the diphthong ay when it is in a closed. T h e Syr. exceptional defective spellings in rnOK.41 nn".0 t h e other hand. as Segert does (1975:247). S o Grelot (1972:342) and Gibson (1975:121).22 WT a l o n g s i d e n?pri ib. pmn 'you [m..pl.7:29..Y o d verbs has a diphthong following the second radical: B A r\rc\r! 'you (m.5:8.10:5. r a n ' '(it = a letter) was given' A 6 . in the first person '•^^ For further examples. and2sg. ]nim (< Vnn^) 'you had in abundance' A2. ib. in the period of Aramaic which is our direct concern here. jinnT 'you bought . T h e Tiberian tradition of B A has a m p l e e x a m p l e s of t h e type D n 5.27 nn'pppi in B A .5:5. See below§ k. There is no need to find. not in the Proto-Aramaic or Proto-Semitic period in which all agree both first and second persons singular suffixes ended with a vowel.1:5.. 2mp nrpQ] 'you left' A3. 2fs 'r\\t>^ A2. Pace Qimron (1993:38) it does not necessarily follow that the BA /-ta:/ is a secondary influence of the Lamed-Yod class. both of the abovenamed dialects show a contracted vowel. 2ms nnbm A3..19.Leander 1927:173..('"^) B y contrast. Ip ]nb^ 'we sent' A4. In Biblical Aramaic as well as Classical Syriac the transitive-fientive class of the G perfect of L a m e d .

See below § 3 5 / . applicable to Aramaic only.) and Gan" (1985:123) assume a vocalic ending.C^**) One may thus conjecture that. T h e plene spelling apparently started with two high vowels.27. The valuable transcriptions na-Sa-a-a-tu 'I lifted' (=n«2J3) (lines 1.32) and ha-al-li-tu 'I entered' (= Tbv) (lines 4. both disjunctive and conjunctiveC"'). the former ended with a consonant.13:8)(^"). ""^ In these categories the silent Yod is the rule in Syriac. which would imply no vowel before the last radical in the case of triradical roots.4.29) of the Uruk inscription have been correctly normalised by Gordon (1937-39:116) as nasait and gallit respectively. did not end with a vowel. See § 3 ^ on pr = * p r "we sold.1:14 (also nnm B3. B y contrast. and 2msg. Isg. albeit presumably unstressed! The Syriac form is that of the Eastern tradition: in the west it has changed to /l]zit/. nntou 'I thought' B 3 . though their phonetic nature of being high vowels is not the direct reason for this. emerged. whether short or long. 6 : 3 .' For OA both Dion (1974:182f.)' (< katabtV) and /klavle:h/ 'she wrote it' (< katabat). whether in the middle of words or at their end. when the a vowel is not.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 99 singular. "^^ 'Hie second last example is mentioned by Kutscher 1972:79 and Margain . and the latter to H e b r e w o n l y — a n d the quiescing of the glottal stop as part of the determined state m o r p h e m e . i and M .(^") If the personal suffix was not But note nn'B 'I built it' Dn 4. but the n was preceded by one is corroborated by observing the following examplesC^"): mn 'I died' B3.10:2. B3. the i vowel is more often than not spelled plene in the second feminine singular of the perfect and the personal pronoun. Note also nnn 'I died' Nerab 2. thus B A nnn 'I saw' and Syr. One cannot have a vowel both before and after the last radical. The reason is rather that the plene spelling of the low a vowel started only after certain phonetic and morphological changes had taken place. This archaic situation is still reflected in the opposition in Classical Syriac between /ktavte:h/ 'I wrote it (m.27. notably the feminine singular m o r p h e m e /-at/ > /a:/ (both in nouns and verbs (pf. a diphthong in a penultimate syllable. / or u. The lack of examples in our corpus of the plene spelled 2ms suffix is probably part of a more general pattern of Northwest Semitic orthography. when this contrast in vowel preceding the suffix between the Isg. See also Dupont-Sommer 1942-44:38f. c) Vowelless Isg suffix The suggestion made in the immediately preceding paragraph that in our idiom the pf. /hzeit/. while the latter ended with a vowel. 3fs)—the first change applicable to both Hebrew and Aramaic.

whilst the conjunctive pronoun attests to both consonants (§ 12 /). on which latter see n. suggests that the second T a w may be merely a more 'correct' or e t y m o l o g i c a l spelling c o m p a r a b l e with M o d e r n Hebrew i]3n3 (unvocalised) 'we gave' instead of Ez 27.g.(e. for which no vowel is likely at the m o r p h e m e boundary. did not end with a vowel.is attested in one of the oldest documents (A3. 1. already at the time when vowels of the form of the verb itself m a y have undergone some changes as a consequence of the addition of the object suffix.and ]n-.5:7 shows that. More examples in § 38.(e.3)('*") in our corpus is no surprise. assimilation of the second /nf would only be possible w h e n no vowel intervened between it and the following suffix.)' B5. . though the distribution of the /-n/ form is rather limited.7:16 and ^nnnn^ 'you (ms.1913n3. the spelling D'fD and rwv might have been m o r e natural. 1994:234. But the same document uses a conjunctive pronoun p . d) T h e 2mp sufformative c o m e s in three varieties.) gave it (ms.g.C*'**) The fluctuation between / . the spelling differentiation between nrarr' 'I gave it (ms. Dn 2. the /-t/ of the Isg.sg. though two of them.sg. B A shows both yn. probably sounded the same. 7. Furthermore. See § 3 8 / . But ^nn^D 'you (fs) died' B3. with a 3ms object suffix is never spelled with n . ]in. All this makes Kottsieper's interpretation (1990:148) of ran as < *r)C)nn most unlikely.8 linnq). T h e two forms cited above m a y have sounded something like /yhabte:h/ (= /yhabt/ + /-e:h/) and /yhabta:hi:/ respectively. did.4.: ]DonQ 'your pay' ib.m / and /-n/ seems to have started with the verbC*"): there is no single instance of 2 m p ]n3« in our corpus. In the last case.1 :49C^^) indicates /-t/ rather than /-tV/.18 ywbfn) and lin.)' B2. but n as in nn'^top 'I killed him' C1.100 PART l i b : §24d-g preceded by a vowel.(^''*) By contrast. later Aramaic dialects and in the Uruk incantation text.5:17.sg. The allomorph ]in. the abbreviated spelling p] (= /zabbinna:/ ?) 'we sold' for *]3DT (see below [/]) is phonetic. while that of the 2m. That the historically old nn.sg.provides a valuable clue regarding the type of vowel to be postulated after /t/. Ezr 4. The vowel preceding the n of the Is was most likely i or e as in Biblical Aramaic. *" Schaeder (1930:251) is of the opinion that the young /-n/ morpheme of the conjunctive pronouns is due to Akkadian influence. though it is impossible to choose between /u/ and /o/. Also the fact that a pf.

one wonders whether the plene spelling ]in.with the noun: CDinN (l. a classic discussion by Ben-ljayyim (1951). § 3 8 / .MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 101 A3. "us"! See below. DDDQ (8). the Jpl m o r p h e m e is never spelled with a vowel letter n or at the end(^'*).4:25 . does not take QA into account: see. Furthermore. posited by him for the Elephantine texts. In BA. IQapGen 20.suggests s o m e difference in vowel quality—length and/or stress—in comparison with the pronominal morpheme.* Fitzmyer's (1995:115) correction cries for another correction: the fluctuation between ]'in A4. had wrongly analysed nnrr B5.12:3 is valuable in showing that there intervened no vowel between the last root letter and the final morpheme: cf.7:16 and wnn A4. e. DD'P (2). the form would have to b e spelled *nn or *min '•^^ See § 11 ^ and 12 h. which is never spelled plene.4:5 . the simplified spelling ]3T 'we sold' B3. 13.7:12. Syr.is the rule. T h e N u n w a s probably followed by a vowel of some kind. In this respect. on-. possibly a long a in the light of the suffixed form MDT 'we sold it' B3. which Garr quotes. our idiom agrees with that of the Ktiv tradition of B A : e.16. /qat. t«. which.) or /-aya:/ (TA) as the 3fp m o r p h e m e . which Garr quotes.uses only DD.. See also Kutscher (1971:376). 1."Finally. for Kutscher.10 (end 5th / early 4th c.C*^) g) T h e only instance of the Perfect 3fp to b e found in our corpus indicates its identity with the 3 m p : «m :N itOD 'the letters arrived' A4.8:15 concers the object suffix. T h e question must be left open. and also Folmer 1995:160.' can hardly b e v i e w e d as instancing the distinct m o r p h e m e in question. while having an apparently fp subject in KDorn^D 'the objects.C''') Otherwise the above-quoted p\ would have sounded identical with p r 'he sold'B3. e) Though examples of the 2fp m o r p h e m e are by n o m e a n s n u m e r o u s . is a ghost form: Schaeder (1930:240f). it m a y b e a s s u m e d to h a v e been distinct from its masculine counterpart. and a correction inserted by Kutscher (1977:412).4:3.* when it actually means 'we gave it. however.2:15. has apparently escaped the latter. D n 5. had correctly recognised such a morpheme as only applicable to the personal pronoun. ^ As in the Samaria papyri of the 4th century BCE: N 3 n T SP 4.5 ipD3.g. whose 1970 version Garr quotes.6 Kn'ptD and vbnn 'destroyed' ib. Garr's (1985:104) [na:].teln/.9).) m e n t i o n e d above showing t w o instances of |n.C''') mn A4. for if o n e postulates Aay/ (Syr. . whether conjunctive or disjunctive. DDT(2). B3. Cf. f) U n l i k e the corresponding conjunctive and disjunctive pronouns.g.1:5 as 'we gave. which latter text is to be found in a recent publication of new fragments of the document by Qimron. then.9. just as Fitzmyer (1967:73). by dint of vowel contrast as well.

-im n n Tim bv^. for ""nriN can be read as either sg. l : 8 8 .or Early Aramaic most likely did possess such a distinct morpheme. Classical Ethiopic.(^') h) ImperfectC^): 3ms nbm' A6. Proto. to which Akkadian.15:8. Porten .Yardeni see here an erasure of a Yod.2:7. 2ms D Dbm 'you will pay' A6. Qimron (1993:38) also refers. 1 0 : 2 1 . 7^ ±m A3. . namely m. pm 'they will bring in' A3. one vocalically. Whilst Segert (1975:249) may be right in aUributing the B A Ktiv tradition to Hebrew influence. see Brockelmann (1908:574f. 3fs A imr\ 'she will send' A2. for she appears elsewhere (A2.3. i) The 2mp and 3mp forms are almost always spelled plene with a W a w .3:4. unlike in A2. /-a:/ with or without /-na/ or /n/. On the other hand.16:12. tG(?) p t o s n n 'you will be released' A3.102 PART l i b : §24/i-.8:3.C^^) It is rather a case of the lack of grammatical concord. /-na/ or /-na:/.8:12. But this is of a Lamed-Yod root: see below § 37 d. though it has not so far turned up. Our idiom appears to have used a suffix similar to B H and Classical Arabic. that is hardly an explanation for our idiom. It is also clear that no other addressee is involved.7. Classical Semitic languages have two modes of distinguishing the 2/3 m. Ip DDD] 'we shall write' B2. | ™ n 'you will say' D7. 2Jp ]nMn pDn 'you will b e able to bring' A2. A pnDCDD 'you will find' A4. 9 : l l . ]l2vn p^n 'you will b e able to do' A2.' That Tabi is a woman is in no doubt.11:14. and f endings of the prefix conjugation: 1) vowel contrast /-u:/ vs. The jussive and energic will be treated later separately. Kraeling (1969:243) wants to read H ]tfny. p t o ^ O 'they will b e able' 3 3 .). n. without adducing any example. j'D'^n 'you will desire' B 2 .2:5. and 2) /-u:/ with or without /-na/ vs. differed from the corresponding masc.{^^) This differs from what is k n o w n from M i d d l e Aramaic. 2fs yvnm 'you will hear" D 7 . b).6:1) as "my sister. bni: 'we shall fear' A4. in which the 2fp (and the non-attested 3fp) sufformative of the impf. is somewhat ambiguous.' See also A2. /-u:n/ Thus pace Segert (1975:248). CL Hoftijzer (1983:117. 3mp ppntir 'they will leave' A3.3:13. 7 : 1 6 0 . which is of course most unlikely. to the existence of this distinct morpheme in lA. For comparative Semitic aspects. /-na/ as against m p /-u:/ or /u:nl. Middle Aramaic such as Syriac belong.5 :5C^^).5:3. 2mp D p n t n 'you will sell' B 2 . 1 0 : l l .2:7. respectively. 'my sister' or pl.1:6. ptosti)^ 'they will j u d g e ' C l . to which Hebrew and Classical Arabic belong. 'my sisters. The wording of the opening address.2:10.

since the same spelling p . including B A . 4. in Early Aramaic in general.' but ib. On a related issue in the jussive.MORPHOLOGY: 1 Hii V t K C VS. l 5 7 (see above § 18 6).doubled for the 3fp. "^Ben-^ayyim (1951:135). T h e actually attested form p r o b a b l y indicates /the. This leaves only ^[i]^ msti) ]Ti'b' i b . a form ending with a plain Nun has the chance of being a form phonetically distinct from its masculine counterpart. As regards the disjunctive personal pronouns. form for both genders (see above [g]). /-a:ny. T h e gender distinction in the 2nd and 3rd person plural is a general issue. see below. the attestation is incomplete (§ 11). was that. Ben-Iiayyim (1951:136) has no choice but to invoke scribal enor. one of the above-quoted examples.17 pjib. Kottsieper (1990:15) "[erlkennt man sch[lie61ich] seinen Betrug. applied here also. even the Ktiv.17 pjf? 'they will be.' . such forms largely depended on the vocalisation and the Q r e .pl. l 5 1 . in the latter. e] above). 5. w h i c h in the perfect uses the masc.9 p i i T .Yardeni (1993:43) "they [shall] perceive his lies". Lindenberger (1983:285) believes that in the pc. O In B A . f. T h e picture regarding the Hermopolis papyri is a m b i g u o u s . l : 133 where the verb could be impersonalC*").pl. This view of ours is supported by ]rmn.is used for both genders (§ [d.18 'they will dwell' and ib. which gives rise to a number of specific questions. based on M A forms such as Dn 5.o n .terna/ < / t h e r t a y n a / .. Of the four examples mentioned by him three are not unequivocal: nnniD p3ti)3np C l . l 5 5 . Is it right to a s s u m e that both persons behaved analogously? Were the pronominal m o r p h e m e s any different from the inflectional m o r p h e m e s of the verb in this respect? The same sort of questions applies to the distinction of other categories of the verb inflection such as tense and mood. w h i c h is pn^C"') Hence. Grelot (1972:441) "on decouvrira son mensonge". where the subject is f. Especially pub cannot b e revocalised as masculine. § k. In the prefix conjugation. So Porten . likewise IDDK' ^PH yyv i b .: Dn 4. which would have to be spelled *]''n''nn if the usual assumption. the 3 m p with p. has occasionally preserved a distinct 3fp form in the impf. O O n e of Ben-fiayyim's main arguments against the distinct f . W e have noted above (§ 12 j) that the picture is not quite clear-cut. ]innOT i b . In the perfect tense. the e v i d e n c e for the existence of a distinct 3fp m o r p h e m e is m e a g r e . there being in our corpus only one case where the subject is 3fpl (§ [g] above).

as will b e c o m e clear in the following subparagraph. see below § 37 d. the distinction between it and the imperfect (indicative) is not always visible in the consonantal orthography. We agree with Kutscher that both verb forms indicate the speaker's wish. Thus the overall picture is somewhat mixed.6:13. a good discussion in Kottsieper (1990:138-40). and following an indicative. See further § 35 c on the Ayin-WawA^od class.c. nb^ "Send" (impv.there is a fair c h a n c e that the 3 m p predominated. It is visible onlyC*") in the 2fsC*'^) and 2/3mp(''") where the corresponding impf.) D7.("") k ) J u s s i v e .vs. m y r n n 'you wash it' (line 7). This category is mosdy identified on morphological or morphosyntactic grounds. On the alleged final ("so that.).11:3. however..C*'^) In fact the jussive column in the table above {[a]) gives. l : 14. just as in B H . especially the conjunction with the p r o h i b i t i v e 'PK and the a b s e n c e of t h e so-called N u n energicum. needs to be somewhat nuanced. *]''EK\ A S we shall see later. as noted already by Kutscher (1972:30. 2ms bi^ 'f>^pn 'Do not ' kill m e ' C l . Though the jussive 3fp is not attested in our corpus. one may postulate the same ending as that of the 2fp.. D l . due to the scope of attestation of his corpus. were phonetically any different from their respective indicative counterpart cannot b e determined. see Muraoka 1997c.C*'") But. Parallel with another volitive form. Lamed-Yod verbs tend to make an orthographic distinction in some other categories as well: § 37 d. which both occur in the close proximity of the clearly marked jussive mT 'Let them give' A6. except 2fp. Thus it is better to restore an indicative T^i^nnn or ]'(^nnn atB4. attached to the conjunction Waw in Biblical Hebrew. confines himself to the 3pl. his assertion that l A did not allow the dominance of the 3mpl. for instance. On problems unique to the Lamed-Yod class. namely IDk^. See below § / and § 37 b. In the light of our discussion above. Thus whether ntoun' and ]onnt^. ends with N u n . whilst in the 2pl. Likewise 'nann 'and let him give if parallel with "Ql 'Go' (impv. only those cases where the jussive is distinct from the indicative in our unvocalised orthography.29:9.8:ll(^^').f(3) respectively. may") force of the pc. who. a distinction seems to have been maintained. E x a m p l e s : Is nunifc^ 'Let m e w a s h it' D7.1:7. which is apocopated in the jussive. .17. following an indicative. l : 5 2 . ""n^WH 'I shall give it' (line 5). 83). {'')r\2b ^'^Dn bvn ' D o not b e angry (at m e ) ' Cf. 2fs 'S2in b^ 'Do not worry' A2. '''^ One important exception is discussed below.

g. the defective spelling of ^?3pn and inffl' cited above is remarkable. 3 : 1 0 O . ""T. 6 : l . probably of /ra4iya/ type in Arabic. 2mp iE32in b^ 'Do not worry' A2. T h e context makes it likely that w e have a rare example of the 2fp jussive in ]Vir\ 'you should know' A2.2:3. which we assume to have followed a long vowel. one would expect y^itb /-ya:n/('"''). C f a historical reconstruction by Bauer .17 :10. isoin"" C3. possibly an error for iDDint^ 'were added' following the relative pronoun.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 105 'Do not rely' D7. and Ashur ostracon 19f. nD^"??:^ b^ 'May they not fdl it!' (22) also from the s a m e bilingual.16:5. A 3 .9:6. These two cases plus ]n"nn discussed earlier (§ [/]) suggest that the analogy of Classical Arabic.5:2. except that of Lamed-Yod verbs (e.Leander (1927:96f). 31). while the jussive 2 / 3 m p and 2fs are characterised by the loss of /-n/. the original /-payn/ could have been spelled without Yod. see Muraoka (1972:29). mm bvi 'Do not give!' A6.C^') Our jussive ]Vin m a y have ended with /-a:n/. which in its masculine counterpart in the jussive disappears. and similar forms from Sefire — e n d e d with /-na/ as in Arabic. On the analysis of the Fekheriyan form. /-na/.5:4. A2. Or possibly a jussive erroneously used for an indicative? On this point. for a trenchant criticism of which see Huehnergard (1987:272. Since the jussive with an open ultima syllable is. m 'May they place' A 6 .11:10 is hardly jussive. Since the contraction of /ay/ is known to Fekheriyan as in m n ra 'the house of Hadad' (line 17).5:2. 24). D l . the conjunctive pronoun Yod may have been inadvertently left out. b^n quoted above). n.7 :1C''). should the M A tradition with a long a apply to our period. 2Jp ]Vir\ 'you should know' A2. see Huehnergard 1987. applied to our idiom as well. l : 8 . the Fekheriyan p^b presents a difficulty for such an interpretation. All this leads to the conclusion that the Fekheriyan form—likewise pyrb •May they suckle!' (20. n. for should one start from M A .4:12.(''^) However. bDnn b^ . the 3fp jussive In the light of variations of the same idiom at A3. which in the jussive/apocopate 3fp gives /yar(Jayna/. reminds one of p^b 'May they [= w o m e n ] bake!' in Fekheriyan (line 22). in which in the 2/3fp the indicative and the apocopate (= our jussive) are identical in form. ^Dpn bi^ 'Do not stand' A2. 'May they eat!' D7. 3mp t>m' 'May they seek!' A3. pace Huehnergard (1987:275.16:4. hkely to b e penultimately stressed as in BAC^^).2:15. The verb was. 21). Another consideration which renders /-a:n/ as a 2/3fp jussive m o r p h e m e unHkely is that. A4. This form with the final N u n retained. A6.2:11.

the Energic is characterised by the increment of a N u n at the end of a verb form. D pbm 'I shall pay' B4.C**^) This is only visible. l 6 7 . There is no compelling reason to take ]n]n 'you (fs) may give' B2.(^^2) m) Function of the Energic Whereas the l-n-l m o r p h e m e has admittedly lost its energic force.24. form.3:10.(*'*) Whilst the attestation is patchy. fem. OA—p-in' 'May they not kill! (?)' at Sefire I A. On the function of the energic.10:21 as energic: it can be easily a usual "long" imperfect. So Degen (1969:65): "Lang. our idiom and others. only o n e N u n is written as in mi^ran 'you (mp) may give it" B2. at least one dialect of Old Aramaic did have a distinct third fem. self-standing energic forms are few and far between. l : 107. The absence of . excluding Lamed-Yod verbs. Fekheriyan— mentioned above. w h e r e the indicative form ends with a consonant('*^'). see below § 53. though when the verb itself ends with Nun as in the 2/3pl. Samalian—]"i[Q3n'7 'Let them [= her kinswomen] be assembled' at Hadad 31 and HDCJnD'^Q 'Let them pound her' ib. See also Tropper 1993:217..pl. l : 126.10:9. For the energic in the language of Deir Alia. This means. among other things. and on its morphology with the conjunctive pronoun.C^^) If our j u s s i v e form contained a long a. W e must then postulate that. Leander (1928:41) m a k e s an important observation that each o f the four free-standing energies attested in our corpus As Kaufman (1982:150) rightly points out.1:177.is what is found between a conjunctive pronoun and the preceding verb stem. that.17i:iri'?.6:5. made no such distinction in the 2/3fp. See below § 38 b. Fekheriyan. jnp'^n 'Do not take' i b . unlike in the j u s s i v e . it may b e safely assumed that the 3fs and Ipl also had an extra Nun.32. In the above energic column. pace Bentjayyim (1951:135).('") I) In contrast to the jussive. In B A it would be vocalised nJi^n^n. T h e following list is exhaustive: y\m' ]n 'if he should seize' C l . To be accurate. in der 3. ]p2m jn 'if I should leave'Cl. as in Classical Arabic. see § 38 ^.106 PART l i b : §24/-o in OA. which maintained a formal distinction between the so-called long and short imperfects." Whether such a situation is Proto-Aramaic or not is a separate issue. w e would expect an n-less form. see Hoftijzer 1976:297.und KurzimpL sind . and Samalian consistently retains this /-n/. -3.. If one leaves out energic forms with conjunctive pronounsC*'') such as "•mTnn"' 'he will turn it back' C l . C f Dn 5. morphologisch nicht unterschieden. impf. B3.

ynm 'anointing' A4. § 74 o: "Object ellipsis. in view of the overall symmetry between the impv. at least diachronically. which of the two possible energic forms represented b y A r a b i c . the fact that this /n/ was presumably followed by a vowel. See also Lindenberger (1983:51f. nnbw 'sending' A6.). 1 : 4 4 . I / y a q t u l a n n a / and II /yaqtulan/.4:4. Kottsieper (1990:137) speculates. whilst the sufformatives are identical with those of the G participle. l : 171. G: ms p2^ 'leaving' A2. fs n^v B2.e. i. . on the basis of his interpretation of data in the papyrus Amherst 63. and the fact that the corresponding Hebrew morpheme was apparently not followed by a vowel. point to a common origin.pass.C*") On the other hand. w h o mentions Degen (1969:80) approvingly. 'riders o f C 2 . A case such as p]]]nn^ 'they will s h o w m e ' A4. The n o n . as shown by a case such as D n 7. one may assume that a form such as ]p2m ended with /-anna/. applies to our idiom is difficult to say. n)Imperative: ms 13V 'DoC A6.3:27. though the latter is not addressing the past origins of the morpheme nor is Moscati (1964:136).8:3. most likely /a/.7:20(*''^). mp ]rb\D 'sending' A6. pass. There is no hard evidence for such a hypothesis.3:13.. mp M2V A6.4:9 indicates that our i d i o m aligns itself with B A in this respect. as Kottsieper also admits. V'Ki^ 'heard' A3.(^'*) o) Participle. and jussive. can be better explained by the widely accepted theory which connects the Aramaic form with Energic I of Arabic and the Hebrew form with Energic II. B A . see § 18 b. the two morphemes. an expected object should be no serious hindrance: cf. /-n/ (see above § [k]) is more likely than /-a:/ (pace Segert 1975:254). 1:129. if it were an II energic. / 5 npD] 'leaving' C l .MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB lu/ implies an object pronoun. for otherwise one would need to seek for two separate origins of the apparently related morpheme in the two languages. plene or defective. the N u n of self-standing energic forms and one that bridges an imperfect and an object pronoun suffix.1:3(^''yjp.cst. but no example can be found for it among his presumably exhaustive list of attested forms.5:12. However.G participle is characterised by the prefix /m-/." Against Kottsieper ( 1 9 9 0 : 1 7 7 ) . and at least for the second supposition our scribes did not find it necessary to give such a helping vowel some graphic representation as in Arabic. Furthermore. "•'^ On the spelling fluctuation.1:3. would be spelled with a single Nun. pTD 'written' B3. f)T 'Borrow!' C l . even disregarding the vocalisation.16 '33i"iin": 'he made m e known. Hug (1993:77) gives /-n/ as the ending of the impv. mp. 2fp.' which. that the G imperative inserted a helping vowel between the first two root consonants or before the first (the latter in the manner of Classical Arabic).2:22. T h o u g h the two idioms do not entirely agree (see below § 37 / [3]). T h u s . is obviously aligned to I.

without an object pronoun. pna2 'supporting' A2.1:131C")..13 w?"? as tG impf.3:4. T h e infinitive appears either prefixed with /m-/ or without it. Should it form a nominal clause with the adjacent nmn'^ton 'its repayment. without Lamed—^"pf^D 'filling(?)' C1.9 n'np 'to build' can be repointed as . which occurs nearly 50 times in our corpus.' most likely a D inf. is the only G infinitive without the prefix MemC^^).ending is a moot point in Aramaic grammar. is that the Massoretic vocalisation may reflect a later idiom such as Babylonian Jewish Aramaic. n. Note. and On the spelling fluctuation.TDQ 'to build it. fs H nnDCi)n?3 'finding' A4.. The Ktiv can be safely taken as a Mem-less inf. a possible parallel with Sefire II B 6 IT nbmb bnDVibEi 'and I shall not be able to stretch out (my) hand' on one hand. form of substantival use is attested: ms D -pm 'walking' B8.1:163. 3 9 : 1 0 .3:9. in the manner of BH imb. but n o other proclitic: nbm±> 'to send' A 1. Thus it is noteworthy that the form with M e m is used where it is not such a fossilised formula as in riD^nn D t D ]^t2'^' imnb 'they will put something good to say in his palate' C l .9:2 ( I D D ' ? ) . or inf. however.^^^) The non-G infinitive. A s a matter of fact. 1:163. if it is to be translated: "a he-ass is not to be hired. see also A4. All instances in our corpus of mmb ought to be interpreted as having a suffix for 'it. or a noun. n'rn Sefire I A 13 mentioned by Ben-I^ayyim (1971:250) and Segert (1975:260) has been also interpreted as a D inf.' nnnm 'his death' Nerab 2.1:7.' pace Lerner (1982:62).or n-. For an exegesis of this difficult saying. l : 162." Hoftijzer . l : 1 4 . T h e standard G infinitive in our corpus is therefore nro^b. 'raising' i b .108 PART l i b : § 2 4 / ? which in turn agree with those of the nominal declension. of fem. See . l 7 0 . cf. D 7 . He further needs to demonstrate that a verb of commanding also allows parataxis. p) Infinitive. the former would not be a ptc. C f also Folmer 1995:189f Whether a G infinitive can take the feminine n.10 analysed as G inf.Jongeling (1995:11) suggest a G inf.3:5. Lindenberger (1983:124f. though no det. Lemer (1982) attempts to show the notorious B A Ezr 5. however. pnmb 'to leave' C 1. m^b 'to say' A2.). + s u f by Hug (1993:85) is a verbal noun rather than an inf. and ]Fi'''?.5:7. used in one of the familiar and typical syntagms. and it introduces.2:3'.1:92. I D K ' P .3. The only exception with Alef is K'-pcn'? 'to give to drink' A4. see above § 18 j . gender. Another possible example is to be found in "mb at "inn -mb K"?! B l . The syntactic parallel he quotes from B A is less than complete. acj"? and such like in Mishnaic Hebrew on the other. always ends with n-('™).fp D ponoQ 'soaring(?)' C l . mp H p m Q 'holding in hereditary lease' A6. The most one can say. and often in juridical style. but often with a proclitic b. and B A Ezr 5. however.3:6 // imr:^b C1. a quote.

That this final H e was perceived as identical with the f.4:l l. either -n.12 ]ym rnnis! . as Fitzmyer does (1967:88. 4 : l l // n ™ ' 7 A2. see Folmer 1995:191. 15 Tnan'? 'to kill me. the latter naturally takes the est. l : 132 as an ordinary.4:6.5:7.(''^0 N o clear pattern e m e r g e s as to the distribution of the two altemative non-G infinitive forms.1:5.7:5. the m-type is also of respectable antiquity.(^"^) E x a m p l e s are: D 'Th:inb 'to rescue me' A 1. 17.8 4 : 9 8 . Kottsieper (1990:140f) seeks to fit this distribution pattern into his view on the Southern Syrian origin of Ahiqar's proverbs. On this difficult form.11:13. form. D7.sg.' Despite the meagreness of examples. nnb^b 'to repay' B2. including Sefire III 11. but the picture is a little more complex than what he wants us to believe.C^"') Another possible M-infinitive. A morpho-syntactic consideration is to be brought into this discussion: see Muraoka (1983-84:100) and Muraoka (1983). See above § 18 j .must be assessed in the light of the fact that such infinitives occur in his corpus only a few times and always with a conjunctive pronoun. i^'pmb 'to give to drink' A4. m o r p h e m e is shown by its alternation with T a w typical of the idiom of the Hermopolis papyri: n^rab A 2 . ^ Once outside o f these documents: nnriDn*? D 'to mark' D7. D or A. where one does not know whether the former is a defective spelling of the latter or represents /-at/. ^"'Cf Folmer 1995:191-98. A unmb 'to bring down' A2. H U'nrib 'to bring' A4.or nvi^). All the relevant examples in OA are those of the objective genitive.1:7. endet im D-Stamm auf -[u:]" . is mnfD'p 'to show' (error for minf^'p?) D7. Along with Kottsieper (1990:138) we regard nmao'n 'his trustworthiness' C l .(''^)('"') W h e n a conjunctive pronoun is added to a non-G infinitive. ^ See a diachronic and comparative discussion on the Aramaic infinitive in Muraoka ( 1 9 8 3 . though the former interpretation is more likely.5:14. Several instances of this kind occurring in the Sefire inscriptions are regularly spelled without Waw. ^ Greenfield (1990:78) uses this distinction for a classification of Aramaic dialects. Greenfield (1990:77) wants to emend the latter to [•n]n''n'n'?.24:16.9:10. /-u:t/.. n. abstract noun.1 0 1 ) and Muraoka ( 1 9 9 7 : 2 0 7 f ) . above § 18 j end. attested in the Hermo-polis papyri and Ahiqar proverbs.5:6. nnvnb 'to remove' B3. ^'^Kottsieper's statement (1990:138)—"Der Infinitiv . but the absence of an object in a context like ours is a commonplace in Semitic languages.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 109 forms without M e m are quite frequent: D r\n\b 'to sell' B2. and it is not imperative to read. B A uses the /-at/ form when the following noun is an object: Dn 5.(^"^) W h e r e a s the m-less type is spread over a fairly long time-range of o u r corpus (460 to 402).. 113).

6:30. Grundstam. It is attested in OA: see Fitzmyer I995:144f. a couple of erasures and that a vowel letter was twice dropped ( m c r r r 2. A cnmnnri 'to put t h e m down' ib. namely tG or Ethpeel. D without a L a m e d — nn^nbm 'repaying it' C 1 .7:16e««) // nniD-in'? 'to expel her' B2.act. 2 : 1 3 ( 5 ' " ) : H nm3onn['p] 'to bestow it' B7. See also Hug 1993:119 and Muraoka 1983-84: lOOf ^'^ The label G derives from the German term. T 8. mmnn 9). On the use of a conjunctive. doubled. and not /-ut/.' see below § 38. ^" npDDQ without the preposition as in wyb npD3D e]OD 'silver for taking out to the sea' C3.non A onn-itzjin'p 'to send them' A 2 . D 'DnDirb 'to expel you' B3. C ' O § 25. n n ' for T .8:30.9. t D or Ethpaal. A nmnn^Q'? 'to put it down' ib. 149f. 236). 162) rejects the presence of Nifal in the Deir Alia texts. A / H or Afel/Hafel. of n n 12. note a number of unusual defective spellings in this letter: OPN for "Dim 'your brother' 1.56:13.3:7 . i.g. For Garr (1985:121) to be able to speak of the Nifal "dying out" in Aramaic.6:6. 171. As for the absence of Waw before the Taw. and D also from German doppelt. B3. ni2Vt2b 'to m a k e him' B3. Lipinski (1994:125f.16 (subjective genitive).6:10 and ]n:^D3ib . and their respective corresponding f-binyan.110 PART l i b : § 2 5 T\n\nb \o sell if D7. G pass. we hesitate recognising Nifal in the system of our corpus on the strength of the solitary examples m^m B2. Even with the support of n3k^3 'to sigh' Deir Alia II \2bis and possibly inii3 'they gathered' ib..9:6. . though his argument for taking the Nun of n 3 K 3 as the precursor of the morpheme as in eastern M A dialects fails to convince us.7Ev2:6 and a few more times (mostly restorations) in the same document can easily be an action noun.10. not disjunctive.l5 whose interpretation is highly uncertain. D or Pael. I 8 (see Hoftijzer 1976:192.f ^) However. ODO for 0-30 3. nnsffl for HTD © 'beautiful' 12. n n est.7. From the fact that the idiom of the Hermopolis papyri knows both n'ri'D*? and n'nn':? as the causative infinitive of nrik^ (as noted above) it does not necessarily follow that a suffixed infinitive in that idiom necessarily ended with /-at/. Let us note that this document is rather poorly copied with four interlinear additions. pronoun for 'them.C") In this regard the G infinitive presents nothing unusual: e. (6). nnn 'his house' 15.16. 'zh\d7 'to sell you' B3. H ptc. our determination as to which binyan to assign a «Qy m3i3nn 'with the people volunteering' Ezr 7. In our corpus w e find n o trace of the infinitive a b s o l u t e . 1 : 1 3 1 . tA/tH o r Ettafal with a prefixed f. doubled second radical. Binyanim Our idiom attests to all the major binyanim or patterns familiar from the classical Aramaic dialects: G or Peal.e.ptc. basic stem.

Also ambiguous is V 'to reveal': both JA and Syr. are they derived from the same root? The question is not confined to relationships between verbs. for instance. Do we have a tG or tD in ]rt>^ mrmi' nn] 'how can a man guard himself against gods?' C l . for when the context makes it plain that pT in certain cases means 'he bought. he must be able to produce more substantial evidence for its presence in Old Aramaic in the first place. that the absence in our consontantal text of a symbol such as dagesh makes it impossible for us to distinguish between G and D is not quite accurate. b^p 'to complain' in G and 'to receive. The common denominator is some interaction between two parties. eludes us." '"W. in the G perfect and participle in particular: § 2 9 . Firstly. used in D?C'*) Secondly. it is not always possible to achieve absolute certainty in this matter. cause to pass' (Sokoloff 1990:394b). To say with Segert (1975:258). however. one can safely infer that the former had a geminated second radical. 1 : 1 7 1 a D or A infinitive?^"') See below § 33 c. O u r idiom uses 'to transport' in G.' in some others. presumably a D p t c . l : 9 6 ? See b e l o w § 2 9 ."' ^'^ With a recent study on the gemination in the Akkadian verb (Kouwenberg 1997) the time-honoured notion of "intensive" has been resurrected. bip . particularly those with reading and/or vocalisation tradition. the function of s o m e of the binyanim is still disputed. W h y is the verb for "to begin. D /nahhet/ and JA D iny 'to bring across. Even so. use it in both G and D. The precise significance of the binyan of the verb in n3k^ Dn'pfD n 'that I a m wearing' A2.1:6. however.. there still remain s o m e problems. CL Syr. though it gradually assumed that function as well. 'he sold. a situation which is still apparent in our idiom. when two verbs with identical sequence of consonants are assigned to two different binyanim. unless one has a reason to assume that gemination as a feature of binyan opposition was non-existent in the period represented by our idiom. Early Aramaic possessed morphologically distinct passive patterns. in D and A. For instance.g. accept' in D.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 111 particular verb to is to some extent(^") dependent on our knowledge of later Aramaic dialects. Even if one could establish the binyan of a given verb with reasonable certainty. By universal consensus none of the f-binyanim was originally passive in force.. for instance.' and the participle of the former ]nT contrasts with ]nTD of the latter.C"*) In other words. is nmnnDO'? 'to set it down' C l . it is not always obvious what logical relationship exists between the meanings of the two verbs: e. For Garr (1985:121) to be able to speak of the Nifal "dying out" in Aramaic. whereas B A uses it in H and Syr.

2:16. mxbm 'repaying it' C l . TiTbm 'its sender' C 1.1:82.3:4.) is no doubt Hafel in origin. Peculiarities of the 'weak verb' classes will be dealt with thereafter. 36 d. See Aro (1964:139-51). Binyan D O On the basis of our knowledge of B A and later Aramaic dialects w e may safely assume that the second root letter is geminated. inf 7\\±?^b 'to pay' B2. c o m e near' v s . Is "pbm 'I shall pay' B4. F o r m o r e details.' as in pnn A2. see . l 3 0 on the other. presented you' C 1.ms.1:14 with R R A P 'I rose' B L 1 : 1 0 on the one hand. for instance. Even if o n e is allowed to extend this distinction to other conjugation classes. involving a change of direction. jUT 'Sell!' A3. On the etymology and meaning of the word appearing at A6. l : 131. Ip pT 'we sold' B 3 .8:5.6:5. ms -pm 'walking' B8. see below §§ 34.1:9 (ptc. ^'^ In the following paragraphs on the non-G binyanim our observations will be made on. 5 6 : 1 3 . impv. T h e verb D pT 'to sell' (e. though the vocalization tradition in B A indicates that the vowel following the first radical is not that of typical D verbs.Y o d verbs o n e may infer that there existed a further subdivision among G verbs differentiated by the stem vowel. and mnn 'you will die' C l . b u t the fact that it must have b e e n thought of for quite a while as the odd m a n out is demonstrated D happens to be unattested in our corpus. T h e verb pn 'to believe.8:2. S o m e examples are: pf. w a s of qatil type as in later Aramaic dialects. W e include 'to rescue' and ^^OD 'to s u c c e e d ' ( ? ) ( 5 ' ' ) in this category. but e. l : 177 with wm 'you will put' i b . energ. 3fs 'rbno 'she supported m e ' B3. a. for there obtains some fluctuation in this regard between various dialects. f'^) Similar uncertainty exists also with regard to the stem vowel of the imperfect. § 27.W a w / Y o d verbs a n d L a m e d . n m n 6 'to sell if D 7 . 'they sold' A3. tmst. 2ms ubm 'you will pay' A6. 1 : 1 5 . ii^D 'he sent' C l .Sms.8:5) contrasts with its G form such as p r 'he will buy' A2. impf.g.§ 26. 3mp ^d^m' 'they will p a y ' B 3 .1:50. 4 : 3 . 3mp IDT 'they sold' A3. one could never b e absolutely certain whether G bm in our idiom. D 3 ~IP is factitive in relation to G: G 'to b e near. D 'to bring near'— "pDlp 'I brought y o u near. Binyan G From s o m e A y i n . ptc.7:5. Compare n^D 'I died' B3. 'we paid' A3.7:7.8:5. l : 101.15:8.10:17. and largely illustrated by the 'strong verb' classes.

She opts for the view that this is a case of / h / > /'/. 79 on Sefire III 3 tdd' and Degen 1969:68.^^') This m a y justify u s in interpreting a form such as nD\D'' as an A-binyan form with H syncopated: W^rr < nzm"" rather than < nyDn\ Whilst the syncope of a word-internal Alef is fairly common. See. chiefly characterised by the prefix Alef or He. often causative in force vis-a-vis G. which Voigt .more positively. without. only a Pael (so Degen 1969:70. some of the examples cited as Afels are still open to doubt: see Degen 1969:19. namely Hafel > Afel as a result of a phonetic change /h/ > A/ or the two existed side by side from the beginning. Voigt (1991:236f) wants to evaluate the form iDO.T and pDD. On 1D0\ Ben-^ayyim (1971:252) makes a case for its interpretation as Pael. T h e binyan is. 54 on ib.1:38. offering any argument (Folmer 1995:123. see Sokoloff 1990:394b.g. Alef as a morpheme of this binyan appears only at the beginning of a word-form. not just in this particular morphological context (see above § 3 Driver (1957:54) and above at § 3 m. namely as a harbinger of a later development. 80 below) or^oik^' 'he adds' are not to be found in our corpus: see Beyer 1984:148. a language from which Hafel has totally disappeared. § 28. / h a y m e n / .113). n. n. G '2Di 'to ride' C 1. accomplish.1:83 vs. whereas H e appears not only at the beginning of a word-form. hand over" in Aramaic. scarcely an index of a distinct dialect. and being the sole instance of such and appearing in the same line next to the standard form with <h> it can hardly be more than a harbinger. where Beyer states that the process of Hafel > Afel is documented already in the 8th c. 570). G pD3 'to exit' A4. a discussion in Bauer . The restored ]±>m Sefire I B 24. l : 190 vs. but in the same line w e find 1D0. for example.T. n. For further examples.7:5. e. however. However." can be. H pE33n 'to bring (or: take) out' C 1. The second problematic form can also be a Pael: c f pnn.21. 17 nrair. H nDin 'to mount' (tr.) C l . n.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 113 by its very form in Syriac.(^2*^) O n e obvious difference is that.-bm ^or ]inn' "inr 'Joseph removed them and exiled them' Targum Neofyti Gn 47.Leander (1927:62. Forms such as Dnm' 'he delivers (for destruction)' (mentioned in n. pace Fitzmyer (1995:108). Binyan H or A This is a so-called Hafel or Afel binyan. formally speaking. 58): the verb in Afel means "to deliver. if it should mean "you carry out. It is still a moot question whether one is dealing here with a historical development. Folmer (1995:123-37) is more concerned with the spelling alternation. but also after some additional prefixal morpheme such as personal prefixes of the prefix conjugation or the M e m of the participle or the infinitive preceded by a prochtic Lamed.

The corresponding Hebrew forms such as b-iy. Reference has been made above to some examples of the p c . but also in Hithpael (as in Aramaic to some extent). 414 (]ipsr 'they will take out' B3.("2) It does not sound good phonology to lay d o w n a rule applicable only to a narrowly defined morphological feature. ioif. 1 4 (515 BCE). 4 4 6 (ps]" 'he will take out' B2.11:15). which however does not use Hafel. (innns 'they returned' A4.16.^ In our corpus w e find some 45 Afel's. l [= Proverbs of Ahiqar: 5th c. mid 4th c. Two possible examples occur in C l . (HTO 'I brought' A3. no Afel. 23 out of 4 5 .?]: . l .10:21). np' 'he will raise. alternative causative binyan. an extremely rare form beside a host of regular Hafel and Afel forms. in the period under discussion here. inscription from the Assyrian sphere of influence considered by Caquot (1971:15) possibly constitutes evidence of a genuine. presumably the oldest a m o n g our corpus to attest to Afel. which are decidedly a minority compared with Hafel's-C"'*) It needs to be stressed that a significant majority of them. and Samalian shows the causative p c . 402 (ppsr 'they will take out' B3. 7 E v l : 1 5 ) .'("^) Chronologically speaking. last decade of the 5th c. Samalian seems to share this feature with Hebrew: see Dion 1974:121 f.. 2nd quarter of the 5th c. ^"Dion (1974:121 f.2:10). "neben seltenem A f e l " (Tropper 1993:212).("') wants to have. either. The only papyrus which does not use Afel is A2. but it is attested throughout the fifth century (and the fourth century): ca. for Hebrew knows only Hifil.11:5). 'very rare' (iind h t i ] ) (Kutscher 1972:87). without He. apart from a lone instance in 'I shall reclaim' B l . and beyond the causative binyan. late 5th c. whereas the same dialect attests to the conditional particle The striking spelling mnvc in a 7th cent.7:12).. n).) apparently does not think so. the Hermopolis papyri are. and notably with the definite article linked to proclitics ("iipp'? < iDOn'?*). 212) would interpret a Samalian form Uke D p ' as evidencing a syncopation of /h/. e. 475 (npsDQ 'taking out' C 3 . see Dion 1974:121 and Tropper 1993:212.7. but the postulated syncope of an intervocalic /h/ is confined in Samalian to this morphological environment. with Alef in the 7th cent. virtually unheard of . is concentrated in the Hermopolis papyri(^2^).g. ^ ^ " ^ But not "ganz selten" (Baumgartner 1959:93). Also Tropper (1993:182f.3:10). the syncope of /h/ in that position is.4:8).114 PART l i b : §28 m. But ••<l>3iDpK' 'they will surround me' 1 IQtgJob 30. For details. is to be viewed differently. b'lin vis-^-vis bfxrj can only be clarified by postulating a syncopated /h/.(^n"'D 'bringing'A3. (pnD^n 'you will find' A4.

SmpTirv 'Let them bring!' A2.g.5.("«) Other notable e x a m p l e s of Afel include: jinDton 'you will find' A4. these two infinitives in Ahiqar would constitute the only exceptions in this idiom. B3. pf 2fs T . /h/ > N rather than as evidence of a symbiosis of the t w o causative binyanim. impf 3fs itoin..5:4 // in". On the other hand. ptc.2:13 // oamtDiD'? 'to dispatch them' ib.1:4 // 2fp pim A2. has been interpreted above (§ 3 b) as tG. In synchronic terms.5:6 is clearly an A infinitive.12 were written by the same scribe.l6.1:6. Kottsieper (1990:226) takes the verb as a G and meaning "to command.pl. impv. Syr. 2mp ]rnn« 'you had in abundance' A2.1:5. the fact that a given verb is spelled in the same tense and by the same scribe indiscriminately with an Alef or a H e (e. which otherwise uses Hafel: e." for which the analytic structure with b is problematic. l : 170 and its variant nrnnnan'? 'to put it down' ib. ^n^D 'bringing' A3.' it would make a rare Afel.. ntmn A2.2:2.6:4.l88. 'HK C l . ms o n 'making leave' A 2 .9:7. ]ipsr 'they will produce' B 3 . Note also impf 2fp pnn ib. The fluctuation is not confined to these papyri: pSDrf 'he will produce' B 2 . m n n ' vh 'he will not tell' ib. Dalman (1938:282) lists it only as an Afel verb. B3. The other instance is ]'n "[Kin "p i p D ' 'if your master entrusts you with water' C l . If we admit the partially restored 'nam' at -nm. uses the verb /nbt/ in D as well.10.5:7. whereas a H form in the sense of 'to deposit' is probably found in n p s n B2. 2 : 3 .1:86 'Let him not show it. . 1 0 : 2 1 . n n c n n ' y o u will find'C 1. however. The notorious 'nip'r ib. 'he will show m e ' A2. l : 107. B3.l87 we would parse as G impf derived from V p'3. l 2 ." p k C 1. The use of verbs of physical movement such as n n p .12:29.4:7. n n r in D as well as in H/A is well documented.11. There remain two instances in the proverbs of Ahiqar that Kottsieper has not taken into account: TOO' v^-nbv^ C l . 7 : l l // p s r i b . though Afel m a y have existed as a distinct causative binyan at Dnmnnm 'to put them down' C l . fs 'Dispatch!' A2.1:34.5. pf 3ms ^jpsN 'he brought m e out' A2. B3.) dispatched' A2. A2.11:15 //pD3n^ ib.sg.3:10 3mp 'they returned' A4.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 115 The language of the Hermopolis papyri.5:7) can best b e interpreted as an indication of an o n g o i n g phonetic c h a n g e . Is nn'Vi 'I brought' A3.87. r . l : 126.1:4 // p-wn 'you (f. which he takes as a D form (1983:346). pojnn bt^ 'Don't kindle' ib.2:10. where Lindenberger (1983:118) suggests an emendation ]m-.) dispatched' A2. a root unattested elsewhere: see Lindenberger (1983:66f). The verb occurs in JA (see Levy 1876-89: III 4 7 2 f ) and Mandaic (Drower Macuch 1963:317) in G/A. and B3. l : 191.4:8. rarely in H. whereas Kottsieper's ' n p i j n ' b K is more unlikely.l71. Another possible A form. is by n o means uniform. and in Syr.5:4 // pf 2fs >mc?iK A2. for it makes use of Hafel as well: ntoin impv. Though nnno*? A2. mm 'you (f.ib.g. viz. Kottsieper (1990:148) is of the same view.11:5. n 'you brought' A2. juss.

. it can conveniently be subsumed under D. T h e binyan hit.. =*^^Cf Degen 1969:67.9:9 //nmm A4. thereafter the syncope of <'> in the prefix conjugation. fs. The only e x c e p d o n is nnitn 'Take heed!' tG impv. Despite its assumed vowel pattern. D7.116 PART l i b : §29 an earlier stage of Aamaic^^'') Such a phonetically orientated interpretation is corroborated by spelling variations of a personal name n-vm or for n'-ucDin or v^n. The conjugational category seems to be playing a more decisive role than the root type. our idiom k n o w s forms with /t/ positioned immediately before the initial consonant of a verb. and infinirive. subject to the rule of metathesis (§ 3 r ) applicable where the initial root consonant is a sibilant. 'he will rescue' D2.(^") N o ". or the condidonal particle jt^forp U X " ' ) As intimated above. .and are not found simultaneously in the various languages" (Moscati 1964:126) is simply not true. it is to be doubted that that had been the case right from the beginning. It is obvious that the pattern forms no integral.3:5. A similar complementary distribution has been noted with respect to the Aramaic Targum of Job from Qumran Cave XI: Muraoka 1974:433f.-/binyan Like other A r a m a i c dialects.is attested only once in O A in the notoriously difficuU inwnn Barrakab 1. A glance at the examples given above shows that the picture is far from straightforward even among irregular verbs. to the best of our knowledge. is that the prefixal ft/ is never preceded by /h/. We assume the intervening vowel to have been /. see above at § 3 A. where the m o r p h e m e in question c o m e s at the beginning of a word-form. the prefixes h.14. and this applies to the perfect as well. we would then consider a form such as p s r as a result of the next stage of this phonetic development: first the initial < h > changing to <^> in the suffix conjugation and the impv. §29.. productive part of the binyan system of our idiom. r'^TD 'they succeeded' A6.7:7. thus producing Ht-C^^) binyan.1:5. participle. ('^') The so-called b i n y a n Shafel is attested by a handful of vocables: -yaw 'they rescued us' A4. See also Schaeder 1930:249 and Beyer 1984:467. What has not been sufficiently stressed before.33:2. Whereas Segert's observation (1975:259) that Afel is largely confined to irregular verbs is synchronically true. For details.

MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 117 example is to be found in Samalian or in Fekheriyan. or the opposition to non -t form. Perhaps to be corrected to pL iDDiriK. cannot be overemphasised. the former gave way to the latter u n d e r the influence of the perfect and the imperative. including B A .patterns. pantDK 'was a b a n d o n e d ' A6. and -tH.11:2. and this as a result of a phonetic process. where attested.23 pace Jastrow 1903:1509. the context. 3mp In Fekheriyan there occurs once a /-infixed form: "irnr bvi 'let it not be removed' (line 23).t D . which attests quite a n u m b e r of pc. 4.31 KI^JFIK. we are inclined to analyse mrm as tG though its non-t binyan is H/Afel. .11:8 and j u s s . in forms such as n~)]Tir\ {II nr\]m) and ?b^yir)T\.6:3. lEDOin^ ib. knows both tG and tD of it with the same meaning. but note TO Taj Lv 4. This last verb could be a tG form: Syr.. namely word-initial Ihl > 1^1. For Cowley's pDDJiK (71.forms in B A and in later Aramaic idioms to a Hebrew influence. andnrriK 'he was removed' A6. it must be considered a genuine Aramaic feature.lO(^^^). however.29). as later Aramaic dialects.35 v^ivm. 3ms imm 'remained' B3. the only plausible explanation is that. such a formation is a m p l y attested in B A and Q A . though only in the pf.Leander (1927:107L). ib. So in TO Gen 7. Even then the decision is not always certain. however.and 'it. T h e o n l y . and the inf.pc. whereas originally there did exist both hit. but without H e ? Unless one postulates syncopation of /h/.'s in one of the -t binyanim. In line with later dialects. See also Bauer .'s in Aramaic.pc. It may reasonably b e supposed that our idiom possessed. 466) must be considered extreme and oversimplifying in attributing all Hit. The above-quoted n m n is no Hebraism.t H (actually -t') examples found in our corpus are pf. Beyer (1984:463.12:6C''). a -t binyan for each of the three basic binyanim. t]OinK 'it was added' C3. . attested also elsewhere (§ 3 k). M o r e or less certain examples of -tG are('^*): pf..2:22. But how could w e account for the total absence of hit. Its rare occurrence in idioms earlier than B A must then be an accident of incomplete attestation.C^0 T h e identification of a -t form as either -tG or -tD relies on our knowledge of later dialects. See also our discussion above on the coexistence of Hafel and Afel.C"") Since. read now p s i T C 1. see above. . alongside 'it. For examples of the imperative. thus -tG.("0 Its limited distribution.

10:4. impf. np'^'n' 'will be taken' A2. pODn"* 'will be concealed' A4. nn^n' 'will be given' A3.2:4. ]nnvTn 'considering' D23.g. 3ms ^bviT? 'will be taught' C l .4 T\-m. impv.Porten 1982:47.1:70.6:3(^0. -intut 'Take heed!' C2.5:9. '"^ Vogt (1971:136) postulates tG. ^''QnDK 'it was heard' C 1.16:1. nnriN 'were seized' A4. '''^Cf T O L v 4. ptc. l : 175. "^non C l .3:4. ms possibly (< '3inK*) 'Submit yourself!' € 1 .11:2. D in BA. impv.11. see § 3 ^. 7 2 .3:13." whereas van has definitely to do with physical aural perception. is unlikely in view of the Akkadian version here: see Greenfield .13:4.10:8.3:l 1. ptc. etc.8:3. 2ms v>barr\ 'you will be fully (paid)' B 3 .A6. ]rT? 'will be given' B3.34:4. 8 : l . -n^Dm 'were diminished' D1.7:23(^^). 3mp mr\m 'intervened' A4. l : 4 8 . mm 'will be made' A4. mp]n)mi 'being dihgenf A6.'will be satiated' C1. ptc. see above § 3 ^ " ' ^ A G pc or A impv. rbm. see § 3 e ^' On this last example.35 Nirr-iN. -itD3n' 'will guard himself C l .3:5. is best interpreted as an unusual mixture of a passive ptc. an . So already Leander (1928:55).118 PART l i b : § 29 .l:73(''''). 1 : 1 0 7 ^ ' ) .5:21 // um. l :90.9:8.7:8. im.31. A highly pecuhar form. ms niiDK 'Be diligent' A6.4:6. On the assimilation of /d/.'let it be pulled up' A6.2:25 ( ^ ) . The following cases are debatable as regards their binyan impf. Syr. 1 : l l . mp i r M K 'Obey!' A6. 2mp ]t?mDr\ A6. apparently based on BA G Dn 6. 3ms nnn"' 'will be built' A4. Imp ptDSnn 'will be released' A3.'let it be sent' A6.9:9.11:8.1:124. B4.C^^) Of -tD one may note: pf.\:65fs nmrn 'Take heed!' D7. VDUD. 3ms n r n ^ 'was removed' A^. but urb-mi 'you were interrogated' B2.1 XI:8. (or an error for mn" 'will be chastised'). i o n ' ( = mm) 'will be restrained(?) ib. ^ow 'was added' C3. l : 9 6 .1:62.3:9. vi-OD and the standard tG rnncDK.4:6('^"). tD AeSta^al/. ^'^ C f Syr. •^tDpn^ 'let him be killed' C 1. ]t>'2rcr 'will be supported' Cl. ms nmnn becoming visible' C l . rmvm 'Take thought!' A4. As -tH/-tA forms we mention pf. D W 'let it be placed' A4. but TJ has D ]wmri^ at Is 33. Ip prm 'we acted as equals' B2.8:3C'^). 3mp pcDDn"' 'will c o m e together' C 1. The active counterpart is in D: e.4:17 bmnn 'you will be interrogated' A6. Another argument in support of this interpretation is that the standard tG ronrJN in our corpus means "to act obediently.9:11 \mp parm 'obeying' A 6 .10:9 On the assimilation of a of the root IHK. l a r n n iDeing made' A4.2:4.§ 30 inOTN 'were found' A4. pc.

It is not certain what vowel.2:6. Hoftijzer Jongeling (1995:428). 71). though we do seem to have a Hafel ton at C3. 2mp ut>"m B 2 . A n obvious and incontrovertible case is b2r [= yubal or yubball] 'Let it b e delivered!' A2.4:3.g. The text reads: rb n«nn nrro m\n Cowley (1923:289).4:14. has an illuminating expression: HNma b m«±> 'they imposed upon you the oath to swear to me' B2.2:18.g.7:15. 3mp i'7"'tDp 'they were killed' A4.85. A comparison makes it clear that nrwa is actually 3fs with »Qin as the subject: the noun. though spelled defectively. n.k.mvjjuvjvj I . l : 136.7:5. § 30. So seemingly Grelot (1972:179) with his translation: "je fus astreint k un serment envers lui.10:6. forms of the same verb). Pace Lindenberger (1983:63).6:11. Since by 'to transport' is. Is.3:4. occurs at the end of most of the Hermopolis papyri: A2. where. 1 5 : l . spelled plene.("') Equally rarely does one encounter passive forms of a binyan obviously G passive (see below § 3 0 with a couple of other G pass. A2. form with a sg.Leander (1927:105). there is no possibility of reading'nMrQ' . Apart from instances of some -t binyanim mentioned above.2 (Cowley 6). n. i rue v E I V D impv.. unlike in B A . w h i c h in the perfect and ptc. p-'nD 'written'B2. if any. Other examples are: pf. is a fs abs.56) thinks. CL also Folmer 1995: 221. T h e passive voice Our idiom makes use of patterns marked specifically as passive in which the grammatical subject indicates the agent or doer of an action. 3ms I 3 r 'he w a s made' A6. as Fitzmyer (1979:204." But a document closely related to it. 1:81.ivivjis. ms mnm 'Guard yourself!' C l . perhaps speaks for the interpretation of the forms as -tG.3:14. however. ra'iJtD 'it w a s imposed' B2.C^) This same expression.3:24(''''). used in our idiom in G (e. subject is also odd. pf.2:3. this is not likely to be a passive Afel.28:56. The passive G m a y be occasionally identified in the prefix conjugation as well. despite its misleading ending. nb'm 'she w a s interrogated' B8. T 3 r A4. A2.10:8. we must single out the G passive. and Leander (1928:54) take the verb nrwa as G pass. l : 5 2 ) . Is nb-mi A5. A2. See also below § 31 t on the infinitive oibi". b'iL^p 'he w a s killed' C 1.1:71. ptc ms •"'33 'stolen' A4. see below § 35 p.7:20. 9 : 8 . B 2. 3fs n n T 'it was given' A 6 . mp ymv 'made' A4. form (see above § 14. A2. T h e only other passive G i m p f occurs in VTi'' n nnD -jDQ 'a great (thing) which might be denied you' C l . see below § 31j.5:10. and on Lamed-Yod verbs.1:ll. followed the first root consonant. -bi 'Take me!' C l . Bauer . is clearly visible in most cases because of the plene spelling with Yod: e. On Ayin-Waw/Yod verbs. and the pl. the reading is not certain.

C ' ^ ) §31. such a fem. in similar context: .. B3. An example other than D is a passive H in n p s n 'they were put on deposit' B2. rebuilt. gives 'construction. -nnn 'n T\n 'a lower house built. B3. rm D is well established: see lexica.9:7. 3mp. See also the following note. who also argues for a D passive ptc.12:13. In three documents written by Haggai son of Shemaiah towards the end of the 5th c."a meaning said to be known to Syr.g. as a simple noun: 'batiment' (Grelot 1972:244)..Yardeni (1989:89. The first editor of the texts.97) as 'built is (the) lower house. ptc. is taken by others. however. nn 'built. we come across a curious phrase. But 'to rebuild' is also expressed in our idiom in G with reference to a damaged Jewish temple in Elephantine (e. meaning. however.('") Thus: D ms tDiSD 'separated. a recent study by K.. if it is not an impersonally used active H. his view is that the form is an infinitive.' Cf. Hesterman (1992). Such is attested even in QA: e. 'nn. The crucial word. Note must also be taken of a G pass. as attested in BA need not to be attributed to Hebrew influence: see Bauer Leander 1927:94. Note the Syr. sim.5:9. and CPA. The possibility of D active is not to be foreclosed.g. A6. D nomen agentis /mvanna:ya:V 'builder. 467. with the meaning "newly built.' though. Beyer 1984:152.11:3 with a multiple subject.9:7.7:23. 'construction' (Hoftijzer . separately' A6. noun is also unknown. DirD 'mixed' B4. For an alternative solution to this form .7:3.4:11 (similar context) indicates a possible scribal error.'(^^0 -nn is perhaps a D('^^) passive p t c . new .7:5("^). B3.4:5. ptc.5:8.10:12.120 Other PART l i b : §30-§31 a than G. something slightly different than G pass. mp yxn 'appointed' A4.Jongeling 1995:591). though rh m nnD0K 'I have found nobody' A2. " 2 c f K'npn B7.' B3. But a singular noun ending with a Yod would be most unusual. where a CPA version uses the verb in D ) makes little sense.' One must then admit a lack of concord in niimm nynn ^nn 'built is its stairway and courtyard' B3. for otherwise "to rebuild the ancient ruins" (Is 61:4. 4QEn 1 xii 27 n^nnN 'I was shown': cf. there is one possible case of Afel passive perfect: m nzm^ nvb 'nobody has been found yet' A2. fs raran 'marked' D7.93. Kraeling (1969:241). architect.' namely 'renovated. A4. 'nnn n -nn B3. Finally. It has rather to do with working on some already existing edifice or remains of it. sim. translated by Porten .1:3.2:10(§ 35 «).25). l : 186 as passive on account of the object suffix. Pe-Yod verbs C l .11:2. but they are mostly confined to the participle.2:12. The passive in binyanim other than G and in forms other than the ptc.

'n b2i< . l : 4 8 . Hug (1993:83) takes blt^ in a broken context (. T h e total absence in our corpus of forms such as B A Dn 4.g. "[rbD" 'I brought you' C l . 2mp'\€))^n (bi^) 'Do not worry!' A2. N o r d o w e know whether such gemination difficult in the context. . forms of by as Afels. e]iin b^ 'Do not worry!' A2.1:8. l : 4 ) as G passive impL * 2 The question is not addressed by Muller-Kessler (1991:202L) with respect to CPA. D l .26 3Fi^ (so Syr.24:4. more accurate to speak of "Pe-YodAVaw verbs. see above. 7^ "PDK 'I shall be able' B2. 3fs Dnn 'she will sit' B 2 .6:33.14 p r i r does not h a v e to b e an indication that such gemination w a s foreign to our idiom.18 35"'?. However.15). E x a m p l e s : impf.10:15. though the distribution pattern of the two roots differs between the two idioms. 2fs pDr\ 'you will be able' A2.29 b3\ but E z r 7. l : 5 2 is assuredly a G. bniv^ B3. whereas 'Take me!* C l .4:3.. as against Schulthess (1924:75).6:35. A2.1:130. uses a synonymous root briD as well (e. \ It is difficult to tell whether our idiom k n e w the secondary gemination as in some later Aramaic dialects(^") such as B A Dn 7.1:8. like B A . from a diachronic and/or comparative standpoint it is. ("') a) In G pf. 3ms nTT? 'he will inherit from her' B2. there could be Pe-YodAVaw verbs which in historical times were never used in G. bjn 'you will be able' D7. 3mp pD" 'they will be able' B3. who gives /yetteh/ etc. juss.1 11:8^^). for which she postulates /yi:tab/ etc. D 1.8:26C'«). There is no compelling reason to regard this and other impf. 194.5:5.g.1:4. /nettev/) D n 3.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 121 Verbs which show Y o d as the first root letter in their G perfect and participle share certain inflectional features. and ptc. and the imperative. =]Tn 'you shall borrow' (juss. 2ms mr\ 'you will swear' B7.1:6. The label "Pe-Yod" is conventional. On the problem of the preposition bv.3:4. these verbs are inflected exactly in the same way as any other triliteral regular verb: e. 2fp pDn A2.Hoftijzer 1970:103. which follows the verb. of course.15:13. bn: 'we shall bring' B4.) A2. D23. n.) C1. The context makes it more natural to take this form as 2fs spelled defectively rather than as 2mp: see § 2 4 h.2:3. B3. Ip bD: B5..4:9(^'). to 'Let them bring' D7.6:21.39:4. the initial consonant is absent. ibn 'she will bear' B2. "'Siin CPK) 'DO not worry!' (juss. in the prefix conjugation. 6 : 2 3 . § 20 c." Furthermore. the infinitive. l : 1 4 . "ich werde lebendig gebracht werden" D l .. ^ Our idiom.3:4("'). D7.7:14. see Hayes .

which one expects would be spelled either bn-n or ^2^.nn". It is most plausibly taken as indicating maqtal as the pattern of the G infinitive in contrast to miqtal in later Aramaic dialects(^^^). B4. T h e use of W a w in these forms is noteworthy. 1 5 : l . as in B A (and SyriacP^^]). not/la:yi§§ibu:n/ (Fitzmyer 1995: 148). of our idiom. which would have led to mi:bal < miwbal. uses Afel AeSkalj/. B8. this secondary gemination appears to be confined to verbs whose second radical is one of the six plosives: the so-called Begad-kefath. •Dn\Db 'to sit' D23. which occur side by side with 3ri' and T T . T h e form pm suggests that for the G infinitive the P e . pace Muraoka . Further. 'to swear' B2. which is. from the pc. Though this has not. O n e m a y further infer that this applied to the pc. but without offering any argument for it. the earliest possible date. In the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud in the Yemenite tradition. Syr. it would provide another indication for the post quem. Similarly Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic ^ r j (Morag [1988:201).Y o d type.W a w type pushed out the Pe-Yod type. of the spirantisation. Should this argument be found acceptable. for by universal agreement the root concerned is of P e .: b-2)nb 'to carry' A3. l : 168. ][norb Sefire III 6 should be vocalised as /la:yi§ibu:n/.19 T '?F). suggesting that n o such form as pTC^) existed in it FoTbD\ except in the p t c .6 has t^nri. and such a development is likely to have coincided with the onset of spirantisation of the very same six consonants.9:4.4:13. vir for P T could only develop after the hypothesised secondary gemination of the d. ^vyb and rT3 (Morag: 1988:201). D 5 .. 'we shall bring' B4. *nn".122 PART l i b : §31 b-e was confined. to these three verbs or not. Pflcc Garr 1985:128f.4:9 could. to our best knowledge. TO Gn 17. ^ While Leander (1928:59) reconstructs /tizzif/ for cjm. which would otherwise have resulted as a result of the vowel deletion rule.10:4. (This is true of Syriac and JA. Garr (1985:131) seems simply to project the situation in later Aramaic dialects into the OA period.(^^^) b) G inf. Comparable to Fekheriyan DD-n (line 15). pace Beyer's (1984:592) /nab6il/. though the former may be due to an influence oJFMishnaic Hebrew.2:6.1 Va:9. pmb 'to suck' C l . which would have led to a form such as /yedaV instead of the "desired" /yeda7 parallel to /da7. we would tentatively suggest that it is a secondary development arising from the logico-semantic affinity between the prefix conjugation and the imperative. Segert's (1975:275L) suggestion that the gemination is due to a desire to keep the sc. Should our hypothesis prove right. the verb VT belongs to both categories: vyb.) A s w e cannot identify any phonetic feature of these six sounds which could possibly trigger such gemination. for a form such as Impf. been recognised before. is unlikely in view of TO forms such as T*:^. TO Dt 15. belong here.

C^«) With Waw: pf. impf.n-ipin 'you honoured' C l . orn^in 'you dispatched' D7. D7. see below § 56 h.1:6(^^2).: ms nn 'Give!' A3. Ip ]V1T\ 'we made known' A4. Is D 7 .7:16. 3mp psoin^ 'they will add' A6. ^ In OA this is a genuine Pe-Yod verb: Barrakab I 12 nnntD'n 'I made it better. recognise two subgroups: the one showing W a w in the slot for the first radical.10:9. O n e may assume that.6:4.16:2.3:9.47:8. impv.4:4. 3mp in" D1.44:4.)!' B2. 4 : 6 . ms nnMD C3.2:7. 293. note bj""" in Deir Alia I 11.1:5.5:7 'Give (fs) it (m. ptc.9:8. See further under L a m e d . B2. G. 3mp ton 'they carried' C3. 3ms Tin 'he brought' A6.Y o d verbs (§ 37). inf n-rmb A4. as in B A . D 7 . 1:52 one may postulate a penultimate stress. 2 : l . 3ms bbn 'he lamented' C 1. ncDinn (juss. W i t h Yod: pf.1:4.4:3(^") and 'nnn B2. an extended imperative. pc. ptc. mtoin 'you dispatched' A3.)' D 7 . 2ms b2-\n bi*^ 'Do not entrust!' D7. ]mm (< ]nnmK) 'you had in abundance' A2. mp ncDin A6.10:5.2/:yn-it:?in A3. 2mp psoinn A6." On the syntax of this infinitive. npri. unless a conjunctive pronoun is added as in nnn 'Give it (f.2:11+C'').4:7.1:5 quoted above. . (1983-84:88). Cf. mp |S[DinD] A6. mp ^2^ A3. i p i n ' M a k e heavy!' C l . It is not to be equated with Heb.. •'n-©i« A2. But in "t>2 'Carry me!' C l . 2ms r\2mn 'you satisfied' B2. D 7 . ms ViTi 'Make known!' C 2 : l : 6 6 .7:16. 1 l : 8 .)!' A3. 1 6 : l .28:56. / 5 "2n A3.5:14.("') An important verb which belongs to this group is " " H t ^ 'to come.3:19. 7 : l . A4. Possibly a G.pyd? 'to suck' in JA: Sokoloff 1990:242b. the accent fell on the stem as in the j u s s i v e .2:18. 2 : 1 3 . as in other Aramaic idioms. 7Th2 'Bring it (f.) D7. 3fs iDin 'she will send' A2.7:3.5:7. 3ms nn-n" A6. the causative binyan Hafel or Afel we can.12:3. / 5 n ^ i n A 2 . on which see Hoftijzer: 1976:205f. and the other s h o w i n g Yod d) In instead. iDin 'Dispatch!' A2. On the problematic nature of this form.5:4. Juss. l : 8 2 .1:41.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 123 c)Gimpv. See jmriN A2.2:17("'').8:5. e) The binyan Ettafal seems to be attested in p f 3ms ^ o i r i K 'it was added' C 3 . /balni/.' which in G is conjugated as Pe-Alef verb (see b e l o w § 32): pf.10:3. not H/A. A2. 2fp ]mwn A2. Unless the form is a defective spelling for nnDrr. 1:112. 'Borrow!' C L I : I 2 9 . inf nsoin 'to add' A6.12:l. The question of possible contraction in these positions has been dealt with above (§ 8).7:29. 9 : 3 .2: 13. 2n 'Dwell!' B 2 . 2mp Dramn B2.9:4 .

b^mb 'to go' D7.Y o d verbs (e. . und Afel . B 3 .1:9.3:5. one may postulate the same for our idiom. D n 2. tG. 1 : l l . 1 : 1 9 3 . l : 163.4:17.7:15.4. See above at § 31 d and below at § 37. Is IQK for "iQKK 'I shall say' B2.9:2t //nQKQ':' C l .13:56 -1-. -u±? 'to say' A4.24 inin^ 'you will destroy')..C"'') a) In the binyan G the said syncope is observable in the following examples of phonetic spelling: impf.g. D7. Pe-Yod verbs can be assumed to be conjugated h k e the regular verb in all the remaining binyanim. and H / A as a result of the syncope of the glottal stop and the possible consequential gemination of /t/ in the case of tG.' and it is conjugated like a Pe-Yod verb. For a non-standard form lacking the prefix M e m . 2mp. B4. 5 " See above § 23 p. g) See also under Pe-Alef verbs (§ 32 b). The syncope.10:22("^). see above § 23 p. tG impf. bDmb C3.1:2.16:3. D7.16:3..." The infinitive needs to be mentioned. is exception. B3. In all those c a s e s o n e m a y a s s u m e h i s t o r i c a l or e t y m o l o g i c a l spelling.124 PART l i b : §31/-§33c f) Apart from the unattested passive H binyan. namely "•HK 'to come. 2ms imnn bVi 'Do not ^" Possibly passive: cf. Since B A . 3ms nn' for nm* 'he will c o m e ' B3. §32.39:10("').. conjugates other Pe-Alef verbs in the m a n n e r of P e . m. unterscheidet sich seit dem RA graphisch nicht mehr von der der Verba ly. 3ms DWH" 'it will be given' A3. Pe-Alef verbs Verbs w h o s e initial root c o n s o n a n t is Alef display certain irregularities in the binyanim G. ms Dii'D 'validated' B3. however.3:20. inf.5:10. juss. n n n 'you shall seize' A6. See above § 3 e. mnb 'to seize' B3. ("^) b) T h e only Pe-Alef verb in our corpus that appears in the causative binyan is simultaneously a Lamed-Yod verb. T h e only attested cases are: D ptc. Thus IDK"* •it will get lost' D7. in which the same verb is conjugated in analogous fashion.22. c ) T h e only -tG examples found in our corpus are: n n n ^ ( < nnKHK) 'they were seized' A4. B2.4:6. Muller-Kessler (1991:203) is slightly inaccurate and is going a shade too far when she says: "Die Flexion der Verba P im Imperfekt Peal .'he can' in CPA do not occur in our idiom. Kutscher (1954:237).13:9 and tens of others. juss.13:10 // imnb B4.1:12. mi^b C3. W 'he will say' C l . not the rule. Spelhngs such as bMH.

n o K D 7 . mp pDD A 2 .2lOn 'sr 'Let h i m not sift!' D7. inf.9.1:172.("^) S i n c e this phonetic question.5:6. . C2. l : 13. 2ms mn 'you will carry' B l . i ™ A5.G impf. Ip ]n: 'we shall give' A4.). l : 175. l l . c) W i t h N u n written . 3ms IDIT (if from ViOK.10:13. noD" 'he will tear out' Cl.11 nD3n'. b) Without Nun written ./5'n« C l . l : 14. which. w e shall content ourselves here with giving some examples illustrating various inflectional categories. are attested only by -tD impf 3ms 'pm' 'he will be taught' C 1 . and not ^fiO ''[5"]) 'he will be restrained' C l . impf.G impf. 3fs ps3n 'it will g o out' C1. pbOQb 63. and H / A as a whole. my 'he will bear' C l .29:9. e) T h e G impv. L l O / / "nm i b . 2 : 6 . pr? 'they will give' D l . on the general phonetic aspect of which see above § 3 a. I 11:15. but the latter is much more frequent. 1 : 1 6 6 . ^mnr 'May h e give it!' D7.8:6 . 2fs]m B 3 . 7 : i a i 3 .1:53.8:8.1:19. C f Muller-Kessler 1991:186. 17:8. 1 : 1 7 5 . which is relevant only to G impf. h a s been dealt with above fairly extensively. Is m T O 'I will give it' D7. ]nr 'he will give' A3. 2ms p s n B3. 1 4 : 3 . bm D7. . ppbn C1.8:8. shows n o sign of the aphaeresis of the initial Alef as in later Aram.1:5.). 1 0 : 2 1 .' although n o instance of analogously assimilated cases of these verbs is to be found in our corpus.nf3« 'Say!' C l . 3ms pSK 'he brought out' D7.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB get upset!' A3.. 3ms npb" 'he will take' B 6 .29:5. ]nDK B l .. 4 : l .10:15. 3ms psn^ 'he will take out' D 7 .W a w / Y o d roots. 3mp]')rsn'' 'they will descend' C I . b u t not to A y i n . impf. ptc. d) N o irregularity m a y b e a s s u m e d in the r e m a i n i n g conjugations.5:6.3:7. nnnnb 'to bring down' A2.l:l56. 1 V a : 4 . § 33. ^3pDK 'he brought m e out' A2. dialects("'): thus ms 'Go!' A3.12:22.5:4 (juss. 1 : 5 8 . inf. C f above § 3 e. both i n f ) .7:6. h o w e v e r . n m ' C o m e ! ' D7. The former occurs only three times (poy±> B 3 .5:12. Pe-Nun verbs a) T h e main thing that calls for our attention in verbs whose initial radical is N u n is the question of its assimilation in G and A / H . Is "piiK 'I shall reclaim' B l . o m K 'I shall give them' D 2 3 . Under this group w e s u b s u m e also pbo 'to ascend' and npb 'to take. 5 : 3 . 1 8 : 3 .9 and B A Ezr6.H/A pf. D 2 3 .8:l.1:167 (energ. the sole exception being HDnp'i 'and they will take it' D4. 1 : 1 8 5 . Our interpretation of the form as G is based on ino' Nerab 1. mp bm C2.

D1.ms nran 'Bring down!' A3. and 3mpC^) itDQ A4. 3fs rm B3. ' t o give' A3.9:6 (juss. 1 : 1 6 9 . 3ms K t D O 'arrived' B7. m:s±> 'to watch' C l . the chances are that it did. which in later A r a m . b) The following orthographic contrasts demonstrate this development: G pf. m . Though we do not know for certain whether every Pe-Nun G imperative suffered aphaeresis or not. impv.1:199. 3mp ipS3n A4.13:5 ."'np D20. Some later dialects do retain the initial n in some verbs: see.2:5.11:3. ]mT\ 'you will give' D2.3:15.1 Vb: 6. T\r\T\ni±> 'to put it down' C l .).7:16. psr B2.13:3+.8:19+.7:8 (juss.10:15(see § 2 b). nps3DC3 . m[mb] 'upon arrival' C2 . This feature. 3mp]'\p^T? B2.3:27. "piian^ 'he will reclaim' B3. dialects would effectively lead to the disappearance of these verbs as a distinct conjugation group.7Evl:15. B3. Morag 1988:185f. m 'Raise!' C l .). Lamed-Alef verbs a) The tendency for verbs whose third radical is Alef to converge with those whose third radical is Yod is a well-known general Aramaic phenomenon. (??^This transition was most likely triggered by the apocope of word-final glottal stop. 2ms n p s p 'you brought out' B7. ppsr B3. ? ™ A6.7:12.4:14+.16:4. l : 9 .8:7.21:4. pmnn 'Do not kindle it' C l . A6. 3fs ps^nn B2. I s b)^'^ B2./5:7S3n B2. 170('^').g.). poTb (< *pDp'?) 'to ascend' B3. 3fs mnn A3. See also np T a k e ! ' D1.3ms pS3n^ A6.).1:41 // mmb ib. C3. B8.10:6. Noldeke 1898:111. 7 : 1 5 . e. -\OTh 'to pour Hbtation' C3.H/A pf.25.^^^) T h e fact that this is so even in the Ahiqar proverbs. sim. 1 : 1 9 1 . itD 'Watch!' C l . l : 171. impf.1 n : 7 // Both of these can be D infinitives: see above § 25. d) All attested G imperatives have no initial Nun: ms nn 'Descend!' A3.14:2. 1:87 (juss.126 PART l i b : § 33d-§ 34b np'7« 'I will take' B l .7Ev2:6. the language of which generally retains the initial Nun. pnT D7.2:7.3:13. 3mp A6. inf. ^Wl^y 'Let t h e m demolish!' A4.6:28+. § 34. The pl.13:7. j n m ' ^ . pBl±> 'to go out' B3. See above § 23 g.8:3. ptc. D m n r a Q 'to put them down' ib.56:12.7:10. B 3 . Folmer 1995: 222-36.11:3 (juss. is clearly visible in our idiom.8:8.13 // pbot±> B3. D23.8:13. subject is actually a feminine noun.39:6 (juss. . inf. D7. '1 shall carry' D23. mn'he will overtake/perceive' C1.10:4+.7:10+. ^npb" D7. l : 8 2 .20.5:30. b)m B3. mi^C?) 'to raise' B3. indicates that its aphaeresis is a time-honoured phenomenon. nnm'p 'to descend' B3.5:3.. and Muller-Kessler 1991:197 • y ^ C f .2:15.1:6 // mm D7..7:14.10:21+.3:18. impf. . inf.).

1:6 alongside the abovequoted -pbD B2. G impf 3fs i m n n 'it will reach you' A3. see below § 37 d.1:159('^). a hybrid spelling in G pf.. Is n n p 'I declared' ib. bD '(was) withheld' A3. In the light of this markedC'^^) drift it is a r e a s o n a b l e assumption that a spelling with Alef in cases as the following was not meant to indicate any phonetic shape which would be different if spelled in conformity with Lamed-Yod verbs: G pc. K'PDH 'I shall restrain' B2. On this conflated form.2:18.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB iz/ ntDDn A2.(^««) A complete merger with L a m e d .lO and aryn 'the declaration' As rightly pointed out by Folmer (1995:232-35).1:7. which appears to be largely based on the numerical preponderance of cases with an etymological Alef. could be only orthographic variations. e.2:6. one would expect *7t>D: see § 3 7 / On the spelling with a Yod. G pf.13. l 1.3:7.Y o d verbs is indicated by HfipD 'the declaration' B7. If this were a passive p t c . G pass.8:21 // mw B3. iKOn 'you shall swear' B8. act. '^^Already in Samalian—^Hadad 13 -np 'he used to call me"—as pointed out by Schaeder 1930:233. but not on any analysis of how the forms in question are spelled. l : 1 5 4 ( ' ' ' ) . Some authorities. 2 : 7 and Kipt*! ib. l 3 .1:4. 1 0 : 3 . Baumgartner's (1959:101) "zum Teil" is definitely an understatement.Y o d and the W a w supralinear).3:10('«''). pf.3:6. G pf. 3mp bD 'they detained' A4. below §38/(7). Is y^bD 'I restrained you' B 2 . mp xbD 'detaining' A4. KCDQ B 7 . T h e other two pairs.6:5. that the root-final Alef has ceased to exist as consonant even where it did not end a word-form is proven by its graphic absence in the following casesC^^): G pfSfs -T^n 'it reached me' A2.g. whether with or without Alef . Is rryn 'I hated' B3. n m and (and s o m e others to be mentioned shortly) are the most telling e x a m p l e s .(^") Furthermore.3:6. however. which is unlikely in view of the following yb: cf. and see Tropper 1993:75. 3mp p s T 'they will heal' C l . 1 : 7 . i>bty C 1. 'I hated you' ib.9:3 (simultaneously P e . G juss. -niiD 'they detained him' i b . p t c .2:14('«^). Leander (1928:64) and Segert (1975:295) take the form as pf. li^bDV 'let them [not] withhold' D 7 . juss.25. ]bn 'are full' i b .2:15. 2ms "bar\ 'You shall be full' A3. 2fs r\mm 'I carried' CI. see an illuminating explanation by Schaeder 1930:234.9:2.7 next to pf. An alternative interpretation would derive the form from a Lamed-Yod verb nai 'to be loose': see Lindenberger (1983:154). Ipl. a phonetic spelling "rbn 'you were full' A2.

3fs rmn 'it arrived' A3.1:4).8:5.8:21. unless a historic present (§ 65 d). W e are inclined to see a mere historical or etymological spelhng in cases like nwD 'I hated' B2.8:5.6. m\ WT\) and infinitive ( NCM ) also conformed to the Lamed-Yod pattern or not.9:2 and yn[nY B 1. e.^'O I^CDD* 'they will arrive' D23.ta:/.4:4.27 in view of rrw with the same meaning at B3. same spelling.1:9 'he will harm you'. and it is hence reasonable to conclude that )^n".§ 35 e ib. silent letter. but 2m5 B2. 1 : 1 6 5 .19 n^tpTO. W e should interpret "Tmin 'they reached m e ' D7.3. then.8:3.3:2. namely.2:6. d) The only instance of which one k n o w s for certain that the third radical Alef remains consonantal is Gp/c/^HKCDD A2. l : 177 in view of-]]mn 'it (f. See also pKip"' 'they will call' C l .25. From the attested forms it cannot be determined whether its imperfect (tsiD?.8:3C''^) in view of rm with the same meaning at B3. which is hardly /ma:.g.) will reach you' A3. c ) The absence of Alef of Lamed-Alef verbs even at the graphic level and the merger of this conjugation class with LamedYod verbs is attested over the entire time-span represented by our corpus. pf. rm' 'I swore' B2.5:2. Another instance of a lingering Lamed-Alef verb is the impv.1 XII:4 is another possible archaic form. The second example.128 PART l i b : § 3 4 c . for instance. B8. also ""snn 'it reached me' A2. which found its way into the critical apparatus of his BHS edition of the book of Daniel at Dn 4.C'") In any case. m\nb 'to swear' B2.54:6 in the light of "ibD 'they detained him' A4. was pronounced yimle rather than '^yimlai^).1:6 (cf. B A Ezr 5. and a This is the correct reading at D7.>^2J 'Carry!' C l .Y o d verb: cf.1:6 and ymnt^i 'will hit you' C l . D7.21 and "]n'3KJ 'I hated you' ib. Note for BA a Lamed-Alef form in Ezr 4.21. seem to point to a virtually systematic convergence of the Lamed-Alef class with the LamedYod class. K]Dn 'she will hate' B3.2:4.11:5 and -\mn 'he reached you' ib.2:13. Dn 5. -]:^by 'he will restrain you' B2. B2.3:24. l : 169. but rather /ma:t(i)'a :/. So in BA. notn'on (Baumgartner 1959:102). see under Pe-Nun verbs (§ 33). though it could be a historical spelling with /aw/ contracted to / o : / ^ ^ The data presented above. which is parallel with Tm\ forriKtDD. not *"^ as a standard L a m e d .9:4. it had not b e c o m e n"'OQ. may be an error For other attestations of this verb. 2fs "rm" B2.6:23.' .8:24 // the above quoted 'I hated' ib. G inf.15 Kto. a pf. See also ""mn 'he reached me' B2. the Alef as an etymological.17 KnpN 'I shall read.. K Q " ' 'he swore' B7.

The roots V '-n and V'ln.1:85. 1 1 : 1 5 0 . 2ms -jnn C l . l : 177.8:7. which in the G functions in fact as a vowel.8:6. Ip DlpJ B3. whereas in the last t w o a mater lectionis appears in a syllable which is closed and presumably unstressed.1:l / / p . 2fs juss. Dim B3. since their middle consonant is consonantal throughout their conjugation. though the c o n t e x t is mildly volitive. 3mp pDT 'they will g o ' B3. however. 3 4 : 5 .6:14. both of the two sets of forms are surprising: the middle vowel of the first t w o is in an open and presumably stressed syllable. W A 6 . Is "]n« B2.13 I T . . A6. C1.2m5mpn A3. 1:110. These are to be contrasted with t w o others w h i c h are spelled plene. man C l . If w e are to hazard an explanation. c ) /-type: 3ms -{^D'W" 'he will p u t you' A4. One can distinguish three subgroups each with its characteristic vowel which is best seen in the prefix conjugation. though the context leads one to expect the j u s s i v e : mpn C l . l : 8 6 + .3:22. b) G impf: M -type— 3ms mp ^'he will rise' A3.7:2.5:18. Is crm. juss. mDK B3. w e are concerned with verb roots with W a w or Y o d as their middle consonant(^^^). e) T w o jussives mentioned above. 527. l : 1 6 3 . except in the participle. which ought to be regarded as a historical or etymological spelling. i / j m o n B 3 .6:25+. w h i c h m a k e s o n e expect the use of a mater lectionis. 7 « 5 5 . 3inK 'I shall return' B7.LlO.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 129 spelling such as n m n is a truer reflection of the contemporary phonetic reality rather than i^mn. pDl"?' 'they will curse' ib. "'Qpn and '\aD\ are spelled with n o mater lectionis in the middle.1:5. Here belongs also "•nDp-r C l . L e a v i n g the lastmentioned case aside.4:20.e^) d) a-type: 3ms-]n" 'he will go' B 3 .13.16:5.'let them stand' D 1 . inp. despite the limited amount of evidence. l 3 0 . 151.3:9 . l : 187. if correctly interpreted: see above n. are dealt as Lamed-Yod verbs.5:14+. 3fsinn B2.4:23. 7 : 1 8 . IsDp«Bl. ma' 'he will die' B2. 3mp pmn^ C l . « ^ C L B A Ezr 7. D^m 'I shall b e obliged' B3.2:15.1:19.('^') § 35. In addition. T B3. Ayin-WawA^od verbs a) A s is c o m m o n in Semitic linguistics. 6 : l . l : 130.6:17. the surprising plene spelUng m a y have to do with the occasional See also Schaeder 1930:233-35. 2ms rrm "PH 'Do not put' C l . 3mp pQ"'2?' C l . "npn bi^ A2. l : 8 5 + and bi^ i b . there is o n e unusual defective spelling in •pt^. D p n B3. D8.

n-Q 'he died* B2. 3p I C D C3.8:5+(^'^). f) The G perfect comes in two varieties characterised by a (?) and / as their respective stem vowel.8:5. Is mp l arose' B l . B 3 .4:6. the pL of our verb can clearly be translated as a past tense. In some cases the context does not make it clear whether one is dealing with a pL or a ptc. B3. although in all these cases the translation with the present tense is satisfactory. at A3.3:2. Whether the form TO is a pf or ptc. B3.1:49. and even coloured towards o. but rather analogically determined by the jussive form without a vocalic ending such as 2 m s w h o s e s e c o n d vowel was p r e s u m a b l y unstressed and short. The whole question must have to do with a peculiarity of stative verbs.1 V : 8 . as far as the form is concerned. note the remarkable variation at B2. 'he will place' (line 12). 5 : 1 7 . riTO at C 1.12:6.8IIIB:30(^0.5:7. which makes its interpretation as pL somewhat secure as at B2. B5.6:13. seems to be a separate issue.26. l : 6 7 . l : 10.(^"^) See also below (§ g) on the imperative. though it does not occur with 22b as the subject as in all the cases of TD. defectively spelled for TO. Judging from "Formenbelege" provided by Muller-Kessler (1991:215L) the use of the diacritical point with the letter Waw is not unequivocal. 2fs Both examples are from the proverbs. Ip pp B3.6:15.14.3:2 "From the day that you went (n'PTK) on the way. /-type: 3ms D ^ C D 'was good' A3. B3.1:67 "it [= his advice?] was found acceptable to his colleagues" clinches the matter. a-type: 3ms up 'he rose' D23.130 PART l i b : § 35/-n failure of the author (or redactor) of the Proverbs of Ahiqar to keep the indicative and jussive apart(**")» whereas the defective spelling may indicate either a short w or a vowel other than u. ib. also with penultimate accent. ran 'I put' C2. a variety of < 9 as in B H Dpn. in other words.6:15 "it came (^r) into me and my heart was satisfied therein" (^n -lib TO). /ye:qom/ reconstructed by Muller-Kessler (1991:215) for CPA with the predominantly penultimate accent. 3 / 5 ( ? ) HD^tD C l . Cf. As regards the translation value. say. the nature of the vowel in question may not have been determined by the factors mentioned a b o v e leading one to expect a long w.8). Likewise B2. ^ Note an orthographic opposition in Fekheriyan: mb 'Let him place!' (line 11) vs. B2. This is true.6:5 DtD 133 where one is likely dealing with a variant pf. 7^ The parallel -[vrbD 'I restrained you' makes it unlikely that n'D here is a participle or an adjective. However.9:9 (note •HDmn. .1:8(«'').8:5. partly on the basis of SA /ye:qom/. Possibly an imperative. B2. my heart has not been satisfied (D'Q -22b). for instance." But in other cases the form occurs in conjunction with another pL. B2.

l : 1 2 . •nn as against the plene n-nn pf.l:5. See Bauer . Or a verbal adjective.: 3ms2T\n 'he returned' B2. in rr'^'K H'opQ *these supporters' (act. and l*?!! might b e an unusual plene spelling for a short u o r o. but most likely was phonetically distinct: act.2:22.7:15 // ib. opn D23.: ms m p 'Arise' D7 . g) G impv. possibly a substantivised H ptc. 'dead.mp inp A4.Leander 1927:145. 3 : 1 0 .25+. I) H/A impf: 3ms -nnm 'he will return it' C l .1 V a : 8 .20. so typical of the idiom of the Hermopolis papyri: see below § 55 g. 1 : 1 0 9 . Fassberg 1990:185.29:2. 4 : 8 ( n . 'Dip.23.4:4. In ri'-o mn 'I was on the point of death.1:5. pass. / 5 nn-w C l . The word-order also agrees with that of the periphrastic construction mn + ptc.9.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 131 rr:n B3.3:7. Morag 1988:215L.3:8. Isnn-pn ib. (see above. a discussion of this difficult word in Porten 1987:90. 2msnypn ib. mp p ' p 'standing' B3.' for which no is used in contrast to " " n 'alive' ib. The scarcity of documentation prevents us from determining whether an alternative form with a medial Alef as in B A D«jp.7. pf. fs"n-]p D7. Is no'D D7.5:8(''"). was possible in our idiom. Jp p-w B8. pass. The act. and inp is striking. In the light of o u r discussion above (§ e). OD 'Put!' A6. e).)(?) B7. -Db^nb 'to sell you' B3.1:14. nTn. mpn 'he estabhshed' C l . Is -jDnpK 'I will have you stand' D7. m s form such as *mD is graphically indistinguishable from its pass. /^i:m/ or such hke. h) G p t c : act.: msinn 'Return!' A6. j ) G pass. /§a:yim/ vs.12 :6. l : 126. Cf. k) U/Apf. ms mcj 'put' A 4 . nnm (!) B3 .) or 'officials' (pass.: 3ms m© 'was put' A6.10:2.Ull:U3p Dn« A4. i*:?!! 'Sell!' A4. the middle W a w of mp. than an adj.2:7.9:7. 'Knead!' D7 .4:8.5:2. m) H impv.15:7. m'pn 'Establish me!' C l . pii 'fasting' A4. counterpart.6. and Muller-Kessler 1991:213. . fs HD'n 'obligated' B 6 . [k]) and our discussion above. D1. l : 109.5:3C).24:6.111:15.44. 2ms +3ms nnnnnt^b (for nDDTOn^'p) 'you shall not bring h i m back' D23. C2. n) H ptc: TnnQ 'return* D2. A6.' The form is more likely a ptc. L e t us note the defective spelling of the impv.t T h e defective spelhng of OD. "'Dopn 'he established m e ' C l .10.13 :8. "iVob. ms n^n 'dying' A2. •]-nnb 'to go' A3.3:6. l : 7 9 .6:6.24:5. i) Ginf: nnd? 'to put' D7 .23.2:10(^'^) Unlikely a ptc.

: 3pm 'y\yn 'they o b h g a t e d me' B8. Y B A (Morag 1988:219) and GA (Dalman 1905:317. for which a Yod is expected. An altemative approach is. C l .21 on the o t h e r .8. for which one naturally expects ^'^ For a rather different and somewhat complicated theory on the development pf these forms. Fassberg 1990:I85f) share this isogloss with BA. It is indeed more attractive to constmct a comprehensive theory to account for all three varieties of the For oonN read now WTrm (PN) D9. 3ms um" A4. Among various Aramaic dialects. but really? . the second v o w e l of unr? could be other than a. f H e r e we face then a situation somewhat analogous to that in B A with ]'Tn: 'it will feed itself Dn 4. innnn 'they got confused' Nerab 2. By the analogy of later dialects one may assume that the binyan D transforms this class of verbs into a regular triconsonantal class by using Yod as the middle root consonant. unparalleled elsewhere in Aramaic. H o w e v e r . p) F o r tG w e have only two e x a m p l e s : impf. see Beyer (1984:488). Segert's alternative explanation of the doubling of n as a device to ensure its correct pronunciation in direct contact with the following sibilant (1975:289) is rendered somewhat unlikely in view of the fact that in a language like Syriac and BTA. 7 : 8 . which is. (Noldeke 1898:120-22) and CPA (Muller-Kessler 1991:217) are consistent with the I pattern.6:10.6 is equally ambiguous in view of a defective spelling such as uynvb for *D'3nn'p 'you will not remove' ib. l : 138. Hug (1993:85) analyses innnw as 'Ithpa5er(sic!). the doubling is not conditioned by the nature of the following consonant. < W^".5:21. If our nm" is not a defective spelling for mc5n'(^'^).' on which see a discussion by Hoftijzer 1976:228.9 on the one hand and UDVT. The general sense of the verb is indicated by the context as something like "he exalts h i m s e l f " T h e difficulty is the W a w . which Bauer-Leander (1927:146) explain as an analogical development from the p f G rm. C f also Deir Alia II 9pn''7 'he will not consult. one would have to consider it as a good parallel to B A UDT\\. In view of BA Dn 5. which has far more examples than BA. 'it will be put' Ezr 4. however.15:3.T h e n wm" might be susceptible to a similar explanation: namely. whereas Syr.132 FAKl U b : s :>D« o) D pf. ccDn^ A 6 . as in Leander (1928:61). to postulate /yitrawwam/.C") Kottsieper (1990:152-55) devotes an extensive discussion to a most difficuh form n w occurring at C l .C*"*) Here a different kind of analogy may be at work: nnri^ < n n ^ C ^ ' O . tG *D(pFin.20 DT we may have here a pattern similar to n^n / m a \ Beyer (1984:695) emends the form to n a n n ' on the ground that no D or tD can be formed from o n . l : 175.

IpiT € 1 .8:6. If restored correctly.)("'). Is bvi>i D7. . On the degeminating nasal.15:13. 7 : 7 .g the pf. 1:148.n •^"^So Noldeke 1898:120. imp. Is rbv B7.20:2. again as in later A r a m a i c . impf 3ms bvT Let it enter' € 1 . bvy^b 'to enter' A 6 .8:8. Syr. which the context indicates as juss. .12:22. for which there is n o real rationale. § 33 c. T h e prevalence of Ettfil pattem as in Syriac could be due to the fact that the verb Db is the most commonly used one in a -t binyan. § 36.. and inf. which occurs quite frequently. as in later Aramaic. possibly mn 'feverish' D7. l 7:6. type p c .6:5+.2:8.l:3. 3s.p c : DtoR as analogy of the in'. 1 : 5 5 . thus in G a n d H . D7. 3mp bv A4. ms bv 'Enter!' D7. see above § 3 c.4:8+. The only exception is ^bbv. Likewise n^n^ 'he will live' B4. See above. 1 : 2 0 5 Ouss. though it may be assumed that. 8 : 3 . in those inflectional categories the initial radical was geminated or subsequently degeminated. appears to have tjieen regarded as a LamedYod verb: see below § 37 e. ptc. if not = mtDn\ T h e traditional g e m i n a t i o n of the T a w c a n .24:2. 2 m s .17:4.(^'0 a) In the binyan G the identical radical appears graphically only once. inf. suggesting that. impf. /neljlje: V. With which cp. Ayin-Ayin verbs Verbs w h o s e second and third radical are identical are very meagrely attested in our corpus. q ) O n e example of tD may be identified in wprr 'it will be confirmed' D l . bp" bi^ 'Let it not be light!' €1. Possibly < ^bm. 3ms bv 'he entered' B2.(*"*) Examples are: pf. it was geminated except when it ended a word-form as in. if n o t an a d j e c t i v e s p e l l e d defectively for wan /banuni:m/. e. 2msbvn B3. 1 : 1 3 3 is possibly an error for p p T 'they will spit'. iDn bi^ 'Do not be bitter!' C l . as is the case in our own limited corpus as well.1:141 Guss. with Brockelmann (1908:616). + suf rann 'you shall shear it' D7. according to Lindenberger (1983:205) and Kottsieper (1990:51). +suf 3fs nw 'Shear it!' D7. is added as in the impf. mb 'to shear' D 7 . be explained as a tendency to bring biradicals into conformity with the d o m i n a n t triradical type rather than as a substitution of Ettafal for Ethpeel(^'*). ""nln] 'Live' € 1 . 3 m s . W h e r e an inflectional prefix followed by a vowel. an extra / n / sometimes intervenes between the prefix and the first radical.).

3fs rbmn B2. impv.27:4. c) T h e conjugation in the binyanim D and -tD is that of the regular triconsonantal root: D pf. though for a systematic listing of the attested Lamed-Alef verb forms the reader is referred to § 32.8:10. 3ms bhn 'he spoke' B8. T h e table below gives the inflectional morphemes of this class of verbs. Lindenberger (1983:171) mentions the possibility of Itpa:lal of V "pin. mp 'bv:sn A4.1 V b : 9 .1 XIII:2. 3ms bvTi 'he brought in' D23.6:6+.8:4. and a noun in our idiom from the same root. Is+suf "jmn 'I let you live' C 1. appears to be inflected like non-G verbs.15 "bvn 'they were brought in.(^") In view of the near-total convergence of the original LamedAlef class with the L a m e d .1:8 (partly restored). .9.Y o d class (§ 3 2 ) . C f Dalman 1905:353. It stands to reason that in forms with a secondary degeminating Nun the last radical should not be doubled. bbvXi 'roof A4. w h e r e the root "Ti is treated as an Ayin-Ayin rootf^'). 2m/ls m i K 'tied' D7. Most unusual is mJiH 'he spied out' C l . 2ms juss. l : 4 1 foib^u (§ 31 ^ . See also Morag (1988:233ff) for examples in Y B A of the retention of the third radical. impf. cf. A4. B A bb^n Dn 4.1:51.134 PART l i b : §36fc-§37^ b) W h a t w e h a v e said above on the degeminating nasal applies to the binyan H/A as well: pf. 1 : 1 3 6 . -tDimp/.(^") Likewise bbTi 'he mourned' C l . l : 139 for the expected 2J3n.7:I1. + 3m or 3f suf nbbD 'he completed it' D23. 3ms+suf. 3mp pVTi" 'they will introduce' A3. on which.(^^0 § 37. so impf. The so-called stative G pf.1:104 . 'rnn"" ' M a y h e allow m e to live!' C l .). A6. bVi 'Do not covet!' C l .10:7 (^2^). 3ms bhnr B8. in our general stmctural analysis w e shall treat the t w o classes as one.8:12. 3fsbbmn 'will split' Cl. so that one is struck by a form such as B A Dn 5. though we do not know how it was vocalised. T h e main p r o b l e m arises in relation to the third radical. l : 5 4 (juss. see below at § b.8:9. Lamed-Yod verbs This is a group which comprises a substantial number of verbs.' For this abnormal retention of the third radical not followed by a vowel.

m n s 'I c a m e ' B3. Infinitive sm "-/nV ? n .(Q) n- G:n—d7 f .2:7+. A larger corpus would no doubt have produced -n''-. n n 'they were' A4.5:8 / / min A6. b) 'he desires' and n-l'ii 'she desires' as against mn 'there was' and mn 'she w a s ' a m o n g the forms listed above and those Attested only attached to conjunctive pronouns. 2 9 .17:8. A larger corpus would no doubt have produced '•n''-.• n — r- 2m f n -— n . G non-G pass. (Fitzmyer 1956:83).Ty- ? ? ? non-G: ? yj/n-'-Q/n'? or: n^-D/n':) a) E x a m p l e s : G p/: 3ms mn 'there w a s ' A6.. l 7 .1 l:4(^^').MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 135 Perfect G 3m f nn-- non-G Imperfect Jussive Energic("0 n— n—n n—n rr-/n.30. mn 'I w a s ' A2. . 1 0 : 3 .4:12.11:4+. l : 18.8:3.4:7. -raK 'you desire(d)' D7.7:15+. 6 : 2 5 .56:5. in33 'they built' B3.n ? 7 1 Imperative Participle act.3:6.1:5.. 1 3m f n'-/nV -]—n n n J—K 7 7 ? ? 7 2m f p-n ]—n rr? • ? V. m m 'I rejoiced' A3.."i3i^ 'they a n s w e r e d ' C l .5:2. 2fs Tbn 'you were full' A2. B3.3:2+. inK 'they desired' D7. mnK 'I desire(d)' B6. 3mp i n 'they built' B3.— n -— n ? 1—. Ip pn 'we were' A4. i^m 'he fabricated (false stories)(?)' ib. nn:i 'she d e s i r e d / d e s i r e s ' B 2 . pass. l : 1 6 9 . -3^ 'desired/desires' A 3 . pm f r?-0 f-/]? . 3/5 mn 'she w a s ' B2. 2ms mi 'you b u l k ' B2. A larger corpus would no doubt have produced rv-.7:15(^^°). prn 'we saw' i b . ^ n i 'he has grown up' C l .10:9 must have resulted by taking n3n as the basic form and adding a Waw as the grapheme for the 3mpl morpheme.11:7+. Rather than Isg. rrili 'you desire(d)' B2. Hebrew examples mentioned by Fitzmyer as parallels to the alleged ©S3 intensifying the subject of a finite verb are different in nature. if it be not a mere scribal error for m3n.7:10+.y . 75 mn 'I saw' A2.

w e ta^e TOK 'you ( f ) d e s k e d ' D7. distinguished two G patterns in the pf. /Ijdiw/. /bna:t^ 'she built' ( B A n m 'she hit'). mi /§ibyat/ 'she desires. ^ For more examples. between the 2ms and Is. conjugation . 4 1 nmiq. Therefore w e would read the above-mentioned forms in question as: 2ms m n /bnayt(a)/ vs. '^'^ So Beyer (1984:623): /mali:ti:/. as it has been preserved in B A in the Tiberian tradition and Syriac. n. stative.43 mm 'you saw. Though Brockelmann (1928:388a) gives both /mla:/ and /mli/ for the intransitive. For the second person the non-contracted /-ay-/ in the case of the transitive or fientive verb is more likely. though there is no graphic trace of it: D n 2.. 3 m p / a w / or / o : / and /i:w/ as in Syr.' O n e m a y safely a s s u m e that the s a m e bipartite s y s t e m prevailed also in the rest of the G pf. like later Aramaic dialects.C^) Since w e see n o reason w h y the vowel following the second radical should differ between the 2fs and I s . Syr. Thus w e would read mn /hwa:/ 'he was'.17:8 as a defective spelling for -miK /§bi:ti:/: note for the standard ^""SD in the same document (line 4) and perhaps also con for D'Dn / h a m m i : m / (line 4 ) . •'n':'D 'you (fs.: Syr. Is /e:/ and /i:/ respectively as in Syr. mn /hwa:t/ 'she was'. JA does not seem to attest to the latter: see. which Folmer (1995:225. ^'^SoBA Dn 7. / ' n a w / 'they answered'. /bnayt/ vs. mnn /ljdi:t/. /bedyat^ 'she rejoiced' vs. Note the contrast in the Uruk incantation text between na-M-a-a-tu (= /na^yt(u)/ 'I took' line 1 and za-ki-it (= /zaki:t/) 'I was triumphant' line 10. e. /ay/ and /i:/ respectively as in Syr. Sokoloff (1990:309b). /bnaw/ vs. is a participle or a verbal adjective. mn:^ /5bi:t(a)/. /hdit/.g. /Mit/. as Syriac does.Leander 1927:161. none of the references mentioned by him seems unambiguously to attest to the latter.) were fiiir A2.19 nni{.(^^0 Thus 2ms m n 'you built' and n n ^ likely differed in the vowel between the second radical and the suffix. see Bauer . 3 m p m /bnaw/ 'they built.' 13:. W e cannot tell whether our idiom made some distinction. 226) cites from the Uruk incantation text as supporting her interpretation of our verb as stative. though T A attests to contraction (Dalman 1905:338).' mn /hwe:t/ 'I w a s ' vs. though all the examples cited are transitive in meaning. Perhaps the /t/ was followed by a vowel as is mostly the case in B A .ijo PART l i b : ^'ilc-d listed under Lamed-Alef verbs (§ 32) clearly establish that our idiom.3:6 is also probably a defective spelling for T^bu ("0 See also Folmer 1995:177-80. n-nK /gbi:t/(^^0. . Is nnn /bze:t/ 'I saw. /hdi/ 'he rejoiced' vs. I p ]''m /hzayn(a:)/. The form ma-li-e. ' D : ^ /§bi:/ 'he desires'. /bna:/ 'he built' (BA 'he sought'). /bne:t/ vs.' ib.

3fs m n n B4.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 137 rather than a contraction of /ay/. At A6. oiJ. b\T\ b^ 'Do not be sweet' C l . thing. Lindenberger (1983:282). whereby the jussive ends with Yod. and Macuch 1965:334. l : 148. Pace Bauer . . which fails to convince us. See also Wilson I 9 l 2 : 2 8 5 f Whether a similar distinction was maintained in the 1st person.Leander (1927:126) it is by no means certain that the verb -"13 in •'D~i3 B2. distinct form not only in the 2fs and 2/3mp. and perhaps phonetically. Muller-Kessler 1991:237. 1:204 as a rare case of Alef instead of He as the final mater lectionis of sufformative forms of the impf of Lamed-Yod verbs is now read nm^. 2 m 5 mnn C2. n n n C L 1 : 8 4 . Nor do w e know what the corresponding jussive form was in the 2 / 3 ^ . but also in the 3m/fs and 2ms. i.16:2 w e should perhaps restore ln]inn instead of [•']inn D 'you gladden. 2fs p ^ n 'you will desire' B2. 'im 'he may be' A2.(^^^) Though no e x a m p l e of the stative type is attestedf^^. both numbers. d) In the pc. Note further ha-za-u-ni-t' 'they saw me' in the cuneiform Uruk text (line 7) with the diphthong intact.. ^ «Tn« listed by Segert (1975:299) as occurring at C l ..3:6 is. Kottsieper (1990:158-63) claims that the idiom of the Ahiqar proverbs is perfectly consistent. of all binyanim.1:64 / juss. as in OA(^^0. as in later Aramaic dialects. evidencing l-o:l < it depends on our syntactic consideration of the sentence. See below on the agreement: § 76 eg. c) It is impossible to say how the 3mpl ending of the transitivefientive type s o u n d e d i M . pace Leander (1928:64). aw or o.8:9 is mp. p n n 'you will see' D7.2:14-i-. though the contraction of the diphthong in question is a feature highly typical of the language of the Hermopolis papyri (§ 8 «).6:3-1. 8 : 2 5 0 . On M as a 3mp suffix. please.// juss. l : 126.' However.6:3. 7^ n m B 3 .4:2 // TO' C l .2:3 // juss. and the indicative withHe.' See Degen (1969:76). . or not is not known.16:12. a noun meaning 'matter. Occasional failure to observe this distinction in l A has long been known: e.O Examples: 3ms mn"" 'he will be' A3. One could then postulate /§bi:w/ on the analogy of actually attested forms such as D VKDEJ 'they succeeded' and H r m n 'they brought': see below § h. w e may assume that. we do find wcr " P K 'let him not proceed' D7.5:4.g. the conjugation of the G stative pattem ran parallel with that of the derived binyanim. if these be forms of the same verb and it be not an originally Lamed-Alef verb.7:16. "Qii A4.s r bv< 'Let him not sift' D7. nni^n 'she will come' D7. the jussive of this group of verbs shows a graphically. b vay\ b ~o. see Morag 1988:253L. /ma:li/ or /mali/. See Muraoka 1995:332f and also a critique by Folmer (1995:505).

its phonetic conditioning is not apparent: the presumed position of stress. 2fs ends in /-an/ (< /-ayn/). 0 The question as to a possible phonetic opposition between ms -in and fs -in is a difficult one.3:7.pl.. -Din.5:3. This is the only G verb spelled with a final He. For the complexity of comparing the inflection of this class of verbs in Aramaic with that in Arabic.5:7+ // juss. 2 0 : 2 . . Mand.. nni^n[ 'Do not let it come!' ib.'May he show me!' A2.'he will let m e live' ib. In any case.Leander 1927:15If On the interpretation of this graphic distinction and the question of vowel length.1:2.5:5. and Galilean Aramaic spells the ending as ]""• (Dalman 1905:339). dit. O .138 PART lib: § 3 7 e . r\m 'Come!' D7. whether long or short. 14.2 (Klein 1986: I 45) and Mand. ^ Note fs -im at G A Gn 30.. see Bauer . 79).54. m.n •Build!' B2. 2mp ]Tm A3. It may be assumed that the jussive ending with Yod. -in 'Be!' A3.for the jussive are: m n . TBA. Tm bv^ 'Do not drink!' A4.3:2.b^ 'p:±> 'Let not your heart rejoice!' C l .81. an indication that the ending probably sounded differently from that of forms spelled with a Yod. In J A (Dalman 1905:339) the opposition is expressed as / e : / or /i:/ vs. as is clear from spellings such as 'nDTm b^ 'Do not show it!' C 1. CL the impv.(^0 Though the monophthongisation is confined to suffixed verb forms. varies. This is a Lamed-Waw verb in Ugr. . e) G impv: ms .A4. sounded /(^'). inA2. ms. W 'May they come!' A6. See also Beyer 1994:299. 2 ^ p n n 'you shall bring' A2. the Yod cannot represent a diphthong. ^ This cannot be D (Pael) in view of a G inL nno'? ib. of this verb ending /-a:/ in Syr. l : 1 6 6 0 . 'Come!' C l . is a valuable example of an old Aramaic form of this stative type verb.b\^ 'Let it not be . Examples of forms with final n instead of the expected .2:14.. /a/ ( < /ay/). as Lindenberger (1983:297) does. and JA. -HM.1:86 and -rnn. except that of the 2fs. Thus it is not quite right to speak.. whereas the ending spelled with H e sounded e of one kind or another.3:19.n 'Build!' B 2 . .5:8. (Macuch 1965:336). mp nn A4. mn. of "the consistent spelling of the jussive with -y" even in O A (see Degen 1969:39. ' i n A2. 4 : 5 0 .3:5 // juss. which is hardly a Hebrew form.1:6. D 7 . l : 9 0 . 8 1 . 1 0 : 7 . Similariy Syriac shows /-e:n/ (also < /-ayn/). and Eth. for instance. -rn 'Seek!' D7. see Aristar 1987./j 3mp pn.1 VarlO.1:7 'they should not c o m e ' D23. -wi 'Seek!' A 6 .) at Deir Alia I 12. -m 'See!'. ym 'Drink!' (impv.8:6.' i b . 9 . whereas ^' In JA the pc.

3mp r:i327 'they succeeded' A6.' Hug (1993:86) parses n'rn A2. D7. n.det.' despite JPA and Syr.7:23. / 5 : n t ^ t D D 'reaching' B 2 . ^'-nii 'desirous' A3. / i : / with f.: 3ms m 'he appointed' C l . +suf wnn 'he let us glo^f A4. if genuine. h) Dpf. "der Begehrte.2:14. mm is in line with o n e of the prominent characteristics of the Hermopolis papyri in which the archaic f.. also -["nj (not 1^-13) ib. 1 : 6 3 . cf.7:23.: mnb 'to build' A4. 'seeking' A2. l : 3 7 . msr\m 'coming' A 2 . ms. Translate: 'document of the wall which he built. is interesting in indicating a possible contraction of the generally hypothesised /-ay-Z. 5 : 6 0 . O n e of the above-quoted forms. contrasts m. 4 ) and 'built' would have to be rrn.11:8.11:5. Pace TAD B n n at n nso is not a passive participle.ms.C^^') N o t e . Morag (1988:259).i w / as that of the 3mp.8:15. As in B A and later Aram.8. § I 8 7 . pn :i 'desiring' D7.MORPHOLCXJY: T H E V E R B 139 Syr. that it is found in a Hermopolis papyrus: see above § 8 «. ybn 'are full' i b . TWmb 'to bring suit' B2. 646). ending <t> is mostly used instead of <h>: see above.3:5.abs.C^) f) G ptc. for " W K is a feminine noun (§ 18 v. •\-suf n^nnb 'to build it' A4. and / .sg. 7 : 2 1 . as G in the light of 'they instituted (suit)' B3. See also Y B A 'Throw!' alongside -r-i 'Seek!' (Morag 1988:257). nrmb 'to c o m e ' D7.8:9. both of which know the verb as D. ]bD 'detaining' A4.2:16 as pass. brought u p ' C l .56:7. 'drinking' A 4 .4:18. See Degen 1972b: 16. Is m m 'I raised. mm 'looking' A 2 . 9 2 . np: 'I cleansed' B l . but note fs "•'in^ (see above. Ip p"i27 'we b e g a n ' D 7 . nmnb 'to s e e ' C l . pi. 8 : 5 0 . pass. mp p n A4. and-Di: (not B2. mp pn^ A4.10:3 may be a variant spelling of nnii: see 'n-n 'bringing' A3.5:6+(^'0 .6:9.7:7.56:6.20:4. 3 m s . l : l l .5:6 +C'*')." His translation o f the entire document (1993:37) has "das Gewiinschte an Wolle" for nor which is syntactically impossible. l : 2 5 . but rather a pf.7:10.f^0 See m. g) G inf. o n e may assume /-i/ as the ending of the pf. The verb nn« is slightly irregular with the impv. See above at § 34 c/. and Folmer 1995: 180f This allows us to interpret nn: 'to institute (suit). ^ Similarly GA: see Dalman 1905:339 and Fasssberg 1990:189-91. dialects. see Morag (1964:128f. and JA. ms n n 'built' A4. Ipl mentioned below under § /./5 m n 'built' A4. H pf.). A2.7:3.ptc. v)iyn quoted above and pmn. 9 : 1 1 . l l .\ act. ending /-a:/ in Syr. however. On this question. . /aiy /. 3 : l l .

2fs -nnn 'you brought' A2. 267. The verb is simultaneously an Ayin-Ayin verb. The only Aramaic dialect known to me that consistently shows e in this position is Y B A (in 2ms and Ip): see Morag 1988:263.7:16. i -irn 'they removed' C3. JA distinguishes between wnni^' 'he showed us' and «rTn« 'we showed' (Dalman 1905:406f.: 3ms 'irn 'he brought' A6. possibly impv. Possibly an Afel. nnd? ( = n-ino':'?) 'to show.15:4. and -mn (see below at § 1/1). namely whether it is /-pi:-/ or /-pay-/.\:M. However. 3mp pn*?. noting that the scribe of B2. energ. ms+suf. or pl. l : 5 1 ( " ' ) . the second example. and unlikely Afel: see above § 27. nrrn.14:8 (for the expected . 2mp p i n n 'you will gladden m e ' A6. l 4 l . -Diin). D rather than A: c f Dalman (1938:393) and Sokoloff (1990:508).9) dated to the first quarter of the 5th cent. 282. Likewise Syr. see above § 29.8IIIA:3. if not a scribal error.'they will m a k e bad' C l . 272L.24:16.10:12+.^1. ^ ^ ' ^ Factitive. l 6 6 . D pc: 2ms noDD 'you will cover' C\.. BCE has the only example in our corpus of an i m p f 2fs spelled plene. l : 5 0 // m ^ n B2. i) H or A pf.0 On a possible D pass.n and nn ^n on the one hand and between n-n-« and nn-n on the other may be interpreted in the same fashion as w e did above with respect to G 2 m s n -3K /§bi:t/ as against 2fs -nn^ /gbi:ti:/ and .6 wavers between a defective and a plene spelling. Is rropi* 'I shall dispute' Cl.9:13.n ^ /mli:ti:/. n-n^n 'I removed' C l . .(**'') The same applies to 2fs -nnn for -n-n-n /he:ti:ti:/ 'you brought.3:10 // nn-n D7. for instance. -jn-nn 'I allowed you to live' C l . Leander (1928:66) presents a completely reverse picture. was not known to Degen: the scribe of this document (D7. 3mp i-n-n 'they brought' A6. 279. pracjn (line 11).139).140 PART 11 b: § il I np] is probably a defective spelling for the standard rrpi /naqqi:t/. juss:bT\ b^ 'Do not reveal' i b .n o B3. mnn 'he showed' B8. 41 Of. Syr. l : 1 7 2 ( " ' ) . though the reading of the final He is not absolutely certain. His fluctuation between «TEp and «nEp must be left out of consideration so long as we are not sure of its form. . /gallin/ (Noldeke 1898:119. tell'D7.('^«) The fluctuation between Is n-"i:.6:35. Degen (1979:38).' -jn-nn 'I allowed you to live. A striking form for the expected ""inn. it may be Yod.).12:5. would plead for /-i:t/ as in. An /-e:t/ is rather unlikely. /galyan/ vs.2:7. p t c .14:4. pinn 'he m a d e us see' A4. inf.n n . A6. Is+suf^D^Dt^ 'I shall cover you' i b .3:5C*''*). Ip pinn 'we showed' B8. but note m r n alongside nn^n. namely defective spelling for the standard n--.' being of a geminate root at the same time. -Din 'Show m e ! ' D7. 75 mn-K 'I brought' A3.1:6.12:1.l:140(^").

l : 6 ( ? ) ( ' " ) . 2jp p n n 'you will bring' A2.48:4.25 /^hhita:n/. § 23 / The final vowel of the verb itself varies from dialect to dialect: /-aw/. whether etymological or not. On the interpretation of this striking form. WEJnn bi^ 'Do not mislead!' C 1. and Sam.7:6. but cf. m A2.12:3. mp+suf-mnu 'Tell him!' A6. but /-u/ in Mand. n r m 'Let them remove!' A4.g. 1:6.G b i n y a n i m . 3 1 : l . in Syr. of the n o n . then. Impv. C f Folmer 1995: 179f As applied to tD and tH.. m n 'Bring!' (or: 'they brought') D7. this sufformative is probably on the analogy of the corresponding form of D and H.11:5.C^^) Beyer analyses the form as Aahyirtdka:/.5:5. the analogy of later dialects suggests that it ended with /yat/.1:123.(^) T h o u g h no e x a m p l e of the 3fs occurs in the c o r p u s .: fs+sufn'Otk 'Bring him!' A2.1:137.'he will bring' D 3 .A6. . dit. w e tentatively suggest the following reconstmction: Sg -i: -yat -i:t(a:?) -i:ti: -i:t Pl 3m f 2m f Ic -'vMn ? ? ? -i:n(a:?) Pc: 3ms .may be analysed as /habbi-ta:k/. 2ms nvnn bi^ 'Do not r e m o v e ' C l .juss.'they will bring him' A2.. nn-n. nm. /5 n n ^ ( < *nnNN) 'I shall bring' A2. It appears that there has developed an orthographic opposition whereby the G pc.3:10.1:10.(^^') For the pf. in-n.5:4. TBA.4:12. 3mp TP 'Let them bring!' A2. In the light of this we should probably parse in' as an Afel form in a broken context at D l . while the H/A pc. e. in contrast to the sc. +suf'm" 'he shall show me' A23:2.6:10. l : 188. m T 'he will tell' C l .C^) As in all A r a m a i c dialects. juss.2ms ubnu" 'he will m a k e sweet' Cl. 3mp 'they will bring' A3. Peshitta Gn 47. W e note that the l a n g u a g e of the H e r m o p o l i s papyri is characterised by an a l m o s t general contraction of the initial diphthong of the causative -nt^: see § 8 «. l : 146.: see below. This applies to the impv. of the same verb is spelled without such. see above. the 2 / 3 m p form in a non-G binyan lacks < y > in the pc. of HHK is spelled with the radical Alef. D l .9:3.

Ptc. n-n-a':' nn-no.Porten 1992:76f. H/A Juss.5:7.'it will b e built' A4. . nn. Cf Hoftijzer . Ip pnm 'we have agreed to act as equals' B 2 . 1 : 1 0 7 0 . The verb with suffixal object pronouns A pronominal c o m p l e m e n t of a verb other than a participle is ^ On this fluctuation. Unlikely Afel: see above § 3 Z. O .5:14.n « 'Turn yourself!' C l . j) tG: pf.1:200. G n-n-n*?. Cf. -n-o nnanb H/A § 38. ptc. ms nmno 'being seen' C l .4:11 // n-n-n'^ i b .PART II b: § 3 7 y . n-no*?. On a slightly different interpretation of the verb. nn -n nn^ 3mp in« rn -n ]in«. G H/A G 3ms nn« -n-n nn«-.§ 38 Inf. n-nvrb 'to r e m o v e ' B 3 . 1 1 : 2 0 .Jongeling 1995: 1117.: n-rnb 'to bring' A2. G H/A nn« n-n«(+suf) 1-n-n ]-n« Ptc. 3mp pDDn'they will be hidden' A4.7:27.3:11. 1 1 : 1 3 . n-mn'p A4. ms -n-n 'bringing' A3. impf..pn -n-. 2ms rmnn 'you will change' C1. see Szubin . our remark on -n-i at § g above. n3in-(+suO:in«-.: act.nn-nf nn^n 2ms n-n« nn«n f -nnn Is n-n« n -n-«. l : 124. k) iD:pc. 3ms nnn. in-nf 2mp ]Tm f |n-nn Impf. see above § 23 p. ^"pmb 'to give drink' A4.11:5. in-. G H/A j-n-no Inf.' H/A 'to bring': Pf. in-: inn-. ms . impv. G H/A ms nnt^ f -n« mp f Impv. 3fsO) mnrri 'it will b e sated' C l . 1) For the sake of convenience w e present here a paradigm of the attested forms of a highly irregular and frequent verb nn«: G 'to come. l : 9 0 .

C^*^^) Furthermore. On this matter.depending on whether it was conjunctive (now /-h/) or disjunctive (still /hu/). with nouns/prepositions.1:6 appears to he sui generis. C f also . such a disjunctive pronoun is invariably found immediately after the verb. 6 'you shall talk them into submission and send them back. Hence. im'Tqp 'they killed him.). though it is not apparent whether the alternative pattern such as ni'ppti 'they carried him' goes back to *''r}t)p^ or *im'7p?». analogical development. though still in the 8th cent. contrary to the current view.g. W e shall first g i v e e x a m p l e s . see Dalman (1905:362ff. which ought to be divided as nn npin.8:37 (his reading for the correct ntOD). f o l l o w e d b y A distinction mentioned by Bauer . Contra Kraeling (1969:219). what one actually finds in Y B A (Morag 1988:291). T h e shape of such a conjunctive pronoun is largely identical with that also synthetically attached t o a n o u n or a preposition e x c e p t in the first person singular for w h i c h a verb requires -3. the third person plural pronoun takes a disjunctive form i n k e e p i n g with other Aramaic d i a l e c t s . There is no trace of the latter in the Codex Leningradensis.15 ]irsni 'they pursued them' betrays the secondary nature of the amalgamation. a rare exception in 'nrpni*. that is impossible with the second (so also Gibson 1975:52). morphemes unique in that the conjunctive and disjunctive shapes remained identical.) and his comments (1905:361). W^)-. leaving the 3rd pl. who discusses -ntocD B3. ib.(Morag 1988:293. 'n as a suf for 3fs. Since there is no conceivable reason for "them" to be treated differently from the rest. T o the best of our knowledge. e.' hardly ever'm. for the Aramaic phonology leads one to expect *]irsn"n or such like. inn i<np 'invite them' immediately before the first example. The antiquity of this peculiar morphosyntactio feature is in no doubt. Likewise in the Ashur letter (mid 7th cent. The vocalisation of a form such as TO Gn 14. for instance.as against with a noun and a preposition. see a brief observation by Kutscher (1968:412). For more examples. apart from the fact that its use with a participle is also anormal: see below § / 7. an idiom which is idiosyncratic in some other ways as well. BCE): P i n n ^ 'ask them' line 12 and •o>Dnn'7::K 'it consumed them' line 17. BCE we find the morpheme conjunctively attached as in Sefire III 2 nrnDonn 'you shall surrender them.' ib. this ancient feature itself must be a secondary development which occurred when the third person singular masculine pronominal morpheme had begun to take different shapes.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 143 normally added synthetically to the e n d o f the verb.328). which is easily understandable according to our reconsu-uction. 'n in n D K w±>ti -n 'that I am wearing' A2. with a p f is unheard oL * ™ The conjunctive shape as in some JA dialects and Samaritan Aramaic is best regarded as a secondary.' While in the first and last one may see cn as a disjunctive form. is highly artificial and most unlikely. though Rosenthal (1961:26) still mentions Dn 3.17t«n'?^ (not so in Codex L. This question obviously has implications for the dating of the loss of word-final vowels. though the scribe is far from being consistent in the matter of word-spacing as evidenced by.Leander (1927:122). with verbs vs.

g. O A attests on 'their' spelled separately from the immediately preceding noun: Barrakab 2.1:51.lO.7 o n n o a ] 'their souls' and Zakkur A 9 o n m a n o 'their encampments. -fnpnc? G 'I abandoned you' ib. / .1:7. .144 PART l i b : § 38a -ib some comments. ls+2ms fin: G 'I instituted (suit) against you' B5. G 'they instituted (suit) against you' B3. -jnD-a D 'I blessed you' A 2 . 3fs+ls -riQQ G 'it reached m e ' A2.l 11. 6. l : 5 0 .5:8. l : 5 1 .nn A4.5:8. irhrr G 'I transported you' C l . 3ms+lp finn H 'he let us gloat' A4. 3ms+ls -rD3 G 'it bit me' A2. -Dispc? G 'they hit me' ib. 3mp+ls "ybn" G 'they transported m e ' B8. -mp32J G 'they released him'. -3^:i3n H 'he reclaimed from me' B 8 .2:13.o G 'he supported me' C2. inscription from Tel Dan may also contain a similar syntagm: on piK 'their land' (line 10): Biran Naveh 1993:94.4:5.1:2.Leander (1927:124) for their reconstruction of the development under discussion here. 4 : 1 . D l . "Tb'^iTi H 'they reclaimed Bauer . "pa G 'he instituted (suit) against you' B3.7:16.1:17. 3ms+2mp CD©! G 'he brought (suit) against you' B2. since it occurs in his corpus only as attached to an infinitive.6:4. 3fs+2fs ""Xm G 'it reached you' B5. In OA.' A recently published 9th cent. . -DHD-in D 'I blessed you' A2.1:10. 3mp +3fs m n (wrongly spelled inn) 'they built it' B3. -pm D 'he damaged you' C l . l : 4 9 .2:6. misleading.8:8. e. -3pSM. A6.T G 'you gave it' B5. "TblO D 'she supported me' B3. -3in-n D 'they obligated me' B8. "jn. nn'pK3n H 'I reclaimed him' B3.4.2:2.51.6:10.2:8.3:14.10:12. l : 4 8 . Moreover.4:6.49. ls+2mp CDV^m G 'I b r o u g h t (suit) against y o u ' B2. ls+2fs -Dnpnc G 'I released you' B3. See below our discussion at § e .5:7. a) Pf. ls+3ms nrbnp G 'I killed him' C l . A 'he took m e out' A2. i m p + 2 m 5 li^ro G 'they imposed on you' B2. A 2 . 3ms+2ms •jNtDQ G 'it reached you' A2.1:93. -HTOii 'they demolished it' A4. 3mp+3ms -nnD« 'they i m p r i s o n e d him' B8. A2. -ni. "]nmp D 'I presented you' C l .10:12.6:4. Hug (1993:59) gives nn as an object suffix.8:9. jrb^ D 'I paid you' B3.n m G 'he loved me' C l . l : l . however.7:9 // A4.1:4. nnmp D 'I presented him' ib. . 6 : l . in-nn H 'I saved your life' C 1.4:18.n t o G 'they detamed him' A4.10:17. inEKH H 'I hid you' ib. Ugaritic and Moabite also spell hmas a separate unit: see Segert 1984:48 and Andersen 1966:97.2:3. the synthetic structure still prevails: see examples in Degen (1969:80). 'they did me' ib. 6 : 5 .8:15. -mni.1:4. 'ymro G 'they stmck me' B8.10:8(^'°0.5. which is. the Sefire inscriptions. l : 4 4 . 3ms+3fs: rrpsn H 'it let it go out' C 1. G 'I killed you' ib. 3ms+2fs 013 G 'he instituted (suit) against you' B2.2:7 // D M. 2fs+3ms -nn3.

1:208. -n3n-nn...8:7f. lp+2fp piDil D 'we blessed you' A 2 . B3.CD. *" Possibly an imperative: there is not enough context.7:9.9:5. 3fs+2ms ipnann G 'she will hate you' B2. Does Kottsieper (1990:19. 2ms-\-3fs n^'D'm G 'you will sow it' B l . -m'^pnG 'he will weigh it' C 1 .8:35.4:5C"). .11:9. er eine Kamelslast tragt"? On the intrepretation of the form as Afel. 3ms+2fs "[n3.3. lp+3ms -no D 'we sold it' B3.G 'he will load him' ib. counterpart as f: see the Peshitta at Gn 27.' is a feminine noun in JA and CPA. l : 126.l86("*). Brockelmann (1928:252) ought to have marked its Syr. see above §3b. 1:208.. "nbiO" G 'he will carry it' i b .6:21. But see Degen (1979:32). On the morphosyntactic significance of the distinction between forms with energic Nun and without it. -mmA 'he will show it' Cl. lp+3fsnnn" G 'we gave it' B5.29:5. -n:'nn 'he will hang him' ib. 1 : 1 1 . pb^ 'and he gives it to whomever he pleases' with a context similar to that in which our form occurs. Possibly without an energic Nun.2:15C"). ls+3ms "nmt^ G 'I shall give it' B 1 .7:2 . with energic N u n ( " 0 : 3ms+3ms "ninm G 'he will taste it' or D 'he will feed him' C l . ]in\ The referent of the suffix. D7. On the simplified spelling. l 8 5 . contra Segert (1975:309). bpr] Tield.27. see below § c. lp+2mp CDym G 'we brought (suit) against you' B2. n:nn mpnnn G 'you shall w a s h it. our corpus attests to conj. Thus. see above § 28. -DXDT G 'he will bring (suit) against you' B2. 6 : l IC^' ^). G 'we brought (suit) against you' B2. 4 : 1 4 . 2fs+3ms 7\mT] 'you m a y give it' B2. lp+2ms'^T-]7 G 'we instituted (suit) against you' B 3 . m ™ 'I shall give it' G ^'°»See n . An error for-]3n'?S3. you shall shear it' D7. 2 : 2 3 .9:4.G 'he will institute (suit) against you' B3. M33:.1:5. 84.pn.15:12(^'^''). 6 3 1 . n.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 145 from m e ' B8. 5 : L b ) Impf. who aptly cites Dn 4. pronouns attached to the perfect of verbs other than Lamed-Yod verbs.4:8. 1991:335) assume a resumptive pronoun with his ".H 'he will make it return' C l . 'rmio" G 'he will press him' B3. 3ms+3fs nxiT G 'he will inherit (from) her' B2. Possibly an error for 'TOIDIJO'' 'they w i l l o r a defective spelling for the latter? Pace Lindenberger (1983:63) an internal passive is unlikely. Two more examples are mentioned above. See further our discussion above at § 23 /. in-tDG 'May he put you!' A4.'May he show you!' D7.5:16. l : 4 ( ^ " ) .7:8(^'').14 vosf. -nntD? G 'he will watch it' C l . An uncertain reading: it could also be read nr\\ "jiTV. 3ms+2ms ynbS}" G 'he will serve you' B 3 .l:86(^'^).

D 'May he show me!' A2. ls+2mp CDYim G 'I shall institute (suit) against you' B 2 . 3mp +3s ump" 'they will take him/her/it' D4.1:52. ls+3fs n::m G 'I shall give it' A2. l : 5 3 . 3mp+2ms bi^ G 'May they not swallow you up!' C l .are part of a standing See Porten .8:7. lp+2fs 'we institute (suit) against you' B5. as a matter of fact. -nyzbm D 'I shall pay it' B4.m« G 'Let m e wash it!' D 7 .10:9.Greenfield 1974:23f The gender of the suffix is not to be determined due to the lack of the context. -DDODi^ D 'I shall c o v e r you' C l .and -]tn. 3ms+3fs HDnr 'Let him prepare it' D7. if not an error for -amr 'he will buy/sell it'A3. l : 148. -]in-. 1 : l l .10:15. lp+2ms ittio: D 'we shall suport you' B3. -DTIT. 'rnn. 1 : 1 7 7 .4:9. l : 166.25:2.9:13. ls+3s n!.10:7. c) Impf. 2mp+3ms miran G 'you will give it' B2. l : 6 1 . 3ms+ls "DDV G 'May he remember me!' C l . G 'I shall hit you' C l . A2.2:2. i n p « A 'I shall raise you' D7.5. 2ms+ls -]^opn bi^ G 'Do not kill me!' C 1.A 'May he show me!' A2.10.4:2. 1 0 : l . -rnn-.6:5.'they will show me' A4.m p n D 'you shall present me' ib.24:6.1:72(^^'). all the e x a m p l e s of -]in. 2m5+3m5 -nEKnn ]n 'if you conceal it' C2. 3mp+3ms m i P A 'they will b r i n g him' A2.(^^^) "The examples quoted above of the 7^ suffix—"DDV.1:5'. l : 5 4 . A2. The reading of the end of the verb is far from certain. 3mp+3ms -m-13. G 'I shall bring (suit) against you' B3.1:4.1:7.54.8: i n 3mp+2fs 0 ] n r G 'they will institute (suit) against you' B5.1:8. 3mp + 3fs mnPD.29:9. -mpn —^have all been translated as if they were jussives. 3mp+ls "i±>m 'they will interrogate me' D2. 8 : l l . there is no compeUing reason to suggest such an interpretation(*^').2:12. . yim 'we shall rescue you' A3. 3mp+2mp DDiiCJT 'they will bring (suit) against you' B2. and.9:4.H 'May he save m y life!' C l . . ls+2ms G 'I shall institute (suit) against you' B2.^ B4.1:2.146 PART II b: § 38 c . 3ms+2mp D D © T for ODyDT G 'he will bring (suit) against you' B2.6:13. however.G 'May they sue him!' A3.6:2. -]]mn.5:13 imiOfi 'I shall reach you' D 7 . -]Tn.5:2. ls+2fs"Dn^i^ G 'I shall institute (suit) against you' B2.2:3. In the context of their occurrences.9:2. A2. lp+3ms "T]±>Qp2 bi< G 'Let us not kill him' C l .6:10(+3fs? 1= "ship"])("').'May h e give it' G D7. lp+3ms''m 'we shall give it' A2.4:4. Most likely an error for o n : ] : see oa-D' two lines below. O X D I M .1:203. -|]«nQM. -[bic^ D 'I shall support you' C 1. A2.D 'Let them mark her!' D7. without energic Nun: 3ms+3ms -nrj.3:2.1:6. This applies also to a partly restored 'nnrni.

in which the use of the energic m o r p h e m e is universal.g.7:4 escapes us. with an apocopated (= jussive) form. The gender of the pronoun in nnn 'Give it!' A3. D7. despite the spelling of the verb itself. -jpr^'.9:13. The three examples of the Is. See Degen 1969:80.] 3 ^ N T .3:26. and B A . 4 : 7 0 . usually emended to ' n o ' . -n-pn H 'Establish me!' i b .5:7. can be emended to -yno\ 'aporn ib. "^mv G 'Do it!' C l . in which case the form of the suffix would be normal.14:8. possibly a woman. fs+3ms -nnnn H 'Hold it as heir!' B2. "nub^ 'Send it!' D 7 . We shall suggest below (§ 53 b) a possibility of viewing these verb forms as jussives all the same. was perceived as typical of the verb forms which have an /n/ as part of their m o r p h e m e .] N D R 'he will remember m e ' and *"']nDr 'they (f) will remember me' could have also phonetically differed from each other but little. but there are a number of exmaples of the I s n and 2iTir^withoiitlhe extra n. most likely a woman. The attestation for the 3fs is incomplete. tns+Sfs nu G 'Shear it!' D7. -nnn G 'Give it!' B2. Such a development and interpretation may have been precipitated to some degree by the appearance of the new 2/3 fp m o r p h e m e characterised by /-a:n/. namely 2/3 pl. .(^*^) -nnn 'Give it!' D7. Another possible explanation is that our idiom represents the halfway house between O A .n n D7. Ill 2 0 is preceded by b. l : 8 7 .11:5. h o w could one account for this anomaly? A possible explanation is that the energic Nun of the expected form such as n o e x a m p l e of which is attested in our corpus. however. NJION©'. -n'^KC? 'Ask him!' D 7 . are not incontrovertible: pD' Sefire I B 28. l 0 9 . in which the energic morpheme is confined to the 3 m s suffix(^^*).4:3 / / N . for a form such as * .n ™ n 'Dispatch it' D7. This still leaves "("piin^ 'I shall rescue you' Zakkur A 14. and -m^i 'and he answered me' Zakkur A 11 may be equal to Heb. MRIM. mp^ls -DIN 'Show me!'D7. and 2fs. 1 : 1 4 0 . in which case the form of the suffix would be normal. E. .. The subject is.8:6.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 147 formula and occur inside a clause introduced by "]. if these are not jussives. 9 : 3 . l : 5 2 . making the verb a jussive form.{^^) But.9:2. d) Imperative: ms+3ms . A 'Bring it!' A2.M I N N H 'Notify him!' A6. ms+ls-bi G 'Bring me!' C l . mp+3fs nbn G 'Bring it!' D 7 . / 5 + J / 5 n 3 n G 'Give it!' A3. The subject is not perfectly certain. mp+3ms .5:7 (**0.7:16. which may be restored as b^. since the imperative itself would end with a vowel.3:10. and was hence dropped as such from the remaining verb F O R M S W H I C H do not carry such a m o r p h e m e w h e n another In/ of the suffix immediately follows.

F r o m this one can conclude that -nnnm 'you gave it' B5. nmQ':527Q 'to repay it' C l .7:16 for -n-nn. noun or possibly « E ] n .. for otherwise the forms would have been spelled "Urtxap and •'nn':'K3n respectively. the translation given above is the meaning required by the context. Segert (1975:310) apparently analyses the form as masculine. l 7 1 . . n-nnb G 'to build it' A4. See further § 12 h. -HDonn 'Hold it as heir!' B2.1:3. 1 0 : 5 0 .7:16. or a semi-vowel. the conj.2:13. Aeitay-/ The syntax is strange. B3. But Beyer (1984:497).7:23.4:5 allows us to postulate that the pf. Segert's (1975:310) -nrnn is a misprint. itself ends with a consonant.and -n-. + 3mp DnmnnDQ D or A 'to put them down' C l . This theory certainly works with forms such as -nnoK 'they imprisoned him' B8. 2) T h e reason w h y n-m^ (= /'e:taye:h/?) 'Bring him!' impv. should the latter also be fem. to read the first half of as monophthongised and defectively spelled /bno:/ is rather unlikely.28:48. nniDnn':' D 'to evict her' B2. "^nDirb D 'to evict you' B3. verb forms. 6 : 7 .5:8. n m . the 3ms conjunctive pronoun has t w o allomorphs: n. At B3. nmOT[':'l H 'to bestow it' B7. l : 7 . +7^ -]n':'^n'7 D 'to rescue m e ' A l .148 PART l i b : §38£-/(3) +3ms nn^nb G 'to b u y with it' A 3 . pron.6:30.11:5. consistent with his theory mentioned below. i n n n «3E3n n 'the protecting wall that the Egyptians built' B3.11:4 one reads «ni{D m 'T «]S3n. Pace Beyer (1984:475) the verb is of the 2fs. nmnnn':' D or A 'to put it down' i b . nmnr^ 'to sell it' D D7. the pf. and -nnr 'Let them institute (suit) against him!' A3.56:13.3:26 for -n-DonnC^'^^^ and -nnn 'Give it!' B2.' a f. C f the occasional plene spelling of the conjunctive Ip morpheme with nouns and prepositions as in wn^a 'our house' C3. I s does not seem to have ended with a vowel.10:9 is probably an error for . Dnmcjio':' A 'to dispatch them' A2. + 2fs "^nwd? G 'to brand you' B 3 .3:14.5 is equally puzzling.3:7. not 2ms. In any case. + 3fs nvwab G 'to sow it' B 1. I p ended with a long vowel.T(^").3:10 does not e n d with -n-(^^) appears to b e that the impv. l : 170. e) Infinitive: f) Observations 1) As noted above in § 1 2 / . sg. -minn 'Notify him!' A6.(^'^) Likewise the spelling -nnr 'we sold it' B3.8:30. referring to «13« 'wall. all fem.(^*') O n the other hand. as may b e concluded from forms like nrb^ 'I killed him' C 1. fs+3ms at A2. T h e general assumption is that the latter follows a historically long vowel or a diphthong.5:7 is a defective spelhng for-r7-n3. The direct object Tin in "iinr "ion ]innT 'you bought grain with them' ib.. interprets the form as /'aytdyhi:/.1:49 and nn'PKDn 'I reclaimed from him' B3.4:4. l : 131.

the energic morpheme is best considered as I /-nna/ or II /n/. too m a n y cases which do not appear to meet such a condition. denies that any vowel preceded the /n/. see above under (b). /yaqtula/. who generally follows Kutscher (1971:118) in this matter. h l l . suffix <-ny> and our "energic" <n>.. There are. if w e are to take the Arabic scheme as our starting point. no helping vowel.g. without specifying. and his comments (1905:339). In such a case. A complementary distribution which Garr (1985:111) postulates and considers Proto-Semitic.attached to a verb form. 0 From this we may further c o n c l u d e that only the d i p h t h o n g aw d e m a n d e d the conjunctive pronoun -n.. T h e difficulty is that no diachronic or comparative consideration points to an originally long vowel or a diphthong ending such verb forms. ''^ Leander ( 1 9 2 8 : 5 I f ) gives no argument for his /-6:hi:/.C"') Even Quoted by Sokoloff (1990:81). Kottsieper (1990:178) indicates a short /a/. which are generally considered to have been similar to those of the first energic m o o d in Classical Arabic ending with Anna/. Examples are -riTDiy 'he will press him' B3.9:5 or -HDinK 'I shall give it' B l . O A diphthong is out of the question. for a reason which appears to us unlikely. Kottsieper (1990:177). / y a q t u l a n n a / . the only plausible candidate is /a:/.(^°") Such a long a could have developed. both added to the subjunctive. Kottsieper makes no distinction between the <n> of the 1 sg. 85-89). pace Kottsieper (1990:177). m. form. e. mostly a pc. is obviously invalid with verb forms having an etymologically long vowel as in f sg. See also some examples in Dalman 1905:348. the /a/ preceding the /n/ would be. or any other category of verb inflection. however. we would suggest. CL Folmer 1995: 241-52 and Muraoka 1997a: 208-13. F o r m o r e examples.pl. So Bennett (1984:52-92. which is totally unjustified in view of the fact that no Semitic language adds the latter to the suffix conjugation.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 149 or such like: cf. Furthermore. In Y B A one finds 'n'« (Morag 1988:280) and BTA (Epstein 1960:97). esp. if any. Though Beyer (1984:473) breaks down the energic into the jussive /yaqtul/ + /-anna/ or /-nn/. if it carried stress . ™' Possibly it did not have to be long. namely the /i-form with verb forms other than the perfect and originally ending in a consonant and the «-form with those originally ending in a vowel. J A "n« Megillah 7 3 a ( 4 4 ) . however. 3) The most knotty question is concerned with the 3ms pronoun -n. but never a form of the pf.(*^'^) T h e general assumption is that such an allomorph follows a long vowel or diphthong. what vowel. and twice an impv. . If it were a long vowe^*^*^). he considers precedes the suffix TT-.

6 n^uy for the expected 7[b\jy. C f an attempt by Bauer . but this manifestly cannot be true in purely . lists -n]3nt< 'I give it' and nariTn 'you sow it. -niDs. A T A form such as 'TOD T a k e it!' 2Kg 4. 4. the syllabic stmcture -RjWn{a). that all of these forms('"^). ™ ^ CL Bauer .10:9. refers to a feminine noun.a defective spelling for -n-.6:10.('^) Finally. Aramaic. 6 : 5 . however.16. O n e notes. the norm being -n-. as at ib.5:15 (// . n:m 'you (fs) m a y give it' B2. Hug (1993:87).. l ) .7:8. thus preventing the shift of the stress to the vowel following the final /nJ and keeping the vowel short. 4 7 6 . for. It is just possible that the A r a m a i c energic of these forms. if not a scribal error for ^-nDTiD and '"'•nDnr respectively. An explanation proposed by Beyer ( 1 9 8 4 : 4 2 4 . 'Do it!' C1. except the last. 4 7 3 . is arbitrary.8:6. if w e are to start with the Classical Arabic model.Leander 1927:125. happen to show.1:7 and -nnr 'Let h i m give it!' D7. One possible interpretation of these rare. One finds at least one comparable case in our corpus: " [ n r 'he will institute suit against you (fs)' B3. as instancing the impf with the 3ms suffix—the former an example of Energicus II with no linking vowel and the latter of Energicus I with such a vowel—though the latter.appears instead of-nin ny\n" 'they will bring him' A2. Hence Bennet's (1984:82) "occasionally" is misleading. the pattern as in n'ap'iD': is the rule in that idiom. we believe.7 9 ) . and accepted b y H u g (1993:87). for instance. rmm 'I shall give it' B4.Leander (1927:123f) to account for a plene spelling such as Dn 5.' both from one text ( B l .150 PART l i b : §38/(3)-(5) SO.4:7). T h e above consideration applies to the impv.D D T i b . the jussive ]n: and |nr would have no vowel endingC"^. The restoration of a Yod at the end is generally accepted. though presumably not every dialect. This contrasts with nnn 'Give it (= n-D) A3. Energic I possesses a linking vowel. The two can b e distinguished only before suffixesC"^): These are exceptions. uses both Energic I and II. unlike their Arabic counterpart.(™) According to them.1:87C'^) (and possibly "nrb^D 'Send it!' D7. are probably based on the analogy of the energic forms. l 4 ) . and perhaps n i r a 'I shall give it' B 4 .6:5 does not fit this categorization. So Beyer (1984:473).29:9.19 (Dalman 1927:375) must be evaluated in the light of the fact that with the pc. some(™^) problematic cases remain: n. Aabidhi/ of Lindenberger (1983:85) is difficult to accept. whereas Beyer's (1984:473) "die allein ubliche Form" is the other extreme. in their impf. n m n 'you (mp) may give it' B2. but Energic n does not. form. retained a long vowel after R3. -HDn] (= /nittnaihi/?) 'we will give it' A2. Yodh-less forms is to see in n.

5) E x a m p l e s of the 3pl pronouns as a direct complement of a verb are: iDn im 'he seized them' A6. n33lT /yettenenndha:/ "er gibt sie.11. b e fitted into such a neat pattern. right . '^^ Beyer (1984:479) resorts to emending the "offending" form nnn to 'nan.10:9 has the last Nun geminated or not.("") T h e sole instance in our entire corpus of a 3pl conjunctive object pronoun direcdy added to the verb occurs in this same document Dn]n3« 'I shall give them' ib. and o m -n*? n:K 'I love her m u c h ' D23. iDn 'we shall divide them' B 2 . albeit admittedly only weakly. ion n-n-K ^b l did not bring them' A3. forms quoted above with a personal suffix /-n/ as having an energic N u n are. fs + 3ms). One cannot say confidently whether nyiTiT) B2.(^o^) Moreover. as w e have seen above. apparendy accepted by Hug (1993:20f). regards the least plausible. -nnn /habihi/ 'Give it!' B2.in the Ashur letter (line 17). 1 1 : 1 3 .in forms such as . In both cases one expects n':5. See.("') It is noteworthy that these t w o unusual forms should consonantal texts. a contrasting pair of imperatives mentioned at the end of the preceding paragraph.n n o « 'they imprisoned him' B8. False anaology of the syntactic m l e under consideration seems to offer the best solution for the following two striking cases of -n. Energic I UTr^ /--minneh/ as against Energic II "nxrm' /--minhi:/. 6 : l l .5:8. Beyer w o u l d need another rule to account for the same m o r p h e m e -n. It seems that one simply has to accept the form as a lingering feature attested. for e x a m p l e . thatl a m wearing' A2. ambiguous. which in his scheme belongs to the l A period. however. and Beyefs (1984:477) reconstruction as exemplified in the following examples is patently arbitrary: HDriT /yaretdnha:/ "er beerbt sie" vs.4:8. 4) T h o s e pc. which he. 13. <i>nnn'7Di^ 'it consumed them.3:10." Hug (1993:87) justly narrows the differentiability to the 3ms.T O K 'his father' B 3 . the argument is obviously circular. 15 for the expected ^DT\ ]nD«. See further below at § 7 4 h.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 151 schematically.' this latest example cannot be so easily done away with. in fact. once disjunctive and the other time conjunctive: -nnn -T n^nn n]t^ -n ]1D b 'the garment which you brought for m e (to) Syene. N o r can some of the actual data w e have in our corpus.1 11:8. by proposing a haplography. .7:7. . Ours is close to the last of Lemaire's (1995:85) three alternative explanations. has convincingly disposed of the only alleged suffixed object on. nn '7'i:rm 'I shall reclaim them' B6.7:16 (impv.1:6 where the emphatic compound sentence accounts for the resumptive object pronoun. Although Degen (1979:50).n n 'he built it' Ezr 5. As long as some functional or morphosyntactic opposition is not established between the two energic m o o d s .

only the infinitive continued [emphasis ours] to be complemented exclusively by the obj. see Muraoka 1987:55. and down to the Ahiqar proverbs. On Syr. Pace Bauer . however. on.C'") 6) T h e third person plural conjunctive object pronouns attached to the infinitive as in DnmtinQ':' 'to dispatch them' and Dnmnn3Q 'to p u t t h e m down 'C'^) clearly illustrate that. at least as late as the end of the 5th century. present a complementary distribution. whether conjunctive or disjunctive.here. there appears to be a beginning of a similar complementary distribution: line 9 on manm . W e would then not need to invoke the alleged nominal character of the infinitive (so Degen 1979:50) in order to account for onmoin'? 'to send them' and onmnran 'to put them down' (mentioned in the following subparagraph)." the situation in our corpus represents a different system OK structure.(8) be attested in a document with idiosyncratic grammar.). Cohen (1975:1Of) has his own reason for objecting to this common interpretation. and their encampments. who writes ". OA appears to prefer the nominal inflection: Sefire III 11 T r a n ' : ' 'to kill me' // n a rnst> 'to kill my son.. represents a conflation of two inflections. 340 s) and Vogt (1971:162b) we would interpret urb at Ezr 5. that on.if:[n 'they . On the fluctuation in spelling between -n. but Hug (1993:16) has pp'^iirf?. like in our corpus. the infinitive in our idiom is morphosyntacticaly a separate category from the finite verb..10 Dfi"? vc^^ DfinrrDtp 'we asked them their names' as indirect object. For him the preposition Lamed is added because the persons being asked are more important in precipitating the asking than their names. a case of verbal inflection. l : 7 ( " ^ ) . more specifically the language of the Sefire inscriptions.' .and ^iv. Segert (1975:307) and Gibson (1975:113) read -rb^ixb. nominal and verbal. an argument which is rather subjective. sf. attached to the infinitives. That these pronouns were perceived as "objects" is shown by the form and not in -]n':':in':' 'to rescue me' A l .C"*) It is noteworthy. for OA. not a second direct object. viz. with one exception only (§ 11 ^ . also unxym nT^b\ Dnnam 'to strike them and to destroy their name' Sefire II B.. Note an inta-esting difference between TA and GA in this respect: Dalman 1927:37780. but attest to a single pronominal morpheme for the third person plural. In the Zakkur inscription (8th cent. 7) Where a pronoun is attached to a participle.7 with our DnmoTn'? and onmnnDQ. Thus the form on.("*) See also above § e and § 23 p .' Cp.152 PART II b: § 3 8 / ( 6 ) .Leander (1927:337 t.. the latter is from the OA period (Sefire) through the Ashur letter and the Hermopolis papyri. however. pron. in this respect. see above § 23 p. As against Folmer (1995: 428). a conjunctive possessive pronoun and the finite verb always uses ion.. does not.is otherwise. for there is little doubt that a pronominal suffix attached to the infinitive was perceived as objectival.

an error for m^D.)' as direct object. which he adduces as supporting evidence." It is thus impossible to interpret.C") 8) The conjunctive object pronouns used with verbs show no allomorph ending with In/ for the 2 m p . as Kraeling (1969:220) does. + 3fs (object): C l . use such a ptc. ^ T h u s nn'^tDQ D 'one w h o sends it' C1A:S2C"). .. with a pron. In B2. ptc. but only with /ml.2:14: see further on this subject at § 7 4 j. 5 : l .Leander (1927:117). In contrast. w h e r e a personal p r o n o u n constitutes a direct c o m p l e m e n t of a participle. Those Aramaic dialects he mentions as attesting the act.10 the /-m/ morpheme alternates once with /-n/ in ] m n i 'you liked' B2. it is mediated by the preposition L a m e d as in pb ybl 'they detain them' A4. substantivally under those conditions. l : 103. ' n r a G 'his attackers' i b .l 10. he and Leander (1928:50) fail to distinguish between the purely verbal and the substantival use of participles. W h e t h e r any significance is to b e attached to this or it is due to imperfect attestation is difficult to say.(^'') T h e only -n form attested is feminine: piDll 'we blessed you' A 2 . thus unlike those attached to nouns and prepositions (§ 12 N o r does one find any e x a m p l e of ]n or pn for 'them (m. nmntt)? 'his titleholder(?)' B3-8:29. "das Ausgesandte davon. though it is a subject morpheme. Lindenberger's remarks on this subject (1983:76) are confused.MORPHOLOGY: THE VERB 153 invariably s u b s t a n t i v i s e d . as G ptc.10:9. With Lindenberger (1983:76) w e reject Bauer . suff.Leander's analysis (1927:117) of the form as D ptc.pass. unlike Bauer . is irrelevant. G 'my enemies' ib. l 0 3 . as shown above.


?"'C1... T h e r e f e r e n c e m a y b e "personalised" and applied to a non-human living object. and perhaps nh in "IDK? 'it/he is hired for him' D 7 . "my son .6:4.. P e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s a ) Whether conjunctive or disjunctive.11:3. h e (in) will succeed m e " C l .. H o w g o o d l y is t h e a b [ u n ] d a n c e of y o u r thorns . refers t o the speaker(s) or the person(s) spoken to respectively.e. .. m a y refer not only to a person or persons spoken of. -nn]« -n 'she is my wife' B2. A variation o n such use of in is equivalent to "i. but nnnm 'its measurements [ = of the property]' B2. said to h i m [= t h e b e a r ] . OD nitk •utD ' y o u .. i s s u e a n o r d e r ! ' A6. In such a case it is difficult to identify a single n o u n or n o u n phrase to which the p r o n o u n refers: "Give h i m as m u c h as (n b'Dpb) you can. ' . Such a pronoun must agree in gender and n u m b e r with the noun to which it refers: M f >T 'it [= KpHK] is yours' B 3 . 1 0 : 1 1 . n o n in 'he is wise' ib. b y contrast.8..28.3:3f. often with n o implication of personalisation.3:9. that is 3' B3. 2 0 : 3 .1:101. The 3 m s in m a y even refer back to a whole notion or thought as in in pb>tk p mn 'it is a punishment from gods' C l . l : 18. l : 128.PART THREE MORPHOSYNTAX SECTION A THE PRONOUN § 39.. in "D"bv 'it is your responsibility' D7. but also to an inanimate object or objects. For example. in ncjn . animal or plant: "The [bramb]le dispatched t o [the] pomegranate. namely" in an explanatory gloss: nnbn ]bp\D 1 in nn mD 3 in 'one karsh. in DID p n'pt^ «-*PDD 'if it is so according to these words' A6.. T h u s nJK wnbn M 'that I a m wearing' A2. saying.1:6. l 6 9 . three shekels.OM w e worry' ib.. that is. nmn 'his daughter' B2.3:7.. piir mmt^ 'about >. " T h e l a m b s . a personal pronoun in the first or second p e r s o n .3:3. It is not a loss for you (DDb in p o n vby A4.5:10.12:5. b) A pronoun in the third person. 1. 'Carry (away) what y o u {"p) will from us (]3Q)" i b .

such a finite verb.1 'what he produces is fraudulent' B3.e. S o . however. i. used as a direct object of a verb form other than the infinitive and the participle. number. the courtyard' 5 3 . 1 0 : 1 5 . ^ n n 'the i.11:16.—to bring suits against you' B2.15:6. Driver's view (1957:78) that a pronoun is required because the [written] form of the verb does not distinguish the 1st and 2nd persons is most unlikely. We would rather assume a scribal error of mn for in at B3. Epiph' B 3 .) as these w o r d s ' A6. l :46. see below at § 77 ca.e.150 PART I l i a : § 3 9 c . c) in also has the grammatical function of extraposing or focusing on the immediately preceding clause constituent: in n3« y m '/ a m Ahiqar' C l . See above § 37 / ( 5 ) and below § 74 h. iDn HTi-K 'I did not bring them' A3.26.. namely a verb form other than the infinitive and participle. for the participle mbn cannot take a conjunctive pronoun as its object. 8 : l ( ^ 2 0 ) .4:8. Mahseiah.11:7 w e may note that the long multiple subject introduced by n]N is.' P D 3 in DDD ]n 'if it is thus (i. rhn -n 'a word is a bird' ib.82. (so Joiion 1934:39). Except in cases discussed under (iv) below. ''^^ In a seeming exception such as p n . e) The finite verb. Such a pronoun may appear as the last of a three-member nominal clause as in in 21D pSDn.. see Jouon 1934:6667. -'7 m m nn n'onn nat^ bno^ v>b ybv nc-iQ*? 'I shall not be able—I. T h e use o f . The imperative lacks the first and third persons.1:5 instead of a difficult mn as ptc. in apposition to the subject latent in "pnDN.28).1:6 is exceptional.1 in Qumran Hebrew (Qimron 1986:76). ^^^-J^p..act. son or daughter of mine .e ( i i ) «^DS 'Tishri.3:10. there is no noun or noun phrase which can be regarded a referent of the pronoun. On a peculiar use of in in the sense of "idem.. and gender. in fact. is not of the same kind as c n or iQn.27.n in n nro n ]N mbn -n ]io b -nnn 'the garment which you brought for m e (to) S y e n e — t h a t I a m wearing' A2. 11:3. In n'7N N . has a built-in marker("^) of the categories of person.('^') T h e pronoun ' n . ditto" in a list of names (C3.e. d) The third person plural disjunctive pronoun on or iQn is. n^in nb^ 'to expel him' IQS 7. cf. in addition to the uses described above. In our corpus it almost always appears immediately before the verb.(^0 It is most c o m m o n in the first and second p e r s o n s . whereas the rest of the pronouns are synthetically attached to the verb as conjunctive pronouns: a i '7iin« 'I shall reclaim them' B6. For m o r e on this syntax. and preceding ^^O.16 and nKin n-nn*? 'to kill him' CD 9. For similar syntax.("^) Yet w e often find a disjunctive personal pronoun used next to.

you and your sons': see Joiion Muraoka 1993:§ 146 c.9.51. do for m e ' ib.' B 2 . ii) Assertiveness(J^^) A pronoun of the first (and rarely second)(^^^) person is often u s e d as an e x p r e s s i o n of the speaker's e g o . Mahseiah or my children' ib. . once referring to Ahikar and then to Nadin.i< nnnn "tk 'and you go into the ark.. Konaiah. 1 : l l .vb nn'pcD ]n 'if M.. C f Muraoka 1985:47-66.44: this recurring in. then. personal also '3ni n'ono namK vbs kd-i "jr©-) ]n 'if we bring suit against you about it—we. 1. i ji i vjv 12V" 'he shall do your work' C\A\l\\p -p rmv n]K n b2pb n]K "b "UV IDN 'you. a cleft sentence.g. "should I die before having repaid the loan. l : 24. what would you say?' D7. This is a partly grammatical.in mnoN 'it is Eshor that will inherit from her' B2. These last two examples are concerned with a possible future extension and refurbishing to be undertaken by a new owner.4:10 (ion).('^^) S u c h a use seems to be motivated by a variety of factors. Bauer . j u s t as I did for you. p n c j N'P ]rnQDD n ™ '(unlike the rebels) we did not desert our posts' A4.l2(™). w h e r e the u n u s u a l p o s i t i o n of riDN reinforces the notion of contrast("^).n riDK 'the rebuilding w h i c h yoM will have executed' ib. 12 (in).16:11. 3 : l l (-n). you. Cf. bn^i^ n -]ip rT2«T '(the property is yours). m u s t b e a deliberate stylistic device for highlighting a contrast between the behaviour of Nadin and that of Ahiqar. so..18 rxa\ 'j'TTi nr. B 3 . shall not b e able to . n]m.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 157 which seems to suggest that the use essentially belongs to lively. partly stylistic feature common to Biblical Hebrew as exemplified in Gn 6. so /.3:2. 1 : 1 5 . C") It is highly frequent with imperatives.5: i.m n .("") See also B2. n]t«t NHTDU m2V 'the work which you will have undertaken' B2. mi^ in T\V2" 'he will seek the good' C l . 13 (iDn).36 and "j':'3n in 'he (of all persons) h a r m e d you' ib. Cf.6:21. Muraoka 1985:58. That n3S predominates in this and the following category ("selfcentredness") is easy to understand in terms of human psychology. ]"bv NnD b2T]" in T]&) 'why should he h a r m the land on us?' ib. See nnK n-in rm 'TD 'whilst I was coming' A6.Leander (1927: § 72 a\ followed by Fitzmyer (1956:28L) to a certain extent. it is my children w h o shall repay it {\d7m" iDn "12)" B 3 . doesn't care for me. See also ]inNn nn 'na* b nsii. unjustly hold that such pronouns are mostly pleonastic. i) Contrast or opposition E. colloquial speech.4:10. ™ This is actually a variant of the above-mentioned extraposing in § c. n N .

B5. promise or commitment—TFDN "±> ]n:)N 'I shall give you' B2. B 5 . sim. C2. 6 : 3 .6:2.. o*? nnn.8. B2. B3.10:12 (with n a m e ) . '3'' See also B3. B3. often reinforced by addition of the party's name— ]n2N . B2. 13 (with n a m e ) .9:7. n-ntDDD*? nnn. sim. B3.13:2.25. nDN -mD3i . sim.1:35.. T i n "To: n ]N 'I was bitten by a snake (and you couldn't care less)' A2. B3.2:3 (plausible restoration).. 1 8 .158 PART I l i a : § 3 9 £ ( i i ) .4:15. i -3 .6:3. ]VD -p niDN n-onD n2N 'Now I Mahseiah said to you' B2.11:9 (with n a m e ) .n n -Db nnnn. B3..HIT ninv niK 'this I [= Darius] did' C 2 . B2. 1 III :3C"). B4. 2 : 5 .n3N -t 'which I gave Mibtahiah' B2.8:3.( v ) involvement or self-consciousness. but not n2N as in 'b nnn. 12. -]3i. -nDonn -n2N "Db nnnn. B3.4:14. 5 : 2 . and c f Joiion . B3.3:3. B5..5:8. B6..'I gave it to you in m y lifetime and at m y death' ib.14.2:3bis. aga:ana:ku e:tepus. B3. B3.n2N 'I gave it to you.4:15. p n n im 'and he took hereditary possession (and did not return [them])' B2.8:9. . . also B2. B2. B3. B5.. you hold it as heiress!' ib.3:3.8:9 (with name). shall pay' B3.13:2.11:2. apart from the examples mentioned above.1:3. n[bv] m 'you brok[e in]' B7. regularly in penalty clauses.11:5. B3.3:21.11-12. B3.6:3. B2.1:2.4:3. 4-6. B2. 2 : l .1:3. Akk.10:2. shall give' B2..12:3 (with n a m e ) .1:3.8:3. 14f. the legal parlance coupled with self-consciousness is manifest w h e n n2N is followed by the speaker's n a m e as in b'^invi N*? . M a n y contracts or legal documents whose first finite verb is in the first person use n3N or nanDN. B3. 1 4 : l . 1 : l l (with n a m e ) . B2.2:4.... 16 (with n a m e ) .3:3. n-onD nDN 'I Mahseiah will not be able to reclaim from you' B2. "p ]3n-T ]3T ]m 'we sold and gave you' B3.9:4. N-D n2N 'I Pen . 4 : 3 .13:3.7:3. sim.. B3. accusation as if an accusing finger is pointed at the person—in bjp 'he complained' A4. . boasting royal style .6:l 1. likewise B 2 . "you dispatched (nimn niN) what I did not want" A6.7:2. (yrb^i =) -\Th>B" ]n]N 'we shall serve you' B3.3:3.5:2.14. often in legal contracts where the demarcation between the parties i n v o l v e d is important and a m e a s u r e of solemnity or p o m p is not entirely out of p l a c e — y b v wm n ]N 'I came to you' B2. a house' B2.6:3. nDN i±>m .2:4. ybv nbip n ]N 'I c o m p l a i n e d against you' B 2 .n ]N 'I gave you . B 4 .3:18..3:6.16:4. A6. 'I A n a n i . B3. 1 : 3 .16:3.2:4 ("0.Muraoka 1993: § 146a (4). A 6 . 2 4 . B 4 . B6.'you gave me' B 3 . authoritative statement—CUQ unb u-m HDN 'I shall issue an order for them' A6. see also B 2 .2:7.4:3. [nb]'2p 'you c o m p l a i n e d ' B7. This may occur in emotionally charged situations such as an expression of displeasure—riDN n n n [N]*? 1 was not pleased' A6. n ]N -p N"ipN n-D'PD 'I M a l c h i a h shall call upon you' B7.2:3.4:5.

.Yardeni 1986:38. m D H ^ DHDN ' Y O U . give!' A6.. you.. I and Seha son of Paha. T h e vocative . to press him' B3.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN liV In an Ahiqar proverb some beast approaches a wild ass in a patronising tone. A6.10:5.. the use of -n mentioned above.1:85. See below at § 76 cc. bnm ^b -nDD3D. H e r e one m a y include -p mnm HDK 'You. . -minn DHDN ' Y O U . sim.7:8. I. (vi) On a similar phenomenon in BH... or son or daughter of m i n e .. saying "[]' P3DN [ n ] D N 'I shall support you' C l . . issue an order!' A6. n n nniN 'You. and they are to be considered an integral part of the following series of multiple subjects. 1 6 : l . Note the 3ms form of the main verb in both cases. .10:4("').1 3 n. . ran-. iii) Self-centredness -p nnn..("^) v) Authoritarian The 2nd person pronoun is sometimes used in a command issued to an inferior: 'You. or another person—to bring against you suit or process' B2.11:5 . Uriah.9:2. issue instmction!' A6. We said to Pisina ... 'together with'("'): • • n yi 03K}T pm n m i -'pn r n n n2N b^t^i vb 'I shall not be able—I or my children. or descendants w h o are mine.2:22.a Kn:ii niK n'^m [ A3. and see below. •rtD an m 'You.. Porten . .14:2.2:4...' A6. rm. Cf. sim.204. p-D*? nns . "b n n r 1 ]ro n ]N 'I bought for m e myself 1 tunic' A3.3:l l. A6.3:7.15:3. your wife and your son' B2..13:4. said to P. ''^ n3« is likely reinforcing the preceding conjunctive pronoun.5:3. watch yourself!' C 1. notify him!' A6. O Grelot 1972:504.' (Cowley 1923:139. be diligent!' A6.9:4("''). eg. as remarked above (e).6:2 can be interpreted in this fashion:'] I went..("^) iv) Coordinate subjects A personal p r o n o u n often heads a series of coordinate subjects linked with the following subjects by an associative conjunction W a w or W a w of accompaniment.. an offer which the h u m b l e beast rejects out of a sense of selfrespect: nrnN vh HDN 'I shall not see your riding' ib..' instead of 'I went. regularly precedes the latter. All these pronouns follow the verb. Also contrasting t o . for a disjunctive pronoun which is to be construed with a finite verb. n-Qi n m « n3N 'I shall not be able.Muraoka 1993:§ 146 c. "b nND"[~Qi "[PiriDNi riDN 'you swore for m e . -m niN 'You.C^) See also M2V niDn DHDN ' Y O U . do (12V HDN ) according to .H D N 'You.niN 'je fai donnee moi-meme' A3. regard!' A6.. see Joiion . also under (e). I and S. A 6 . l : 2 0 3 . and Grelot 1972:129)..

''^ On a more general plane we might say that. sim..6:4.. It is further to be notedC''^) that the string beginning with the disjunctive pronoun does not always immediately follow the conjunctive pronounC''^). mnm 'Watch yourself!' C l . and make over . m"i -[T 'that house . e. t>VTr.3:12.. 1 : 1 2 7 a n d ^ T 'Borrow!' i b . T h e pronoun of this type is understandably optional.. p "nim nb ^vnnm 'Obey him and act thus!' A6. nb in 'Give him!' A 6 . in the consciousness of native users of our idiom the speaker.3. Jedaniah and Mahseiah' B2. but formally related to (vi) above is the use of the disjunctive personal pronoun which. not conjuctive. 743 (line 2). which is then expanded by the addition of other coordinate nouns. without any other coordinated noun phrase. T O n .10:7. is . demonstrating that the writer. n o o i .g. . l 2 9 . 1 0 : 6 . It will be seen that in many letters the two stmctures freely alternate. follows a matching conjunctive pronoun. B2. DDnnN "n . Examples are: n 3 i HDN -DpDK 'he brought me forth.160 PART I l i a : § 3 9 e(\i)-h my son' introduces a proverb. Exceptions are the first example quoted above and n'3T n3N D[D]D[I]2...8:7. despite the preceding subject form raN... which may be taken to mean that the thought expressed by the string was perceived as a self-contained thought unit. in mn 'Restore.. me and my son' A2. ni"] "•HDN iiii yi o n ^ N bni^ "lb nni} 'I shall not b e able to institute against you suit or process—(against) you or son or daughter of yours' B2. . which is most instmctive on account of the last phrase beginning with m. followed by an imperative ~i2iDn 'Harvest!' C l . Jedaniah and Mahseiah . 5C'*')..10:8. E x a m p l e s : ...15:7.. and mark them ..8:3.T n'onm 'they will bri[ng suit or process] against you. p m . vi) S o m e w h a t akin to the usage described above under (iv) is the disjunctive pronoun matching and resuming a preceding conjunctive pronoun.. l : 8 1 . and of your children after you(r death)' B2.. But the directive began with inn nm As also noted by Fitzmyer (1954:30). 1 2 : l .IDN 'my house. I Dargamana. n-onQT n-3T HDN in cib-\ .. .9:ll. .. 2 : 8 .. is still thinking in terms of possession and ownership.. the person spoken to and the person spoken of were concepftialised by means of the disjunctive.(^'^) vii) Semantically related to the usage described above under (i) and (ii).. is y o u r s — y o u .ntD ' G u a r d ! ' A 6 . ^nu)n 'Dispatch!' ib. personal pronouns irrespective of the mode of their syntactic actualisation.10. un 'Give!' A6.!' A6.9:4. give!' A6..' B 2 . )V2 'Seek and bring (them) in . T h u s many other Ahiqar proverbs couched in the imperative do not use such a pronoun.

7:15 does not mean *T myself desire. free-standing forms rather than through morphemes unobtmsively tacked on to verbs. 5 : 1 9 0 . g) A possible solecism may be found in n3Ni ]nn. The reading and interpretation are uncertain in . according to which "m n3« ought to head the following multiple subjects. which m a y be rendered in a matching style as: "in the hand of Jonathan and I" as in "like you and w e " for "like you and us. viii) In o n e instance a disjunctive pronoun resumes the earlier introduced multiple subjects: HDHDN p .3 ) to lift their feet and put them d o w n apart fr[om (the) god]s" i b . you. Ananiah. Ananiah' B 3 .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN loi where the issue is the o w n e r s h i p of a piece of land. "22V M D N "|no 'your house. I. which has been added subsequently above the line. l : 171.12:17. appropriated (it) to h i m s e l f A6.8) interpretation. "[]2S3 •i:inm vhpr\ B 1.. and the writer must have attached s o m e importance to the second n2K..n i n-33n cn2Q n3N 'I M . B u t then m a n y a p r o v e r b is addressed to an unspecified you. Thusn^3:i ^tos] B3.. I Jedaniah' B2. n^n.T:DP HDK i>ipbn 'the portion of mine. . f) In o n e rare instance the second person is possibly neutralised to b e c o m e a form used in making universally applicable statements like the colloquial English you: "it is not in your hands ( j T n ) to lift your foot to put it down' C l . Anani' B 3 ..10:12.1:7. T h e use of such a combination as an equivalent of a disjunctive '''^ The context. and A. I. n-onn HDN pbni "imn 'came to m e as a portion. l : 130 "jDSi is not a reflexive pronoun.15:6. . that of m i n e . life' with an appropriate conjunctive pronoun is used as an equivalent of our reflexive pronoun series. l 7 0 . but not as subject /my5 'e//etc. n. Jedaniah' B 2 . myself."'33r n]N NnnN "pbn 'my odier portion. This is most likely part of the conventional legalese in w h i c h the identity of the parties involved is m o s t important and this can b e m o r e effectively expressed by means of conspicuous.T3T ram pbnn -[Nton 'came to you as a portion. Anani' B3.HDN -nm 'in m y n a m e . . you. M a h s e i a h ' ib." h) The noun 27D: 'soul. yourself himself etc. which in an alternative version r e a d s : "it is not in the h a n d s of the indivi[dual ](N[2}]2N n ." In wm "jDEXh ybv 'Do not give rest to your soul' C l . 1 1 : 3 . nmib 12V npb 'took. which speaks of the situation after the death of the speaker. nouns or prepositions. 5 : 9 .9:9..g. 2 8 : 9 0 .5. w e are withdrawn from you' B2.T 3 C 3 .(^'''''): e. militates against Fitzmyer's (1956:257." but rather "my soul desires. It is significant that the great majority of examples discussed here as well as under (ii) and (vi) occur in legal or administrative documents.

1 : 3 9 . Akk. It ought to be pointed out further that the -b-t + a conjunctive pronoun seems to be an inner-Aramaic development mirroring the Akkadian syntagm am 'belonging to' + suf.20 KTrn*? different. thus synthetic construction. p n [Nm^'pD]' our kingship' C2. TWB: npsp] 'nis own [out]lay' C3. ' ^ ^ ^ Akk. each constituent thus becoming a phonetically and morphologically i n d e p e n d e n t unit and the old syntactic relationship of subordination now being marked by a special lexical unit placed in between. Thus mbi2 n n 'the daughters of the king' > mbn nnn 'his daughters' > -T Nnn nb""^ mn a) B o t h s y n t a g m s are attested already in the Bisitun inscription: e. u-qu M KUR ^^Dn 2. see Segert 1975:328. NUMUN-i-ni. Disjunctive possessive pronouns Highly typical of o u r idiom is the abundance of free-standing possessive p r o n o u n s c o m p o s e d of-b^^f-bn and a conjunctive personal pronoun.1:4. and that all the instances known so far from a period earlier than the l A are of predicative type as in -b] ran yriv 'the slaves are mine' Ashur letter 13. -"pn in its turn is of course a combination of the ubiquitous connective and the preposition b of ownership or belonging.4C^). l 3 — i m : occurring twice more in this 19-line document. ~iDn3 "[DDD 'with your o w n donkey' i b . See Kaufman 1 9 7 4 : 1 3 0 . [Nn-n] p -t 'our house' ib.g. at-tu-nu 'domus nostra. n Kn-pi]i=i NOpDn 'wisdom and strength are his' is syntactically .19:7.7:17. -TQ -T N'P-H 'the troop of Media' C 2 . 0 The total absence of the second syntagm in B A is all the more strikingC'^'*) in view of its high frequency in our idiom and in view of the abundance therein of Babylonian and Old Persian The Akkadian influence on this development is widely accepted. § 40.1 III:1C^').3 2 .. ntOD] -SDn 'with his o w n hands' B2.162 PART III a: § 40 a - possessive pronoun (§ 40) seems to be a stylistic feature favoured by some scribes: JUin 'with y o u r o w n seed' B 1.20. and in the only B A example NM'n'? n wnnoji lOTp^n 'power and might are of his' Dn 2.' ma-da-a-a. This syntactic feature is part of a development(''*'*) whereby a synthetically bonded phrase of nouns or their equivalents is dissolved. Its Akkadian background has been vividly demonstrated by Fekheriyan: see Muraoka 1983-84:101-3. Akk. For further examples (only two more).

w*?-! N-D33T 'our d o m e s t i c staff and properties' A 6 . p'bv -•^n 'servants of mine' A6. who states "The pron. ]'?-T 9x. M o r e o v e r . rh"\ N-IDI ? n-^Di 'and her sons.. see a brief discussion by Swiggers 1988.g. and nrtT\ l x . |>T n o w 'our Tetosiri'D7. this g r o u p of letters n e v e r uses these pronouns substantivally or predicatively. 3 : 2 6 .. A6.12:21. O-'P-T I X . H'P-T 12x.9:4.4:2. 'p"\ n'PD 'a matter of yours' A3. so the 3rd person disjunctive possessive pronoun may refer to an inanimate object: e. stdet. Cf.7:16. •n'?n •'H'-DT 'and m y h o u s e is theirs' B3. Nj'p-T 3x. Tt>"\ i n 'a son of his' B 2 . •"'p-r is the most frequent with 4 2 occurrences. as can be easily seen from the statistics given above under c. "b^^ ]i3i: 'slaves of mine' A6. i. l 0 7 .: e.loanwords. 1 : 1 2 . 3 : l . Whitehead (1974:224) takes the view that lexical preference may be involved.9:3.("^) g) On the syntax of the disjunctive possessive pronouns. [T\p'\ -T vbiT^ 'a load which is not his' C l . n*?-! NrT3 "m 'the wall of its house' B3. • D'^-T 5 X . rb"^ np'p[-] n 'he will take his' i b . ''^ On the use of disjunctive possessive pronouns as predicates of nominal clauses. stabs.e. ( " 2 ) f) Just like the disjunctive personal pronouns (see above at § 39 b).11:4. -p"\ 'your gate' B3. followed by 'yb"\ 21x Ix).g." though her statement applies to the majority of cases. nba iv in "•D'pn 'it is yours for ever' B2. l : 185. ( " ' ) d) Including some cases restored with more or less certainty our corpus attests to a total of 129 disjunctive possessive pronouns used attributively.in 'its gateway' B3. rb"\ Ni. see below § 5 9 .6:4. of which 36 (28 %) occur in the 16 Arsames letters of an average nine lines per letter. 1 1 : 1 . Thus pace Folmer (1995:261). "b^^ ND-'pr 'my servant' A 6 . without a noun head: e.7:4. "•Db"\ 5x {"lb"! 3x). e) T h e same forms m a y be used substantivally. his slaves' B8. Folmer (1995:310-12) also takes a similar approach. s f attached tozy/always refers to a living being as the 'possessor'. .g.11:5.7:2. which is significant: see b e l o w . h) It is difficult to Q^idbXvsh functional oppositionC^) between the two structures: synthetic "m and analytic "b'^ m or b"\ Kn»n Restored forms are included. in "J'P-T Ni^nn 'that gateway is not yours' B 2 . 1 0 : l . b) T h e preceding noun or noun head can be in the status absolutus or determinatus. "b"\ wbv 'a servant of mine' A 6 .g.: e.5:22. c) Statistically.

They may be spelled as two separate words.7:8. our wives (pT have been m a d e like widows . or any relation of mine or another person' B2.1 I:3('") b^^ vb^n 'my force' C 2 . The example at B3..13.5:9 is also matched by t!!3-int!! 'pbn 'my other portion' i b . "the house of mine.I 111:4 p cited above) E at-tu-nu.. The analytic structure seems to be preferred where personal involvement is evident: ". 1 : 1 6 .3:3.4:3.. Analogous to the boasting.5:9 (Grelot 1972:222).1 111:1 w e would rather restore p[Nnt was taken from our line' in the light of LlIGAL-u-tu su-u is-su-u. The Akkadian disjunctive pronoun is emphatic: see von Soden 1995: § 4 4 / . 0 ™ C f "ma part & moi" B3.j H o n pWD riupb vb puD "in-n p piy] nmo vb -p^^ 'I did [not] break into your house by force and I did not strike the wife of yours and I did not take goods from your house b y force' ib. and fasting.8f.I:48. and also 'b'T »pbn "ma propre part" A3.13:8.11:6." and synonymous with NPi-n. "'y^ NpnN 'my land' B2. B2. CI.. p m^Dba 'the kingship la-pa-ni NUMUN-i-ni Note the Akk. 1 2 : 1 .. w e with our wives and our children d .10.1:4. See further B2.4:4. and similarly line 28 (= C2. In the following case the word-order variation reinforces a contrast: ]Q npD2n pui ]OD7\ "mvh ntonDi puD [TPII] n[bv] TON 'yo[u brok]e [into m y house] by force and s t m c k my wife and took out goods from my house' B7. but not in subsequent references ("jSOD ib.164 PART Ilia: § 4 0 / i . where the indefinite ]"inN is to b e noted... i. it is the flexible. "b^^ mu 'my estate' A6. the house which belongs to me.g. ii] above) are -"T-T and frf in the Bisitun inscriptionC'*): p n [mu] C2. At C2.m ym) were dressed in sackcloth .11).2:5 occurs where the ownership of the land is in dispute. T h e analytic stmcture is therefore well suited where the noun head needs to be presented as indefinite: niN pnN I2y\ •"'p-T n n 'I. B8. B3.§ 4 1 a Whilst it is not certain that '•n-n is necessarily definite. royal "I" ([e. On the latter example Folmer (1995:292) notes that it varies with "pbn ib.9. [ ^]nbv 'my servant' A 6 .2:4-5 //mmb^ Tbv [vb] ." A4. l 9 . see above § 40 a.e.3.7:15-20. analytic stmcture that removes such ambiguity.12:4. or m y children. Perhaps the author of the document had emphasied his claim enough in the preceding line. (line 52): u-qu at-tu-u-a. The analytic phrase m a y b e considered appropriate in the first mention of a debt in a loan contract: " j T T R D D D 'your silver' B3.1 111:4 // ]p"\ pnu 'of our seed' C2. B2.('^') Examples in the Arsames correspondence can also be regarded as indicative of the satrap's assertiveness and power of possession: e. .10:2 (Grelot 1972:504). where a sense of humiliation and hurt comes through.

though yniv appears to have become naturalised enough to take a conj.12.e. together with a noun head. T h e analytic stmcture is preferred with a loan-word which is not yet completely naturalised: •'':'''T VTOn n n 'my large room' B3. w h i c h is being d r a w n up herewith)' B3.3:2.12:13. and all first person pronouns. § 41. Though o u r corpus accidentally lacks an example of the use of demonstrative pronouns actually pointing to a person or an object at some distance from the speaker (such as "|3T. 1 1 : 8 .11:7. D e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o n o u n s a ) The basic function of demonstrative pronouns is actually to point to a person or object (deictic).11 and B3. 7x in B2. at times: e. T\b\^ v.e.e. . where I am)' A6. though all penned in the same year. 402 BCE). Deictic: H D T n"iDD 'this letter (i.13:9 (by a scribe different than that of B3. nil N " I D D 'this d o c u m e n t (i. «T msn 'this year' A4.g.10:18. Nn-3 n3T 'this house (i. or adjectivally.("^) They may be used either substantivally.. today' B 3 . B3. pron. Anaphoric: the pronouns n2T and "[T (and their inflected forms) are often used in contracts and official letters to refer to an initially mentioned entity: e.12:27. -JniN B3.N I D 'their lords' (twice and third person!) where the threatened diminution or desired expansion of the satrap's properties is the principal concern. HDt m a y refer to a point in time near to the m o m e n t of speaking as in n3T «Qr 'this day."['?«). See also B3.1 (20 -nne). about which this d o c u m e n t is c o n c e r n e d ) ' B 3 ."bn 'these On the morphology of the demonstrative pronouns occurring in our corpus.g.m 'partner-inchattel. they must have occurred in actual speech situations. or mentally to refer back to what has been mentioned (anaphoric. or partner-in-land or guarantor of ours' B3. see above § 14.e."^T. 1 0 (13-line document. on their own..1:2. "the said") or to what is about to be mentioned (cataphoric)..e. -"p-T or w'^-T) with D n .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 165 T h e statistical fact that the analytic s y n t a g m is largely confined to the first and second persons (see § c above) is consonant with the notions of personal involvement and concern.1:12. 3mt«n HDm n . like the Engl.e. 1 1 : 7 . i. i. L i k e w i s e it m a y refer to a place near to the scene of speaking: HDn 'here (i.11:6. A clustering of disjunctive possessive pronouns is observable in some documents: 9x in A 6 . which I a m writing n o w and which you will receive and read)' A2. B3..10:4.

l3. 4 : 7 . -DT p 'from that (earlier mentioned time)' A4.5.§ 4 2 words (i. 1 : 6 8 . Here also belongs p 'thus' as used in invb p vn^D p 'when we have heard thus .7:6.10:7. .D ib.e.8.11:2.11:3. which is referred to as "this portion of the house" (t^n-n p':'n n3T) (line 11). 1 0 : 2 . nDt .('^') Similarly. -\\ mm 'that wall (i. just named) perished' A6.vn^ p Ip 'Thus [= the following] ought to be known to you . See also -m "{? IIV" pon 'that which a poor man does." ib.e.11:3. B 3 .e.25. -in.4:12 . in ^yb^i 'that half (just specified)' B2.e.('^) c) A n essential distinction between the n2T series and the "|T series is illustrated in a b e q u e s t of apartment. Cataphoric: •"niQinn n n 'this is its boundaries (= its boundaries are as follows)' B3. whilst a forged document (ib. on the matter that has been elaborated above in this letter) A5.9:8 vs.166 PART Ilia: § 4 1 ^ .' C 1. though the demonstrative has been added later.D ' P « . -jT t^D-ns 'that Pariyama' A6. and then he proceeds to give details of the measurements and boundaries of the segment to be bequeathed to her..27) is called "[T vnBO..D B 3 .10:3. n i o '(a thing) like this (i.D 2 Q 'this M a n n u k i ' B8. that take note of!' C 2 . . to which he first refers in a global and detached manner as "that house" ("jT mri) (line 5)..D (hue 14). t^-0D3 -p^ 'those goods' B2.17. and subsequently two more global references are made to "jT N P . 'these goods' (hne 15). nar np-n^ 'this A..n 'this IJora' D 2 3 ..3:18.7:6 one hears a tone of contempt. are used where o n e addresses a Cf Jouon . though the demonstrative by itself does not seem to indicate such an emotion. (namely) that. as has just been described)' A4. B8.. b) A demonstrative noun may be added to a personal n a m e as in ]n] 'that Natiian' B 8 .-]T np-n^ 'that Ahiqar' C l .i3i^ "|T 'that one (i.-' DT . l : 3 5 . namely -Dl .n2T K H . n n bv 'on this (i.Muraoka 1993: § 143 Still "JT at ib. A document recording the bequest of a house to a daughter is referred to as n3T tasD 'this document' B2.28.22. vcnb "[T a n T i 'that wicked Vidranga' A4.2:9.l6) or a related d o c u m e n t of an earlier date mentioned in passing (ib.. Such a pronoun always follows a n a m e except in i^in t«. Likewise •]T N P .63.' A3. 12.7:6.7:7.. which I have just said you gave me)' B2.7:15. In this last example and at A4.e.7:21. . K-DD3 iibv. the above-quoted)' A6. 1 11:10.1:62.3:13.' A6. b r^nto p .1:4.. 5 .. d) It has b e e n suggested that the demonstratives ending with -D-. -TD 'I have heard thus. in w h i c h Ananiah begins by declaring that h e had given his wife T a m e t part of his residence.

A5. nDD '(a thing) like this' A 4 .8:6 ( e m e n d i n g to O i ) . It also needs to b e noted that "[T is often u s e d w h e n o n e a d d r e s s e s a w o m a n . 8 .8:20. A6.' f) T h e substantival u s e of the demonstrative p r o n o u n is exemplified by " m "jt 'that one (i. Moreover. 7 : 2 1 . 7 : 1 5 . See also Kutscher 1971:114f. a scribal error in -DT ]D A4. 9 . At A3. sim. Dutch: Dit zijn goede boeken 'These are good books.12:6.2:9.6. and independent n / n clauses which lack their antecedent.(^") e) n3T m a y be u s e d as a general deictic indifferent with respect to the gender and n u m b e r of the referent: s n . t*mn. which would. n n bv 'on this' A5. but it does not apply to our c o r p u s taken as a w h o l e nor is there any neat pattem of distribution to be recognised.25.16. B2.8(^").3:7.('^^) F r o m our enlarged corpus it transpires that this is only partially true: true at B2. B3.24. C f also Folmer 1995:201-3. l 6 . as Leander did (Leander 1928:33). A2.1v:3 the text is poorly preserved. N-C}2 nnQE? n3T 'this is (= these are) the names of the w o m e n ' A4. e.g.1:4. sim.8:2. leave the following "iDurr" subjectless. followed by a prepositional phrase. as Kutscher does.2:4 one can no longer say. .D nnm nil 'this is (= these are) the measurements of the house' B3.. and expanding a preceding noun head as exemplified by N P T D 3-3 -T N~n2N 'the temple in ^"Leander 1928:34.13. A6.27(^W).vb^n nnDE? n ]T 'this is (= these are) the names of the Jewish troop' C 3 .4:4.7:9. i b .15.11:2.4.8. Driver (1957:47) apparently takes -DT as directly qualifying Nfrr'iCJnD six words earlier. that the above-mentioned suggestion applies to all Elephantine materials without an exception: A5. 1 5 : 1 .Muraoka 1993:§ 158 a*. ''^^ On some unique features of the relative pronoun and the relative clause in Semitic languages. see Joiion .7:21 // w h ] r -]! ][n 'from that time' A4.(''") It is quite possible that such a distinction applied at a certain period or in a certain dialect. just named) perished' A6. Nor is it necessary to see. Nn -3 -Qinn n2T 'this is (= these are) the boundaries of the house' ib. in view of an improved reading [Nnnn] -ri O'^N 'those judges of [the province]' A5. Relative pronouii('^'') In this paragraph w e shall only deal with clauses introduced by n or -1 which can function as fully fledged clauses without it.15.B2.10:5^w. but untrue at A 4 . § 42. B5. This would obviously exclude a clause fragment introduced by n / n . however.e. where Kutscher unjustly makes an ignoramus of Leander. A 6. Cf.4:3. OT p 'from t h a t ' A 4 .2 = Cowley 16.3:13.2:4.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 167 woman.7:3. 7 : 2 1 .

Exceptional with a resumptive pronoun is «n-iD inn n «]D3n n «n3« 'the protecting (?) wall that the Egyptians built' B3. "[T Kni:«3 mn n m n a o i 'and the things which were in that temple' A4.I weder als 'Subjekt' noch als 'Objekt' verwendet wird. a) T h e fact that the clause following a relative p r o n o u n often lacks explicit reference back to its antecedent suggests that the relative p r o n o u n itself is functioning as an integral part of the relative clause.abs. while in the last it is attached to a preposition. n. "wahrend ein auf jenes Wort zuriickweisendes Personalpronomen (resp.4:4.('^«) W h e r e the antecedent is a noun in the st. See p.('^') Thus b ^rrm n UTD 'the tunic which you dispatched to me' A2.7:12 (subject). b) W h e r e the antecedent corresponds to an element in the relative clause other than its subject or direct object. . This type of construction is treated in § 68 c...5:6. 148.1:4..]. 251. T h i s distinction between the two syntagmata with respect to the use or non-use of a resumptive pronoun is illustrated in n n]T «n-3 nn ipnni ip pmi p t ]n]« 'this house which we sold and gave you and withdrew from (it) B3." Noldeke goes on to say. bvm p'nD ^niQinn n N H U "[T 'that house the boundaries of which are recorded above' ib. 1 0 : l 1.. .7:7. not as a mere marker of dependence relationship between the antecedent and the clause following the relative pronoun.1:4 (object).4:13: in the first two clauses the antecedent is the direct object of a verb.T 3 mn n nsOD 'the silver that was in m y hand' A2. nm ••T •rc?':'Nn''3 -|3 'the son of Bethelshezib who is coming' A2. w h o s e walls are (still) standing' B3. Thus UT^^ V^n n N^0D2 n'PN 'these goods about which we brought (suit)' B 2 . dessen Attribut er bildet' (so Noldeke § 341). in which "he is coming" would normally require in.8. that signifies a point in time and serves together with the following n as a conjunction of time. though not quoted by Degen. das Relativpronomen -t bzw. who writes: ". the following relative clause contains no pronominal reference to the antecedent: n'PTK n D V p 'from the day that you went' A3.. nntoi^ n nTiO 'Dnton 'the tunic which you sent m e has r e a c h e d m e ' A2.. . one normally finds a conjunctive p r o n o u n pointing b a c k to the antecedent. 9 : 1 5 ." ''^^ Emend inn t o m n .10:8. nnpD] n nv p 'from the a a y that you A s against Degen (1979:42). Pronominalsuffix) in seiner regelrechten grammatischen Verbindung innerhalb des Relativsatzes steht.3:2. -[T Nn-3 rh jmrn n nny 'a man to w h o m you will sell that house' B 2 .. es ist lediglich der 'Exponent der Verbindung des Relativsatzes mit dem Worte [.168 PART I l i a : §42a-d Elephantine the fortress' A4. nnu p^P 'the house . rrnm n.2:4.. B y contrast.

160. non-restrictive—]nn" ••T «n]D3 0*7 'in (regard to) that share. On a comparable feature in BH. and filhng the slot of a noun in a larger constmction are fairly common. with « n T in st. .det.50... With these examples contrasts n-inn nn ip ]n]« vh n NOT 'the month in which I do not give you interest' ib. and that which he wants to do to it' A3. . vb nb ]-\i2vn n p iiODn-. There does not appear to exist any syntagmatic. sim.5:4.det.2:4.C^^) c) T h e noun antecedent of the relative pronoun. impersonal-—nb mv" n i i m ..g. the relative clause is restrictive in the m a n n e r of the adjective white in a white house as against its non-restrictive use as in white snow: e.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 169 left' ib. See also Kutscher 1972:39f.) argues convincingly that the expression at the Samos inscription and similar ones elsewhere are not part of an annalistic dating formula.1:6. N3[-i] vnu ]3r n m "Vi 'Look for a person w h o might buy the [bi]g house!' A3.. in] ]vnn m r nyni 'in the year when our lord crossed (the) river': see Eph'al .. n nv iv 'until the day that . however. l : 12. w h o was Chief here' A4.' A4.abs. formal distinction corresponding to such a semantic opposition between restrictive and non-restrictive.... . Our analysis would then be only valid from diachronic perspective. BCE inscription found at Samos: . --n-K «n-i[-]3 n m n 'there is a well which is built inside the fortress' A4. or det.. ib. the relative clause can b e either restrictive or non-restrictive: restrictive—n3 |n]« vb n vnn' 'the month in which I do not give y o u interest' B4..a compound conjunction.cst.3. l : 8 9 . see Jouon . l : 1 1 3 . ' C l .: see also below at § 61 h. Harrak (1992:68f. which suggests that ur in the former group of examples may be in the st. 159. nnjb wpn n nbo nm or'' m^in « " I D [ D ] 'the wise scribe..." B 4 .1:29.7:28. the counsellor of the entire Assyria..'what you do for h i m will not be hidden from A. Functioning as subject of the main clause: "in[D] n ••n-'N vb"] n[ijir |Q 'and there is nothing that is m o r e [bijtter than poverty' C l .' C2. sim.10:2.. 2 : 3 . but the syntagm had become fossilised as.Naveh 1989:193. If the former. . ni2V iniDn n mi 'this is what I did in P.. can be in either the st.Muraoka 1993: § 129 ^. . inp" n 'a person who offers .4.' This seems to be confirmed by a 9th c. d) Independent relative clause Clauses beginning with n and without an antecedent. irn 'Regard .T nv 'with Vidranga. mn nan -[-inns n a m . n i m n n CV2 nm 'on the day you wash it you should shear it' D7.8:6. no VT vb n 'a person w h o does not know w h a t .5:6.. If the antecedent is in the st.. which we have given you' B5. who established his son' C l . namely as distinct from the month in which I shall pay the interest.8:6. "T. ib.

and your children after you and one to w h o m you desire to give (it)' B3. l : 142." ''^ S o Porten . So Grelot 1972:172: "Cellui d'entre eux qui (l')empecherait. which is written in this document' B3.h A4. -T Di? -|]Q n n [^p^in 'with o n e w h o is more impu[dent] and mightier than you are' i b . however. HDN pTib 'you . h a v e right to that house. t h e interrogative m a y take a preposition which strictly belongs to a pronoun which should appear resumptively within the relative clause itself..."C^^. The preposition p then would be equivalent to what Arab grammarians call "min of explication {bayami)" on which see Wright 1898:11. not the usual 3ms personal pronoun: see below § 7 9 a. w h i c h can hardly be the grammatical direct object of the verb. ]2D K©[]]n -p m 'Take with you whatever you will [tjake from us!' C l .... personal—bi^ n yib -mDip mp.i -DC^T -T 'Whoever shall bring against you suit or process' B3. n^v HDN -T bnpb 12V 'Do according to what you think' ib. btain n r r -T p (= p ."('") In n]T D . W e would interpret vhy -T as ' w h o e v e r of t h e m restrains ( h i m ) ' ( " ' ) B2.1:91C^").4:7..Yardeni 1989:18. the --T clause refers to the provision of the agreement: one may translate "as is written . T h u s in n pb^ jim p yiy\ -[t Q^bw . ra? KIEDD p-riD -T NEDDI rb\_^] N-'ODD 'these goods and the silver.. which are mentioned in this document' B6.1:7 w e would rather see an independent relative clause than postulate a case of disagreement between DTiD and the p r e c e d i n g m u l t i p l e antecedent.3:10. n n n | .68..10:19.170 PART I l i a : § 42 e . So Cowley 1923:30. Cf.1:10 r a t h e r t h a n "Whoever shall restrain (one) of them. 'with one w h o is m o r e exalted than you ..1:52..P D -T nn-Dim -]B0D3 -p±fn vb 'I did not repay you your silver together with its interest.137f Cf. l 4 3 ... Cowley (1923:14) mentions both possibilities. p e r s o n a l a n t e c e d e n t followed by -T (§ 4 2 ) . "[30 Di -t o r . J7 m n r nDK -t bnpb 'according to what I did for you' C 1.-t in p nor 'Who is he w h o would stand up in front of him but one with w h o m E l is?' C1. in here is the extraposer.' C l .2:23. l : 169.. e) W h e n an originally interrogative pronoun p is used as an indefinite.(''^) In other words. n o t p ) -m 'apart from (those) w h o m they gave in Babylon' A6.4:11 the concluding relative clause is equivalent to lb pTib rrn'ii -T p lit. An error fornD? .15:5. n n]T is once used instead of -T or -T nn: K-nDiDn -T n3T bipb pD« 'according to that which the accountants say' A6.

. i. examples given by Jespersen (1933:358).g. -rDnn n pb un 'Give (it) to w h o m e v e r you love!' i b . It is thus hardly a well-formed asyndetic relative clause. .. all of the typeT nrsb oriDin nb<D2 ysv •'Din' A2. "He had four sons..1:2. lacking -T. f) In the following cases.12:26. The other examples mentioned by Kutscher. in contrast to the stmcture discussed above [e]. est.(''^) O n the other hand.11:7.12:23.. pron. g) A rare e x a m p l e of asyndetic relative clause. 4 p » -T pnvi n3 KQ: i ne? '1 papyms-reed bed on which are 4 stone inlays(?)' B2. my... fasting and praying to Y H W the lord of C f § 6 0 / and note Tb ps\ T "|n33i "pnb rm-^ bvo: vb 'we shall not be able to bring (suit) against your sons and daughters or one to whom you give it' B3.3:9. mn:^ .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 171 'one who you desue to give (it) to him'. is found in n r o n n n n p D 3U niohf) m i D TDE? m 'a man whose stature is beautiful and w h o s e heart is good is like a strong city' Cl. B2. the preposition preceding n p 'one w h o .l:95. sim. who became lawyers" (nonrestrictive: he had no more sons and all became lawyers) as against "He had four sons who became lawyers" (restrictive: he had more sons). i b . he w h o ' is to be constmed with the verb which stands outside of the relative clause: pnDH -nDn"! n pb 'To w h o m e v e r you love you may give (it)' B2. an interpretation contradicted also by the word-order of 30 ra±>.. with the following nu rather loosely hanging on to what precedes.. A relative clause which is not meant to give more precise information on the antecedent.4:13. E. The parallelism with r\22b indicates the n of m i D as conj. sim. pnb nu}i p'pT m ^ i -p nnb nna: bnDi 'we shall not b e able to institute (suit) against son of yours or daughter or (anyone) to w h o m you desire to give (it)' B3. do not belong here: see our interpretation of them in § 53 b.2:5. and part of the standard greeting formula of the Hermopolis papyri.(''') T h e same interpretation ought to be applied to the following cases. in which the preposition -b would normally b e required with the indirect object of the verb concerned. Hence TStD is not in the st. pn ..e.6:15 is part of a list.. The two structures are mixed in ]nn nnni -T pb\ Jim p-'pz? rb p]n -T IN 'your children have right (to it) after you and one to whom you give (it) affectionately or one to whom you sell (it)' B3. l 5 . l 9 . Possibly also the following difficult text: mn n p bv nbn^D" 'Let word b e sent to w h o e v e r is (there)!' A6. " ^ T a n m n 'we were . h) According to Kutscher (1972:115) there is at least one possible e x a m p l e of t h e so-called "non-restrictive relative clause"("') in pnn K-ne? t^nn ^nrb j-'p^im ya^i .

see above §17. Words so termed are essentially nouns used mostly in the sg.-T DUin bo 'anything on which a m a n may live' B4. b) DViDn. whatever': e. 7wp nvm 'something difficult' C l .4:12 et p a s s i m ^ ' ) . pTb nu:^ n pb 'one to w h o m you wish to give (it)' B3. . The term "indefinite pronoun" is conventional.1:6. on c o m i n g here.g. Indefinite pronouns('*") a) T h e character of the indefinite pronoun D^Jin/bunin as a noun rather than a p r o n o u n is revealed by the fact that it is sometimes expanded by the addition of an adjective: 2}-N3 nvm 'something bad' A6.6. 'one who.(^™) i) On the generalising relative clause with an interrogative as antecedent. have no particularised referents. § 43. see below § 67 c) Dvm may be further reinforced by bo and the following -T clause: m n3 n-n. d) Our indefinite pronoun may be used entirely on its o w n : One is tempted. On the preposition Lamed. T n n -t DVizri bo 'anything that is fermented' A4. On DDIDQ [t^jniiDp 'any r[en]t whatsoever' A6. TiDm n pb ] n n 'to w h o m e v e r you care for you may give (it)' B2.15:6. something.5:2. may behave like a quantifier: followed by a noun—"b"^ «n -3 p mn N*? in30D nvm 'my household did not suffer a n y t h i n g of a loss. whoever.14:2.3:8. in conjunction with a noun.7:8. nothing etc. D20. and are translatable in English with words such as somebody. ib.1:3. see below at § 4 3 .2:5. see above § 42 e. however. mn -t p bv nbnn'' 'Let word be sent to w h o m e v e r is (there)' A6. p n « [Din ^n 'anything else' A6. to take the particle as introducing direct speech.15:7.abs. which would make an imperative of j-inn. sim.7:15. But there is no certain example in our corpus of such a use of the particle: see below at § 85 a.3:9 et passim. l : 8 5 ..16:9. n o l o s s ' A6. Interrogative pronouns An interrogative p r o n o u n may be used with the immediately following n / n as an antecedent of indefinite reference.' 'that which. w h o let us gloat over that Vidranga A4. -T nn m n nriNP -TD nn'p nbn^n -rt nnpb 'lest.pn3rn nn 'whatever you might b e doing' A4.5:2 {nviTi erased). rrrnn nn 'what you dispatched' D7.172 PART I l i a : § 4 2 / .§ 4 4 ^ heavens. On the morphology.10:2(^*'). Rather than "nothing became a loss" (Driver 1957:64). anything. you should have to pay damages for whatever you took' A6. "^nnn nvm 'some damage' A4. § 44.

1:52. A6. relative clause—nb pn -T W"vb^ 'against s o m e o n e to w h o m y o u m a y g i v e (it)' B 3 .TiiOD nviia 'there will occur some decrease' A6. 4 : l l . This word can also b e expanded b y the addition of: adjective—I'm m 'a small person' C l . mn in mn' T NnnrTQ "[T 'the things which were in that temple' A4. thus never "'CJ'K.8:6. Even in the pl. an error for nnD2.]'p pDD rb DiJiQ 'they bring nothing out for us' A2. s o m e o n e from m y circle' B 2 .. numeral—^in 'a certain man' C2. nvm appears to b e a fossilised.13:2. See also mm vb -:i-iD 'she did not say the slander of anybody' D20.9:13. n r i D pb nn^ 'I shall bring you something' A2. whether on its o w n or expanded by another e l e m e n t . pm 'another person' B 2 . 3 : l l . which clearly s h o w s the generalising character of thus the personal counterpart of uvm.7:12 the word concerned must be taken as pl. A6.vb cj-t^3 uvm m 'nobody should do a n y t h i n g evil' A6.«).. 1 2 : 2 8 . possessive pronoun—0*7-1 'a person of y o u r s ' B2.3:12. p*?. uvii^/wm p r e c e d e s the verb: see three examples above under (d) a n d inv vb m2 nvim 'nobody should do anything bad' A6.vb DnnnDE? 'nobody k n o w s their n a m e s ' C l .10:2.5:2. bin vb y mmn nriDD to-K 'nobody caused any d a m a g e to that temple A4.3:10. despite the sg. A 4 .5:2. In the following cases.6. tD-K 'a p e r s o n of m i n e . cohesive unit: inw.det.7Gr2:23('''^). T h e negation does not s e e m to affect the position of the word within a clause('*'*): m n . note j*?-! C-NI ]nm py\ 'and our sons and our daughters and a person of ours'B2.10:8.7:8. vb occurs without . f) m/m is often used in the singular in the sense of 'person.1:10. e) W h e n used negatively.. So also A6. A 4 .: nn mrm -t NHDriDQ 'the things which have been found therein' C3. cvi:n C-K 'one did not d a m a g e . 5 : 2 3 t .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE PRONOUN 173 -nrn "PK nvm 'Don't buy anything!' A2. 8 : l l .7:14. l : 162. '"^ These pronouns are never synthetically attached to C N . anything' A4.14:2.7:8. B u t in the following case the pronoun precedes in a positive clause: mn. see also A4. l : 164. 1 0 : 1 0 f « 3 ) . for example.7:14.. also A 2 .' thus gender-neutral: «n-3 pr -T m 'a person. g) though less c o m m o n than is close to the latter in This example indicates that.7:12. bnn vb . someone w h o might buy the house' A3. Leander 1928:37 is misleading in suggesting that any word intervening. •nmc^iQ'p no^Vi ivb 'I h a v e not yet found anyone to send t h e m to you' A2.2:12 (nzim.

. like t2?-«." is also used in a way similar to the impersonal \D"V: "I or m y children. i) nm. against son or daughter of yours. T h o u g h their context is mostly unclear and the reading not completely assured. w o m a n or man of yours. their) leg' seem to point to the implicitly plural force of the word. the remaining two are also attested in the st. ". l : 8 2 obviously does not belong here. or son or daughter of mine. As against Leander 1928:37 [2]±> vb "aa 'a man of no sense' C l . a brother or sister or another man' B3.7Gr2:23. had become a gender-inclusive term.5:23. 133 in these cases. so that they shall not find any bad thing' A4. n.1:98 and the pl. brother or sister of mine.. apart from its use as appellative "man. son or daughter of mine. "I shall not be able—I..7:8. 170 • N ' : ' A . or a person (." B2.emph. 133 IK UDb W) to w h o m you sell that house."('*') j) Like H e b . as can be gathered from a case such as pm to-^i nn «i m -3« T -DK pm 1 3 3 'another person. h) as pointed out above ( § / . "[T ^ M A ^ N M N ^ N N N A M ^0D^ « N N T 'the gold and silver and the things which were in that temple' A4. the A r a m .7:12. . N ' P P is empty of its original meaning in a case like rb^ . 8 : l l . male. A 4 .§ 4 5 ^ usage: cf.5:19. ..11:8. as in the just quoted example of ^ N Q L J I M . on its own. or another individual (pm w:ito "b do not have right to brand him" B 3 . The first two are. n i 3 . 131.g.n n Kn2i 1 n"??:! n^i nn ] I N D E ? N . or descendants of mine. which also applies to m and nvm/avitz. brother or sister. Mahseiah. C3... and with a negative. or another person (pm I N A I ) " B2. and the collocation with mDV at C 1.174 PART I l i a : § 4 4 / z . whereas nvm occurs in the plural. e. . (whether) my mother or my father.. 783). A4. 133 in the singular.. is not used in the sense of "nobody. "I.. or an individual w h o is mine (-'7-T EJ^Ki)— to bring suit.vb nE?-«3 'whatever wish and thing Seha (and) Hor shall seek . W h i l e U'V/m is always used in the st." B2.10:11. pronoun at ib. used always in the singular. sim. The only example in which m occurs on its own with a negative agrees with what w e have observed above {§ e) concerning nvm: unimb ^"b^ vh> E?3«T 'nobody has a right to brand him' B3. never takes a conjunctive pronoun.9:8. moreover.T D . or man of mine.. 9 : 5 . Although we lack cases where the persons involved are all w o m e n ..3:6.abs. vm is confined to A h i q a r proverbs.I mn nn vb 'it is not in man's power to raise his (lit. the emphatic state seems to be generic.



§ 45. Gender
a) The noun distinguishes two genders, namely masculine and feminine. This is primarily a granmiatical category, since, at least at synchronic level, the gender of the majority of nouns cannot be explained in terms of the sex distinction in the natural world. Thus one fails to see why 'boat,' for instance, should be a feminine noun. b) Only rarely does one observe a morphological opposition corresponding to that in the natural world:

child mC^') child of same parents m person having control «1Q servitor of god ]n':' god 7]bi^ There are also cases of lexical opposition: parent 3K spouse bv2 servant 12V donkey nnn

n-13 n n K

At B3.7:3 the word ( n n 'my child') refers to a woman. E.g.,^nK-in E.g., 'to my mistress' A3.7:1. 'the she-ass' B7.3:4. E.g., m-bvi 'the goddess' B8.12:7.


PART I l l b : § 4 5 c - § 4 6 J

c) The principal significance of gender as a grammatical category lies in the fact that it determines the choice of one of two morphologically distinct forms which by themselves have nothing whatsoever to do with sex distinction. Such choice must be m a d e with respect to 1) the adjective whose logical subject a given noun is, 2) the demonstrative pronoun which expands the noun attributively or refers to it, 3) the numeral added to the noun to indicate how m a n y units of the entity denoted by the noun are being talked about, 4) the verb whose subject the noun constitutes, and 5) the pronoun, whether disjunctive or conjunctive, referring to the sex-neutral entity. This feature is traditionally termed c o n g m e n c e , concord or agreement.C"^) T o illustrate: 1) Adjective— D-Dn nso 'wise scribe' C 1.1:35 2) Demonstrative pronoun— -Di nt^M 'that oath' B2.8:9 3) N u m e r a l — n m n ]m 'five cubits' A6.2:14; m n 'pv 'one boat' A3.10:2; ymn 'two things' C l . l : 187 4) Verb—"i" n^tDD 'my hand reaches' (fs.ptc.) A2.4:4 5) Pronoun— nbn M nsaii 'a bird is a word' C l . l : 8 2 ; nbv 'concerning it' (referring to «pi« 'the land') B2.3:24; -nnnn 'Teike possession of it' (ref. to «~iso 'the document') B2.3:26. d) T h e n a m e of a land or country is treated as feminine: Tt>D i\m T mn« 'Ahiqar the father of die whole of Assyria' C l . l : 5 5 ( ' ' ' ) ; vbD -nn« mn - n t o nntar biv 'on his counsel and his words Assyria w a s entirely (dependent)' C 1.1:43, and perhaps «rrnnn3 pi^inn 'Lower Egypt' A 6 . 1 0 : l l . e) A general notion under discussion, but not named by a specific l e x e m e and referred to by a generic pronoun, "it," is also treated as feminine: -n mifD 'it is hatred' B3.8:34, similarly ib.40. B u t the f. form here m a y be conditioned by the s a m e gender of the predicate n «3KJ; c f "j'pn t^nn in nb nivn 'to the west of it it is your gate' B3.11:4.("^) f) W h e r e an adjective is used as a primary(™0> its gender is determined b y the natural sex of the referent when it is animate, thus m a s c u h n e pn^ih) "pn 3D"inn bi^ 'Do not mount your arrow at
See further below § 76 on this question. ™' An example mentioned by Degen (1979:42). ma« = ^moK is unlikely here: our copy of Ahiqar does not have such a case (§ 12 j). C f Grelot 1972:248: "h I'occident par rapport a elle, c'est ta porte.' ™ ^ To use Jespersen's terminology: see Jespersen 1937:109f. This is also known as substantivisation of adjectives.



a righteous person' C l . l : 126. T h e m a s c u l i n e gender may be used generically: bbum n n n r n ]V"m [rrip] '[a city of] wicked people will be split on a day of wind' C l . 1:104. However, where the referent is inanimate, a matter, state of affairs in particular, the feminine form occurs: D E ] D nDtD nps: ]n ... 'if something good comes out from the mouth of ..' C l . l : 171; •nDD q]Q pD3n n-n':' ]n 'if something bad c o m e s out from their mouth i b . l 7 2 ; vrrub 12V 'does the bad' i b . l 3 4 ; npD3 -npn p] Ti-n'^ 'my misfortune c a m e out from m y house[hold]' ib.l39. The f e m i n i n e f o r m s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e a c o n c r e t e i n s t a n c e or manifestation of a given generic property, which latter is indicated by a m a s c u l i n e formC^'*): contrast " ] T mmb '\ 'who sought evil to that temple' A4.7:17 with p tiv Virwm Vi\ 'this evil was done to us' ib. T h u s "p vb jviiTm^vo) C 1.1:50 should be interpreted in the sense that the king did^not cause h i m the harm which could have befallen h i m rather than that he did not do Ahiqar any harm at all. M a s c u l i n e — j n vyy n TnDb bv 'Do not covet something great which is denied you' C l . l : 136; nm±> nD:m ntD ]Tr^' 'they will put something good in his palate to say' i b . l 6 3 ; cf. m o 'as follows' B2.11:4,6; n3T bv 'concerning this matter' A3.3:4; bnpb mnDK n mt 'according to that which w e are saying' A4.5:10. § 46. S t a t e a ) A noun is used in the absolute state when it refers to an entity which is contextually indeterminate. E.g. b^u nbmb 'to send a force' A 1.1:7; pnnb pnt^ mn vb 'it w a s not a land of Dargamana' B2.2:7; 'p''] «mD7 nnvn b'^ i u pnv -n-^ 'diere is a land (with) 1 house of m i n e to the west of your house' B2.4:3. b) T h e use of the absolute state is the rule with cardinal numerals: e.g. nn cv ] • iTi'- nn nnv2 mn- p 'if he b e in one place m o r e than one day' A6.9:6; m n 'pv 'b -mR 'I h a v e one boat' A3.10:2; nn':»n ]D2)D Twan pVi 'five cubits (and) three handbreaddis' A6.2:14; n « Q pnD 'hundred karsh' A6.2:17; j-rt^n ' P P S T mi -iDon 'two hundred bronze and iron nails' i b . l 2 . c) T h e numeral for "one" m a y be used in the manner of the English indefinite article: n m nn nw 'they buil[t] a wall' A4.5:5. T h e cipher for "one" m a y b e used in the s a m e w a y with the same meaning: see § 67 Z?. \ d) bD in the sense of "every, each" is very often followed by a singular noun in the st.abs.: 33~n ]n bD p p-nn nm 'I a m

Cp. the category of unit noun, always of feminine gender, in Arabic.


PART I l l b : § 46 e - ga

withdrawn from every suit or process' B 2 . 8 : l l ; pv bDD 'all the time' A3.6:1 et passim-C"*^) Note also the unspecific plural in bD ]nDi -iDp n pDb 'all garments of wool and linen' B3.8:13. e ) Repetition of a noun in the st.abs. has distributive force, usually prefixed by a preposition either once or twice: n i n ]T ]T RTD 'each kind, [molnth by month' A6.1:3; Drb nv 'day by day' A6.9:3C '0; nDt> 1D±> ... 'Give ... each person' A6.9:4; myb pm 1 " Q 3 ^ 'each person, barley' B4.4:7; m-D nn- "p 'TiThm 'I shall repay it to you month by m o n t h ' B 4 . 2 : 5 ; nT' -bv n m mnJiTb 'it will be adding interest on m e from m o n t h to month' ib.9; "these are the names of (soldiers of) the Jewish force w h o gave silver to Y H W the G o d , each person two shekels (iDib ... Dm iDyby C 3 . 1 5 : l , which last case s h o w s that the preposition b in the above-quoted B4.4:7 does not have to be the marker of an indirect object, which holds also for A6.9:4, again quoted above: nnn ]Dn nop mvb nDt> nnib ... yDbn pD±> p]ns n n 'Give Cilician persons rations ... each person one handful of flour per day.' Cf. also n r i D iv nnn p ... mps bv mps p 'each officer in turn ... from province to province' A6.9:5. In the following cases, 133 and ^-v. are used distributively without being repeated: jOnnD np'^n 133 'we shall take hereditary possession, (each) person (of) his portion' B2.11:14 and n-in -mn« DV to-t^D "p bnon 'I was supporting you as a man in relation with his brother' C l . l : 4 8 . f) A predicative adjective appears in the st.abs.: "intDT m n nn 'Be happy and strong' A4.7:3, but with a mixture of the states in -in- -vnn vn-nm m n vn 'May m y lord b e living, happy and strong' A5.3:2. fa) A classifying noun predicate also favours the st.abs.C'*^): contrast mn n3n jinn^ - t 33- iti 'Vidranga, w h o was Chief here' A4.5:4, A4.7:5 and mn n3n -T ^Dinns 33-nn'7 'to V. the Chief, who was here' A4.8:5 (with 'D as title); mn b-nnn -T niD ]''D3 'Naphaina his son, w h o was troop commander' A4.7:7; -[T] "fin^ [jnip] mn -pn 'your father, wh[o] was king [before you]' C l . l : 15. Note also -n nno n^VM -b-]] vr^v UDb nnv ni\^ 'I will tell you the counsel [of mine] and it is good counsel' C l . l : 5 7 .
™'See § 6 9 a above. Cp. mrb 'per day' A6.9:3,5. To say with Tsereteli (1991:1573) "A noun can have a predicative meaning only in the indefinite state (status absolutus)" is oversimplifying. There is no lack of counter-examples: e.g., n ' ^ r n n3N"i '•iton 'she is my wife and I am her husband' B3.3:3; pnn in vb 'Isn't H . my brother?'A2.3:8.



fb) W h a t o n e m a y call "generic" b e l o n g s hereC^'), a u s e quite c o m m o n in the proverbs of Ahiqar: -pn rbn nODn bv 'Do not conceal the word of a king!' C 1.1:84; p n i D "pn 'a king is a merciful o n e ' ib.91C''*); mwD nmnb -pn TSto 'Beautiful is a king to look at like Shamash' i b . 9 2 0 ; p-Dib -pn nDinn bv 'Do not mount your arrow at a righteous (person)!' i b . l 2 6 ( ^ ) ; in ]-Dn nn nm nnn p 'What is stronger than a braying ass?' i b . l 7 4 ; itan p -]nn -[mnn 'Do not spare your son from a rod!' i b . l 7 6 ; rw anbn nnv p n s D I N 'Mightier is ambush of mouth than ambush of battle' ib.83. B u t when such a noun is qualified by a relative pronoun, it appears in the st.det.: .. '^'^^D'' T t<!"a 'the son w h o will b e disciplined ..' i b . l 7 5 . g) Occasionally o n e finds a st.abs. form for the expected st.det. form: ub'i nv n n 'the house is moreover yours' B2.7:11 («"'); nbv nn- n t^iiD^ 'the temple of Y H W the God' ih.U.r^) In the standing expressions ^OD nnvn 'west' B2.2:9+, DDto v/nv^n 'east' B2.3:6+-, and ^nxD nnn 'dit: B3.7:7 the st.abs. is striking, as they refer to the unique entity. S o are the single-word n a m e s of the points of the compass: 2nvnb vmn p 'from east to west' B2.3:4+, and vcnnnb n-bv p 'from above to below' B3.12:16+.(«'^^) This is possibly an archaism preserved from a period when the st.det. was less c o m m o n l y used. In vxnn^ nnvn A4.1:7 the m e a n i n g is different: 'the sunset.' ga) S o m e odd examples of the st.abs. for the expected det. are: VTinb 'of ( t h e ) p r o v i n c e ' A4.2:6, nnpn 'in (the) town'
See below, § j. Cf. Joiion 1934:8. For a general discussion of "generic," see Jespersen 1924:203f With a so-called Kaph veritatis, nowadays called "asseverative" or "emphatic" (§ 87 / ) . Porten - Yardeni's "the king" is apparently because they believe that this proverb is a sequel to the preceding line with "a king," though there is no compelling reason to think so. In the proverbs of Ahiqar the word piti always occurs in the stabs., while in the narrative section its st.abs. occurs only once (see above, § fa) and otherwise only in the phrase "iinK ~pn 'the king of Assyria.'
^ Cp. the use of the st. det. of the adjective KU-CJ-I and KTITI ; mentioned

below, § /. A haplography for ... DK vnrril Cf. DK •p^'f i^m (with the same sense) B3.4:16,19. ^ These may be mere scribal errors; this document contains a couple of more errors: BD ( = KISO ) 12; 2i (== 221) 10. C f Fitzmyer 1956:106f.


PART I l l b : § 4 6 / i - /

Bl.l:3.0 h) A feminine singular adjective ending with a T a w appears to be used adverbially. T h e usage m a y b e legacy from an earlier period when the fem. sg. status absolutus was adverbially used-C**^') Examples are: ]12V nuiy (= nnaa?) 'behave thievishly' A4.2:5; ]nnvb nnni pinb 'to give to others affectionately' B2.4:6(^'^), sim. B3.12:23,26 (// «^DD3 'for silver'),31; ] nn^iQ nb 'they call it in Egyptian [...' B3.7:5, cf. B3.10:4; m o n-Qn^ 'in Aramaic as follows' B 2 . 1 1 : 4 , 6 . 0 nD3 'harshly' A6.8:3, A6.10:9 andn-3iQrT 'in concert' A4.5:4, A4.7:5 are considered Persian loanwords.(^°*) i) A noun in the determinate state is frequently used with anaphoric force whereby an entity introduced for the first time with a noun in the abs. state is subsequently referred to in the det. state: vbv p "yro n « SDD ... fjnii P ] D D 'pure silver ... the silver that is mentioned above' B2.1:7; im n ph 'a servitor of Y H W ' in the opening of a contract introducing the parties B 3 . 1 1 : l , but latenm vrh i b . l 7 , sim. B 3 . 1 2 : l , 3 3 ; "there is a w e l l . . . (which) does not lack water (i^Q) to give the garrison drink so that whenever they would b e garrisoned (?) (there) they would drink the water (R-Q ) in [thjat well" A4.5:6. T h e same interpretation might apply
to mnp 'the battle' i n a i p -nvnbi t o m i -T npnvb i]to]Dn«

... « m p n n r nm 'the rebels a s s e m b l e d they went towards Dadarshu] to d o battle. Then they did the battle ...' C 2 . 1 : 1 1 0 and sim. ib.22,43,47, b u t w e also find m p ruv in a similar context, e.g. i b . l 5 . S e e also nni^ vinnin 'Issue the instruction' A6.14:3 where the author is referring to an instruction that the recipient of the letter had been directed, in an earlier letter, to
See Fitzmyer 1956:108. DrcD bl^l 'Chancellor' A6.2:23 probably does not belong here: it is either the predicate of a nominal clause (so TAD A 96) or apposition (Grelot 1972:293), which in this case amounts to the same thing. Alternatively, it is a fossilised, indeclinable title as in Ezr 4.8 Drp bJ^ II VTBD. In ^ob i p i n 'harden (your) heart' C 1.1:82 one rather expects ipob in view of the parallel "jns 'your mouth.' For a comparable phenomenon in Classical Syriac, see Muraoka 1987:41. Cowley 1923:27 'as a gift'; Grelot 1972:182 '^ titre gratuit.' Cf. Dn 2.4 ri'-pnt^ •^'pa'? n n c p D n n g T i , where the last word may not be part of the introduction in Hebrew to the following Aramaic section, but a secondary gloss in Aramaic. Likewise in Ezr 4.7 Trrr]^ On the former, see Driver 1957:50, and on the latter, Schaeder 1930:255f. See Appendix III. Greenfield - Porten 1982:29 attempt to relate the distinction to one in the Akkadian text.



issue (A6.13:3,4 where the st.abs. m n occurs), and i j n i n ii^ y m n ni^-'^inp 'they built a wall in the centre of the fortress of Elephantine" A4.5:5 as against DD^-^TLI ( n n = ) n3n -\] mw ]vy « m n 'now that wall (stands) b u i h ...' ib.6. j) T h e use of the st. det. is the rule with a noun phrase expanded by a demonstrative pronoun: n3T t^jDr 'this day' B3.3:4; y vm 'that house' B 3 . 5 : 1 4 ; ibv vm 'these houses' B3.7:14; -pv vbpn 'those fields' B8.10:4. H e n c e the pronoun in -pv ]nQp o n n n D2.30:3 is probably not attributive 'those [pr]iests,' but the phrase is to b e translated: '[pr]iests, those two of them.' k) T h e St. det. is also used when the noun in question refers to an entity which is thought of as determined or definite from the general context: e.g. n n n -ni vDbn mmni nip 'before Darius the king and the m e m b e r s of the (= his) household' A4.7:2; ]^D3 ]2im i^-n o r vi^in n m 'Naphaina led the E g y p t i a n s (= the priests of K h n u b [5]?) with the army (= his army, which was under his c o n u n a n d : mn b-uni [7]) as reinforcements(?)' ib.8. See also -b mm nb vn 'he shall b e the son to me,' not 'I shall have a son' Cl.l:2.(^'") ivnin in imn imin yiv 'then the oath came' B2.8:4 must be considered equivalent to m ivnin ib.9.(^") I) A variation on the use j u s t described appears to be the use of the st.det. as reference to a specific, but representative member of a class.(^'^) This seems to be rather frequent in Ahiqar's proverbs: e.g. wnv im- bv 'Let the rich not say ..' C 1.1:206; ]n vV'm ]im'' 'if a wicked m a n seizes' i b . l 0 7 ; vnniw 'grain and wheat' i b . l 2 9 ; vmi nnn- 'whoever drinks wine' ib.l88(^'^); bv
Cf. Grelot 1972:433, n. fo, Degen 1979:46, and Kottsieper 1991:324, n. 2b. In the lacuna at the end of the line there probably was a mention of Nadin. ^" Grelot (1972:190) renders: "alors le serment t'incombait.' Cp. the use of the demonstrative pronoun in colloquial English as in Then, totally out of the blue, there comes along this chap, wearing a funny hat. It took me a while to figure out who he was. At B2.2;6, however, w e have a case of the usual, anaphoric use of the st. deL: inn m\rib nKDin -b ^ijrci 'they imposed upon you the oath to me to swear by YHW,' where reference is being made to the oath which Mahseiah had sworn (line 4). rmm here is in the st.det.: see above at § 18 v(4), n. 157. See Joiion 1934:8. This is thus to be compared with die "generic" use of the stabs.: § ^ above. One may think of the wine served on a specific occasion. Such an example may be: vnbri n-3ircDBD n n ] m ]'3-n - \ Hpic; 'the street which is between us and the house of Peftuauneit the boatman [who has not been mentioned before]' B2.1:12.


PART I l l b : § 4 6 m - / ?

vnyp- «nsn 'ITH 'Do not borrow the heavy loan' i b . l 3 0 ; 12V vrrrn 'does the bad' i b . l 3 4 ; often with animal names— r3D m m KTDr^ 'the leopard m e e t s (or: met) the goat' i b . l 6 6 ; bv b^v « m [VTm 'the bear went to the lambs' i b . l 6 8 ; vbrvb nDDD mm i^^nK 'the lion would lie in wait for the stag' i b . l 8 3 ; vinvb 2Di mnn 'the ass mounted the j e n n y ' ib. 186. On the striking form in -b mm nb mn C 1.1:2, see above, § j . m) T h e use of the st .det., however, does not appear to be regulated by rigid rules: cases which appear to fall under either of the above-mentioned two categories— [k] and [/]—are at times contradicted by those in the st .abs. in similar or related contexts. Thus nvi nnn p in yon nn 'What is stronger than a braying ass?' Cl.l:174(*"'); nba nivni t^bn n-mi 'I carried sand and loaded salt' i b . l 5 9 ; t<nnb vwnn bvi b-n [V7mn bv] '[Do not multiply] wealth and do not mislead mind' i b . l 3 7 where vb-n has been corrected to '^•'n; « n « n vnmv 'the stone c o l u m n s ' A4.7:9 // ]n« n pnn 'stone gates' ib.lO(*'^); ^ n n i Q nbnn- pn 'hunger will sweeten bitterness' C l . l : 123; nbvb jnmn iv mr n[i]bn bv 'Do not curse day until you see night' ib.80 (not vb-b). In nT\ -jinis amn mn 'Vidranga, w h o was Chief here' A4.7:5 // n n • ' T KDiniD ynTi mn 'Vidranga the Chief, w h o was here' A4.8:5 the use of the St. abs. in the first version might be due to its being predicate.(*'^) In isnto t^mmn 'they burned with fire' A 4 . 8 : l l // iDito nmn A4.7:12; ^0J7 mn] V'pn^n 'the gold and silver basins' A4.7:12 // t^DOD m mn] • ' T vpn^n A4,8:11 the scribe of A4.8 is, as in some other details, trying to correct some infelicities in the first draft of the official document.(^'^) n) In the following cases("') it is not apparent why the st.det. has been chosen: mn-b 'per month' B 4 . 2 : 3 , usually nn-b ib.4; vnmi n-m 'partner-in-chattel or partner-in-land' B5.5:9 n-JCn // mm B3.6:5+; K m -]Tm p 'should we bring suit against you' B2.11:9 / / yn y-m- 'he will bring suit against you' B3.12:27. In -b nn-nn vb nvim [V]n[i2]n 'he is not bringing m e the (due) re[nt](?) at all' A6.14:2 nvm is not to b e taken as an adjective but as an adverbial quantifier.(^'^)
Because of the modifier nw? An example mentioned by Joiion (1934:8).

So also K m n ]ID3 mn b''U2i -T nnn ]''a3'Naphaina his son, who was troop commander in Syene the fortress' A4.7:7. See Porten (1998?).
See Fitzmyer 1956:110. See above, § 44 and below, § 67 e.

rightly rejected by Kottsieper 1990:47. but the syntax would be comparable to that of the B H syntax as represented in i-n wv n n T n ^ npni*? G n 27. form. O In rrp3 "Db n. which is most likely s.(*") All this suggests that the noun is most likely in the st. Hug 1993:145 reconstructs /hewp:/. The gemination of the Waw is based on the Taj. ending with not yet completely naturalised loan-words is understandable: " T n s n s nmv msn We would. C f Jouon . If rvTi is to b e related to mn. T h e noun occurs in O A once at Sefire I A 3 1 : mn. whether abs.. which is f. Finally.T p 'if y o u are given a lamb' A2.Muraoka 1993: § 128 b and below at § 76 bb. JSyr. form. The gender of the B A word is not to be determined. it cannot strictly be the subject of a m. for o t h e r w i s e the Y o d of our form w o u l d remain inexplicable. m n . The noun is masculine: Noldeke 1898: § 79 A.9 ^p: ncirs 'like the wool of a lamb. on the other. So Degen 1969:26 and Fitzmyer 1967:48 (/hiwwa:/). or st. /hewya:V.5:20 n n n is clearly an irregular spelling for t ^ n n .det. also Syr. List of Egyptian loan-words.e. . for vpi.s. InrbD n m 'the entire house' B3. It could of course be secondary. sg.abs. If rrp: be a fem. Cf. which points to / h i w w a y / as the original st.det.(^").det. ^'^ See below Appendix III. In T O w e find 'rn(*^*). lead to occasional difficulty in the interpretation of what appears to be a form in the st. det. however. i.2:8 the context leads o n e to expect an indeterminate form. m. perhaps the author is referring to a snake known to the recipient of the letter (a pet snake?). not to go as far as Joiion (1934:8) in admitting cases of defectively (but not erroneously) spelled st..MORPHOSYNTAX: THE N O U N A N D THE ADJECTIVE 183 o) Orthographic irregularities or inconsistencies on the one h a n d f ) and the uncertainty as to the basic form.abs. 8 : l l appears to be a Coptic word: the final Alef is then a mere vowel letter..' rrp3 w o u l d rather b e det.det. the latter could not end in /a:/f^^). without the usual Aleph (or rarely He): see § 5 e. should one start from B A with Dn 7.(^^^) p) T h e absence of the st. All four cases of a word-final He considered by Lindenberger (1983:284) as possibly emphatic are doubtful.abs. (•'riD3?). or det. passive participle.5:8 the verb can be interpreted as either m. introduced to preserve a short.det. depending on the gender of the subject. has /neqyaiV. open syllable.42 and the like. However. Hence the OA form might be reconstructed as /hiwwe-y with the contraction of the diphthong. the obscure word «£33C? in i miiss m n pD '1 new linen shirt (?)' B 3 .abs.f In n^in "TID: 'a (or: the) snake bit m e ' A2. (••jriDD?) or f. unstressed vowel in the first.

Adjectives(^^^).1:2. yTV 'eyes' ( C l . Di3n n mn B3. the use of the dual appears to be highly restricted. But it was not obviously perceived as genuine plural. is evident from its See Folmer 1995:306f with n. but rather about a specific street. N u m b e r a) O u r idiom k n o w s three n u m b e r s : singular.3:3. Grelot (1972:235) proposes a dual adjective ]'D-ia in pons n ]W 'a pair of Persian leather shoes' B3. and dual. nsD «nnT 'the sale document' B3.1:57 with^nntD vrBV bvy vnun t^nso 'the wise scribe and the master of good counsel' C 1. c) Apart from obvious cases where the plural is used to refer to an object which numbers two or more.2:13). n s o 'the treasury scribes' B4. § 47. 187. confined to a small number of nouns denoting objects which go in pairs.4:8+ is not about a specific king.§ 4 7 / Db^n 'T.4:12.6:8). however.(*^) That the form is a plural is evident from the spelling with <y> in HDsn •lady(?) Tapamet' B 3 . Porten . T h u s mbn B3.' B 3 .' Likewise mbn -nv 'the royal weights' ib.5:I0 is a variant spelling of ""nn. It was not a title such as "Mrs" or "Miss. g . That it does not indicate by itself a high position in society. A : . 1 2 : l l . 'the king's street' or 'the royal parade.12:31. n a n d § 2 1 f l . Joiion (1934:5 If. quoting Aristophanes. his wife.4) and ymn 'two hundred' (A6. all parts of body such as f T 'hands' (B2. H T T D I Q ]m B2.9:3. and the numerals pn/iTinn 'two' (A6. 1 : 2 1 2 ) . thus a kind of plural of dignity or majesty. C " ) q ) T h e state of a constmct phrase as a whole is signalled by the last n o u n .3:2. C o m p a r e also nnD T\nv 'good counsel' C 1. 1 woman' B3. but denotes a woman of some juridical standing. b ) Judging from necessarily incomplete evidence available in spelling variations(^^'').6+." for once it is used without being followed by a name: « n T 3 y n ]t03 'a lady of Elephantine the fortress' B3.1:42. as indicated by the cipher " 1 " in 1 ]m 1 -133 '1 man." . plural.184 PART I l l b : § 4 6 ^ . n •'Dn vd?v nm 'the way of K h n u m the god' B S ^ i S . ''''See§ 1 8 < i . and verbs.Yardeni 1989:25 "lady Mibtahiah". the use of to refer to a single w o m a n r e m a i n s e n i g m a t i c : e. pronouns.) argued that it is not a term of m e r e politeness.g. Grelot 1972:178 "Dame M. do not seem to possess the category of dual. 1 2 : l . p i « 'ears' ( C l . 1 : 2 1 5 ) . Knn in v^rbv. 2 2 9 TOO TTepOLKd. Lys. however. n o m e n rectum.8:20. (the) main beloved (?) of M.

"[T Vib-^n 'that rebel army' or 'that army the rebels' i b .' In o n e such case.125. Such a collective noun is subsequently referred to b y m e a n s of a plural pronominal m o r p h e m e : e. Let us first note that it occurs. ]^DD3 'goods. restore.172.e. 9 times (C1.12:22+. See also below at § 76 cf. l 9 ..8:5+. possessions' A4. C") e) S o m e nouns are regularly used in the plural. . t>^[p] miT\d? ^'P'T vb'^n 'my troops killed the rebels' C2. f) There are nouns which.g. proverbs of Ahiqar in particular (^'2). in our corpus.1:98. mv 'face'CLl:14+. 'moinn 'its boudaries' B3. Cowley's (1923:24) tentative 'spinster' has now been disproved by B3. f ) d) There does not seem to exist a sound basis for postulating a special case of the plural of majesty for the word Ttbv 'god' or Jewish revision of originally pagan texts.128. One such e x a m p l e is « T i : 'domestic staff (^^'): t^D'^n K''0D3"I vnny 'our domestic staff and goods' A6. and then always in the st.171. but rather to 'men. Precisely for this reason. people in general. whilst elsewhere it occurs another four times. See Lindenberger 1982.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE NOUN A N D THE ADJECTIVE 185 application to a handmaiden at B 3 .170. 1 5 : l . which is.172. See Driver 1957:63.T vb''n nnun n:T 'these are the names of the Jewish troop' C 3 . refer to an entity consisting of multiple units. though a slave. including partially restored cases. pace Driver (1957:83). 0 7 ^ 3.1 Dnn K I I J p []] DD : nnp*? n no 'what you took (in) goods from t h e domestic staff. See also on agreement/disagreement at § 76 ch. would prefer to interpret in H D Q npb ]DD3 'he took goods from ?' A6.6:2 where the word is applied to a mother.det. at C1. and always in the st. so-called collective nouns. 18. as has been argued by Joiion (1934:25-29).151. though its s y n o n y m is used in the sg.135. T h e word mm is s o m e w h a t problematic.10:1+.96.15:9 as /minnah/ 'from her. though singular in form. 103.2:7+. so-called pluralia tantum: p n i n 'with affection' B3.: s e e § 18 o.' i.164. n. it s e e m s to b e in contrast to crt^.3:4-f(«'^). vje. give to theni A6. nmm 'its measurements' B2.abs..15:9. ^^Notsg. 'from m y ladyship' rather than /minneih/ = «i-i3 p . We are referring to ]T\bv.1:16. vrni 'the price' B3.5:12+.1:79. In the proverbs mm does not appear to refer to a specific individual or group of specific individuals.4:7 and MiDi 'its price' B3. S e e also t^m .163. 6 : 2 .184) in t h e proverbs of Ahiqar.

In some cases the elided noun is reasonably obvious. vnnn vnnv 'the good counsel' C l . l : 126. to which they are subordinate as either a ) attributives or P) predicates(^'*): a ) nn ]vn 'good vessel' C l . or son or daughter of mine. the indefinite m appears always next to a singular noun in the st. 2 : 1 1 . anyone. 9 it appears alongside ^^v: •'b m m nm n3K pnv tO]«i 'b to't^i 'I. By contrast. pn)ib -pn 3Dnnn bv 'Do not mount your arrow against a righteous (man W''V) C l . brother or sister of mine. Cf.42. l : 1 6 4 .5:19. nn n n n " ? ! nnnD Tsto U'V 'a man whose stamre is beautiful and whose heart is good' C l .4. nnn pn^i nm 'I a m entitled to them' B5. C f Qb\D' Vib pm cj'Ki r\m^ m nKi pm 'another person. brother or sister. and cf. or man of mine.9. or another person shall have no right' B3. Adjective a) Adjectives normally constitute a secondary word-class in relation to n o u n s . vmp vn 'the rough waters' B 2 . nnbn mn vm^ "nn vb 'it is not in the hands of people to raise their leg' C l .11:8.: ^b"] tDD«i "b nnvi nv 'b m m 'son or daughter of mine.8. ]n •pnb •'Znn vvm pnv 'if the wicked (man vnni) takes hold of the «''Cf §§ 17 and 44. § 48. which follows b m m nm nm« nm b •'b nnv\ nv 'I Uriah. brother or sister of m i n e or an individual of mine' B2. where ^'V would b e just as good. or man of mine' ib. namely their head nouns m a y be understood.9:5.Szubin 1987:58. l : 4 2 . ]m\D ]r\nv prb 'after m a n y more days' ib. Behold thus n o one knows people' C l .(*^') Let us also note that the indefinite wm is treated as singular. See Porten .49. 'someone.1:9 et passim.186 PART I l l b : § 48 A .abs. P) nn niD ybv p 'if it be thus good on you = if this b e acceptable to you]' A6. where w e find pm CJ-K substituting ] " i n K and in use as a synonym of CJ'K or m<.'("*) and it never occurs in the st.6:8. or another individual' B3.3:6. nnb "[•^n mbi -\b nnm 'against son or daughter of yours or someone of yours' ib. l : 170. vnun VBD 'the w i s e scribe' ib. l : 9 3 . or in the plural: «t03« p vn VT vh unnnoD VT vb 'no one k n o w s their n a m e s . and state: p''nm 3 n p 'near and far (person U'V) B2. agreeing with pnv and n^b^. . In B 3 . number. l : 95. and the adjective shows agreement with it with respect to gender. n^'vn nbn 'bad word' A4. or son or daughter of mine. b) Attributive adjectives may be substantivised./ used as an indefinite pronoun.7:8. l 5 7 .det. p'V nn 'good eyes' i b . Adjectives are secondaries in Jespersen's (1924:96) ranks of word-classes. my mother or my father. n^'b^ vb mv 'no one has right' ib.

.' A4. 7 : 6 ( n . C f m r . l : 1 0 7 . l 3 6 . see above at § 22 b. n 133 p .g. l : 57. All these examples refer to things. by definition..' C l .. . though the term mentioned as a yardstick is preceded by the preposition p: e. t^rrrinm 'in the Upper and Lower (Egypt ]n:iD)' A 6 . .g. p'V T i r 'blind of eyes' C 1. Jouon 1934:84. p mn' npn^i 'it will be counted as a merit for you . p in ]''Dn nn nnn 'what is stronger than a braying ass?' C l . ]1D •'T ynnv 'Aramaeans of Syene' B2.. est. 'he saved you from the murder of an innocent (one)' C l . l 3 4 . l 7 2 .. f) Adjectives may function as tertiaries. . 1 : 1 7 1 .. l 2 8 .. On the distinction of gender here. namely as adverbials: for details. refer to persons: ]1D 'nnv 'an Aramaean of Syene' B2. vnD"^2 'this evil (deed)' ib. vn^nb 'does the bad (thing)' i b . m o r e than for any person who . "[DQ WQ".. also frequently substantivised and. An adjective. ^ C f Kf^nnn^ p i S Q 3 'in Lower Egypt' A6.1:212..7:27. "[DD pn^ib 'at one m o r e righteous than you' i b ..17:4.10:11.vh tD'K3 DSim tO'K ' O 'so that nobody would do anything evil' A6. nriDS []p pD3n mnb p 'if (something) bad c o m e s out from their mouth' i b .l7(^''^). vvm 'n nncD nor 'it is very good counsel' C l . note an analogous structure in Syriac: Muraoka 1997b: § 100.. see § 4 5 / On the use of'T here.. But gentilicia. OT bnp p -[nTCi.7:16C'"). e) Adjectives in turn m a y b e further qualified by adverbs. pD n p Tn' 'more than now' A4..11:2 and many others. rather than persons.'T nUDb :nn bv 'Do not covet a large (thing) which is denied you' i b . "[T vimb ^'vn ivn n ]n33 by 'and all persons who sought evil for that temple' A4. DS p nnn nps3 p 'if (something) good comes out from the m o u t h of .1:2. m a y be followed by a noun specifying in what respect the property indicated by the adjective applies: e. there are cases of virtual lexicalisation where the speaker or writer was probably not conscious of any elided noun: . which are thus tertiaries: nnn nm 'I a m very hot' D7.. See § 48 I.7:8. l 3 9 . probably in the st. l :46('''). c) However. ^^'Cf. 'r?nb npD: ' n [ n p] 'my misfortune originated in my household' i b . d) Adjectives (and adverbs) have no m o r p h e m e for the comparative and superlative degrees. l : 1 7 4 .7:3(^^).MORPHOSYNTAX: THE N O U N A N D THE ADJECTIVE 187 comers of your garment' C l .


G or Peal. 3ms -iito 'he sent' C l . m 'Count!' A4. so that they are virtually two or more distinct lexemes. Partly due to the limited scope of our corpus. basic binyan.1:37.PART THREE MORPHOSYNTAX SECTION C THE VERB § 49. namely tG or Ithpeel. 3 m p mntOK 'they The internal passive patterns are considered here as subcategories of three of the six patterns.(''^) Such an approach is justified even for verbs which may never have been used in G. Thus it is not clear on what ground a concordance produced by the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon project distinguishes between tG and tD of VniJ]. "derived" ones. though it is strange that not a single instance of Hafel is to be found in our corpus. Joiion (1934:54f. tH/A or Ittaphal. Pual = passive of Pael. m a n y verbs are attested only in one binyan. but Afel. 1 : 1 0 1 // tD(?) pf. B i n y a n i m a) It makes some sense to examine the function of binyanim in temis of the opposition between the unmarked. for which task w e often draw on analogy of cognate dialects. but a semantic link between them escapes us. So also ViT©: D pf. In addition.1:3 // D pf. An example of this is the root V'30: G impv. and the f-prefixed one of each of the three. namely D or Pael. H/A or Hafel/Afel. T i 'he appointed' C 1. the unvowelled writing system of our texts does not always allow us to assign a given form of a verb to one of the six patterns with certainty. tD or Ithpaal. Again. It is particularly difficult to tell a tG from a tD except in AyinW a w A ' o d verbs.) argues strongly that'^KC in the frequent collocation D'XJ bvixn is not Peal. .f"') Another geneml observation to be made is that we sometimes c o m e across verb forms which are assuredly to be assigned to different binyanim with different meanings. and the marked. to wit Peil = passive of Peal. Hofal = passive of Hafel.

6:3 // tG (or tD) 'b rnvr? 'Let h i m take thought of m e ! ' A6. Hardly any semantic opposition can b e established between D and H of: Vnn—D irrrn «nn 'he let us gloat over Vidranga' A4.8:8. . D ^nb^—Dbm mn« 'I shall be paying' B4.190 PART IIIc: § 49 b-g intervened. -ini^)—^'D'SK "m' 'May he show m e your face' A2.3:7. This verb is used in G only as a passive participle as in Heb. interceded' A4.g. ) ( « 5 ' ) .1:44.8:15 //xnTu finn 'ditto' A4.28:56. anda related document has ]mp "'A4.3:2.9:6. Examples are: D V-[-Q(«^'*)—]DDnn 'we blessed you' A 2 . 5 : l .11:3. its D transform denotes that its subject confers such a quality on its The identification as D depends on our knowledge of cognate dialects. The identification as D depends on our knowledge of cognate dialects. D ^bbiX'''')—'^':'^ vb 'he did not speak' B8. l : 5 2 // H ton 'they brought' C3. G nnD 'to write' // D -nan bv nnran nniybv 'his lass (is) m a r k e d under his n a m e ' D7. f .10:12. The identification as D depends on our knowledge of cognate dialects.3:4 c) T h e semantic connection between some non-G verbs to their G counterpart is quite obvious. D ^bnnC^'')—-p-2n in 'he harmed you' C 1. mb 'to wear' // D niv mbn 'I am wearing it' A2. d) Amongst the non-G binyanim it is sometimes difficult to draw a line between t w o of them. b) T h e r e are a large n u m b e r of non-G verbs the precise function of whose binyan is hardly definable.1:6.7:16. C f a similar nuance of BH D nb0 as against G U'TD. H ^niXD—iUDm 'they found' A4. G of ^b2-—-':b2 "Bring me!' C l . G r T 3 3 'to build' // D •'nnn u 'Renovated. The identification as D depends on our knowledge of cognate dialects. G n*:^ 'to send' // D nnbm 'one w h o sends it away' or 'sent away' ( p a s s .1:50 / / H 7 D i p 2-]prv '(whom) he will present before you' A6.7:25 where the scribe has erased a n between t h e ' and the p. a lower house' B3.6:2. G(?) ub nrmv 'I took thought of you' B3. Vnnp—D nni^^nDO mp iraip 'I presented you before Sennacherib' C 1. All the three documents are dated to 407 BCE. p t c .3:4.(««) e) W h e r e a verb in G indicates a state or quality. A telling example to show how thin the line is between the two binyanim is ]'Qip' 'they will offer' A4.: n^i* 'you are blessed' A3.9:9. though w e are not able to put our finger on the precise nature of the connection: e. and an alternative version of the same document has 3~ip] 'we shall offer" A4. Originally perhaps factitive.8:25.2:7('''').

Such a D is factitive in that sense.10:22 / / D '2pi)i ist«! p ' w h o then would find m e innocent?. 1 : 1 2 8 . for which a related root "[in is in use: e. exactly as in BA. 5 : 2 3 . 2 6 : 5 .5:14 / / D '3iTn 'they obligated m e ' B8.1:19. Heb. G pSDT 'he will c o m e out' D7.6.1:5 / / H nnn vbD 'Return everything!' A6. .6:24. e s C f B A Dn 7. w h o would then acquit m e ? ' C l . G nmoi pbocb 'to ascend and descend' B3. G -iiv mp-' 'Anani will stand u p ' B3.1:44 / / H ~[cn DDDnn 'you m o u n t e d (= aimed) y o u r arrow' C l .13:2. a D verb indicates a change of direction of movement: G ]3T 'T ]nu p]DDn 'our house.(?) 'validated' B3. l : 139. n^nnnb is likely an error for Tinnab (a D or A infinitive) at mmb nb nrtm 'I sent to him to explain' D7. T h u s G nnv n ' w h o is c o m i n g ' A2. V|on— -nnnn 'Take it in hereditary possession!' B2. l : 140. G ' " ^ n n bv ' D o not b e sweet!' C l . p^n and p i m .2:7(^'^).87.19 fsn^!*? D inf.10:22(^"). g) T o distinguish between three different t-binyanim. l : 2 2 1 // H bv p^:nn 'Do not allow (it) to kindle' ib.12:3 // D mn ]Drn ]3T 'the house which w e sold and gave to you' ib. G^nat^n ibv 'they broke into the temple' A4. denominative of T y . yd'n D pass.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 191 grammatical object or brings the latter into such a state. Vin—pnn 'he s h o w e d u s ' A6.' cp.1:40 w e apparently have a D verb. Vpj—p^in''] 'they will protect' A 4 .10:15 / / A nnnnb nnv 'coming to bring down' A2. '^^ The root is also attested in D (see above [d]).3:26(^'').ptc.10:7 // H pSDT 'he will bring out' A 6 . 1 3 : 3 . l 2 3 . l : 5 0 . f) Most H or A verbs are causative in function in relation to their G forms. G Diav 'I shall turn back' B7. On the semantic link between this verb and the adjective ]^Dn 'strong. which w e bought with silver' B3. Vic?-'—'nmn 'Dispatch!' D 7 .g. D ninb CDn 'instructed h i s s o n ' C l . l : l . G nmn pm 'catching fire' C l . l : 9 4 / / D Dip i r a i p 'I brought you near to Sennacherib' C l . G 3 m 'I shall b e obligated' B3.15:7.5:6. In p i Q nm 'I walk' C 1. pD<T 'they will go' B3. G p T O UDn 'those w h o mount horses' C2.7:9 / / H nbmn n bD 'all that she brought in' B2. G p T i « ]D 'with w h o m shall I be found innocent (pnii)?' B3.5:6 / / H vb yn^nn 'they are n o t bringing' A6.6:10. 1 : 1 4 3 / / H «miiD rbnn' ] D D 'hunger will sweeten bitterness' i b . Some obviously H verbs are not attested in G: e. l : 1 0 9 . though the root w a s m o s t likely not in use in G .24:16.3:7 / / H 'nrpn 'Estabhsh m e ! ' C l . ^Imit—'nD moin 'he spied out m y house' C l . In o n e case. E x a m p l e s are: G m p b]^ vnv 'a lion went (and) c a m e near' C l .g.

and the latter an action yet to b e undertaken or a state which will.12:6). In the majority of cases. imnv 'to remain' (B3.' 133 'to draw up.3:l 1) b2nDV 'to b e supported' (C 1. 1 : l l + ) .11:8 and n u n ^ 'was removed' A6. Gibson's (1975:146) "Do not be troubled" is an improvement. A U Y X ^ t i i 'to throw into confusion. see above.11:2). § 29.' n n 'to build.' cf.T 'to give. For a reasonably certain classification.(^'*) For a semantic development from im 'to pour (out). their t-form denotes an inchoative or ingressive aspect. The active D-form does not occur in our corpus. Tenses a) Our basic assumption is that the distinction between the perfect and the imperfect. 1 : l l + ) .' 12V 'to do. namely some n e w state sets in or the subject takes on a certain property or character: e. thus roughly future.' win 'to put.' 3. ( « 5 ^ ) T h e same holds for the following tD verbs: ^pvnv 'to b e taught' (Cl. ' D D H K 'to b e concealed (< to b e covered)' (A4.' T]2: 'to collect. m a y or should prevail. 'to b e c o m e visible' (C 1.6:3 appear to b e a passive transform of their respective Afel f o r m § 50.l:175)(*^').' ]n3 'to give..' npb 'to take.§ 51 pecially between tG and t D . The use of the suffix conjugation in a hypothetical protasis means that. With the likely exception of H nDt^n 'to find' vs.' a morphological relationship between a t-form and the corresponding non-t form appears to correspond to a semantic one: thus G vs.3:4) has been mentioned above at § a. C]Dint^ 'to b e added' C3. The related Syr.1:5) are rare reflexive t-forms. l : 9 6 ) and possibly i m m 'to watch out' (A4.' rb\D 'to send.8:42+).192 PART III c: § 49 ^ . and perhaps i n r * « .1:73). . t03Dn« 'to c o m e together' ( C 2 . tG.' bnp to kill. vhnm 'to b e c o m e full' ( B 3 . thus preterital. tG riDrmv 'was found. The question regarding the conditional clause will be looked at separately: § 84. can be problematic. imm in imr\V\ bv 'Do not get distraught!'(?) A3. iQ3n« 'to guard o n e s e l f ( C l . 'to become equal. to disturb composure or temper of: see Muraoka 1993b:220. is essentially that of tense: the former indicates an action already undertaken or a state which once prevailed. nrm. vxrmv 'to b e c o m e obedient' (B3.3:7 is o b s c u r e . This applies to the tG of im 'to seize. and H vs. root always takes an inanimate entity as its object. the latter excluding the jussive and the energic. Fitzmyer's (1962:20) "Do not dissipate" is unHkely. T h e difficult iirm (A4.' piD 'to abandon.1:90).g. to reach an agreement' (B2. tH. make. D v s .' In some other G verbs. a t-form is a passive counterpart of the underlying non-t form. t D .

2:5—"I lodged a complaint" (Cowley 1923:16).o inU-oduce an indirect speech in mn ^ 'O B2. for instance. past perfect—^^T t^m^t^ m ynnv 'our forefathers had b u i h that temple' i b . not j u s t 'the tunic which you sent m e has reached m e and I have found it completely frayed(?)' as translated in TAD A. "he had done" (the past perfect). Kutscher (1971:111) speaks of "Koincidenzfall. It is often difficult. "ik . unlike in m a n y m o d e m Indo-European languages. and (by then) I have not yet paid and g i v e n you your silver' B3. o n e sc. l 2 . i f . p.4:10.7:7. i mn PTi nm 'the rebuilding which you will have executed' i b . This is very frequent in stereotyped greeting formulas such as: "p mmn V^D nnnm d7D 'I (hereby) send you in the speaker's perception. "I complained" (JAD B. see § 55 g. Thus.1:4) m a y be rendered in either of the first three ways. 21). Excepting a sparingly used syntagm illustrated by p r^oD 'we have heard' (§ 54 c).Q^^) § 51. See on the periphrastic construction. M2V n3p i ]'DD3 b2 'all possessions which h e had acquired perished' \bA6.2:7. "he has d o n e " (the present perfect). Perfect or suffix coi\jugation a) Our idiom is not sensitive to a distinction which is essential and meaningful to English. l 3 . and "he will h a v e done" (the future perfect). the preterite tense of the principal verb does not automatically cause a change in the tense of a verb in a subordinate clause as in: He said she was being obstinate < He said. een klacht heb ingediend"(Wagenaar 1928:51). the action in question has already taken place or the state in question has already become a reality. rem ^m -p'] MO2 -p ram rdxi ixhi 'should I die. to m a k e a confident decision as to which is meant.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 193 b) O u r idiom shares a universal Semitic feature whereby. b) Performative perfecti^^) Uttering a verb in the perfect tense m a y be like performing it or acting it out. Thus '3ncDn rbD mm mwym Tiim n HDHD (A 2.8. 2'' nmb in« 'they c a m e to the fortress of Elephantine' ib. even when the text is reasonably well preserved. future perfect —ynv pT\ 1 2 'as w e shall have been doing' B3. "She is being obstinate:' Thus '':''T --TD rb rm" T swore to h i m that it was mine' B23:1A. C f also n'pnp B2. but "j'avais porte plainte" (Jouon 1934:23 and Grelot 1972:175). rav i mT2V n m r 'the work which you will have undertaken' B2.6:12(^^').(^^) Examples are: simple past—mn b-'unn i 'who w a s c o m m a n d e r ' A4. form m r does duty for all four.. between "he did" (the simple past).13:8." . the clause would need to be translated 'it had (neVer) been': see § 85 a.

C f also pnb n-D 'our heart is satisfied' B3. give it!' ib. t^-Q npBm T 3 n [ im nnD'pn nbn ["-IDD nn ]KD 'a good vessel cover[s] a w o r d in its midst. d) Gnomic perfect Occasionally w e find the perfect used in the manner of the gnomic aorist in Classical Greek in proverbial sayings of timeless validity(«*'): e. 6.7:15.(*<^) The performative perfect is less certain in deeds and contracts. and is parallel to the i m p f : DUl "nrb nps3 T i [ ' 3 p] Some of these examples come under what Classical philology calls epistolary aorist: Giidersleeve I900:127f.177f.T nm 'I have given you. n33n3n Tiann n pb 'to whomever you love. where 'was satisfied' is not to be precluded. B2. bvn ninovb nwc? 'I hate Es^ior m y husband' B 2 .Funk 1961: § 333. So Hug 1993:116 and Porten 1996:90.1:12+. for these latter are essentially written records of past agreements: p-\v 1 U T H o m ub nn . Fitzmyer's "contractural" perfect: Fitzmyer 1956:176f Cp.Debrunner . n.10:9. goes too far in assuming that all these perfects are atemporal. 8 : 2 1 . however. 3 : l + . i ]r:b 'whoever you desire to give (it) to' B 3 . 6 : 2 3 .a 'I hereby bless y o u to P t a h " A2. C f Dempsey 1990 :7 -11. who.g. B u t not every perfect in proverbs is to b e so interpreted: '3pmi ISK p i nnn nnm "b m n ["--Q] 'my son became for m e a malicious witness. but o n e whi[ch] is broken lets it g o out' C l . ] n n TDn-i 1 ph 'you may give (it) to whomever you love' B2. l : 9 3 . s i m .1:2 et passim. ^nnmb nyn 'I hate m y wife' B 3 . l : 140 w h e r e the p f is akin to its use in conditional sentences(^^').l6. nn)i ^m'^ 'my soul desires' B3. and w h o would then acquit me?' C l .(«") Here m a y belong also a c o m m o n greeting formula such as nmb o r o .4:64-. C f a similar use of the perfect. Thus in a fablelike saying such as vcm rar'p WE 'the leopard met a goat' C l .. . So also Fitzmyer 1956:172.3:9.g. 1 house (with) land' B2. referring to the state of m i n d o r attitude without specific time reference: e.194 PART IIIc: § 5 1 c . ]nTt> nn)i. Cf. during m y hfetime and u p o n m y death.7:8 with ""nnn y-y^u -t pb 'to whomever you desire. Otherwise the writer would conceivably b e reassuring the recipient that a prayer had been said for h i m or her. i b .3:3. you may give it' B2. l 9 . 4 : 1 5 + 0 . nnnm nn n p n n 'Db 'I have given it to you and withdrawn from it' B2.§ 5 2 c abundant welfare and strength' A 6 . Blass .7:7.C"^») c) Verbs of mental attitude are sometimes in the perfect. Thus pace Lindenberger (1983:138). l : 166 the usual preterital meaning ought to be recognised. alsoniEO r\Tib\D ]y±>\Db rat '(out of m y concern) for y o u r welfare I (hereby) send this letter'A2.

" for p vbnD ipD]n vnbD . or p t o : Muraoka 1997: § 87. c.1:176.7:16 is u n l i k e l y . indicating a logical consequence that w o u l d ensue if the condition is met: vb lb p [•']n±'ii3nn biDn 'If not. § 52. b ) T h e imperfect m a y indicate a state which will prevail in the future or an event which will take place in the future: e..)..!. you will not be able to rescue him' C1.3 man dem 'aggel Urn ke:fa: T I ? dTTOKuXiaei f)|iLy Tov XiGoi/. et qui done m'a justifie?" (Grelot 1972:442).. I m p e r f e c t o r prefix c o n j u g a t i o n a ) A m o n g the verb forms characterised by the addition of inflectional prefixes supplemented by suffixes one m a y distinguish three different categories: the so-called "long imperfect." Or simply preterital: " ..v p '[from] m y hou[se] went out m y misfortune.g." jussive (also called short or apocopated imperfect). A s in Classical Arabic and some other cognates: see Brockelmann 1913: § 16 b (pp. namely <hwa: + adj. has been identified w h i c h indicates an action in the past. N o impf.. Kottsieper's (1990:9) restoration [yjsdgny has little to commend it.: see § 55 g. mn + ptc. T h e latter function is m a r k e d by the periphrastic constmction. To ib2D corresponds ' m t o .(*^*) H e n c e Lindenberger's "May the d o g s tear his guts out from between his legs etc. O f) O n the use of the perfect tense in conditional sentences. The text is difficult enough. w h e t h e r punctiliar or durative/iterative/habitual. also in a question.' . not a piece of ornamental accessory: see Ps 105. and /. Lindenberger 1994:67. see below. ^ m m iQrr pmri' ID 'when the Jews bring them' A3. and with w h o m shall I be acquitted?' ib. 3 : 5 . pb nmrr 'it will be given to y o u ' A 3 . 139. though possibly defective for DO'-'pn) 'I shall put fetters on your foot. a pl. and energic. This section will deal with the first. The noun mostly denotes "fetters" as an instrument of incarceration or torturing. H e r e the term "imperfect" is to be understood in the sense of long imperfect.8:15). in Syriac: Mk 16.8:12. -^mbn A4. 29f.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 195 pi}i. § 8 4 b. and the remaining t w o in the following section. This phenomenon in Classical Syriac is confined to a particular syntax. and see Noldeke 1898: § 259 "O dass doch einer den Stein abwalzte. c) A n extension of the use described above can be identified in an apodosis of a conditional statement.18 i'p^n b2'D2 w 'they tormented his foot (!: Ktiv r*?:-)) with a fetter' and papMur 43:5 DD'^nn c^nD n ]n3 (again sg. e) Our idiom does not use the perfect with optative force to indicate a wish. d. in the revised version of the document (A4.act.

. n ^ n m . you will not die' i b ... . let him buy (it)!' A2.' A3. nb mn pnnDit< nb ]m\r\ n 'to w h o m you might sell or to w h o m you might give in affection' B2. It stands to reason that such an imperfect often occurs in generalising relative clauses or protases of conditional clauses. f n s n mentioned See also a criticism by Degen (1979:37) against Segert (1975:300).' A3.("°).10:8.. send (word) to m e (about it)!' A2.6:5.6:13.3:8. '•mbv m p VBODD 'for the silver [= price] that might be put on it (when sold)' ib. l 7 7 .. you are doing . n bD b nb^ n2)in 'whatever you desire.. m n erroneously for m m (haplography) rather than m n as a ptc. Note the contrast between the impf. .. and Rather than the present perfect as in "the silver that is fixed upon it" (Porten . See also § 84 on the conditional clause. . .4:7. In the light of this a scribal error may be suspected in m n n p bv nbn^'' 'Let word be sent to w h o m e v e r might be (there)' A6. above (n. a'^sm ... O T nmn ID 'as m u c h as lies in your power' A2. and (p) in decrees and administrative orders.. np '^t ^i. n:vn\n 'you shall sow i t . 3 DT yn uny n 'whoever shall institute against you suit or (pro)cess' B2..2:5. . 3 : 4 . d) T h e imperfect m a y b e used in generic statements on w h a t j n i g h t or could happen.. but not referring to a specific or p a S c u I a f i s e d event. and many more examples in contracts("'). Note the alternation between the pf. n-mb j n n r n n n 'whatever you might be doing to IJor . e) Also typical of the legalese is the use of the imperfect ( a ) indicating a stipulation or agreement which is d e e m e d binding and to remain in force in accordance with the terms of agreement(*'^). 1 3 bno'' "-[bDo: vb ^nuvb 'we shall not support you as a son w o u l d support his father' B3.. . T h u s .10:14.8:6. you will be strictly called to account (p'^NHton) and a harsh word will be directed (invrr) at you" A6. "TGrn and impf.10:2. and ptc. who wants to see in examples cited here and such like a sign of a neutralisation between the indicative and jussive.. does not refer to an event in the past. T h e imperfect so" used..2:15. however. . in unim pDV . E x a m p l e s are: p r np^ i nm bo 'every beam that he might c o m e across. my son. might say to you . VD[n] vnu p r "T m 'Seek out a m a n w h o might buy the large house .Yardeni 1986:42).. 865). .. nDb nnv n ''b^] 'my portion on w h i c h . vpbn .. "I a m doing for h i m as m u c h as you might be able to do (pDn "iD p 3 i : n ) " A 2 .' A4.m n n vb -]mnm p '(even) if I struck you.7:10. t>B2. "if there be any decrease in the domestic staff. . .

nonn ^bvn" i vnn 'the son w h o is wilhng to be taught and disciplined . is used parallel to a p t c : ^mn nn^ p m n B2..'Guard .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 197 you shall divide we shall divide . and give to your sons with y o u ' C l . give to them so that Masapata will not send a complaint again against you' A6.. may indicate a purpose (final): [ n j n r p p i n n 'b ID 'Do thus s o that you will gladden m e ! ' A6. 'it shall adjoin the side of m y house' as against 'it (in fact) adjoins my house..16:2. mm vb T\:OD nvi[:]D ID p ncD pon . so that they shall not find a bad thing about you' A4...' C l .1:6 is extensively discussed elsewhere: § 7 3 a. the former is probably a case of apodictic impf.2:7. g) T h e use of an imperfect to c o m p l e m e n t a verb such as bD"" and bnD as in '•Dna] bD: vb 'we shall not b e able to institute (suit) against you' B5. Kina .... An e x a m p l e of an authoritative decree is crcD DDn vnT?b> 12^ vb ^''V2 cvm ^''V ID 'May an order be issued that nobody shall do anything bad against PN' A6. . domestic staff.' A6.14:3. however. nu'VD nbn ID p unbDp lop Dnm DDb pnD2... f) ID with an impf. p tnjinn .G a s e 4 h e impf.') and tens of similar examples in contracts.. h) Miscellaneous I n 0 f l e .15:10..' B 1.4. and you shall h a r v e s t ... l : 175.1:4.1:5 / / ^bi vnub npnn ib. vDin nbup n s o D ID p cnb nn nnn [ ybjv nb^ vb 'Restore. and be sated. T h e penalty is a certainty.1:6. "If tomorrow or the next day I bring against you suit or process . In another case an impf...m vb 'You.3:6. simply stating a fact prevailing at the moment of speaking: •^m] 'we are afraid' A4.' A6.1:4 and "-{mbDV bnDV vb 'I shall not be able to restrain you' B2. l : 129. where.7:8.' Volitive force m a y b e identified in ." B2.4:13 (not: 'I m a y have to ... and I shall take . 1 3 : 1 . appears to be equivalent to the present tense. I shall give (pm) you silver ... That w e are not dealing with a merely possible consequence is clear from the use of a nominal clause in similar context such as "If tomorrow or the next day you build u p that plot (and) then my daughter hate you and go out from you.. see also A 6 .4:9. vnbvb ID IDV 'DO thus so that y o u will gladden the g o d s .10:5. strictly in such a way that there will not be a[n]y decrease . and . -imbDV biDV vb pm o r i» im 'tomorrow or the next day I shall not b e able to restrain you' B2. not an option. she d o e s not have right (M nn^b^ vb) to take it and give it to others" B2. stand by them . Once without Kaf—*]Dr jnb pm vnmi bDvn i vnn:m v:yi 'Borrow grain and wheat that you may eat.

10:8. The jussive is. give t h o u g h t . with a synonymous verb nm at A2.7:23 renders if likely that we have a volitive/jussive in an analogously worded expression such as nbrwn 'vnn p nnm nn niD ub 'vnn bv p 'if it indeed thus please my lord. as far as our idiom is concerned. whilst in Lamed-Yod verbs the distinction is visible also in the 2ms. A2./ possibly inpSDim 'Let them add' A6. A jussive is also found in a standard greeting formula: "I-EK 'iri" " T ' nnnb onDiD ubmi 'I said to Ptah a blessing for you: "May he show m e your face in peace!'" A2. the second person is confined to the expression of a negative wish or will.198 PART IIIc: § 5 3 a . . 2/3mpl.' D 'to sell.8:2 (sim. E v e n though this morphological difference is not always discernible in our unvocalised texts. may a letter be sent from my lord' A6. A2. the 3 m s of a verb other than Lamed-Yod such as ]2V from ]nr G 'to buy. Likewise at nnv 'Db nmn] un bv 'nb^ 'Send (word) to Tabi and let her dispatch wool to you!' A2.7:2) must be seen. or b e or not b e something or s o m e w h e r e . is not known elsewhere. ' A4. "b 'Let them give (it) to me' A6. A 3 . you..' may mean 'Let h i m buy/sell!' as well as 'he will buy/sell. A2. b ) The primary function of the jussive is to indicate the speaker's wish or will: I or w e will or wish that I or w e . at least functionally. bv or 'n^^ vb. it or they d o . the presence But Grelot (1972:292): "On ajoutera. as jussive in view of ]iv bD2 "idTD t>m' vnbv 'May the gods seek after your welfare at all times' A 4 .1:2.2:18.2:2.3:2. whilst its positive counterpart is indicated by m e a n s of the imperative. formally distinct from the indicative in non-Lamed-Yod verbs in the following categories: 2fs. Since the use of the jussive in a final clause. u n . or d o not d o a certain thing. See §23fcand§37d.2:6. sim. .13:2.4:2. which in turn is never negated by means of Vb.11:3. The use of an imperative nwm in .'("^) in ]iv bD2 [vp^ nbv A4. 4 : l . the jussive. a clause indicating a purpose. also called apocopated.10:1. he. 3s. one can say that our idiom might still have a jussive form distinct from an indicative o n e . A3. sim." C f Folmer 1995: 496-521. . is a variety of the prefix conjugation characterised by a shorter suffixal m o r p h e m e . F o r instance. nnvnv ntD ]vnn bv ]n 'if it please our lord. J u s s i v e a n d Energic («'0 a) Moq)hologically speaking..p -p 'inr 'Thus let it be k n o w n to you' A6. 5 : l .C") § 5 3 . In practice. she.5.5:4. Examples are: p in' Dpn 'Let them bring us castor oil!' A2. A4.1:7.

. 7 : l .Harrington 1978: # 56. that the useful functional opposition between the two forms of the prefix conjugation.' D23. T h u s the grammatically correct jussive -3':'tDpn bv 'Do not kill m e ! ' C 1. p] -in-i.... § 24 j.1 Va:10. A 3 . Likewise . however. 7 : l . exemplifying a c o m p l e m e n t a r y distribution of the affirmative j u s s i v e in the third p e r s o n and the imperative in the second person. ^ ' " ^ Or possibly "Let good eyes not become dark!'. Qinr'Would that they do not come with them . On an analogous usage of im and -CJ in Qumran Hebrew. Beyer (1984:551) thinks that the particle introduces the body of a letter.1:7. l : 141. ..A5. 196lb: 11).i orCJ introducing a clause with a pc. -«nn vin^i m n vn -in. f) There are indications in our corpus.UTC? 'Qu'il soit connu de toi. A 3 . A 2 . sim.. 'bTi bv 'Do not reveal!' C l .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB lyy of n is somewhat problematic. ub^ vnbv -]b W 'May the gods grant you peace!' A6.-in 'Do give ." MiUk (1961:158). nnn.. 9 : l w i t h ibv^' restored.7:3. both the introductory framework story and the proverbs.16:5.. "'in'' '«n!2 VTim m n vu 'May m y lord be living. I*.' (Fitzmyer . A similar use of n occurs in Aramaic letters of Bar Kochba.4). makes no distinction between such . cf.. is paralleled by an imperative -in n-neji m n A4. particularly in the Ahiqar literature. ]Tb^r\ "i . and strong' A5.g. let him/it be there . and do let him buy.l:52.. Milik. 1 0 : 1 .. see Qimron 1986:77f. A 3 . 5 : I .. took it as well as its Hebrew equivalent G ? as equivalent of OTL recitativum.61 Though the text is fragmentary.g.!'D23.. daU. The above translation assumes a syntactic break between the two clauses connected by it. e) One of the jussives mentioned above." The author(s) of these late Aramaic letters has no distinctly jussive form. '±>npn bv 'Do not kill m e ! ' Cl. 2 : 3 . form and one without. d) A jussive verb does not always occupy the initial slot: pv bD2 unb^ ibvw' bD vnbv 'May all gods seek after your welfare at all times!' A 3 . b 'you are to send to me ...3:2.n ][?]« 'every . Note the use of que followed by the subjunctive in Milik's (1961:156) u-anslation of-p -n. followed by Kutscher (196la: 122. the indicative and the jussive." -SliJn bv 'Do not worry about us!' A2.1:52 is unexpectedly paralleled by an energic -na'^Op] bv 'Let us not kill him!' ib. sim. which introduces direct speech. nnn -in..(^'^) c) The j u s s i v e frequently occurs with the prohibitive bv: e... in addition to the usage in the Aramaic letters of Bar Kochba. where. Qimron 1981... w e probably have a similar case in bD . Hence his explanatory "(Hiermit wird euch mitgeteilt).. and possibly A 3 .'A2.. was not consistently observed.. happy. Cf.1 III-IV:9 and wb -t .. A2..3:2. injv bv pn yTV 'Let them not darken good eyes' ib.3:4.. e. he mentions a few instances in Nabataean.l57(^").2:14.

n n n -^nDT. l : 167.(^'') A similar blurring is also attested in o n p -[3n-C2r punbi ]iv bD2 vy^ bv^ van ubv ]Vv:i cb^ VDbn Dim-nn 'May the god of heaven seek after the welfare of our lord at all times and grant you favour before King Darius' A4.vb 'it will not h a r m me' C l .. Leander 1928:40 calls pbv^ "Affekt-aorist. and an energic -n3Tn.87.(^^^) Indicatives or energies where one expects jussives are evident in the following cases of L a m e d .(^^) Whatever Our assumption here is that the jussive or voluntative of the prefix conjugation was in many cases formally distinct from the indicative use of it. (and do not) cover .80 (instead of Ci'Tn).i:[-]n." namely indicadng an .. 107..90. twice in a protasis— vv'^n ]nn«. '•inn 'Let it be .' C 1. "p -in.7:l w h e r e one e x p e c t s a j u s s i v e "ID27-. It is not apparent w h e t h e r there existed any functional opposition between the indicative and the energic.. CD[i]bn b\^ 'Do not curse!' ib. let it not be ..84 in contrast to a jussive . nnt^n b[v] 'Do not let it c o m e . 'ibnpn bv . -3-nn-T -m'pr 'Do not kill m e . D o not be afraid.. Whitehead 1974:51. Also in -3n"ipn .T 'You ought to k n o w ' A6.:s. once with a prohibitive bv—^|np':'n bv 'Do not take!' C l ... lYou will] live .10:14 (for ]i3n3n.6:5 (// mrav 'I shall give it').. . m n . m.4:1. 'Do not place!' C l .r . mpn bt^ 'Do not rise!' ib.. l 7 7 (// -\mnav ] n ) t .. noDH bv 'Do not conceal.' ib. In -3i:as.bv 'Let him not show it!' ib.' ib. l : 5 2 the indicative appears to b e better suited not only in nv2\ but also in -3"iDr (all jussives)... 1:212 one expects -33i. piDinn bv .Y o d verbs: .K |n 'if I leave' i b . and // ]i33Tn 'you sell')...86...§ 5 4 a (for the e x p e c t e d v e r b f o r m w i t h o u t an energic Nun).(*^°) C p . you will present m e to him and he will let m e live .....10:8 with -p nin.. See above § 24 /. he will remember m e and seek m y c o u n s e l .n [ n ] 0*7 '?mn bv . l : 130 (instead of nnn).. n r n .8:3. whereas the latter had an intervening Nun.' ib. That bvw is a jussive is certain from tm)\ and notlibt«o\ in a similar greeting formula such as ]ir bD'2 -pbQ t?vw vcrt>Vi 'May the gods seek after your welfare at all times' A4.A6.200 PART IIIc: § 5 3 g ..|pnc .1:81.(«'") A likely scribal error is i3n3n 'you give' B2. the so-called energic Nun.]n 'if the wicked seize' ib..85 (instead of Dpn) are also to be evaluated in the light of the "loose grammar" of this document. g) T h e free-standing energic is but rarely attested in our corpus: once in a declarative clause—]t±>m 'I shall pay' B4. mn"' bv .vb.' C l . noDm .'Do not kindle .. ^ ™ The "ungrammatical" forms such as wm bvi.bv 'Let him not rejoice!' ib. . One of the formal manifestations of such a distinction is that a personal object suffix was directly attached to the former.

t>'np bD 'they w e r e all killed' i b . indicates an action: e. does not. Hence « m [ . TDV vnu jv 'How is the house faring?' A3.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 201 the original functional load of the energic may have been(^"). participles: e.' T h e s a m e holds true of n o n . D 2 0 .5:6. n n r p "so they did' ib.] 3 [\pD "T m n nsn -n-« m e a n s 'there is a well which has been built inside the fortress' A4. whereby the direct object of a clause in the active voice is made the grammatical subject: e. u'hich are mentioned by Brockelmann 1913:159.C «5) Thus the e m p h a s i s is on state rather than on process or action. in our idiom. nn f30D 'had been appointed' A6. this Tnr at C2.Porten (1982:31).24 w-qarrev(w) le:h kulhon 'ayle. l 7 .G pass.5:l. Cf. ? K O K W ? E X O V T O S . must .1:66. pace Greenfield . who believes to be able to identify the original character of the energic in some of the above-named examples. b ) In a passive transform only the direct object can become intention. Passive voice T h e passive voice is a transform of the active.7:20. Of the uses of the energic.3:6. In contrast.1:66 .g. JDnb -DDDD pnv p 'if the wicked seize the corners of your g a r m e n t C l . t>np vinnb 'they killed the rebels' C2. M o s t of the forms take an explicit pronominal suffix. however. Moreover.n d-vis biS '^vidin b-kurha:ne:' msafylfe:' 'they brought to him all those who were in rather bad shape with all manners of illness' with the Gk. See also Degen 1969:80f. die external passive p t c .P N is no real exception: ynD nnv 'Blessed be A b a h ' D 2 0 .7:5.. A benedictory formula "["•"Q -I.27. say what that original character was. morphosyntactically conditioned. Leander 1928: 41. nm TDV -t 'how you are' C2. Similarly D 2 0 . only its use in prohibitions is illustrated by one of our examples cited above. cf. best illustrated in Classical Arabic in freestanding forms. 3 : l . also Folmer 1995:518. 4 : l . Cf. not 'under constmction. D20.. a) The passive ptc.g. its use is.. Cf. § 54.. Segert (1975:392). and those which do not can be said to have one i m p l i c i t l y .9:10. but such can be also indicated by the indicative. iDvnn mn ynnpb i bnpb 'in accordance with what used to be done formerly' A4.g. indicates the result of an action: pi vm yTDV nbnnvD 'our wives have been treated like widows' rather than 'are being treated' A4. namely one of a t-binyan. O In one case only this is not the case: . 2 : l ..7:15. l : 107. T2V n3TD 'such w a s done' A4. T R D V T A S T O I . Peshitta at Mt 4. cf.1:13.

the preposition is not the exponent of agent.10:8." T h i s u s e s e e m s to b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of officialese.40 min nn« 'you are shown' with TO -Tnm (tA) and Pesh. which allows both / was given this book and this book was given to me..7:8 s e e m s still to retain the literal sense of origin. More Syr. not h k e in EngHsh. l 7 . who characterised this syntagm as typical of Eastern lA. Cp.13:l for the active . 3 : 1 3 . but that of possessor or owner. present or past." namely a H passive participle. The literal rendering is not. . (^") c) The syntagm [passive ptc. "from p l a c e x.6:10 with -DnpntD 'I released you. C o m p a r e vrbvb npuiD 'nm 'you have been released to the god (so that you are no longer in bondage)' B3. 4QEn 1 xii 27) is unusual.5:8. An English sentence such as / was given cannot be literally transformed into Aramaic. similarly to the Engl. b nrr vn. occurs in our idiom rather infrequently(^^^): p VOD p 'thus we have/had heard' A 3 ."[3Q 'Let an order be issued from you!' A6. b van p 'thus I have heard' A6. Ex 25.' where the accent is on my action. mfjawwe:' (')na:' la:kPace Moriya 1994:130.. +':'] to express a state resulting from an action. in cases like n\Trbv nbn^D' iim 'May a letter b e sent from you to them!' A4. with a pronoun or noun attached to the preposition indicating the actor. . actor: . 'b n-n. 1 3 : l .'Via p 'was given to me by m y lord' A 6 . examples may be found in Muraoka 1987: § 69.. "il a 6t6 entendu par moi.7:24 and DVn Dton.g. ' A4. See Kutscher 1969.§ 55 c the subject. and see also Folmer 1955: 391-93. further Folmer 1995: 376-80. perfect. Thus the often-occurring ni^nnK T was shown' in the Qumran Aramaic Enoch fragments (e.(^''*) For this reason. Cf." in other words. rT3K wnbn A2. Pace Whitehead 1974:51. T h e same preposition. t^-ri p invn i m p 'if it be made known by the j u d g e s . if the latter be not a scribal error. pace Grelot (1972:314).(^'^) d) It is only rarely that a passive verb is accompanied by an indication of the subject.202 PART III c: § 54 ^ . so in 'Vin p n rb vn b D-rr 'the domain which w a s given to me by my lord' A6.10:3.(^^') The preposition L a m e d in a benedictory formula <q-nn + PN + 'p -DN> is best interpreted as indicating an indirect object of verbs of saying: 'l0^b p]nDn mn vm nmn 'Blessed be T u m a be distinguished from the same form at i b .. .(^^') It is doubtful that it is this syntagm that occurs in a case such as "p '^^' 'you ought to know' A6.1:6 cannot be translated "I a m m a d e to wear. p .

3 : l .7:19.3:7. vb'np 'the killed' ib. 'since the month of T a m m u z . H ]onnQ 'hereditary property-holder' B7. P a r t i c i p l e a) O n e of the functions of the participle as a tense form is to indicate actual present. nnn m . the preposition m a y be that of possession or ownership. I a m taking care of him' A2. l : 87. l : 1 2 . . 134. b ) A ptc..' A4. namely an action indicated b y it is currently in progress at the m o m e n t of speaking: 'pv pn pm 'we are (currently) looking for a boat' A2.. is puzzling in Tnv v[b Dri ]3n D i l l nm 'then Dadarshu did n[ot] d o any[thing]' C2.. 8 : l . ... c) A ptc.. we have been wearing sackcloth and fasting . r ' ) Compare . Typologically analogous to this stmcture is pD i r yn'nan n-3Ti -T p ybv in Di]n ' K h n u m has been against u s since Hananiah has been in Egypt until this day' A4. see below at § 80 b.. 1 0 : 6 . n3« bnm ubv 'it is o n you that I a m relying' A2. nv 'counsellor' C l . may follow a noun.. Cf.. novb mm -}-Q 'Blessed be B . before Osiris for Aba. l 7 4 . e) The passive T n r . KDv mr i n .1:8. 'my enemies' ib. nm i Q n p in j-on nn 'What is stronger than a braying ass?' i b . a a ) A variation of actual present is the use of a participle indicating an action which has been going on up to the m o m e n t of speaking as in pnb ppw n:nm . namely On our view about Kutscher's (1969:148-51) passivum majestatis in lA.7:2. i nm pn\D nb rb nm inv 'I a m not leaving h i m alone . vb 'b pnnm 'they d o not obey m e ' A 6 .1:44. |S2i." though the use of Dip as an alternative preposition as in Dip . D nnnn 'liar' ib. Alternatively. ... 1 3 .1:17.. l : 1 4 0 + .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 203 daughter of Bokrinf to Osiris' D 2 0 . and the L a m e d in the active transform nns"? "jnDlD cannot be easily reconciled with such an interpretation. passive—p'rs pD 'open w i n d o w s ' B 2 . qualifying the latter: nip.5:3.. m a y be completely substantivised: ]-Dio -DDI 'cavalry men' C2.' D 2 0 . is used as a historic present. .4:4.. § 7 1 . 2 . d) Occasionally a ptc. noi^i Dip -in nD-in 'Be blessed before Osiris' D20..2:2+.49. 110.... i i D 'witness' C l . "Be P N (a) blessed of DN.. u p to this day . noit^ Dip 'Blessed be A b a h ..nm -n 'it is a burning fire' C l . to Osiris' D 2 2 . ™ jin . if the text be in order...pm pb 'we are worrying about you' A2.p . § 55..6:9.

] and if evil goes out fr[om] their mouth' C 1 . ^on mn .204 PART IIIc: ^55d-g as a preterital tense: 'b "ybv mnn mnn ym 'then the oath comes upon you and you swore to me' B2. 8 hallurs' B3. varies the wording slightly in B3.10:12. The morphological ambiguity of the abovequoted nnv in B 3 . f) T h e participle may be used to qualify the predicate: e... The only certain exception is bDvn yiv 'then you will eat'Cl. However. On this use of the preposition. e) Once an impf.. m s — w e find two u n a m b i g u o u s cases of the pf. in combination with p . Mipta[hiah] said' B 5 .1:4. l 3 . both in a conditional clause [ ]]n pD3n n'nb ]m [ vm]v DD p nno np93 p D H D S 'if good goes out from the m o u t h of a m[an . but such an interpretation is impossible in vmln n n ] ]nt^ 'W nm nnv 'then I Anani say in Elephantine the fortress' B 3 ..10. is most likely a participle: note especially y-m p A4. mr nn-n nnsT nnv nn i n ton 3 'this house . it is important to stress that the adverb ]nt^ in our corpus occurs in the past context. p-\m nnv -nnn -n 'nn '(there is) is a lower house renovated. In any event. 1 : 1 7 1 .12:l 1.4:4 ( p t c ) .12: nn pm pm mv -nnn -n 'nn pnnn "p nnnm . 'T nvnn n n 'as m u c h as I am (actually) able' A2.. see Pardee 1976:221-23 and Muraoka 1979:92-94.. 5 : l . in Elephantine.1:2.6:5.. Grelot (1972:190) uses two different tenses in his translation: "t'incombait . 7 : l .7:4 the verb ym. w h o penned B3. did not succeed' A6.g. In these two cases what begins with 'nn describes the nature of the property in question indicated by the object suffix.. ]nt^ 'then ..8:4 (// pf. having beams' B3.1:127. 7 : l is highlighted by its similarity to nmn (ptc... also quoted above from B3. and syntactically it constitutes an object complement (§ 74 k). nnsi nnv nn nn ton 'there is one door in it. B3.. there is a functional opposition: b T nnnn nnv -3nT 'Buy wool as m u c h as you possibly can' A2. Haggai. sim.. I gave it to you in affection B3. 5 : l . In ]nnv p m m ri'DT -pnv JIJD A4. In the hght of this last instance one may be tempted to interpret mv as pf. Jehohen daughter of M e s h u U a c h said' B3.. -nt^D'')f Though in the standard opening formula in contracts the verb form spelled inv is ambiguous—pf. 'bv nnn8 ]n':'n 'it will accrue against m e . C f Porten 1996:90.8:4 on the one hand and its stylistic and syntactic aspect in the light of nnnv. ninv n'D ym [rrn]tDDQ 'then. '. 6. which is morphologically clear in r:si32J vb.7:22 with a mater lectionis. 3 m s or ptc... occurs side by side with a p t c .1:2 and B 5 .: -{bm ni2 ]m<T ninv .) at B2.7:6. n. it being silver.5:8. shutting and opening' i b . on the other. in the following pair..

especially with the perfect of m n : e.6:12. 'Db ran. det.. ^b nbm n m -r -nnDi ^OD bn 'all silver and interest that I shall be paying you' B4. the participle immediately follows a form of mn. n-Q mn 'I was dying' A2. res ]n 'if I a m dead' ib. With the imperative of mn the picture changes slightly. C o o d i n a t e verbs m a y dispense with m n . m n instead of one Cno).1 rwo TCJ'.9:10.o 'as . b^n mn 'was paying (?)' ib.n'W nm -T fr n n n 'this house which I Ananiah gave to you .1:3(''*) the syntagm may b e assigned the above-mentioned. p bnoQ n-in 'I used to look after you' C l . Greenfield 1969 and Kaddari 1983. Whilst in vnBnt> nnv nnm -im 'and keep giving grain to Wahpre!' A2.10:7..8.5:8 (// nat^. .2:14 and ]rtm nn nn-D m [ ..6:10. O T h e latter can be a perfect. abs. Otherwise there would emerge a new clause beginning with -nnn -3 'a lower house' in the St.9).8:5.g.D 'as I was coming' A6.11:2.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 205 What further follows the passive participle specifies the nature of the renovation undertaken. . pnnQ mn 'was holding as heir' A6. . Another scribe.12:11 the participles themselves are further modified.. pnv nn . pv^ npb -im 'and do . which m a k e s them distinct from the cases mentioned under (b) above.. Mauziah. In most cases the s y n t a g m seems to indicate iteration or habit." This reminds us of m with an imperfect (but not apocopated form!) in BH as in Ex 15. nnvno mn ynnpb -r bnpb 'in accordance with what used to be done' A4. used to do' A6. tu m'as fait serment. ib.. Moriya (1994:285). sim.' " • ^ ^ Cf. pnm ]iS37n nn-i. also varies the wording in a different way: m n -nnn n m ]iDT jmtD: nnt^. in most cases it seems to indicate a sense of urgency and insistence^ '0: nb n n ^ -in mp'Do send greetings (from) Yekia to her!' A 2 .6. l : 4 8 . who wrote B3.3:2. 'then Moses sings [= sang].72.. Excepting a few examples to be dealt with later. It is best to take this clause also as an object complement somewhat loosely dependent on . See§81ci. qj... vpT rhD rh^D -in 'Do send greetings of the child!' D7. nnt^t n-in n3K ..' B3..o ]12V |-in 'as w e shall have been doing' B3. speaks of "conative" . with anaphoric force. imperative or imperfect. durative or iterative function.2:7. H e uses two words. In the first two cases and B3. as the subject w h e n one naturally expects «n-D in the St. m may be a p f 3mp. following Fitzmyer (1971:224). an ongoing process. 3 : 1 1 . g) Periphrastic tense (^^'') Our idiom shares a typically Aramaic feature in which a participle is combined with a form of the verb mn.] 'Keep sending [mon]th by month!' A6..

7:10 the auxiliary precedes a passive p t c .." It escapes me how one could.D I D p TTT2 UT 'nxbm 'I shall repay it to you month in m o n t h (out) from m y salary' B4.4:9. "your (unpaid) silver and its interest will be increasing upon m e (from) month to month (nib m .2:14). but indicates a state which prevailed or will prevail {^): pip p mn ( n B =) n n fci^m-D D . In the last-quoted example we have a series of coordinate participles where they relate to one domain of activity.(^'') T h e syntagm has nothing to do with iteration. whereas we note a shift of the verb form (from or to the imperative) when the second verb b e l o n g s to a different domain of activity as i n b v n-m -in A 2 . Sefire III 6 ns'^n "•in. .2:7.bv n m mn-) until the day that I repay it to you" ib. This periphrastic imperative appears to be a favourite syntactic feature of the writer of the H e r m o p o h s letters. contrast the abovequoted n-m as "handlungsorientiert: imperfektiv" with 'rtm as "ergebnisorientiert: perfekliv. vb'vb ncoQ mn. built of hewn stones. 1:183. He further notes (1969:205-7) that this rule does not apply to BA and QA.9 quoted a b o v e : the payment of the capital along with the interest falls due monthly. which is to be contrasted with ib. Classical Syriac has developed a different kind of complementary distribution of the two sequences: see Muraoka 1997a: § 86-87. see above. for it is a substantivally used participle. The participle precedes the auxiliary m n . That at A4. . and give (it in exchange) for beams and leave . force.' The interpretation .2:5. 'be his successor.. and that with a few intervening words indicates a non-periphrastic syntagm: p2 5 -l pir\ nin 'T n'7-os 'there were five stone gates. but we fail to see that the syntagm indicates "more purposive intention or volition. with Hug (1993:118)... when it is an internal passive. as his own translation suggests. habit or such like.3 -T .' does not belong here. (^''^) With the impf.7:2) 'Keep an eye on Tashai' followed by 'rbm 'and send word!' ib. 3 : l l (sim. F o r an e x a m p l e with a jussive (A2. 12 a n d c p n b "imn 5 ] E n 'Dispatch to m e 5 handfuls of castor oil' followed by -in-i n n 3 3 p2m ]1D7 ]3T 'and let him keep buying beams and leaving (them) in his house' A2. and besides a pronominal object of a participle is mediated by the preposition Lamed. What Greenfield (1969:201) quotes as the only OA example." So also Greenfield 1969:204f. A2.I I I I c: § ^3 ^ take barley .!' A2.„v^v^ R/\IS. whereas the interest on arrears k e e p s g r o w i n g from m o n t h to month.: dm nin^ 'I shall be repaying (by instalments)' B4. The subUe difference between this periphrastic tense and the plain tense is matched by a difference in preposition: .t<-nK 'a lion will be lying in wait for a stag' C l .2:14 (with a jussive).9. vmm 'the altar which.

eFeStSucrKeTo Trop(})upav) 'he used to dress in purple. A4. . the sequence is reversed.7:15.. is used.19 la.9:3. wear": 'we were wearing sackcloth and fasting and praying to YHW.. On a similar nuance of the corresponding stmcture in B H . following mn and emphasising repetition and iteration of action: n n r n o m n ympb -t bnpb 'in accordance with what used to be done till (some) time ago' A4.5:4. ev8e8v[ievo<s . but rather the m o m e n t this happened.10:17.ves (h)wa:' bu^a:' (Gk. this is elliptic for yb)iD ]-im yjy)^ ym yin ]mb.' A6. The periphrastic stmcture here is thus akin to the inchoative use of the Greek imperfect.6 Ivis (h)wa:' Ivusa:' d-sa'ra:' d-gamle(Gk.9:10. A 4 . . fasting and praying etc. parallel to n-niD.'C^*) See also n n THDI nnn 'Be happy and strong!' A4.5:3 // "nvn: nn'^s n n 'Do serve the Lord of the T w o T m t h s ' ib. however. the ptc.]: -T bD") -pb^ nbm n-in jbv nnm m n 'I would send (to enquire about) pluperfect force. That a stative verb such as buD displays this syntagm is easy to comprehend: n n n biD 'I was impotent' B3. An exception is irab vbn n-in 'I w a s full of anger at you' A3.7:5.4:4: this shows that tD-b^ is not fully verbal. "to put on.. cf. not an action (§ 77 bk). see Jouon . 'rejoicing' (nnn).. Peshitta Mk 1." Cp.4. dressed" and not as fientive..8:14) we are to take the verb mb as stative. A4.10:8. In only one case we find the s y n t a g m [mn + pc. "p -in.o i T3iJ 'when this had been done (to us). One of the e x a m p l e s just quoted above. w a s built from (a long) time ago' A4. 1 0 : 9 .' Thus the possibility of defective spelling for \m''2b is not to be excluded.nbw 'Let h i m have the right .8:3 where nnn is.' T h e meaning cannot be that when all this destmction had taken place.MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 207 in Elepiiantine the fortress. T h e clause is introduced by n 3 0 . See also nn..n T 'Let it be k n o w n to you!' A6.. This syntagm shares with the nominal clause expanded by mn following the predicate the feature that both describe a state.' A6. . W h e n the external passive ptc. contains three participles sharing one auxiliary: yry}ii yir] ]mb yb)SD\ Since the last t w o are fientive verbs. r\v .) 'was dressed with a robe of camel-hair' with Lk 16. most likely adjectival (nnrj?) rather than a fientive active participle. nn nmnn noit^ Dip p 'Be blessed before Osiris!' D20. "to be wearing. Tin ynn ]y\mv 'they held appointment as pressers (?) .7:15 (sim.7:3 // A4. .M u r a o k a 1993: § 121 g. they were out there doing this and that. they were already out there. In Mb yb^ini yn'^ii yin pjb ipp© A4.

v^nnn bvnb vb 'they did not succeed in entering the fortress' A6. the subject of an infinitive is not indicated by a conjunctive pronoun attached to it nor by a noun within the infinitive phrase.8:23. indicating the purpose of an action: "they assembled.bT\D .24:15. c) Another use of the infinitive is final.'2ii as in vbyn ynn nbmb bnjv vb 'I shall not be able to serve in the gate of the palace' C l . This is obviously not the case in the following examples: non i nnnb -pi vnn vnn b nnn. ...18 i-n?"? QnKii nvn nta vb 'it is not good for a man to be alone' with TO ^^iTi^'?3 ui^ ' n n |'j?n vb and Pesh. mnnb p pntD vb 'they do not allow us to build it' A4.1:3.9.8:2. Likewise vmb vnvn nmb rb nnb^ 'I sent to him (asking) to show the order to Hosea' D7. Infinitive a) The infinitive is a verb form which is always used in syntactical subordination to another verb or a noun.2:6.^^) b) On the use of the infinitive to complement verbs such as by . sim. d) Unlike in H e b r e w . ib./ your welfare [with whomevejr would be co[m]ing to you' A3.' B2.2:6(^^).. mb nvm vnnn -p i vnvn 'your big sheep arrived (for you) to shear (it) [= to be sheared]' D7. vninb nvD^n 'b -{wn 'they imposed on you the oath to swear for m e ' B2. pnb *]nn n-n[K] -pnnb b 'I c a m e to your house (to ask you) to give m e your daughter' B2. B3.1:15.24:16. . Gn 2.7:23.]n 'if your master deposits with you water in order (for you) to keep (it)' C l . l : 191.'you gave m e the gateway of your house (for me) to build a wall there' B2. The inf.7:7. In our idiom. see below at § 73 c. § 56.. l : 17 and ]nTib nnii 'you desire to give' B3.6:3. nnnb yn -{vnn np nps. went towards Dadarshu to do battle (yip nnvnby C2. Here also belongs vrhD 'b wnnnb nb nnb^ 'I sent to him (asking) to explain the matter to me' D7. can also be said to indicate a purpose. it is only rarely used as the subject of a nominal clause: see below at (i). A4.20:4. i n n vimb nvnin 'b -{wn 'they imposed upon you the oath to swear for m e by Y H W B2.3:3. la:' Mppir d-nehwe:'' ''a:da:m balkodaw. Here belong bv nmzb nmn 'Don't fail to come!' D7.208 PART III c: § 56 a . monb -{mbDV 'I shall not be able to restrain you from building . b mnnb nb nnbw Cp. bnov vb .4:14. sim. the subject of the infinitive is identical with that of the finite verb to which the infinitive is syntactically subordinate.1:6. as in examples dealt with above under (b) and (c).5:3.. sim. In many cases.

' A5..' B4.3:6. pb mnb . In all these cases.' D 7 . 4 : l l . though the rebuilding w o u l d be executed by the local Jewish community. 4 : l l ) .. the former is signalled in one w a y or another in the preceding part of the clause.' A3.' A2. nnn nnvnb nmn bv 'do not fail to c o m e tomorrow' D7." tDi^ is the logical subject of nnnb ( A 2 . being more final in function: to paraphrase.3:13.2:12.20:4... not only the verb of the infinitive is different. nm3Dnn['p n:]v pn^i 'I a m entitled to ^ Or possibly final: so Fitzmyer 1956:212. ^ We are inclined to see a defective spelling in [.. e) S o m e infinitives modify a noun: noD vmb pn 'ladles for carrying oil' B3.. 1:191. See also nnb n:v n'b^ vb -[JT t^rn 'you have no right to sell that house' B2..4:6 (^0 and .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 209 vubn 'I sent to him (asking) to explain the matter to me' D7.D D 'a king is beautiful to look at like sun (or: Shamash)' C 1. nnvb 'nnb 'you w e r e (so) full of anger at m e (as) to say .11:3.8:19. 9 : l l . . pnnb 7\2n 'its gate for exit' B3. 10.1:92. to bring to you' ib. . mnn n n t 'I bought striped cloth . pron. though not linked to iQt^ as the main verb. rbn mpn cmb 'salt to be put into flour' D7.. nnvb nnb^ 'I have sent (word).2:8.3:19 and inmb o'^ttJ rm 'you are entitled . are variations on this usage: . f) Some infinitives modify a verb or an adjective. In f T bv rmvm r\lDi±> 'Give thought to that temple to have (it re)built' A4. and the infinitive appears to be more closely b o u n d with the main verb than in the other examples. 4 : l l . there is a sense in which one could say that it was to be built by the Persian authorities.. In ] D 7 •nmi^iQ'p m nynv nvb 'nobody has been found yet to send them to you' A2.1:1 et passim....5:7. but not ofDimiDlQ'?.7:23. Perhaps belong here pb rrn^nb m nnynv r\b 'I haven't found anyone to bring (it) to you' A 2 . injHa':' o'7[to] *is entitled to take possession of...... nn:nb yn 'water to be watched over' C l .' B2.....2:7. fossilised nnvb introducing a direct speech may be so i n t e r p r e t e d ( ^ ) : . T h e following. nnv 'he said . saying .24:15.. N o explicit subject is to be found in the context in vb'n vpmb m o n vb 'and it [= the well] does not lack water to give to the troops' A4.. "I have searched for a carrier in order to send them to you. The ubiquitous. nnvb p van p -TD 'when w e had thus heard said .. . and expledn the preceding main word (epexegetical): mDD nrno'? -{bn I . w h e n c o m p a r e d with the earlier quoted A 2 . 'nbn . but so far n o carrier has been found.. nnvb ]'vnm 'you will hear say.. nnvb . though the subject of the infinitive differs from that of the main verb.. but the latter also has a conj. saying .

nbrmn 'Vin p mm in n o nb 'vnn bv p 'if it thus please m y lord.. § 57.. Jouon (1934:75)—"en addition" (accepted by Fitzmyer 1956:215). vb 'D ..3:5 w h e r e rhrw' lacks its grammatical subject. for it is not in your hands to lift your foot to put it down' C l .e. mom t^pJiiQ rmnnb 'upon (his) arrival the rebels rallied' ib." A6.1:9. has a-na ka-M-di. «]r 'Borrow the grain!' C l .g. confined to the expression unndb 'upon arriving (in such and such a place)." but '^u\r](^). 1 : 1 2 9 .4:17. i..7:8.210 PART IIIc: §56^-§57 bestow it. here (57). for example. let (word) b e sent .. onmnnaoi c n b n vm vwim 'TD vb'D nmnn]Q'? "pJi vm 'for it is not in the hands of men to lift their foot and put them down .. give thought (ntornt^) to to . T h e indirect and impersonal nature of such a request is evident in . pt 'Sell!' A3.' B4. the writer begins with a standard ]n 3t) bv..3:6. 100)..3:27. A6. tfanslation (p. The term "imperative" should not mislead us: it could b e used in addressing one's senior or superior: inv '•nt 'Buy wool' A2. ^ TAD A 101—impv. Imperative The imperaUve expresses a wish or c o m m a n d directed to the pereon(s) spoken to: e. then takes recourse to an indirect m o d e of speech. .. In an official petition.6:5 (addressing one's mother).C^) It does not occur in a well-formed clause.' A6. with which he indicates the desired general attitude and stance on the part of the authorities. sim.. g) The temporal function of the infinitive.41. and subsequently spells out... the jussive: e.20. ^ The Akk. by using the standard j u s s i v e . h) nsDin A6.2:17 in the midst of a lengthy catalogue is disputed ..' B7.. "Add. viz. i) Rare examples of the infinitive as the subject of a nominal clause are 'mp] b'imb 'b lun 'tomorrow I h a v e to go [to] my house' D7.8 the petitioner first uses the imperative.. 1:170. Grelot (1972:292)—"Additif:".g. vuin minnb 'upon arriving in Rakha'ib.' may be an Akkadianism: e. This leaves N'7D nn'D3 TS'^TD' vb 'he shall have no right to the entire house' B3.8:5. let a letter be sent from m y lord . inf in the Heb. specific actions which he wishes to b e taken: "if it please our lord.. m3Dn nn maob 'upon arriving (in) Media at Kundur' C 2 ..g.5:20 as the only case of Qbo) as a verb. nbrw nn 'Vin bv p 'if it please my lord. nor nnv ]n 'Make suit with him!' B2.7 and A4.13:2. Leander (1928: 60j) and Cowley (1923:96) —^long impv. In A4. 1 : 2 5 ( ^ ) .

8:22.. See also A4 . Regard Ctn) your obligees and friends w h o are here in Egypt.).. Let a letter be sent (Tibn^^) (A4 .7:23f. ^ " .MORPHOSYNTAX: THE VERB 211 that temple to have (it re)built.


.. Noun with a conjunctive pronoun a) T h e n o u n tDD3 'soul' is s o m e t i m e s . l 4 . d) A noun may be expanded by both a conjunctive pronoun So called reflexive. It stands to reason therefore that one often meets b mv and the like.. which is not the case with other people mentioned. may be expanded..PART FOUR SYNTAX SECTION A NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED The following paragraphs (§§ 58-71) will describe various ways in which a noun. m^m nps3 'the outlay of the province' i b . standing as the focal point of a phrase. sim. c) A noun with a conjunctive pronoun is at times definitely more determinate than other related syntagmata.15:5. c o m b i n e d with an appropriate conjunctive pronoun to stress the identity of the person indicated by it(^*): e. T h u s pm i n : rbD nn -33 nbm vb pnv mv) n^v^ nv nv) 'nv 'Another person—my mother or m y father.2:6. mnn 'he m a d e the wine . see § 4 0 and § 4 6 . b) O n the opposition between the synthetic syntagm such as . but never 'b nv or b nv. brother or sister. his own' A6.g. l 3 . sim.19:7 vs.5:19 where "my father" and "my mother" are unique. See also above at § 39 h. or another man—shall not have right to the w h o l e house' B3. Such an expanded noun phrase is endocentric in that it belongs to the same form class as the noun which is the head or nucleus of the phrase. l 3 ntDD3 npE[3] 'his personal out[lay]' C3.. itDE3 nnnn 'with your o w n he-ass' i b . 1 : 4 . § 58.n n 'my house' and the analytic one such as bl (t^)n-3 or b n n . jDn: 'your own seed' B l . B7. umt? 12V . i b .

.11:6.3:19 should be rendered: 'that land is yours. 7 : 1 . 12 IT Kp-i« B2.8:2 and mip ibi mnv 'its early wool' (?) ib. In all these cases the hierarchy appears tobe [N. which can only mean 'Build that land up!.D . d) A noun phrase may consist of a noun head followed by a demonstrative pronoun: "pl "|T «i3t^ 'that wall of yours' B2. B3. ibi -[T t^iat^ 'that wall of his' ib. Exceptional are mm ip i mm 'your big sheep' D7. vbi mi mi) 'our large vessel' C3.11:5. nbi mn im 'the wall of its house' B3. Cowley (1923:25) sees a nominal clause in B2.lO.19) on the ground that there is a space before « p ~ i « . and Grelot 1972:179 ("pour (le) donner h d'autres ce terrain qui t'appartient").('"^) Jouon's argument is that a phrase such as ipi mn.D l 'tiie value of those slaves of mine' B 8 . 1 0 : 8 ( ^ ) .n 'Build ^ On the incongruence (]r\m for «'3nnN). because the context is different and there is unmistakable emphasis in the latter on the ownership of the plot of the land. which in theory could mean "the house is yours. ^'•^ Jouon 1934:20f. b) A preceding noun phrase m a y consist of a construct chain or its analytical equivalent as in "pl mn i?in 'the gate of your house' B 2 ." for the former would b e expressed as in ipi mn or b^n-D ~|n-3.' does not support Jouon's interpretation of the phrase under consideration at B2.' though this leads to a case of object deletion. Noun with a disjunctive possessive pronoun a) A disjunctive possessive pronoun expanding a noun head or a noun phrase always and typically follows the latter as in 1 3 rt>i 'a son of his' B2.4:5.V T . 3 : l . see below § 76 d. 'bi n n n 'my estate' A6. 1 : 3 . bi -|niD inv 'a Cretan slave of m i n e ' B 8 .11:5. +(N2+N3)]. .3:26.3:19 (= Cowley 8. c) A preceding noun phrase may consist of a noun followed by an adjective as in bl pnv wbv 'another servant of mine' A6." means in practice "your house. § 77 bn and § 90 b. See further below. But since the publication of Jouon's study a new text has been brought to light with the very sequence in question.3:19.214 PART IV a: §58d-§60G and a demonstrative pronoun: "pv nnv .i n -•p-T mm 'my large r o o m ' B3. for the phrase is followed by nm . which cannot m e a n a n y t h i n g but "the h o u s e is y o u r s " : "pi mn B3.1:6. .10:2.12:30. though the space is not that large.4. hardly 'your house-gate'.10:4.[ T vpiv B2.3:19 h a s also been interpreted by some authorities in a similar fashion. 'bi p i n ^ 'other goods of mine' A 6 .(^") T h u s the above-quoted text of B2. § 59.28:108.

U'TbVi. Comparing this s y n t a g m and that discussed above in § d one might say that a demonstrative pronoun possesses a greater degree of cohesion with a head n o u n than a locative expression. g) Some ambiguity may arise where a disjunctive possessive pronoun is preceded by two or m o r e coordinate terms: li^ vil} p bl ]r\m VOD: p 'in the domestic staff or other g o o d s that are mine' A6. ib. § 58 c. Is 40. § 60. IKg 18... and is largely confined ^'^ Cf.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 215 (up) and give . vt>l VODTI Vil^t 'the domestic staff and goods that are ours' i b . ISm 16. Ezr 4. Even Barth (1911:50) explicitly denies its existence.10:8 w h e r e bl likely qualifies both of the preceding terms.' . though he duly notes the syntagm in Hebrew.16 'ala:ha:' ne'^ne:" Sla-. Noun with the preposition Lamed of ownership or affiliation a) T h e syntagm [Noun + b + Conjunctive Pronoun or Noun] is often used as a substitute for a synthetic c o n s t m c t chain.9:2. 62. A phrase such as pi vnTian n vm would most likely mean 'the estate in our province' rather than 'our estate in the province.2:4-9. n bi vnn DDnrim ' m y e s t a t e w h i c h is in y o u r p r o v i n c e ( s ) ' A6.Muraoka 1991: 130 a-c)." B7.' Cf.. Gn 41.3 pannaw^urfja:^ lnia:rya:^watro^ bafqaHa:' Svile:' lala. in which it is fairly widespread (Joiion . Gn 45.7:5. The following Syriac examples have come to our notice: Hos 2.22 nviya:^ lala:ha:^ rr\Trb Brockelmann (1913: §160) does not quote any example from Aramaic or Syriac.han.4:5. cf. This construction does not appear to be widely known among Semitists.8 'ava.^ tfer^on nris'? Trarepa <I>apaa). ' n .. mostly where the first noun is indefinite("^).10pannaw "urlvi:'' I'amma:" uvn "^li m. l . e) A noun followed b y a disjunctive possessive pronoun m a y b e further followed b y a p h r a s e indicating a location introduced by as in mTiUHi mbvn i bi vn ]-3 'in my domains which are in the U p p e r and L o w e r (Egypt)' A6. B2.18 bra:^ lisay 'tb ]3.1 bnayya:' lala:ha:' hoyya:' 13.' f) That this s y n t a g m is well suited to bring out contrast seems to b e indicated b y the following example: "Yo[u brok]e [into my house] b y force and struck my wife (-nrat^*? nnnyi) ." {and the person denying the charge speaking} "I did [not] break into your house by force and I did not strike the wife of yours (Twn-D vb Ipl mnmb)).14 ga'ra:' Imalka:" KD ^D nni?..ma:" Ifer'on niJ-jB DiVd n?r. This use of the preposition Lamed is most likely affiliated with its use in the nominal clause expressing possession as in mn"':' niri (Peshitta: fjarba:^ lma:rya:^ walged^on) 'the Lord and Gideon have a sword.

10:23.2:7. partner-in-chattel and partner-in-land and guarantor of ours' B3. on the analogy of n-b pb. In other words. B3.T nn. B3.216 PART IV a: % 60 b .12:l im n VTb B3. Such a force of the L a m e d is illustrated in yinv yn m mn. This is a reworked version of in" -T pb at line 1. as is also evident in 'Dbi mv) 'Db nnni nn 'a son and daughter of yours and a m a n of yours' B2.4:3.T mn*? (f.C") T h e noun following such a b indicates the owner. B3.) B3.C"') Here belongs most likely the ubiquitous bnb as in niDT nn J±>m DT-m bnh yo -T -ont^ 'Meshullam son of Zaccur. an error for HranQ*??).11:9 and mv'] nrat^i .B 'my children. p m yn pl mv) ynv) 'our sons and o u r daughters and our brothers and a ^'^ So Kutscher (1972:102-4).12:10r0 with -T nm -t ]nb B3. um "Dm K n m -DnnK "D'nb) 'and the house is y o u r house likewise and your children's after you' B 2 .11:17. The only example in a non-legal document is KriD*? T p s 'an official of the province' A4. T h e distribution of this syntagm is thus semantically conditioned: the second term indicates an animate entity.3:12 where there is no perceptible functional opposition between the t w o structures. b) Instmctive is a study of the variety of titles given to "a servitor of YHW":r'^'') with b mb ]nb B3. B3. and a w o m a n or a m a n related to m e ' 32. See also Porten 1996:205.10:2. B 3 . a brother and a sister of ours. an architect in the service of Syene.8:2 .7:2. 1 1 : l .2:2. B3.h to legal documents .12:27. an Aramaean of Syene of the detachment of Varyazata' B3. Syene can perhaps be considered to be a personal entity. B3. Likewise p nn is equal to ]^. "'^ In this last example.-p 'he shall be yours and of your sons after you' B2. vnnn yob bDnnv 'a builder of Syene the fortress' B2.3:2. possessor. authority above or relative of what is indicated by the first noun.2:6 (Hann*?. 5.10:10.1:9.3:2 im -T ]nb B3. not every construct phrase can be transformed into this analytic form.12:33 i m .s. pmb pnv 'land belonging to Dargamana' B2. though this does not by itself mean that it is an archaic feature. a s shown by pl aniKi n-aan p nnm nv nnni p nn 'a son of ours and a daughter.5:2. . 3 : 1 5 .12:2 S o m e of the above examples show that the syntagm [Noun + b] is synonymous with that mediated by n.4:25 )mb ]rb B3. This standing expression with bnb is never replaced by any other m o d e of expansion of noun phmses. B3. n. Further examples are nb nD 'a son of his' B2.

B3. Thus Kr?n I'lm p yn m "p'l 'the h o u s e is yours indeed and of your children after you' B3.10:18. for the good of.-T ]ub B 3 . for in the former the preposition Lamed must be present whether the second member is a noun or pronoun: p^ D"}3n 'my vineyard' and "p^b^ won 'the king's vineyard. a servitor serving. and not Tin':' m.. similarly B2. pron. there is a morphosyntactically conditioned complementary distribution: [-b'\ + conj. h) T h e L a m e d in pb at -T pb^ yim p yn m Dt^ -pi mpD nnb n-nii B3. YHW is immaterial. On the MH form.4:16 is not of the kind under discussion here as becomes clear when one c o m p a r e s it with y m'DD n'b\D .10:8. since. two noun phrases joined by either b or -T. as represented in in. which becomes in-*? ]ub in its rewritten version. both 'b nn 'a son of mine' and M'b ]nb 'a servitor of Yaho's' are attested.] and [Noun + b N o u n ] is evident in: nnm "D'lob) UBV -Dnn mn 'the house is your house likewise and of your children after you' B2.2:6) resembles the dativus commodi. for such an analysis cannot be made to apply to p 13 which is to pl 12. yes. the predicative one may represent the earlier stage of this use of Lamed and the disjunctive possessive b'^.4:16. See also 'bl mn 'b m m 'b nn 'bl 3DniNi n m 'son of mine or daughter of mine or partner-in-chattel of mine or parter-in-land of mine' B3.2:7. 1 2 : 1 . of m e .(^''') c) T h e synonymity of the s y n t a g m [Noun + Conj. d) Another type of synonymity is between the two syntagmata mentioned above under [b]. .' The two Aramaic syntagmata. line 10.11:8. See also B2. ^" Thus the often-mentioned resemblance between LBH (MH in particular) and Aramaic in this respect is significantly incomplete.9.7:7 and n3K Kn ]nann^ pn« nm vb 'it was not land of Dargamana.9:10 // DDb mv\ UDTW OD-n 'your sons and your brothers and a person of yours' ib. 11. see Pennacchietti (1968:56). me' B2.. T h i s is remarkable.] as against [-T + noun p h r a s e ] . In other words.! + * ? + N o u n ] does not occur. must have had different origins. what in''? pb is to in" 'i pb. g) A variation on the pattern just mentioned ([/]) is represented by the opposition in 'D'lnv p 'D'nb) in 'Db'i 'it is yours and your sons after you' B2. ^'^^ For a similar line of thinking. see Yalon 1964:26f. where no -T is used. and Kutscher 1956:1 Of.3:15. pron. rat^ That the Lamed in a phrase like -irrb pb (likewise in v^rmb Tps 'an official of the province' A4. e) T h o u g h o u t n u m b e r e d in our corpus by the attributive use.5:4. as we have seen above.i'^^^'') f) The syntagm [ . though both being analytic in character.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 217 person of ours' B2.

C"^) For m o r e examples. on which see Naveh 1970:27f. How to "back-transform" a given construct phrase could result in more than one clause: thus Kroeze .10:18(''') b mv) nnm ]n o r a i 'and in the n a m e of children or w o m a n or man of mine' B2. 4 : l l 'you . § 42 e.3:3. nomen rectum. More than one classification system is known. with identical referent] there are attested a number of altemative patterns with respect to the position of the syntagm and its repetition or otherwise: "br^ a3-nt%i nm bi mn 'b nnm b -n 'son of mine or daughter of mine. See also u±> Gr^i nn3«i m m yours' B2.g." As noted by Whitehead (1974:219).15:8. The letter Nun here has the shape of a medial Nun. woman or man of yours' B2. have right to that house and (so do) your chi dren after you and one to w h o m you desire to give (it)': n pb = rb n ]Q.' but 'my o w n son'C*^'). pron.cf. l : 139 the syntactic relationship between the three constituents is '(nn + m).^'^'') The former. brother or sister. See also UDb ©"«i nn]« nnw n« UDb m m 'son or daughter of yours. see § 10 c... § 61. w o m a n or man' B2. 'son or daughter or woman or man of Also Lindenberger (1985:504) and Kottsieper (1990:16) "mein eigener Sohn. Goshen-Gottstein 1949. displays a remarkably rich variety of relationships. ^'^ See on the relative clause. not 'nn + in 'the son of m y belly. Noun in the status constructus a) In "nn m C l . which is the noun head. b) T h e close semantic cohesion('^^) of the two constituent nouns of a constmct phrase is sometimes reflected in their being spelled together: e. B H "^3^3 n s and see below at § d. and cf.10:13. w e frndn"? breaking up a genitive phrase in 'Wna l ub t<m3 'the domestic staff of my lady' A6. y\)invi 'dyer's stone' A4. c) T h e l o g i c o . partner-in-chattel w h o is mine or partner-in-land or guarantor w h o is mine' B3.I0:14.s e m a n t i c relationships b e t w e e n a n o m e n regens.10:12(^^«) nniv m m "b -Q 'son of mine or daughter. and a following.C'^) i) W h e r e more than one N P is to be qualified by a syntagm [b + conj.218 P A R T I V a: §60/-§61c(i) pnb nn:^ n pb) jnm p J 3 m B 3 .10:I0.

Quirk. l 7 2 .4:4. Cf.g." E. "my eyes. N2 possesses or owns .' calhng themselves yinv.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXP AN U h U ziy in tiie status constructus. a) vbDi T2 'in the hand of the merchants' A4. n n n 'the (1993:77) back-transforms o . W h e r e not every one of these three m o d e s of linkage is attested in our corpus. nomen regens.Muraoka 1993: § 129t/-/i. nnnc) 'the names of the women' A4.f^^) i) possessiveC^y.m i Tbvi to "the God who created heaven. Moreover. including claim and . Jouon . (b) synthetically by N2 taking the form of a conjunctive pronoun.mat^ vnbv 'the temple of Y H W the god' B3. such a "possessive" interpretation is patently inappropriate. im bn 'the army of Assyria' ib. yi^^n nbv "im 'the temples of the gods of Egypt' A4. Curme 1931:77-88. N.90. O n e may thus c o m p a r e the tide " IIPK "pn 'the king of Assyria' C 1.5 in a description of his succession.13:6+.1:4 w i t h mmn "pn ib. Such relationships may b e classified in terms of underlying syntactic relationships. Waltke-O'Connor 1990: 143-54. is defined and delimited by the latter in a variety of ways. VDbn n n 'the house of the king' B3.7:14. Morphologically N.4:9. So an e x a m p l e such as n . . pKnnoK -sat'.n m OD 'the n a m e of his father' i b . and Nj stand for the referent symbolised by the first noun.99.m n n n mmv 'the slaves of Mibtahiah' B 2 .55. vDbn mK3 'by the voice of the king' A4. Possession understood in a rather broad sense. and (c) analytically by m e a n s of l/n. n n D lib 'the heart of his colleague' ib. l 3 2 ." but it could equally be transformed into "the God who dwells in heaven. l : 14. may be linked with NjC") (a) by the way of construct chain.r n VDbD 'the j u d g e s of the king' B5. w h i c h has b e e n placed b e l o w under (ii) relational could arguably be classified under (i) possessive. Such a possession can b e inalienable as is the case wiUi b o d y parts. whereas the "relational" one can cover both. a slave in the ancient world is a possession of his master.1:4. "vbv ' "Ti 'the ribs of a dragon' ib. it is not always possible to determine whether it is due to incomplete attestation or not. JDm viu 'with your o w n seed' B 1. nomen rectum.1:63 is to be interpreted in this light.7:7+." See also Kroeze 1991 and Kroeze 1997. voba I'^v 'the treasury of the king' B3. Greenbaum. the lad (?) of mine' C 1. and the second noun. Folmer 1995:262-325. 1 1 : 3 .2:14. .1:3. Again. the assignment of a given phrase to one or other of the logico-semantic categories is not always certain. 'the face of Esarhaddon' C l . in.3:4. pbv "TV 'the eyes of gods' i b . Leech & Svartvik 1972:193. nna |n 'the grace of a man' i b . It is an intriguing sociological question how vtitTbs at bl t^n'br Kono 'the eunuch. l 3 8 . respectively. But when officers in the Persian administration address their superior with 'our lord.

"D"0D 'your cover' i b . Dn-nm nnnn: 'their goods and houses' C2. l 8 4 . vnTin "nnn 'the scribes of the province' A 6 .3:9. b) bpn 'my field' B l .1:4. nn" n n s 'the governor of Judah' A 4 . B8.3:7+. vnbn n vnnon 'the barque of the k i n g ' C 1.3:3+. vnnn "Ti 'the j u d g e s of the province' A5.| S D D 'your silver' B 3 . c) W i r vnbn n 'the barley-house (?) of the king' A4. 7 E v l : l l . l : l .™ 'the temple of Y H W ' A4. nmaD 'his colleagues' A 4 . n m 'his garment' C 1.5. nnn 'my sword' ib. l : 105. -"^-T K n n 'my estate' A6.1:81. l 3 2 . n)nv ipn 'the king of Asssyria' C 1.. l 2 6 . nnnn 'his glory' ib. . nn M 'the son of Punesh' C 1. nD3n 'his palate' i b .4:2. np"nv n m a s 'the corpse of Ahiqar' C 1. ]-ra "our houses' B4.7. nrbn 'their leg' C l . nnaa po 'chief of the carpenters' A6. vnbv Da mv 'servant of N a b u the god' B8. I T -T ^ n n i Q 'the altar of Y H W ' ib.9:4. "nn "\ vb"n 'th€ army of Media* C2.5:9. ny 'my property' A6. E..10:14.5:5. -[nnv 'your lot' i b . 4 : 8 . -fCDn 'your arrow' i b .2:2. nvnn 'her arm' D7. with a p r o l e p t i c pronoun— "b)m n nn -3 'the house of A. 5 : l l . l 6 7 . DDT 'your hand' A4. l l .. l : 3 . nn"nn 'their o w n e r s ' A4.220 PART IV a: § 61 c (ii) . nbvn 'her husband' B2.3 ^ "nn 'the young m e n of my father' ib. nbnp 'his neck' i b . nnnn nnn 'the daughter of Mahsah' B2.1:39.1:41.1:4+. vnbn n NiDiiK 'the treasury of the king' B3.2:7.1. pnb 'our heart' B2. jnn: 'your bones' C 1.l 10. l 3 0 . b) npnv 'your servant' A l . l : l . .g. l 3 . nmst^) 'his lips' i b . nnnn 'their mouth' i b . l 2 . l : 4 8 . vb"n nn 'the troop commander' A4.6:14.4:4. a) vnn pbn 'the lord of kings' A l .(iii) sword of your troop' ib. man n "nn 'the way of K h n u m ' B 3 .9:8.1:81. -oa nn nnv 'Eder son of Pasai' A 2 .10:2.. DDS]« 'your face' A5.' B3. nb} 'my hide' i b . l 3 6 . 7 : l . ii) relational: someone is N. l 3 4 . inalienable possession such as parts of the body.92.4:9. l 6 7 . mc&n 'his flesh' i b . l : 170. "pbn 'my portion' i b . -{bn 'your mind' C1. l 8 4 . l 7 2 .-7'pn v±>B 'thehalf of yours'B3. -pn 'the king of Egypt' i b . nnn 'his blood' i b .3:8.4:8.91. nbD m n « nv 'the counsellor for the whole of Assyria' i b . l 3 2 . "b"^ « n n 'the residence of mine' C l .206. nnmDC? 'their names' i b . vnbv "ti2 'the houses of the gods' C 3 . "|C72D 'your soul' i b .26. nnrnv 'their ears . rbp 'his voice' ib. your mouth' C 1.7:6-i-. 7 : l . "]DS . nnvm nnmn 'his loyalty and his hateful characteristic' i b . l 6 4 . "TV 'my eyes' C l .2:1. 1 : l l . "nnv 'my wife' B3.6:4+('=^«). nnv 'his father' B3.4. "b"\ vb"n 'the army of mine' C2. "b"\ vpbn 'the portion of mine' B3. in relation to N j .7:26.1:16.3:5. n" -T t*. l 6 3 .7Cr2:12+. 1 : 1 1 . 1 : l . nnv 'my riches' ib.1 111:2 . VDbn 'Bbv 'the boats of the king' ib.63. -pn 'your name' A4.4:7.3:36.2:9.33. t^snna ^OD 'the silver of the men' C3.2:6. -t i na-so Dis'pa '1 s h i p of G l a p h y r o s ' C 3 .

g. the preposition Lamed can indicate possession or ownership as in m n b KID 'the land became mine' C2. bl -\nnD I2v 'a Cretan slave of mine' B 8 .2. l : 127. 5 : l . 1 3 : l .Tntonn i n"l2V 'the slaves of Mibtahiah' B2. 1 : l .11:6.7:3. B 5 . -331? -T -THK 'the brother of Anani'A4. l : 6 1 .1:17. Both "husband" and "wife" are terms of relationship. c) m 1 mnD 'the priests of Y H W A 4 .11:3.16:2 shows that the word . nnn nm 'in the montii of T a m m u z ' A4. bl o n o 'a eunuch of mine' C l . iii) appositive: N . t % T 3 3 n ^nDiDn 'the treasury accoutants' A6.15:8. m m 12 T r n 'son or daughter of Jezaniah' B 2 .SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE E X F A i N u t i i ^ .2:4. nm 'his mother' B3. I T n ]rh 'a servitor of Yaho' B3. On the other hand. who makes an interesting observation that in Elephantine marriage contracts a man's relationship to his bride is formally and explicitly recorded. Although a case like "jin may be assigned to (iv) origin (so Curme 1931:78).7:28.14:35.'the m o n t h of Phaophi' B 4 . on which see our discussion above.2:6.npw n'[3H] 'he will be bea[rer] of a seal for you' i b .9:10.2:4. T m nnn 'in the land of Nbyh' B8. B3. sim. l 9 . for instance.12:1.1:30. "^OD . l : 1 9 1 . is k n o w n under the name or symbol of. Our analysis does not take the history or etymology of the phrase into account: the abbreviated form n^o 'the Sabbath' D7.1:47. or expressible as E. DiJi n p 'a gardener of Khnum' B3. But then we are not saying that a "relative" construct or genitive phrase necessarily presupposes the preposition Lamed: see. C3. mnn m . 5 . C3.p yim yu 'he shall be yours and of your sons after you' B2. pi mv 'a person of ours' B2. m2V n)nv 1 'the father of Assyria' ib.7:4. B 4 . ib. bn nT--n 'the detachment of Varyazata' B2.13:54. 3 5 : 7 0 .'the month of Thoth' B 3 . "A Margian—^king over them (pnbv) they made" C2. K T p s bl 'the official of mine' A6. 1 0 : 1 3 . -n«~in -T cb «113 'the domestic staff of m y lady' A6.2:9 // "nn2V 'my wife' i b . our classification is supported by an utterance such as -n mn. n ""Q 'my son' C l . widi a proleptic pronoun— . 3p:. 4 : l .• 'your son' i h . The examples under discussion here may be better placed under that of possession: "her owner" and "my woman. m . ipi vnnv 'the wife of yours' B7. whereas her consent to the relationship is not. Compare also Tn^nKi? nnpTU n '3 [i:i] '[and the bearjer of the seal of Sennacherib' C 1.7:18. sim. "nvnb 6 nV2 'on the 6th day of Fitzmyer (1971:150). p « n ™ n 'n)2V 'the father of Esarhaddon' C 1.1:29.[ . yan 'your master' C l . innv 'your sister' B 3 . p 31 nyn iv 24 n 3 C D 'from the year 24 to the year 3 1 ' A5. 8 : 3 . 3 : 1 .11:12.10:10. 3 : l ." though the Hebrew 'd-K would present a problem.-m nvn 'the century of Nabuakab' C3.1:3 with -[b mn. nnti? DV 'the Sabbath day' 0 7 . wonders whether the translation "her husband" is strong enough.55.13:3. 1 thousand talents' A4. a) t^3 nTin 'the province of M e m p h i s ' A4. 5 .m 1 ]nD3D 'the value of silver.7Gr2:14.2:6.

8 8 . l : 2 8 .2:3 and the . E. nn"2 2" 'the fortress of Elephantine' A4.7:15. 1 2 : l . ]"n)in "nbv 'the gods of Egypt' C1. B3.6.222 PART IV a: § 61 c (iv) .86. V"aD vnn 'the lord of heaven' A4. -D3D T pi") (bn) '(the detachment of) V i d a m a of M e m p h i s ' C3.1:2. 1 v : l . That the nv here is in the st. c) if not a scribal error—-jrm T un^ mn 'Tamet by n a m e . and the like. 5 3 . sim. np'uv "bn 'the words of Ahiqar' C l . 2 : 1 1 . a) -nhq 'the welfare of my lord' A 3 .25.g. E. -pD nbn 'a king's word' B l . b) -pb^ 'your welfare' A 4 . c) ]1D -t -ont^ 'an A r a m a e a n of Syene' B2. '^^^ Cf. l : 168. Folmer's (1995:318) statement that the first term is always indeterminate is contradicted by one of her own examples.3:2C").' B2.3. See Lipinski 1994:200f. The syntagm b is highly unlikely. 4 : l . fc^nn-3 2" T ]m 'a lady of. vnpnv i n i . the fortress' B3. w h o is your handmaiden' B3.g. H e r e the syntagm b is highly unlikely.10:4.7Gr3:3. ]T)i nnn 'wine of Sidon' C3. 1 : 8 4 . is to be inferred by the analogy of r\7n: sec also Fitzmyer 1971:145.9:2.' B3. nm bn 'the words of Mannuki' B8.2 :15C^').2:3.. i b . nraiD 'his lies' i b . l : l . «-tJ?p i c-Q -t rbn 'a boatman of the rough waters' B 2 .9:2C^'^).12:2.. See § 68 c. 'the grain of the lands' ib.(xi) Paophi' A4.1:2.5:5 // tsimn T ib. c) mbn "\ V"bn 'the words of the k i n g ' C 1. l : 4 .'a Jew who is in the fortress of Elephantine' B2. d.C') One may assign here 1 1 nJK? -t T T I 'wine of year 11' C3.3:3. C l ..2:3.12:7.2:19. n h z ^ i n n s o 'the scribes of the treasury' B4.g. b) "bn 'my words' C l . vi) condition: Nj finds itself in a condition denoted by N . t!. 132. a) UDnv nnM 'the letter of A r s a m e s ' A6. y m-D3 m n ' 'a Jew in the fortress of E. . E. iv) origin: N.7:2. nnnv 'his counsel' C l . The notion of "locational" is more explicit in another syntagm exemplified in T nT33 1 -nn. E. i!. ]1D -t vb"n 2n 'the troop c o m m a n d e r of Syene' B2.4:12. originates in or from N2. V"b"np nnS3 'the total of the killed' was used as the name of the seventh day of the week.nn-3 T -t pmn. t^msK ranD 'the lies of his lips' ib. 1 : 1 2 .10:6. vnnn 2" ]dd 'a dweller of E. v) locational and temporality.-3tD n t o 'the welfare of the gazelle' C l . Dn-n'p« "2"D 'the pains of their gods' C1.'Jews of E l e p h a n t i n e the fortress' B2. a) v"n\D nbv 'the god of heaven' A4. a)pt^ Tia 'domestic staff of craftsmen' A6.g.8 I B B:36. jnnv 'your sayings' ib. our fourth under (c). \ii)membership: Nj consists of Nj's.2:19. l 3 3 .15:4. on-':'?: 'their words' B 8 . Nj is localised in N j . est.

l : 19. mnnn 'on the plam of the hand . with prolepsis— t^n-D -T nam 'its chamber. c) n-nn 1 vnn '(the) gateway of the hyt' B 3 . 1 0 : l l .18.lO. The syntagm b is rather unlikely in this category. m)Dbn mn 'the beginning of the reign' B 2 . a) yn'^n -pn "nr 'the period of the king of Egypt' A4. tJ^nam nsD 'the d o c u m e n t of sale/purchase' B3." vbnn vnn 'the palace gate' ib. Note "mb mp "\ 'my woolen garment' B8.2:16.1:72.12:31. d.7:9.8:45.11:5. bronze and iron utensils' B2.5:1. ]nD n 1 ]nD '1 linen tunic' A 3 . 2 : l .SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 223 C2. pnnn nnn 'document of withdrawal' B2. nb'O^ n *hewn stone..2:22+. -n-3 n-iT 'the corner of m y house' ib.g.1:3. na ^s 'half of it' B7.1:3. 1 0 : 1 5 .. also B3. B4. E. tDna n poD ' c u p s of b r o n z e ' C 3 . a ) ncoQ b]-B) E7ra 'bronze and iron nails' A6.. of the house' B 3 .g.g. nnv -T 1 mb *1 woolen garment* B2. -nn ntD^D 'the side of m y house' ib.7:19. C2.8. 1 3 : l l . like: see § 68 c. x) partitive: N.. N .2:12.l3.3:35. 6 : 1 9 . E. t^nn n3K 'the wall of the house' B3.4. . mOD n:ip ]n 'from part of the silver' B4. nbi vvnn 'its gate' 6 3 . l 7 .g.23. l 2 . P ] D D T tsinm n vcpn^n 'the gold and silver basins* i b . E.2:7.1:20. of the silver 1 sh(ekel)' A2. l : 1 2 1 . 1 : 1 0 4 .3:18. n ]i. sim. on the sole of the foot' B8..19.5:25+. a) "ppn nn nso 'land lease document' B l . 4 : l 1.1:9. 3 immediately followed by P ] O D OD 'silver cup' ib.20. 1 3 : 1 1 . stone slab* ib.7. TO nso 'document of wifehood' B3. «naK nso 'document of the wall. c) t^niiD n pxi 'detachments of the Egyptians' A4 .13. B 3 .5. is m a d e of or from E. 3 : l l . pbn nno 'document of our division' B2. xi) topical: N^ is about N j .. n^tc man nn 'the wall of the large room' B 3 .11:14.. 4 : 2 5 ...14. ix) time-span: 'N^ is a period of time during which a person referred to by N2 is active. nbD vvnv -S3N 'the face of the whole earth' B 2 . 5 : 3 .-!n 'stone gates* ib. i b .4:8. 1 ^ p]DD nn:ip 'its part. c) ivmnv vnv n 'the stone pillars' A4.' B2.8 :20. -pl « n n vnn 'the gateway of your house' B2. «n-n :bB 'half of the house' B 2 .6:10. n nso 'document of house' B2. bn^) m: ]m 'bronze and iron vessel' following ]n'7 n n 'brick house' B 3 . B3. 1 2 : 2 1 .44.l 1.7Ar2:4+. nn nm 'olive oil' B3 . B 3 .14.. 1 -[m mb ' 1 leather garment' A2 . same at ib..8:6. m: po) inp "\D±> •pnsT 'woolen and linen garments. l : 8 6 . b) mvnn 'its gates' C l .9:5. byinDn .7:13.3:6. mm nn 'portion of the oil' C3. vbyn nn 'the gate of the palace' C l . 1 3 : l . «n3D ±>n 'half of the portion' B5. is part of Nj. a) vmm n n 'the nobles of the Jews' A4. -pnb -S3D 'the corners of your garment' i b . viii) materiali^ty. ]nb n n 'brick house' B3.6:4. l 0 7 . mm n n 'the bronze house' C l . l : 17. b) ynv "your days' C l .1:49.6:7.

-jrobn 'your c o n d u c t C2.8:31.l 14. 40). a) mt^ . -pD bbnn 'the speech of a king' C l . The syntagm c is rather unlikely. et done a I'etat ind6termin^ et non a I'^tat construit" (ib.7:7. sim.224 PART IV a: § 61 c [xii] . raiD 'east' B3. p. E.6..g.13:15.. Folmer 1995:312-17. c) mil l ipivb 'to meet Dadarshu' C2. Parallel to an apposition: nnou jciD fjni: ^OD w i r n « B2.4.10:l. l 4 0 .207.abs.1:44.92.5:6.10:15(^''). "]mQ IV) 'in your hfetime and even unto your death' B3. l'B3. b ) " [ m n r 'your service' C l . n p i K "Dii 'treaders of die earth' ib. (iii) above. B3. .28:79.7:17.6. though I fail to follow his logic: "DDT est h.. xii) subjective: N^ is performed by N j . vmv ynm 'the account of grain' C3. pOK nso 'document of obhgation' B8. E.g.10:16.13:6.g. mn 12V 'maker of the o i l .1:66.14. is for the purpose or in the service of N j . as shown by two phrases.56:6. ynm iin 'mohar for your sister' B3.11:4. B2. 1 0 : 9 .. xiii) objective: is affected by N . .8:39. E.4:2. -mom """nn 'in m y lifetime and upon my death' B2.[xixl "ISO 'document of gmin' B3.1:3C'^*). -nanap n n 'the house of the shrine' B 3 . ambush of battle' C 1. -non 'my wradi' i b .3:3. B3. DnnTniJ 'their work' ib. DS nt>n 'ambush of mouth . b ) "mbn 'particulars concerning if B3.9:14. 4 shekels' B3. -T naon c]OD 'cash in silver' B3. a) n o '(place where) the sun c o m e s out' B2.6:12. mentioned by Folmer (1995:317). . B5. b ) iiiV2 nao' 'proceeds to his help' C l .1:15 et passim. I'accusatif. ' C3.. ]n 'law of hatred' B3. a) vipn nn-3C7 'naming incision' B2. xv) purpose: N .) nST is in the st.11:10. analogous to the second example quoted here: 10 ]2nD PJOD p33K 'a penalty of silver 10 karsh' B3.11:4. 50 JonD e]DD B3. poio n D i ' t h o s e mounted on horses' C2. C f also .7:17 and i nn GTID pnvi '=pD 'silver.10:10. E. consists of Nj. B6.g. l : 2 1 .. 162. T i m m 1711 'its stairway and its courtyard . a penalty of one karsh. c) ITDV p i D c]OD n vnynv 'the penalty of silver. 1 1 : 3 .50. •"irn '(place where) die sun sets' ib. . its gate' B 3 . This category is further affiliated to that of apposition.2:8. vr\l iiv 'the wall of the stairway' B3. vmv inv 'the place of grain (= grain depot?) D7.. a) 4 pp^ ^OD nst 'a loan of silver. According to Jouon (1934:40f.1:83.9. Cf. jmn 'your sins' ib.... The first example suggests that p H K in the second cannot be in the st.9:7. b ) HDD. sim..8:5. B3. nmo ISO 'document of oath' B7. xiv) contentsi^^y N .6:8. l : 126. sim.. est. ten karsh' B2. DS nnsD 'the opening of the mouth' ib.8:4. l : 8 4 . sim. Akin to vii) membership.

pbi vi] 'pumpkin seed' ib. n. '''^ A caique of an Akkadian idiom. E. is bv2. I'p-n 2ir]2 'with your mighty sword' C 1.g. -[Dnn "bvn 'your friends' A4. "the temples of the gods of .7:l 1 the scribe initially wrote T"i« M p r 'cedar trees. "jT «nn rmn 'the measurements of diat house' B3. ftop vi\ 'cucumber seed' D7. . nm'v pD 'ytsryflsoC C3. 8 : 1 8 . unnnn bvn 'your friend' D7. ^ " ^ ^ C f Grelot (1972:417): "le sanctuaire de YahoA notre Dieu. a reading which agrees with tfie revised version at A4.l40. meanings of the first terms. DViD '(1) day old' D7. A considerable n u m b e r of them is comprised by those in which N .7:22.12:5. j Q m .2:4 xviii) qualitative: N . E. and others have to d o with values. ' ? n bvn 'a member of a detachment' B2. 2 7 : 2 2 .g. mt^ bvn 'a master of w a g e s (= employer)' ib. bed ta:bti. however. In some cases bvn denotes a person w h o is possessed of what is denoted by N2 or w h o is a member of a social or c o m m u n a l body denoted by N2. A Northwest Semitic lexical isogloss: see Porten 1996:143.3:2. 5 : 1 7 .2:7 This term is used by Folmer ( 1 9 9 5 : 3 l 7 f ) in a broader sense. E. l : 4 2 .2:7.7:23C^^). H e r e are gathered those e x a m p l e s in which we are not able to formulate a logcial relationship between the two terms. B3. bvn mnn vrinv 'the master of g o o d counsel' C l . 71. a ) n n c r 'a day of wind. It is to b e doubted that the syntagm b could occur in this category. S o m e indicate weights and measures. These are.lOO.37:2. 0 xvii) classificatory: N. T h u s "ant^ mbn 'the royal weights' i b . nns 'the stone(-weight)s of Ptah' B4.SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 225 xvi) speciesC"^): is a species of N .8:10.2:2.1:9.l:104. is characterised by Nj. E." perhaps in opposition to the above-quoted designation.g. -]T «pn« mnn 'the boundaries of Uiat land' B2.5:5.ODn ™ 'malicious witness' ib. " J D O D n m o 'the interest [5] pp^ i^OD 'mm 'its price [5] shekels' B3. VDrB bvn 'members of the table' C 3 .2:4. Other e x a m p l e s are m o r e difficult to classify. 1 1 : 1 1 . nnp bvn") bn bvn 'a m e m b e r of a detachment and a member of a t o w n ' B 2 . mbn rbpnn 'the royal measures' B 2 . a) ]V «^0D 'Greek silver' B3. and the other t w o are highly unlikely. 100 pD mn '100 years-old female' B 3 . 7 .9:8. immediately followed by an Aramaic gloss.6.g.. subsequently converting the first word to pps and adding l above the Hne. a windy day' Cl.11:4 (?). Only the syntagm a ) is attested. xix) miscellaneous. and the logical relationship between the two terms remains obscure. is to b e classified under the label of Nj. n" "bvn(^'') 'the citizens of Elephantine' A4. At A4. 7 : 1 0 . vmv "sbv 'grain boats' D7.1:3. a) m pv •alabaster stone' 6 3 .

So are -pub -S3D 'die corners of your garment' C l . i^nN "ino 'the concealment of the cedar' C l ..6:23+. h k e -pnj? nn 'my holy mountain' in B H ." . which are best analysed as l [ N i + Nj] + N3I. ^OD .' 'my o w n c h i l d ' O . pron.16. whereas ]n-3 'ni 'the price of o u r house' B3.226 P A R T I V a: §61^-/ on your silver' B 4 . 'our temple of Y H W the god'A4.3:6.7:13. 1 : 1 3 9 . + N J +N3]— yo -T vb'n nn 'the troop c o m m a n d e r of Syene' A5. -m3« UD 'the n a m e of his father' i b . 6 : 3 1 . bpn 2)n ISO 'land lease document' B l . Here we find a few cases of the syntagm b): mnm 'its measurements' B2.8:15.2:19. B3. B4.m 'silver value' B2.1:5.7Kv2:4+." but value of some commodity expressed in that of silver.2:7. -moinn 'its boundaries' B2.12:5. which. l : 1 1 1 .3:4..l4. f) W h e r e a s e q u e n c e IN. W e doubt indeed whether our idiom would allow here. + N j + N3 (= conj.7:6. and nn'nbv -D-D 'die pains of their gods' C1. l : 107.-T «mat!. their immediate constituent hierarchy can vary: [Nj + I N j + N3II—yn)in "pn -m.15. -nnp mb*. where is in the form of a conjunctive pronoun.23. + [ N j + N3II. e) On the other hand.e. and bvn DDnntD D7. l 6 2 . l 3 8 .11:7. d) In a concatenation of t w o or more successive est. i. 'nm 'its value' B2.9 (origin?).(^«'') Ambiguity arises where N3 is transformed into a conjunctive pronoun: e. t [ N .10:8.6.1:3. ]vin n-3 'the h o u s e of o u r lord' A4. fi -iD 'nbv 'im 'the temples of the gods of Egypt' ib. of the E g y p t i a n s ' A4. the analytical structure is u n a m b i g u o u s : nnp -T "mb 'my woolen garment' B 8 .1:4. nv:^ ^OD 'silver of hatred' B2. l : 19. does not mean "value of silver. mOD p n . vm -Qi 'the value of the natron' C3. however.)] is further followed by a demonstrative pronoun.15:8. 2 : 3 . pl vnbv in. a n d 'your friend' respectively.8:13.g.10:13 // nnbv 'nm vn-^an ' . m 'the value of your fish' B7. V'ODi -Di 'the value of the g o o d s ' B3.10:8+.12:5 is obviously of the type IN. 'your document of wifehood. 'D«tDS DDO 'the tax of Peteisi' C3. nnn nnnn 'the opening of his mouth' i b . 'Dnniv nso B3. "nvnn 1 Vli7 'the domestic staff of m y lady' A6.9. ':nn nn C l . 2 : 1 6 .'the surplus of the silver' ib.7:3. r m i Q 'its i n t e r e s t .'the days of the king of Egypt' A4. |n-3 -Qi 'the price of our house' B3.8. n3T vino yi 'the law of this document' B 2 .11:8. i n t e r e s t a c c r u i n g from a l o a n ' B3. there could arise a Egypt(ians). nouns in which each constituent is subordinate to what precedes.2:8.

All the examples collected by Fitzmyer (1962:18) should be similarly interpreted. ] nynnn n:v -T 'you shall seek a (or: the place) where you will find [.2:4. nnpi bn bvn 'member of a detachment or town' B2. 1 3 : 1 1 m e a n s 'bronze utensil(s) and iron utensils' rather than utensils of alloy. + N3]]: e.8:6. namely IN. n. pace Kraeling (1969:242). l : 114.7:17. where one should note the st..(^'^«) i) In the light of s o m e A r a m a i c dialects and particularly Hebrew.7:12 // mOD -n mm 1 N -pim A 4 .'Cl.C"'«) ^ As against 'adopted child. m: ]m bnB) 3 3 . abs. + [N^ + "and" + N3]].2:12. though the latter is more likely. + N^] "and" IN. Similar consideration applies where the analytic syntagm is used as in f]ODi mm 1 'the gold and silver basins' A4.7:10. D O . and Muraoka 1987:50f on Syriac.Muraoka 1993: § 129 ^ ' ^ ^ The last example is mentioned by Degen (1979:43). det. with which compare n n i D nn -{b ]n3K vb 1 mm 'and the month in which I d o not give you interest' B4. not (pace Fitzmyer) as st.g. See also above at § 4 2 i> end. n n p bv2) bn bvn B2. 7. p'V mv 'blind with respect to eyes' ib. Cf Dn 7. bronze and iron utensils. p)m pv "^m '^nsi '^m ]nDi nnp "mh 'woolen and linen garments.. ..g. 8 : l l .10.. nnps: n nr p 'since the day that you left' ib. nb]V 1 nv p 'since the day that you went' A3.l:34. p mnv mmm V] 1 pvn 'at the time when this evil w a s done to us' A4. cannot be a participle.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 227 syntactic ambiguity as in -pv "inv m 'that value of my slaves' or 'the value of those slaves of mine' B 8 . see Joiion . nnn 'wise/skilful with respect to speech' C l .9 ppr p^np. -in« nvnn .10:17 one expects yn" no. h) A clause may occupy the slot of a nomen rectum: e. the syntagm may be shorthand for 1[N.(''*^) E.3. wooden and palm-leaf utensils' B2.215. cp. see also Lambdin 1971:318. See also •pnsi nnon 'bronze and iron nails' A6.212.' On a comparable syntactic phenomenon in Hebrew. of mm and die anaphoric nn. For an analysis similar to ours.1:9. iv [-]]b nTbm -T UT 'until the day that I pay it to ytouj' B4. g) W h e r e the second c o m p o n e n t consists of more than one coordinate term.9:5. See Muraoka 1977 on Biblical Hebrew. you should shear it' D7.g.2:3.C'*^ Likewise n urn mnn nai^mn 'on the day that you w a s h it. 7 : l . our idiom presumably also knew the use of the adjective in the status constmctus. f 3 T K mn 'deaf with respect to ears' ib.3:2. Instead of no 'old of days' B3.

228 PART IV a: §61. IN. with special reference to BA.. -bl (§ 59).e. N5]]]] is objective.(^'°) T h e r e s e e m to b e factors other than functional for which a-D is expected.11:4: [N.24 (with a few more analogous examples in this document and its revision. [N2 + ." where he must have meant that with such a zy the determination of the regens becomes unambiguous. A4. noun + demonstrative pronoun (§ 65). + [N. Here we shall focus on possible opposition between the t w o patterns..cst. A meticulous analysis by Folmer (1995:301-3) of the syntagm in which the first term is n-D does not appear to have resulted in a clear-cut demarcation between the two syntagmata.8). + . it does not seem to us always possible to e s t a b l i s h c l e a r functional opposition between the two stmctures. Folmer (1995:288) draws attention to an intriguing pmr of the two contrasting syntagmata: ]''iiin -n'pK 'Ti3« 'the temples of the gods of Egypt' A4. ^ ' ^ ^ This analytical structure has been studied in Muraoka 1966:153-55. i. must be considered determinate. though sufficient consideration is not given to the question which of the two nouns is accorded prominence. N5]] is species(?). noun + b with a noun or a conjunctive p r o n o u n (§ 60). phrase. for surely t^diD in -nn NonD 'the throne of my father. [N3 + . + noun] and [noun " T n o u n ] . Noun + n + Noun: periphrasis T h e question of possible opposition between various patterns joining a noun head and its modifier whether this latter be another noun or a possessive pronoun has already been examined under several headings: noun in the status constmctus + noun (§ 61). noun + a disjunctive possessive pronoun." but it represents diverse kinds of logico-semantic relationship. Folmer thinks . some features of opposition between this structure and the synthetic one have been identified.' for instance..T "T «-n3« 'the temple of YHW the god' ib.. whilst the last est. + [N. [N4 + N5] is classificatory. Despite s o m e past attempts to establish functional oppositions between the analytic stmcture with and the synthetic oneC^^)...-§62a j) An unusually long construct chain is exemphfied by mv nm'V ]ro n t nm 'maker of oil of seed of 'ytsry flax' C3. namely tnoun in the st. Not only is the hierachy "multi-storeyed.+ N5]]]]. Degen 1969:89: "Die Umschreibung des Genitivs mit zy wird notig. wenn das Regens determiniert ist. § 62. and in Garr 1990 where an attempt is made to demonstrate that the feature of prominence or importance is characteristic of the analytical structure. where. in Kaddari 1969 where the analytical structure has been discussed with reference to l A with the focus on the determinate or indeterminate nature of the nomen rectum. N5]]] is that of material. Folmer (1995:311) is sympathetic to Garr's position. + [N.7:14 as against NH'PK I.

pagan or otherwise. citing. though she does not draw the same conclusion as we.g.mat^ 'the temple of Y H W the god' B3." The issue is not only one of chronology. . According to Folmer (1995:311) "inalienable possession is expressed more frequently by the constmct noun phrase. See also Folmer (1995:259-325. vnbn pw 'the street of the king' B3. though in the bilingual the Assyrian version uses sa only in one out of die five cases. The last pair is mentioned by Folmer. nns 'the stone weights of Ptah' B4. who shows. there appear to be some semantic constraints on the choice of either of the two. But how does this square with the fact. Thus w e must now nuance the position expressed by Kaddari (1969:103) that the later a document. inter alia. VDbn 'nv 'the royal weights' B2.' A6. Hardly any functional opposition is evident between VT\bv in.7 are not free variants. At least one thing is certain: the analytic structure is not an innovation of l A . pace Whitehead (1974:266). in combination with a divine name. also stressed by Folmer. both by Haggai. In the course of his discussion of three distinct syntagmata used in English to express the "genitive. for the Tell Fekheriyeh bilingual has as many as five e x a m p l e s of it(^^")» which at the same time confirms the long-suspected Akkadian influence of the feature. 7\2D1 Di) noiD IDVB 'a statue of a horse with its rider' A6.-T «ma« B3. the more frequent the analytic structure becomes. perhaps almost a n a m e "King that the synthetic syntagm serves a purpose of showing that the phrase is about heathen gods.11:4 vs. Nor is the relatively sparing—so according to Whitehead—use of the analytical syntagm in the Arsames correspondence. Whitehead (1974:219) correctly states t h a t ' s n n r -T 'servants of A. synthetic and analytical." Jespersen (1909-31: 7. 284).2:14 +31x. esp.2:2.12:18. for the latter refers back to the former. both in very similar context and penned by the same scribe. min n t^n:iit^ B3.3:2 and -snni) niv ib. among others. that the analytic syntagm with kinship terms as N.4:8+6x.opposition involved. Likewise v±>n n:iit^ 'the royal treasury' B3. Haggai son of Shemaiah.'C^^^ If it is found difficult to establish clear functional oppositions between the two syntagmata. that n-n. indicative of "an early stage in the development of the language.318) mentions fixed phrases as a category where the genitive dominates. is especially frequent in texts of eastern origin.4:9.12:2 preceded by mn i j n D H D 'statues of a horseman. never enters the analytical syntagm? Muraoka 1983-84:101-3. a) There are certain collocations which occur only in the synthetic stmcture('^^): e." Thus no instance of the analytical syntagm is found in which the first term denotes part of body.4:9 and in.

c) The analytical stmcture is a handy substitute when the N .8IIIB:36. uMvn 'east* B 2 . is a Persian loan word.21 v"n^ nbmn vnn n s o *the scribe of the law of God ofHeaven. As pointed out by Folmer (1995:287). See § 40 end. Whitehead (1974:216) points out that. Similarly in BA: e.230 PART IV a: §62^.12. in a case like v"Q^ nbv n vnnnn n n *the altar of the God of Heaven* A4. the analytical structure is almost exclusively confined to cases where N. H e r e b e l o n g most likely t h o s e collocations with bvn as in wnntD vmv bvn *the master of good counsel* C l . and a concatenation of the four nouns as V"m Tbv nnnn n n is rather unlikely. bnm *troop commander* A 4 . [[N.5:17. So also in in indicating age: cnn *(1) day old* D7. 7 : 7 + 1 0 x O . na n n *the t e m p l e of Nabu* A 2 . lOO ]W mn *100 years-old female* B3. though for certain categories we have not sufficient data to allow us to r r ^ e confident assertions.2:4. 3 : l . This is "the king's English" as distinct from "the English of the king. in the Arsames correspondence.-/ Street" or "Royal Parade". bn bvn *member of a detachment* B2.e. See above § 10 c. tcm n «nDnQn *the treasury accountants* A6. b) Limited distribution is observable in some of the logicosemantic categories mentioned above (§ 48).9:3 the analytical structure has the advantage of u n a m b i guously formalising the hierachical stmcture obtaining between the four nouns. naN bvn *a master of wages (= employer)' ib. mVD *west*B2.37:2. 3 : 6 + l l x . «mnD "bvn *members of the table* C3. 100. i. Ezr 7. T h u s n s o *document.C^'*) d) A phrase of four concatenated construct nouns such as mentioned above in § 6 1 7 is extremely rare. an adjective c o m e s at the end of an analytical noun phrase.7:22. Not only that. l :42.* as in in3« n s o *document of wifehood* B3. foreign or otherwise^") as in n-[3 • n m *the temple of Y H W in Elephantine* A 3 . n n followed by a divine name. n" "bvn *the citizens of Elephantine* A4. •DnDCD bvn *your friend* D7. It is also doubtful that the analytical stmcture has ever been used to indicate apposition (§ 48 iii). 3 : l + .g. is always (27x) followed directly by another noun indicating the subject matter of the document (§ 48 xi).*C") e) In lists as found particularly in marriage contracts.8:45.7:15+lOx. + Nj] + [N3 + N4]]. is an indeclinable proper n o u n as in -S3Q n p n n (bn) *(the detachment of) V i d a m a of Memphis* C3. .27:22.1:3." The degree of cohesion is also indicated by the fact that the collocaiton is sometimes spelled without any space in-between.1:9.

our discussion in Muraoka 1966:153f The obscure. 6 : 1 2 . even when the pronoun modifies N . takes a cardinal numeral.21 in? nnb:* where Zipporah was one of Reuel's seven daughters. A generalising statement such as "determination [of N. mn pn -T i DDHS '1 new palm-leaf box(?)' i b . especially 'one.' f) W h e n N . 6 : l . the analytical syntagm is definitely preferred: e. mi 1 |OtD 'bronze plates' A6. Note also nnm nnv -t pn»^ mb 'another garment of finely-woven(?) wool' B2.6:10 where pnv functions like a quantifier. h) In the following case the u s e of the analytical stmcture is dictated by the fact that the N.6:7 must m e a n '1 n e w woolen garment. est... the analytical stmcture makes that explicit('^'): e. See Joiion - .' and is further qualified by a following n o u n p h r a s e . mw -t 1 t^oon '1 bronze bowl worth B 2 . yw 'bronze cups..6:7.] was demanded by the relative construction i t s e l f (Garr 1985:174) is simply false. 2' i b . a demonstrative pronoun may follow a constmct phrase [N. 2.C^'*) g) A s will be s h o w n in § 6 5 ^ .lO.. and that of the analytical syntagm are mutually exclusive. In the following case. and nbn [i m^b 'one worn garment' where nhn is opposed to mn 'new' and " ' T i mb nnn nnv B2. l 6 .: the use of the st.3:4. however. i) Where Nj is meant as indeterminate.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 231 evident in mn pu 1 1 DDns *1 n e w palm-leaf box(?)* 8 2 . being in the st. 4 : 1 0 . last word might be construed withra*?. ]3« n pnn 'stone gates' A4. 5 : l . ]3« n nb'on 'stone slab' ib.10:13..g. nnv i i mb '1 woolen garment' B3. Nor is it necessary to consider with Tsereteli (1991:1575) the possibility of N . consists of t w o coordinate nouns: nm« nn n-3r n nnn) nn 'son or daughter of Jezaniah son of Uriah' B2. T h e length of the N j phrase virtually precludes the use of the synthetic structure in ]-T vn:^ nnn nnn nnv -T i mb'l new woolen garment.g. B y the same token a noun with a possessive suffix is not necessarily determinate: Ex 2. m2 n i mn '1 bronze mirror' B 2 . 2 m: i p D . « n : i D -t pn 'detachments of the Egyptians' A 4 . worth . + N j ] . striped with d y e doubly-well' B2. . such a syntax would have resulted in a rather a w k w a r d phrase. See also . 6 : 1 1 where the adjective mn cannot modify the plural pn. O t h e r w i s e a w h o l e s a l e rewriting w o u l d have been necessary.' and not '1 garment of new wool.2:16 / / mi nnon Cf. l 2 . which m a y have been the reason for the choice of the analytical stmcture: vbn (or: vbn) cpn'p^nn n nnvn n nai 'this detachment (or: troop) of the century of Betheltakum' B 4 . 6 : l l // 2 torn n pn 'bronze cups..7:9. and this is the first mention of her in the story. est.' B 2 .

10:10.6:3. l 2 . -[b'r\ •nn 'the sword of your troops' (4). This applies to a disjunctive possessive pronoun.bn'n^N ' T D 'the pains of their gods' (19 ). voba -s'p « 'the boats of the king' (7 ). «d'pd -t N i n o n 'the barque of the king' (1 ).(^^') Private letters such as the Hermopolis papyri (A2A-7)C^) and the Padua letters (A3. contains only two analytical phrases: can .3-4) are remarkably and virtually free from the periphrastic stmcture. By contrast. 2 : 1 1 .11:6. bDinv vobn 'royal builder' B2. .-§63 'PTiST 'bronze and iron nails' i b .7:2+.6:2.7:2 // in-*? ]nb B3. whereas literary documents and private papers remained long i m m u n e to such an innovation.T vnv^ 'the barley of K h n u m ' D7. n-nn -t vnn 'gateway of the hyt' B 3 .«D'7D -T vcbD 'the words of the king' (3) vs.1:9+. QT ^nD .25). 2 .]TO n -nil*! 'Aramaean of Syene' B2.]-T:iD 'n'^t^ 'the gods of Egypt' (19. can b e safely assumed. C 1 . vnbv in.1-57. 'b)m -T . j) Kaddari (1969:103) has justly u n d e r h n e d the factor of genre as relevant and important to our question: the analytical structure is m o r e than three times as frequent in the narrative framework of Ahiqar as in the proverbs. In a document similar in nature to the narrative framework of Ahiqar.232 PART IV a: §62. D7.'s' B3.9:3 would have been ^ On the contrast to the structure with -b. k) This survey shows that the analytical stmcture by means of " T has opened u p n e w possibilities to express ideas and logical relationships which would otherwise have been outright impossible to express or which could have been at best expressed in rather clumsy m a n n e r s or circumlocutions. the tale of If or son of Punesh. The nameffi^TS nn has not been counted.57:4. v^p vn -t nbn 'boatman of the rough waters' B 2 . The sole exception is nC3] 'T mnn 'the son-in-law of Nabusha' A2. 1 0 : 1 5 . t^n^t^ D ]n -T ]]3 'gardener of Khnum die god' B3. see § 60.n 'the sons of their masters' (24). w e find only t w o instances of the analytical stmcture but six of the synthetic. H e n c e o n e may conclude that the analytical stmcture first pervaded official documents and annahstic accounts in which the influence of the language of the political masters. documents c o m p o s e d in the officialese of l A are replete with analytical -t phrases.39:3 and DP -T « n m 'the brother of Tarn' D7. ]rb i n 'brick house' B3.Q 'son of A. B3. Another set of d o c u m e n t s similar in nature.10 :2C^).4:21 // Tt> nnn 'daughter of his' ib.-t ]nb 'servitor of Y H W the G o d ' B3.22. Akkadian. without which a highly personal touch as in pi -noion 'Tetosiri of ours' D7.

mbn mt iit^nnoK -t -rrQ« 'the father of Esarhaddon this king' i b .' have their Akkadian model without a proleptic pronoun: e. see Barth 1911." Kutscher (1972:106-9) is in no doubt. Pennacchietti 1968. O : "the father of this E. § 63. cn -t ^^m^^^ 'the brother of T a m ' D7. 97a—the translator did not woric slavishly. A3.g. comparative-Semitic perspective.SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 233 impossible. C l . and Hopkins 1997a and idem.7:10. -t i n m 'the brother of Anani' i b . the king. m a s m\ .11:3. namely T bip^o^ 'under the protection o f and n rpisb 'to meet. it is unwarranted to speculate whether the n in. thus determinate. for a proper noun never takes a disjunctive pronoun.7:10.11:6.g. ina GIS. for instance.4.4:2. which shows perhaps the richest variety of proleptic constructions and the most extensive use of them this condition . Even under the assumption that the Aramaic version of the Bisitun inscription is a translation of the Akkadian—see.4:6. A2. for these two standing phrases coined apparently under the Akkadian influence. Given the high incidence of the feature.11:3. A3. See von Soden 1995: § 138 j-k. Prolepsis This is a typically Aramaicf*^) p h e n o m e n o n in which a noun syntactically dependent on the following noun receives in advance a conjunctive p r o n o u n in the third person agreeing with the latter in gender and number. and the two nouns are further linked by means of n: e.57:4. A4." In the case of Classical Syriac.' The ambiguity arising from the practice of writing n instead of in most of the Hermopolis letters (§ 1 6 / ) is resolved by Folmer (1995:277) by observing that "kinship terms in other texts never have the emphatic state form morpheme when they are the first term of a zy. 1997b. That the second term in this syntagm is always determined is rightly stressed by Folmer (1995:303). below at § 78 ch. is a graphic variant of N for the st. mostly a personal name. A2. L i k e w i s e pv mnnDU 1 nnDV 'the slaves of Mibtahiah our mother' B 2 . 1 1 : 3 .6:18. nbD mn« n noK 'the father of the entire Assyria' C 1 . Diem 1986. n. A6. The idiom is thus no longer a slavish Akkadianism.MI §a u-ra-mi-iz-da (line 50) and ana [tar]-$i '"da-da-[ar-su] (line 49). hoewever. For a wider. 4 7 f ^ ) .phrase.6:3 (probablyP^^]). A6.11:13. with the sole exception of npv vmn -t cn'T^i 'the hinges of those doors' A4. -t cn -Tii -pv V'mn 'the hinges of those doors' A4. Diem (1986:238f) plausibly seeks the origin of this type of prolepsis in apposition. l 8 .1:63. nbv vnbv i nnnv 'the mother of these lads' B2.(^''*) See Kaufman 1974:132—"to be ascribed at least partially to Babylonian influence.i p m n 'the corpse of this Ahiqar' C 1. det. l : 3 .10. always refers to a person. 1 : 5 5 .12:4. Other examples may be found at A2.

l5. also an infinitive. for to the latter there would correspond two syntagms. who states ". 1997b. both examples taken from Classical Syriac.: e. a prepositional phrase.(^'') applies to all types of prolepsis: Muraoka 1987: § 88. like Barth (1911:50) with respect to Classical Ethiopic and in view of structural similarities with some cognates. see Hopkins 1997a and idem.h l-malka:. This syntactic feature is attested from a very early period of our corpus: H e r m o p o l i s papyrus A 2 . 109. however. explains this syntagm as analogical development of a similar syntagm for the expression of the direct object of a verb. Folmer (1995:312). s f [= pronominal suffix] is found especially in combination with nouns which refer to slaves and real-estate property.3:5.4 (483).. who writes that it is "mostly found in the later texts. the proleptic pron. Muraoka 1997b: § 112.234 PART IV a: § 63 . who.(^^) O n e recalls a similar feature in Syr. 6 (end 6th/early 5th c ) .29.12:17 is extraordinary. For Aramaic. whilst in the first version of the text we read mi mnn ib. known to some Semitic languages.9. Reference to slaves as the first term we find only once (B2. A glance at our examples above contradicts Diem's (1986:238) position that in Early Aramaic this syntagm is typical of inalienable relationship. i.§ 65 a In the Bisitun inscrption (C2.1:10 and 3~ip iivnb mil i npivb 'they went towards Dadarshu to do battle' ib.e. t^nn mmnn 'the boundaries of the house' B3. C f the standard rendering in TO of B H . Gn 46. ^amme:h d-malka: 'with the king. an object of the verb. Her more general conclusions must be judged in the light of all the data and their evaluation.1) one often finds n b{b)ni 'with the protection o f (^''') and n p/vivb 'in order to face' used in a similar fashion. and only rarely in combination with other nouns. for instance. qatle:h l-malka:." See Muraoka 1995: § 109. B2. ^ See Noldeke 1898: § 222.6 (449). namely the standard and better known bayte:h d-malka: and the extremely rare bayte:h l-malka:.'C^^) If an authentic reading." would have to exclude a large number of examples in the Bisitun inscription with these two phrases.g. both classical and modern. and both are virtually prepositional in force: [iTjsmnm n nbm 'with the protection of Ahurama[zda]' C2. this would lead to a rather lopsided structure.. e.I1:3). In contrast to Rowley (102).C™) Prolepsis in our idiom has not been extended to other syntactic stmctures. Ahiqar (6th c ) . On this last syntagm. B4. Significantly Hopkins's as well as Barth's scheme lack .. Nor does our idiom attest to yet another proleptic syntagm. Muraoka 1997b: 112. Folmer (1995:309) mentions an example without prolepsis: rbv bbvn vcuD 'with the protection of the God of Heaven' A4. as is highly c o m m o n in Classical Syriac. bayte.g.

Degen (1979:42) has not demonstrated his assertion: "Nur betont stehen sie [= Demonstrativpronomina] voran. Is it of any significance that the sequence occurs three times in B2.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 235 § 64. however. Incidentally.10:3. further Jouon . The c h o i c e o f the s e q u e n c e w i t h a preceding demonstrative d o e s not appear to b e a matter of individual style(^") nor is there any historical d e v e l o p m e n t to b e o b s e r v e d . 7 : 7 . 9 : 8 . namely with n o relative pronoun. Folmer 1995: 325-40. Haggai.10:8. T o establish s o m e meaningful opposition b e t w e e n the t w o sequences is not easy. vnw vu 'in this year' B8.(^'^) a sixth syntagm of "possession.12:22. though in the great majority of cases it follows. s e e a b o v e .10:15 (extraposition in bothX'""). For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the relative clause. 7 : 2 0 .9:8. 7 : 1 5 .l5. Cf.15. which Hopkins merely mentions en passant (Hopkins 1997a:353 = idem. to three Syriac examples reportedly noticed by G. « n n n3t 'this h o u s e ' B 2 . 1997b:27). vnv "jn 'at that time' C 1.7 (lines 7. l : 9 5 .1I:7 with B3. 1:82 with a categorical negative: cf. Noun with a relative clause a) A noun phrase m a y be e x p a n d e d by a c l a u s e introduced b y the relative pronoun or .26. vm -[T 'that h o u s e ' B 2 . C1. Goldenberg we may add John 2.7:10. Noun with a demonstrative pronoun a) A demonstrative pronoun u s e d as a constituent o f a noun phrase m a y either p r e c e d e or f o l l o w its noun head. B3.2:5. On the extraposition or casus pendens construction. appears to be found in " I ' B C O wv nron n l ' l i p D no mnb') m i Q 'A m a n w h o s e stature is beautiful and w h o s e heart is g o o d i s l i k e a strong city' C l . § 42 a-b.i .1:70. The syntagm in question seems to us to be an extension of this latter. vm'vn v^ 'this evil' A4.('^^) S o m e examples o f preceding demonstratives are: « I D D n3T 'this d o c u m e n t ' B2. Cf.15) written by Nathan son of Ananiah and four times in three different documents penned by Mauziah son of Nathan (B2.10:I5 andB3.7:3. vb [3In':' 'a man with n o sense whatsoever' C l . B H m vb fi^ 'a land without anybody' Job 38.12. -pv VDDi 'those p o s s e s s i o n s ' B 2 .Muraoka 1993:§ 160 o.7:12. B2. b) A n e x t r e m e l y rare c a s e o f an asyndetic relative c l a u s e . t^-DD] nbv 'these p o s s e s s i o n s ' ib.fiTT]p TOO ' lT]aoO. vbn nbvn 'with these words' B8." namely bay l-malka: (§ 60).3 emme:h /wo'f) p.C^) § 65." . B3. the distinction between the two being in the determinedness feature of the first term. oa.5:11) ? Another scribe. wnr n3T 'this day' A 4 . see below § 79. is not strictly consistent: compare B3.

8:19 ).11:7. that is the validated one' B3. One may also note that the above-quoted sentence witht^n'3 mi nit at B3. following n3t mnb nb nnm n3« \h. though in this case the considerable distance between the initial phrase and the verb.. the marked sequence. were penned by the same scribe. O n e may also say that the ante-position of the demonstrative is suited to an emotionally charged d o c u m e n t such as A 4 . 5. In the former. "no new or old d o c u m e n t except this d o c u m e n t (Knso n3T)" B2." This syntax...10:22. rounding off an inclusio: thus "this house (riDT «nn) whose measurements and boundaries are written in this document . -T n]T i^n-n B 3 . while this document (n3t VTED) is in your hand" B 2 .. 1 gave it to you' B2. «-0D3 ibv 'these properties' B2. "This {this} house (vrrn n]T) whose boundaries and measurements are written in this d o c u m e n t " i b . h o w e v e r . that of cleft-sentence with extraposing in. Likewise at B2. as C f also njjr ivi y ][n 'from that time until this day' ib.." B 3 . -p nnn.9:8 rounding off a statement which started with V'ODi nn'V 'there are the(se) goods' ib. 3 : 1 8 . . is rather more personal in tone with the heiress named personally as "Jehoishma my daughter at my death in affection because she supported me when I was old of days. and in a second copy of same docur^ent.I0:15.. It m u s t b e admitted. l 5 .11:16 and nu-'D in '±> ninv uiv i n3T mnso 'this document which I m a d e for you. separated by a mere t w o years.. that in s o m e cases. H o w e v e r .10:8 and B3. does not automatically lead to the ante-position of the pronoun. as can be seen in .7:12. and are concerned with the same piece of property.20. Both statements constitute an inclusio. however.(^0 Contrast may be a conditioning factor in "That document (t^nEDD y) which they shall produce against you will be false .(^^) Likewise i b . 1 0 : l l vs.236 PART IV a: ^65 a-d In part of the Elephantine contracts the demonstrative pronoun precedes its noun head at the end of a logical sequence. display the identical syntactic feature.. 11. though essentially similar to the sentence with the reverse sequence at ib. we are confronted with a pair such as «-i30 n3T at line 16:3!^^ in raro 'W rr^m i «~iSD ni\ 'this document that I Anani have written is the valid one' B3. l 5 t^nn "jT. B2.7:7. T h e e m p h a s i s that may attach to the sequence in question is also reflected in the fact that the phrase constitutes a casus pendens and is resumed later by a pronoun: 'zb nmnrv mn n3T 'this house. 1 0 : l l . it may be possible to recognise a touch of emphasis.9:15.5. A4.. may have occasioned the addition of the resumptive pronoun to the verb. some ten words. 7 : vrm^m «T 'this wickedness' (line 17) and t^DV nirnr 'until this very day' (line 2 0 .

[vnbD ["]T a m n ] ] or [vnbn y [ a n T i ] ] [-]] [v'rb 2nTi]] or [y v'ru [mm]].f In mn pbn Hit 'this part of the house' B3. vnbn -ft xnin 'that curlike V. were the pronoun at the end of the phrase. his father.5:8. hence [nnv [y )1QE3]] 'that Pamun.^") c) vnn pbn ni\ 'this portion of the house' B3. in our corpus. that one' A6. But in M n « y pQD A6. it stands to reason that there should b e s o m e m e a s u r e of opposition between the two contrasting sequences in view of the fact that. Alternatively. ce roi-ci"). n. A demonstrative pronoun with a name always follows the latter: see above § 41 b. nnDD 'those priests of Khnub' t^D^D n3T ]ni^n"TOK C 1.' Hence one would see an appositional phrase also in y nnv nn^ []1DS] 'Pamun by n a m e . see Folmer 1995:336-38.. resumed by y as the subject of the following . but with a demonstrative in the last slot in " ] T V'nb 33-iTi A4. d) In t w o cases a phrase consisting of a noun head and a demonstrative is further e x p a n d e d by a disjunctive possessive pronoun occupying the last slot of the whole string: y?i y vniv 'that wall of yours' B2.' the immediate constituent analysis of these three-member phrases can b e performed in more than one way: e.1:47 is ambiguous.C**^) Generally speaking. They contrast with "pv yoni 'those possessions of yours' B2. though there does not seem to be any strong reason to read as Grelot does (1972:449: "A.9:6. no satisfactory explanation suggests itself.lO. nbi y vn^iV 'that wall of his' ib. l 6 / / A 4 . But note the unambiguous "J'PH nm A4. where ambiguity could arise. ' H D N nnc? pns may be in casus pendens.11:4 the last constituent is m o r e likely in apposition. ' ^ ' ^ ^ For more inexplicable cases. first noun of a c o n s t m c t chain.7:6.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 237 mentioned above.11:3. Since a demonstrative may precede its noun head (see above [a]) and an adjective can be substantivised to make V'nby for instance.' i b . with the exception of regularly follows it.5:11 represents a three-member string with the stmcture [a+[b+c]] where (a) = HIT.5:l 1 the demonstrative modifies the immediately following. On this interpretation of see Grelot 1972:410. mean 'the wicked one.g.5:8.1:6. s.7:6. his father. a noun modifier. T h i s last ought to b e c o m p a r e d with ipv nm 1 HinDD 'those priests of Khnub' A4. 8 : 1 5 f ^ 2 ) .f*") b ) A phrase consisting of a noun and a demonstrative may be further expanded with the addition of an adjective as in mnn vrrb "]T 'that wicked Vidranga' A4.

TOT VTBD " n 'the life of this document' B4. The disagreement in number (]D33 pni* instead of )D33 pinK) is not unique in the case of tlie pseudo-quantifier pm: see § 67 g.4:4. + dem. pron. equally difficult exception is D^ns noj (A6. A6.6:31. ' ^ ^ ^ Later in the document w e find prm summing up a list: ".5:8 the syntactic relationship is that of [a + [b +c]] in "pv V'n niDQ 'the rent (?) of those domains' A6.12:2. however. § 4 1 h. idem 1868a: 269. p r e c e d i n g its n o u n head. f) A noun qualified by a demonstrative pronoun regularly takes the st. form: «0V nil 'this day' A4. g) O n the expansion of a noun by a demonstrative pronoun as well as by a conjunctive pronoun.fc^T vni^ bn 'wine strainer of this year' C 3 .(^«^) b) An attributive adjective to b e constmed with a noun in a '^'^ Noldeke 1868:508. 1.7:5. 2 8 : l 13. pDl pnv 'other goods' B2.. for e x a m p l e .1. ]T)nv ][op2 'other properties' ib. S e e Appendix III.]. n. giving the entire phrase a meaning of 'harsh word' o r 'bad business. see above at § 5 8 J . A very rare exception to this rule may be a case of apposition: thus bl pyin nny ]nnvD 'like others. T h e reason why a conjunctive pronoun is not used in the first t w o cases appears to be the importance attached to the question as to whose wall it is: cf. mT «nso p 'the law of this document' B2.7:5. Hence nvnn in nn nvnn 'that oath' B2." Thus ]0D3 here could be the object of the following np*?.9:6. which. Schulthess 1924: § 158.8:3. though in some Aramaic dialects this very word. y m2 nnm 'the measurements of that house' B2.10:9). pnv nnv 'another location' A6.8:6. V2[n] vnn 'the large house' A3.g. a staff of artists(?) of mine' A6. B3. form.'C"^) A rare example of a preceding. if the first word b e an adjective. would have -\uvb breaking up an oratio recta. displays a peculiar syntax. attributive adjective is.238 PARTIVa: §65£-§66e which shows a syntagm [noun + conj. pnv. vnyn vn[ip] 'the former officials' A6. Noun with an adjective a) A n adjec^We m a y attributively follow a noun phrase and expand it: e. A take-off from Persian: gasta patigama.3.10:7. § 66. e) Unlike in ipv y\iu i vnno 'those priests of Khnub' A4. See also Driver 1957:72. and the rest.. .det. if the reading b e correct.det.(^'"') A n o t h e r possible.10:2.13:3. C f Driver 1957:50.7:20 et passim.8:32. "{[T] mnn '[Qi]nn 'die boun[da]ries of [th]at house' B3.8:9 and VDn nvnn 'that oath' must be a st.

however. (he w h o ) has right to that land' B2. Therefore one would translate vnn'n n' p ^ vnbv in' ' Y H W the god. e) A n attributive adjective normally agrees with its noun head in gender.' On the p h e n o m e n o n of disagreement. brother or sister. the analytical syntagm [NP. it has been shown in § 62 e that an analytic noun phrase of the type NP. the position of the constituent following the NPj may have been determined by the fact that that constituent consists of more tlian one word. see § 66 d. + 'T + NP2] allows an adjective to b e positioned immediately after either of the two N P s . by virtue of the plural number of the adjective. nnn nDp 1 nn-D^ '1 new woolen garment' B3. or w o m a n or other man. On the last example.1:42 has been resolved on account of the difference in gender of the two nouns in question. see Cowley 1923:48.3:10.5:19. which N P is modified by the adjective is in no doubt: m n 1 mw nnn 4 n 7 ]f2fc^ n '1 new shawl(?) of cubits 7 by 4 and a span' B6. In the case of the syntagm [NP. See also nnn nnv 'good advice' C l .2:10. t^nn^ pbn 'my other part' B3. and. 1 bronze bowl worth (in) silver 1 shekel 2 q(uarters). the position of pnv m a y b e due to the fact that it is a pseudoquantifier: see § 67 c) By contrast.8:6. vnnn t^ntDi. In the following cases. + + NP2]. nop n nnnn 1 nonc-jn '1 new woolen ??' B6.. in die case of ] m n It^i "pv 'new cedar and trees' A6. nnn ]n3 1 1 '1 new Hnen robe(?)' B3. also vpivn Q'bm pm U'V) nnm nnv) m ]nm nnni nn "b "n'v vb IT 'I have no other son or daughter. and state. This constraint could lead to syntactic ambiguity.r««) Cf. 'the good advice' ib. which at vran vnnv bvn 'the master of good counsel' C 1. as can b e seen in the first four e x a m p l e s cited above under [a]. pron. d) Syntagm [[Noun + Conj. dweller of Elephantine the fortress' B3.6:11-13. 2 bronze cups worth (in) silver 2 shekels.42.2:5.12:2.] + Adj. . In 12V 1 ]im mb 'another woolen garment' B2.g. l : 5 7 . nnn mp 1 1 mb '1 new woolen garment' B3.8:7.. : e. + Adj. not "the god w h o dwells .8:ll. c f above at § 46 o. for otherwise the whole phrase would have looked somewhat cumbersome: ^OD rrw 2?n3 v i NOQD 2 i 1 bp^ ^jon mto ton] -T 1 "Tnn 2 n c)DD r\w m: -T 1 vt>^ 2 pp^ ^OD 2 <nr\: 1 ] D 3 2 n i bpv '1 bronze mirror worth (in) silver 1 shekel 2 q(uarters). +1 + N P j can be followed by an adjective qualifying and agreeing with N P .2:6.SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 239 construct chain follows the last noun of the chain.g. N o adjective The difficult word following "wr does not affect our statement: on the crux. however.]: e.6:10. 1 bronze jug worth (in) silver 2 q(uarters)' B2. However. number.

6:2 where the numeral is not even spelled out. Leander 1928:77. for whicii the plural form doubles: dius pCD ]'TV 'good eyes' C l . 326. sim. 8 hallurs for one month' B3. § 67. bv nn bD-\n bv vpT bv i nn ]T)nv 'Look after the kids alone .7:29 some contrast may be intended with the preceding Hbn nbD 'all the matters. mostly follow the latter. nn nn'b 8 ]nbn ^OD 'silver. and agree with it in gender whereby an unmarked form is used with a feminine noun.1:39.4:4. c) The following are the only exceptions in which a numeral precedes: pn ynnn 'two things' C l . 8 : 2 8 . i. and a marked one with a masculine noun (§ 21 a). B3. and cf.6:28. For example. and construed with a noun head. r[n]v VHDvn pv '(its) le[ngth] cubits by the measuring rod. n.8:6. t*^':'^ nnnn 'for a second time (?)' C2. 1 7 : 1 . i niDD 'its only window' B3.8:28. the numeral agrees with the noun for such a unit." A cipher for "one" is used as the indefinite article: i ubn 'a dream' D 7 . rbn ]3sn 'three handfuls' A6. Noun with a numeral a) Cardinal numerals.. B 3 . ] n n pnD P ) D D 'silver. whether spelled out or written as ciphers consisting of straight or curved strokes.12:21. i pnna noo 'a document of withdrawl' B2.1:l l.' " [ V T nn A4. 6 : 2 8 . l : 157. Don't entrust them to others' D7. nn DSD 2 bD 'all two as one mouth.240 PART IV a: § 67 . in this case eight vertical strokes: I I III III. W h e r e a unit of measurement such as length and weight is also mentioned.7:4. seven' B3.9:3. § 18 n. sim.12:33.7:19.5:5.. nnbn ]:nnv i^nr"? 'in three more days' C 1.e. In m n nnai* 'one letter' A4.2:3 is rather difficult: the use of a numeral with a personal . both unanimously' B3.1 :5r'). two karsh' B3. Dvn m n fjDn i n 'on one day. For "portion" we expect n3Q: see above.2:12 as "one portion"(^^'). in one stroke' B2.(''') It is also used on its o w n without a noun: i nb niv pnco nb 'I am not leaving him alone' A2. ^ Classical Syriac thus differs: see Muraoka 1987:48. ( ^ ) For diis reason alone one would not interpret n3Q nnn A4. l : 187. but rather "happy about it. So Cowley 1923:135 and Grelot 1972:390.7:3 is sui An Arabic numeral is represented in the actual text by means of the appropriate cipher.3:23. b) The numeral for "one" also follows the noun even when oneness is emphasised as in nnn nniv '(not) even a single letter' A3. See also B 2 .§ 67 c possesses a distinct dual form.(^") ^bv nn 'one thousand times' A4. nnn nnyv A4.

T h e syntactic relationship between a cardinal numeral and an acname. and the position of the numeral are both highly irregular.Yardeni (1986:99). "all (told) two. Note also the quantifiers p'SCD and in )VD p'HD ]rsDi pQ« nni 'Seek domestic staff of craftsmen of all kinds in sufficient numbers' A6.9:15..10:6. see § 21 d. ^ Note also a similar lack of concord shown by Syr. 4 handfuls' B3. See. .. e ) Where the unit (weight.numeral or cipher. 2 hallurs to silver. is used when the noun takes a demonstrative pronoun: see below If]. problematic expression vbyi 'nnnn stand out." On fractions.2:2.14:4('^^). an inventory of chattels a w o m a n brought with her on marriage: 5 bD i jnm n 2 pv i 2 [c]Dn] n nm mnb ]SD 'Ladles for carrying oil: 2 [pottery]. det. the boat-holders of the Carians. where the use of the construct form of the numeral is equally striking. a total of 5' B3. 1 sh(ekel) per month' B4.' At n t^TiRi] ]nn A6. the order is: N o u n .'f ^^) See also. which makes the above-quoted. if correcdy restored: Knn [i] KTSpi 'and the [1] large pot' D7. d) The noun is usually in the status absolutus.8:18 is also understandable in this light. Their Modern Hebrew translation . nXD n n m ±)B) 8 ]niD 11 'wine of year 11. whereas Grelot (1972:288) offers "tous les deux nautoniers des forts. and especially l^snD ubiD ]iv bDD m^ bm' V'a\D nbv 'May the God of Heaven seek after the welfare of our lord abundantly at all times' A 4 . 2 wooden. 7 : l . V'W nnnoi n^co 'abundant welfare and strength' A6.8:20. E.unit .) of a counted object is mentioned. qallil and saggi: see Muraoka 1987:49. V'W ]7D 'many years' A6.. bw nrson 'bun 'Dto bz)(n "]0) also reads a little awkward. just as in Dn 3. 1 stone.('''0 This sequence of constituents probably owes its origin to the administrative or commercial register of the language where various objects are quantified in lists or in tabular form and where those objects would naturally be mentioned first. Cf Grelot 1972:388. 8 and 1/2 jars' C3. vbr) -nnn cannot m e a n 'two times. if "[ri is one. The st. T h e unusual lack of agreement in n u m b e r in 2 pbo i p'S '2 trays(?) of slq' B3. 4 ]DDn nn nm 'olive oil. for instance.2:8 the numeral forms a cohesive phrase with bD.g.19 n C T nn 'seven times as much. currency etc.2:17.16:l et passim.8:19. nm pnD -pn? 'arsenic one hundred karsh' A6. n.7Fv2:4 .e.SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 241 generis where i n forms part of an idiomatic multiplicadve. Instead of 'all (told) two boat-holders of the C by Porten . 2 ]n':'n '=]DD mnb 1 \D ^DDb 'silver.': § 21 h.

Cf. l : 5 6 and 5 "pv VDbn 'those 5 Cilicians' A6. monetary value and the like is not therefore to be considered an a p p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e . but nn^n ]T)nv p[\]"b 'in another three d[a]ys' ib. and cf. The cohesion between the noun and the demonstrative appears to be greater than that between the noun and the numeral. nnn i vni n[ .4:12." Pace. and note the st.det. See above § 18 r. the cohesion between a noun and a cardinal numeral or cipher is greater than that between a noun and an attributive adjective as is shown by the end position of the adjective: msco 1 ropn '1 pretty vessel' A 2 . sim.]. ' n o nn 'one renovated house' B3.n '1 new basket(?) of papyrus reed' B3.. Cf. fringed(?) garment' B3. . the pronoun occupies the second slot as in ] n n "pv vni} 'those two men' C l . nnra i mb nnn '1 new.' Consider a striking break between Dpn and 5 ]]Dn in "b T r Dpn 5 ] B n 'Let them bring m e castor oil. 2 there.49.(^'^*) Trr in n'^Q T^T 'a litde salt' D7.det. .10:2 (§ 4 4 b).' W e would add also that a noun phrase giving a weight. u n l e s s one redefines apposition.l:38(^^). 2 : l 1.8:17.14:2 which can best be translated: 'is not bringing me the (agreed) r e n t .2:2 precedes the noun head Hke DVin in TOD uvm 'some loss' A6. ]nn« in the sense of 'more. 2. Not "a swift horse of his" (Cowley 1923:230). § 65 d. f) When a demonstrative pronoun is added to a syntagm consisting of a noun and a cardinal numeral. Driver 1957:73 with n.' being itself a sort of quantifier. of the noun head.Yardeni (1986:16): "5 handfuls of castor oil.2:5. Fitzmyer 1956:128-31. vrnn in b nrrnQ vb nvm mnn:]D A6.8:8.(^^) This way we could better understand the striking st. bbp i n noio 'a swift horse' Cl. In that sense the usual position of numerals after nouns is not of the same nature as that for adjectives or demonstratives. for instance. mbn i '1 worn hnen' i b . n. g) However. any rent. 5 handfuls!' A2. These cardinal numerals can be better thought of as a kind of adverbial: 'to the amount of. measure. B6.242 PARTIVa: §67/-§68^ companying noun is s o m e w h a t different from that between a noun and a demonstrative or an adjecdve. probably because both are quantifiers.15:5. 341.' T h e above listing then might be better translated as 'tray(?) of slq. does not fully accord with this m l e ( ' ^ ) : ]nn« 2 pni '2 other men' C 1. also p'W ]T)nv pvb 'after ^'^ So Grelot 1972:158 rather than Porten . additional.39. at all' rather than 'not . However. .11:2. See above. a similar situation in Classical Syriac: Muraoka 1987:47. l 2 .1:37.

7Cr2:2 / / n m 1 n3'SD 'one large ship' C 3 . subject. ( ' ^ ' ) § 68. 5 ] i J n n 'five e n o r m o u s gates' A4.12 and so p p n ]S0 'empty jars (?).. new' ib.:2.' A n altemative for an ordinal is attested in n mrh nnnn vnbn 'the third is dear to Shamash' C l . and the numeral is masculine and is found before the noun. n m bnb ]1D n "nnv 'an A r a m a e a n of S y e n e of the detachment of Varyazata' B2. 2' ib. nnn nap n i mb '1 garment of w o o l . for instance: Noldeke 1898: § 239.g. 1' i b . 7 D r 3 : l l . previous.. See § 2 1 / '^^ A phenomenon known in Syriac. yTi in n7D p n vm 'a s e ^ n d year came round' B3. 1:49. mmb nnn pn n i 'pp '1 palm-leaf chest (?) for her garments' i b . 2 pbO 1 p ' S 'tray(?) of slq. 30' C3. l 7 . l 9 . See our discussion above at § e. however. nnnn mn i pv i ^p '1 w o o d e n chest (?) for her j e w e l s ' i b . n e w ' B 3 .. ]'nnm [nnn] nmD'm jo '[one] or two of the wives of his colleagues' B3.6:16. nnnn DV nolo nnnB nnvi 'and let h i m m a k e a statue of a horse with its rider (on it)' A6. l 9 //|Kin n i «^3p '1 palm-leaf chest(?) i b . At A6.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 243 many more days' C l .10:1. nnnnn p -pn 'your children from Mibtahiah' B2.g.4:7. A n o t h e r exception. one finds the sequence [noun + adjective + numeral] as in i p-ni? pb 'old oar (?). two word-orders are attested: [Noun + N u m e r a l + n + N o u n ] . 5' A4.. pbo i i p s '1 tray(?) of slq' B2.l 1 [Noun + n + N o u n + N u m e r a l ] — 1 pbO i pih '1 d/rmn of slq' B 3 . 8 : 6 .8:9 may be due to some emphasis on p n n n . In accounts. l : 1 8 7 .7. i pv i p)p 'wooden chest(?). "ybv bnpi 'bring against you suit or process. b) That "nnnv in a recurring phrase o n n t ^ 'your children after you' is an adverbial rather than an adjectival is shown by comparing an instance such as "nnnv "ynb Twn" nnn pn O3con"ynnv "yin bv) . yn "joi^'your children with you' C l . l 7 .7Gr2. pin 5 p « n 'gates of stone.7:9 i) Of the very few('^') ordinal numemls attested in our corpus. a noun or a noun phrase may be used as an adjectival to qualify the preceding noun head: e. 8 : 1 8 ..8 mp means 'former. h) W h e r e a syntagm [Noun + cardinal numeral] is liirther expanded by the addition of a n phrase. r C3.12:2. nna m: n 1 '1 bronze mirror' ib.1:2.1:7 is problematic: the verb is masculine with the fem. e.8:38. Noun with a prepositional phrase a) A p h r a s e c o n s i s t i n g of a preposition followed by a conjunctive pronoun. l : 129. . nnn nap n i HTni '1 woolen garment(?).

B u t choice is difficult in ' K I Q p nnj^v .8:2.3:9.12:22. B3..' (Porten . 2.. since m o r e than one scribe displays the s a m e feature. The total absence of a prepositional phrase expanding a noun head but separated from the latter such as ^-p 'imn nn 'a son of yours came to me. 8 : l .1:5...a or bring (suit) against you . Azariah a servitor of Y H W the G o d in 1003 Hebrew 2Sni 7.15:1." But 'gu'une lettre leur soit envoyee par toi' at A4.1:4. but your children they have right to it after you' B2. whilst the matter is less problematic in nnm nnnv p nmv nb bnn 'In Babylon a letter from Arsames was given' A6. mbvb n nn'i 'its c o m e r which is above' B2. 9 : l ..10:9. vnon niip o m n D K 1DD bv n m'DD]! 'part of the silver and the goods which are (listed) on the document of your wifehood' B4.7:24) and 'une lettre de Monseigneur soit envoyee . n ^ m nb^ vb 'you have no right (to sell. That the use of such a n is optional seems to b e indicated by the following pair: vnnn n'n vnbv in' n pb mmv nn 'iiv nnv vnmn'b 'Anani b . Similarly A4.12 "when you lie down with your ancestors..15.| ' m ]nbv i n niT K Q T p nn nb^ 'Tiv mv ynnv p'bn 'you Anani have right to it from this day and for ever and your children (shall) have right after you' B3. In the latter clause the breaking up of the phrase by the intervening p'bn is significant.T^ '^^'piT^). rbunn A6.' (Grelot 1972:320["^]). A6.10:18 with nnnv O'm nv vanim 'nm 'and you Jehoishma certainly have right and your children have right after you' ib..R/\IV 1 1 V A: ^ ua c . and against your children after you' B3.19.' for the expected mnn "p nn compels us to regard 'ynnv as an adverbial to b e construed with p'bD: 'your children (shall) have right after you. 2 . sim. n 'bl vn ]n Kn'nnm t^n'^prn 'in m y domains which are in the Upper and Lower (Egypt)' A6. A 6 .1:48. B2.) this house ..7:5.. at A4..6:4. .4:12. j n pb .5:5.. 7 : l .Yardeni 1986:122. B3.13:2 between 'Let a letter b e sent from my lord .. [n]nv n Kin 'die nobles w h o (were) with [him]' C2.11:9.7:24 (1972:411). I will raise up your offspring after you (yyo^ "^^..7.' Similarly ..2:9. nmb i vb'n 'the troop which is at his command' A 6 . See also 'Dn bv '] nnnv 'the wool which is owed by Maki' A2. "}3T mnn nnnnv nn p'bn nn . bring (suit) against your children after you and complain against you.16. S e e also B2.16.7:7. The same interpretation can b e applied to ynnv p "p33 B2. B3..7:5..(^""^) That the breaking u p is not a question of individual style is clear.4:6. c) A prepositional phrase which shows where a certain object is located is very often introduced by n: vnnn nn 1 vnn 'the priests w h o are in Elephantine the fortress' A 4 ...20.

. o r N j : e.' The fem. there do remain some cases difficult of interpretation..5:5 the general context makes it m o r e likely that the phrase is about the location of the installation rather than that of the king.. F o r instance. 3 : l . said to Anani . T h e following cases m a y also b e viewed in a similar w a y : vnn'n n'n '\ van nbv i vnnnn nn 'the altar-house of the god of heaven which is in Elephantine ..ph.. gender of mrb precludes the possibility of construing pD with the former.B3. 8 : l . a servitor of Y H W in Elephantine' B3.g. B 2 ...9:l s e e m s to favour the adverbial. d) However.... B 3 .. K D ' Q I Q K I 'Mica .1 + Prep. likewise B 2 . 1 1 : 1 .7. B 3 . ( ' ^ ) W e face a different kind of difficulty over the constmction in the shape of [V + N ." B2..9:2..2:2. does the local phrase nn in "b nviy min nn mbv nn 'you s w o r e for m e by Y H W the G o d in Elephantine the fortress' B2.. interpretation. 1 1 : l . together with the preceding phrase [n + Nj]. vnm n'n '\ vnbv n' n vim 'the temple of. Dbmb KHTn nn n mbv nm i pb nnw -n miiv B3... In K P T D nn i vy?n i vnv 'the barley-house (?) of the king in E..' A4. . 1 0 : l . Elephantine the fortress said to J e h o i s h m a .i ninb mm y 'a (female) servitor of Y H W the god. Note also vnm n'n mnnb vnbv n' n K I I J ^ bv 'on the temple .7:6 is abbreviated to KPTn n Km^m ib. Cf.11:l // nnt^ . Is the closing preposidonal phrase adjecdval or adverbial? There seem to b e some indications that the prep. miiv B 3 . 9 : l . At i*!n-Tn 7? IB 'our forefathers had built that temple in Elephantine the fortress' A4.I2:2.' ib. Is it God or Ananiah that is in Elephantine? Further... (= subject) HnH -f.3:l (by two different scribes).ph. '2:v nnv B 3 . An example such as nn .ph. our remarks below at § 78 cp. . this example is syntactically analogous to DDnTiDD n 'bl vnn 'my estate in your province' A6.24. the fortress' A4. 'iivb .6. lav mm nn i vnbv nm i ]nb> . and not attributive..] as to whether the syntagm [n + Prep... At a deep level. compare with this the following sentence: vnin nn vnbv n' i pb . unn mv mm 'in E l e p h a n d n e the fortress said M e n a h e m . in order to build it in E. dweller of Elephantine the fortress' B3.('""^) T h e same syntactic ambigui-ty persists in nn nb pb .] qualifies N .7:13 w e would rather see an adverbial phrase of place in view of «n-T2 2-2 i «n'pK in' 'T 'the temple of Y H W the god which is in Elephantine the fortress' ib.2:4 specify where the swearing took place or does it localise the god of the Elephantine Jews? T h e notion of such a localised deity is evident in mbt^ n. . headed b y n in these cases is more likely a j u x t a p o s e d co-modifier of N...

' A4.g. pron.. ib. and A4. where a person's provenience or ethnic origin is indicated.8:13. Jew in the fortress of Elephantine" B2..246 PART IV a: § 68 e .. + a sg..' B3.1:9. T "iiDi in nbmb mm y n pi. . § 69. e. pnv bn 'every security' B3. + a sg.. the ambiguity remains because of A4.3:6. abs. in which last case one m a y also note that. . rather than a G passive pf.-K03 "PD 'every beam' A2.. noun with a conj. jD© B3. + n—nb n'v i bn 'all that he has' B2. . pv bnn 'at all times' A 3 .2:7. noun—vnrno bn 'all the ships' C 3 . bn pnb 'all garments' B3.7:22.('"*"') C f T nTna m n ' n'n.7:26. n o u n — P ] O D bn 'all silver' B4. l : 1 7 8 . W h e r e bn indicates that the whole of the object or every single m e m b e r of the class indicated by the n o u n concerned is affected.6:19.. ]nn' nnnv mnn 'Jehohen a lady of Elephandne . noun—pni bn . . nbm "b nm 'M. + apZ..1:3 and nnn n nvnn bni 'and everything that is leavened' A4.6:13.' B3. all persons' A4. + a det..det.1:2. pron.7:3. noun— vnoo bn 'all the silver' B2. it normally precedes the latter: + a sg.. including cases where the word is not to be directly constmed with a noun phrase. a) Bare bn..4:4. all (of them) w h o are here' A4. 7 D r l : l l . phrase—'bvn bn 'all the burghers of Elephantine' A4.1:6. Noun with bD This paragraph will deal with all aspects of the multifaceted use of bn.2:2. nn 1 vbn A4. son of Y..—ynnv bnb 'for all your slaves' C l . abs.. which was withheld (in) its entirety' A3. . min nn n non in bnv -T nm 'the house of A. T n m . pD n 'Qim .8:26 //nm i bn vnm p m ]m nimv 'we and our wives and our sons and the Jews. «not )5 bn 'all the bonds' B5. nn^n n bn 'whatever you desire' A2. det.('""^) Nevertheless.. . est. . 7..: see § 34 b. yoni bn 'all goods .7:16.7:24. an Aramaean of Syene gave m e ' B2..9:3.7:6 vs. e) Typologically akin is the pattern represented by ^ m n n . n is not followed by a preposition of place. mm nn n mbv nm n vnnn 'the priests of Khnub the god who are in E .2:6 . Another example of a relative clause with no explicit subject might be nbD bD't lDDn[s] 'your sala[ry].6:10.7:5. + a pl..—^^SDD bn 'all your silver' B4... N o t e also ^'v nn mm n nvnn bn 'anything on which one m a y h v e ' B4.-n n'ona 'M.2:15. . said to Meshullam a Jew of E. + a pl.. 6 : l .§ 69 A4. which is in E. which seems to be easy of interpretation in view of. even in mm nn n mbv. noun with a conj. if bD be taken as a passive ptc. the son of M .4:7.12:2..

rbn vviv 'the whole earth' B2. l : 102. 2.8:16 (// A4.('"") d) k'pd C"'^) It is noteworthy that the scribe of A 4 . all (told) three. A variant on this pattern is given by one in which bn is followed by a n o u n and a cipher as in 5 pny bn 'all (told) 5 persons' A4. '"'2 See above. C f also nbD nnno 'all the neighbourhood (?)' A2. all (told) 2. said' B 2 . on which latter see below at § d.15:2.SYNTAX: NOUN PHRASE EXPANDED 247 b) bn often precedes a cipher in order to give a total after two or more items have been enumerated. 1.5:20. A6.3:6.4:10. l : 12. pnt? bl pbv r\rbr bn i n pv ] n n ] ' D ^ n 'to two Cilician persons (and) one artisan.10:5.8 substitutes >ibn ioxbn of A 4 . rbn ITW 1 nnm 'the father of the entire Assyria' ib. which has been withheld" (Gibson 1975:145f. . 8 .6:19. a revised version of A4. c) bn may immediately follow a determinate noun phrase with a matching conjunctive pronoun: rbn ~\T\V nv' 'the counsellor of the entire Assyria' C l . 9 : l .55('"^). § 22 c.9:4. Twice w e find bn with a conjunctive pronoun attached and referring to the noun in question.('"'") Once bn follows a disjunctive personal pronoun: "pn mv 'you entirely' C l . sons of M e s h u l l a m .7.. and also most likely at A4..7:16 quoted b e l o w ) . This last e x a m p l e s h o w s that rbn in the remaining examples cannot be dismissed as a variant spelling of k ' p d . writes vbn in a parallel passage: b'np vbn A4. 2 [ e]Dn] n 5 bn 1 pv 1 2 p r 1 'pottery. C4. e. which w a s withheld (in) its entirety'A3. servants of mine' A6.8:13 m ^ K [n3Q vp{n\ tJ^n ^Q ['pbv {II A4. sim.1:12. rbn bn 1 p D n [ D ] 'your sala[ry]. all (told) 5 ' B 3 . of stone. There are three more instances where the scribe of A4. rbn or "pn here can be taken either as being in apposition to the preceding noun phrase or as quantifier. 2.7:5.Yardeni 1993:32 wrongly ^^b^.1:4.8:22 / / n m m n'n' ymv y bvn bn «'mn'i 'your servants Jedaniah and his colleagues and '"^ Porten . ' Gibson's translation "(the clerks will pay you) in its entirety your salary. 8 : 1 9 e t passim. rbn nnn [= mnn] 'the w h o l e house' B3. A6. A6. often followed by an appositional phrase: rbm ' n 2 bn n^a^n c t o q i q i j ^ 'Menahem and Ananiah. but at a remove from its head: rbn vwhTD umnmi 'and I found it (= ITD 'the tunic') all of it frayed(?)' A2. 7 : t bvn ^n mmnn A4.7:14 also quoted below). wooden.3:5.) is unlikely: nbD would be too far removed from what he would restore before ]DDn[D] and with a relative clause intervening.

vbD vnm .248 PARTIVa: §69 ^ .8:26 // n n n bn vnm ' m ]m mmv 'we and our wives and o u r sons and the Jews... '"'^ Fitzmyer's (1956:81f) argument that rb>D = ^bD in these instances does not convince.. 9 : l . 1 0 : 1 .7:29 where the preposed vbD may be indicative of some emphasis and contrast with nnn.8:16 //t>'np bD . . see Porten 1998. though it is not clear whether that was intended or not. b'np bD .15:6.. n A4. however.. all (of them) citizens of Yeb' A4.15:6 also quoted above. sim. On the variations between the two versions of the petition in question. is also written nbD nnv (see above. T h e same phrase. i ynni bDi '^'^ It is immaterial whether bD refers to the entire preceding phrase or.. nomen rectum—only in the phrase vbD ninv 'the whole of Assyria' as at C 1. and plausibly restored at ib. though they are not likely mere p h o n e t i c v a r i a n t s . ('"'') e) Adverbial bD The word bD is occasionally used adverbially in the sense of 'in its [or: their] entirety' with a neighbouring noun phrase: vnbv 'Dnbm ibmy bD 'May the gods unanimously seek after your welfare' A 3 .8:25.1:43... object—[n]vnn vbD . nEonb '.7:l vs.7:14.g...3:12. tmp vbD A4." But "all say thus" of Ginsberg (1955:492) cannot be right. A 3 . vbD vpTi -\nv nbw 'your mother and the children are all well' A3. all (of them) w h o are here' A4.61. referring back to it or to them: e... were all killed' A4.. b u t rather g e n u i n e m o r p h o l o g i c a l variants..7:26. In only one case w e find vbD preceding and anticipadng a following noun phrase: . § c ) . as Grelot (1972:411) renders with his "tous les Juifs citoyens d'Elephantine.10:1 q u o t e d a b o v e . give all of it back to Masapata' A6. nv nbm ibv^]' v[b]D vnbv 'May the gods seek all (of them) the well-being of m y brothers' A 3 .. vbD is thus found after a noun phrase or phrases.7:22('"'^). in which case.. and anything else which you took.. 3n nnn vbD nnpb i pnv [D]vnTii . A 3 . p 3 3 bD 'all persons .. nm bD pniiQ nbv mm 'and they demolished the temples of the gods of Egypt altogether' A4.56.7:16.7:26// A4. ." only to "the Jews. n r . 5 : l .('"'^) Another example of quantifier corresponding to vbD is nnb^ t>v^' bD vnbv A3. the relative clause can be made to apply to all the groups of individuals mentioned before. 7 : l .pnv A6. W e see that the granmiatical function of the noun phrase(s) to which such a vbD refers b a c k within the sentence varies: subject—^[b]D vnbv A3. logically speaking. ]nb^ nnn nnivD vbn vbD 'we communicated all the matters in one letter' A4. A4.§ 7 0 ^ the Jews. The same ambiguity exists with the next set of examples.

Tabla. vnnbv nbvinb 'to H. and with divine names as in vnbv n' ' Y H W the God' A4.9:l et passim and other fortresses. whilst the other describes a person or place so named. In view of this. 'Ti nnv 'Haggai his brother' A4.1:3 not only with respect to the word-order...SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 249 'and all people that . were killed altogether' i b ..5:3('"'«). HQQ 'QN .... § 70. nnnv vbip nbm vbDD ... but also on account of the absolute state form of nnp.g. the second term supplying further information on the identity of the first.5:3 et passim. non nv 'my father Psami . daughter of Meshullam (and) Kavla her sister' A4. vmv -\nv ..1:13.4:7. Hug 1993:95-97. a) In the great majority of cases one term is a name. We have seen above that the same logical relationship can be expressed by means of formal subordination.1:15.. analytic substitute with'T: § 61 (iii).. your brother Osea' A 3 . l 6 where the adverbial nature of bD is clearer because of its distance from the noun phrase to which it refers back as well as from its repetition.4:5.7:6 et passim. vnbv nip 'before Shamash the god' D22. m y mother M a m a ' A2. it is not absolutely certain that rn. T h e very lack of such a formal indication points to the presence of subordination.7:5.('"") The logical relationship between the two is that of equation. 3 : l . the goddess' D15.g. So must one read at A4. With the above-mentioned vnnn D' and such like contrasts Dno mnpD 'in town Korobis' B 1. often a kinship term or title. Noun in apposition('""*) T w o noun phrases m a y b e simply placed next to each other without any formal indication of linkage between them. b) A n a m e can be the first term: e.4:14. f) "ITI" is once used as a quantifier preceding a noun in a way analogous to T U T (§ 67 e end): ^ n s mr? 'extra ration' A6. namely the construct phrase or its periphrastic. nincn i n DmDi 'Nabushezib son of Petekhnum' A2. n±)W 'ID 'my son S h e l o m a m .9:6... vnbv Dm 'Khnub the god' A4.. E.. ncom "[iDV .47:4. DID n n p D 'in (the) town (of) Korobis' B 1..2.1:3.6:11.in nn'"'^ Cf. This is the m l e in t^^mn D' 'Elephantine the fortress' A4.. though Knbvi is written above to the right of . your servant N a b u s h a . ID nnon p n o s n « bv non 'To my father Psami from Makkibanit son of Psami' A2. vnnn ]1D 'Syene the fortress' B3. m r n n D'b 'to Syene the fortress' A4. m n nnv nn 'Rami wife of H o d o ..

B2. ]p 'nn n'33n nm mm 'I. 4 : 1 .3:9.5:1. cnnmn .. his wife' i b . e) In some cases the first term is not a free-standing word form.3. (against) you or son or daughter of yours' B2. the scribe of B2. 3 8 . ol'tDmnt^! mbn 'the king Amyrtae[us . rQConn'^p nnn^iJt 'J.8:38 [= B3. you. sim. year 15 B2. and 'Sms n T 'the month of Phaophi' B 4 . 'bvn mnovb B2. Tamet' B3.1 VIII: 12. Anani. Jedaniah and Mahseiah' B 2 . In all these cases except the last the second term is introduced by a disjunctive personal pronoun.7:2.] the king Nepherites' A3.8:21 // B3. c) The title regularly follows..^ mnn 'the month of Thoth' B 3 . Mauziah. as w e interpreted above (§ 48 c [iii]) and as in H e b . To interpret the ""^ C f the Hebrew Ezr 8.3:7 vs.b // b .1 i t o C£Jnn3. n.1 Va: 1 1 . 'i:v bvjb nvw 'I hate my husband Anani' ib. Neh 1.... 'nn[3«':'] n'ncDDQib. satisfied . A degree of fluidity is observable with regard to kinship terms—'nn ^K nnrb nvw 'I hate Tamet my wife' B3.. n'D^ vnmm nn^b 'I hate m y wife Jehoishma' B3.a to a .. n3i<! nam 'I.6:27).' B2. The shift from b . C3.31 wnt^ "inap 'from the river A. displaying a different pattern: b .6 and B3. a case of pseudo-apposition as in nnD n n p n in the same document (see § 2 1 / .6:23 // B2. possibly excepting KID] nrnED 'Phamoh Necho' D23.9.' ib. M e n a h e m .5:2.8:7. n n T r nn ']]:. and nmrsD mbn [.("'^'') d) A disjunctive personal pronoun occupies the first position: e. .. 9 : l l . nnn n T 'the month of Mehir' B1.250 PARTIVa: § 7 0 c . n: n r n s D23.1:l. B5. ib.5. est. n^onai n ' l T n]« 'You.8:40]).5:6. and there is an element of emphasis on the pronoun.b at B3. Ex 13.g.. monni nm' ram n[D]3[i]con' ]t>nD' vb 'they shall not be able to bring (suit) against lyo]u.1:1. varies the sequence for some unknown reason. Nathan.12:17.6:23 vs." '"^^ Stylistically speaking. which is further expanded. B4.1:l w e have 8 p r a 'in year 8 (hterally: 'in years 8')' B 1.9... you Anani son of Haggai' B3. n:v -\n'n 'your h o u s e . However.8:38 defies an explanation.9:3 to be contrasted with vD[bd] coimnn 'Darius the king' A4.a (B3. . Jedaniah and Mahseiah . another scribe.1:5.7Gr2:14 is in the st.8:21 vs. 1 3 : l .(""^) T h e picture regarding "year" is no less ambiguous: as against 15 nxo OTiEb 28 DV 'the 28"^ day of Paljons.. displays a chiastic variation in this regard: a .a // a .. nnn 'nb nnn' 'I gave to you.. say' B3.9:8.3:7 // B3.b (B3. and Ananiah are withdrawing . XII:7. 222a). 'm nn 'D3i.4 Tntun mtin (TO mnnmn mnnn). but a bound form suffixed to another word: on^K bnDH vb nb nnm nm 'n3^^ 33m yi 'I shall not be able to institute against you suit or process. son of Azariah.27..

Similarly at ib. 3 : l it is not i m m e d i a t e l y apparent whether "a J e w . I Anani' B3. '"^ On the difficult plural ]t03. a Jew.' C f also " [ n n m nn\D viyn'W 'Lady (?) Jehoishma by name. Similarly mnj] ]n 'nm [n]n n^ 'Shamou so [n] of Konufi. about m c and about Makkibanit' A2. See above. the writers call themselves jnnv 'your servants.C"^^) T h o u g h ]miQ in mm nns 'mn ]vnn bv 'To o u r lord.SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE E X P A N D E D 251 second term as vocative is unlikely in view of'DDr n^t^^ t<!]nnt<.5: n'Onn mv pbnn mnn 'it has come to me (as my) portion.11:3. has not yet quite fossilised as Syr. Bagavahya. In mn' nn n'Ona nnain bnb vnmn mn ]nnnn 'mm 'Mahseiah son of Jedaniah. and it i s further unclear w h o i s to b e considered A r a m a e a n o f S y e n e . This syntactic ambiguity is c o m p o u n d e d by a possible orthographic inconsistency in mnnm (for the standard n'Qnm )("'2^).' especially in the opening address of an official letter.' which is clearly in contrast to 'our lord. . I Mahseiah. "pbu 'my other portion.Muraoka 1993: §'l46 c.1:7 the same syntagm is used for both terms.5:19 . Jedaniah' B2. I also!.8:2 w h e r e "son o f Jedaniah" can only refer to Mahseiah." refers to M a h s e i a h or Jedaniah..8:3.2:8. your sister'B3. f) A tide like ]vnn 'our lord. A r a m a e a n o f S y e n e ' B2.' In nnDQ'pi b p 'SKH bv 'Do not worry about us.34 '3Dn3 '3H.('"2') Such an appositional disjunctive pronoun may b e separated from the suffix to which it refers: nm'rampbnn y. /ma:r(y)/ routinely prefixed to a saint's o r ecclesiastical dignitary's name. That the initial element o f accretion does not necessarily refer t o the first term is shown b y n'ntDDQ ]io '] vnnv vn' nn n'Onn nnn 'Mibtahiah daughter o f Mahseiah son o f Jedaniah. see below: § 76 cf. governor of Judah' A 4 .("^3) g) T h e basic s y n t a g m of apposition constituted b y t w o juxtaposed terms is expanded b y either term or both receiving accretions. chief o f the carpenters' A6. where m'anm most On a similar use of the disjunctive pronoun in BH as in Gn 27.' see Muraoka 1985:61-66 and Jouon .-D3 'Bless me. where s o m e ambiguity m a y arise. 7 : l is indeed followed by the indication o f the recipient's office.m i vpbn nst 'this is the portion which has c o m e to you as (your) portion. 1022 yfionsieur and madame. you. hereditary property-holder in Elephantine the fortress of the d e t a c h m e n t of H a u m a d a t a ' B 2 .. § 187.

. 3 : l .. vnm p [ ]]om 'what you took.8. 3 . neither of the two terms in apposition needs to be a name: ynn ipv mnm nnmb nnv 'he said to his colleagues. a wise scribe' € 1 .' A6. of the noun in apposition should not cause any particular difficulty. nnv mnn 'at a certain (place by the name of) Tigra' € 2 . i) In 333 ^'vn 'like a thief € 1 . See Kutscher 1954:241.n B2. '"^'^ The reading [ ]]0D3 is not assured: Driver 1957:35 hesitandy read ]om 'forcibly. . 1 : 1 can also be analysed as appositional.. of a gentilic: thus contrast "•nnn y^niu -Q p m 'Dargamana son of Khvarshaina. g o o d [ s ] . with K'Qtin ]'27in p j .("^'') j) The frequent use of OD provided with a conjunctive pronoun and immediately following a proper noun as in ]nKD3 '^'T yi2V . Jedaniah.. 1 . TAD A restores the opening line of the parallel letter A4. But if Jedaniah in another letter.('"'') h) Semantically.3:23 where the st. those two men' € 1 .. a Khwarezmian' B2. but a noun..77. 1 nn\D pDm i nn^ vnnn 'slaves of m i n e in Egypt.T n m'lnm nmrn mn' 'vm bv 'to my lords.' See Jouon . the elderly man. 7 : l . A 4 . b e the same person. It occurs mostly on the first Another consideration in support of this interpretation is that in the standard formula at the beginning of a legal document we regularly find the st.15:9("'"). has anaphoric force.emph. 3Da. id. is debated: Persian. then Jedaniah was probably not a priest.. 1 : 5 6 . A4.2:6. for there we read: mbv i .. and the priests of Y H W the God' A 4 .... Uriah.2:2 where the man is first introduced. 1029a rpj^g origin of this usage. '"^^ C f a discussion in Porten 1968:48. provided 333 is not a p t c .8 as [ . 1969:133 and Lipinski 1990:104.abs..9) and the like where the head noun appears otioseC"^*). certainly not native. a certain A m m u w a n a . 1 : 3 5 . w h e r e the st. nso ntyn np'nv 'bn nnn 'the words of a certain Ahiqar.]. n. as he seems to be. 1 : 1 7 3 w e probably have a feature similar to B H ]niD ^'v (Lv 21. abs..Muraoka 1993: § 131 1029 -j^g scribe had originally written't between the two words.252 PARTIVa: §70/i-§71 likely is in apposition to n'RCDDQ-C"") The status of Jedaniah in the famous letter of petition.7:2. is partly affected by this syntactic ambiguity: yinv mnn nmDT n^n^ 'your servants Jedaniah and his colleagues the priests' A 4 . 1 : 1 2 . Here belongs perhaps also nnp':' i nn . a certain Pariyama. 1. or Babylonian. nnn nso vn^ -|T np'nm 'that Ahiqar.7 and A4.' A6. from the domestic staff . a wise scribe' € 1 . Nonetheless. v':nD nnm mnn nnm jnnv . Similar ambiguity exists in nm3DT nmnn 'Damidata and his colleagues the judges' B2.

.det. having beams and windows' B3. 4 with the same wording. l : 132. nnn^':' nnv 'T nTtD':'t^n'n nn p n n 'H.cst. new. Cf. § 71.. n r n vb") VDimn pv n'piiQ ID'V 'a man w h o chops wood in the dark without seeing .'It appears to be more idiomatic to embed an attributive participle in a 'T clause as in u n m a n n n n ' ' T vnn 'the share w h i c h is given in the province* A 6 . pv at i^nnn T i^n':'»^ in' 'T riTb 'a (female) servitor of Y H W the god residing in Elephantine the fortress' B3.5:8. who is c o m i n g to bring down . § 55 b. a lower house. . A t t r i b u t i v e p a r t i c i p l e Only rarely a participle may follow a noun phrase to modify it: pDi pm inti m n T. .' A2." C l . ...SYNTAX: N O U N PHRASE EXPANDED 2 5 3 mention of the entity concerned.11:7. 'dweller in . o n s n nn' ' o n s 'a Persian resident in Persia' C 2 .. In the light of t8!n':'i8! in the st. 1 : 3 6 . already mentioned at ib.12:2 is probably substantivised and in the st.nn n n n 'Built.C"^'^'') An exception is ' T O I U J A noD 'Petosiri by name' B2.. son of B.. 1 : 2 ..5:5..


Asyndesis a) T h e verb bD' or its s y n o n y m bnD 'can. B2. by another finite v e r b w h i c h is semantically the main one. B3. b^inv "i:v n-^ buDV vb 'I Anani will not be able to reclaim' .15:13. -[JvbDv brtDi^ vb 'I shall not be able to restrain you' B2. and 4) qualifiers with a formal marking of subordination to the leading verb and qualifiers lacking such m a r k i n g (asyndesis).g.g. B3.9:llM -5. § 73. Verb expansion Apart from the subject.12.9:11. Such qualifiers or modifiers may be classified into 1) verbs and other parts of speech. 6 : 3 1 .3:15. T w o other important parameters are 5) whether the head verb is a finite verb or not. 2) clauses and individual words or word-phrases.1:8. The principal verb may not immediately follow the lead verb: e. 3) more or less essential qualifiers and non-essential qualifiers. a w h o l e variety of elements m a y b e added to a verb in order further to qualify or modify the kind of state or action denoted by it. to be able' is more often than not followed.." B2. M o r e examples m a y be found at B 2 . 1 : l l . not only in tense.. B 2 .3:13. all e x a m p l e s show a syntagm [bD'/briD ( i m p f ) + i m p f ] . B3. vb bvv bDV I shall not be able to enter' D7..4:12. B2. B5. number and person: e. W i t h one exception.10:21. l : 176. but also in gender. and if the latter. B2. B2. wherein the two verbs agree.1:4.8:7..18.10:10.PARTFOUR SYNTAX SECTION B VERB PHRASE EXPANDED § 72. whether it is an infinitive or a participle. B2.1:6.. [']r73 '7:iiin bnDn vb 'you will not be able to rescue him' C l .2:12. 1 1 : 1 5 .1:l 1.. without any conjuncdon intervening to m a r k a logical c o n n e c t i o n . nona'p vbD'. B 3 . ]wn' ]'\bnD' vb 'they will not b e able to institute (suit)' B2.. and 6) whether a qualifier is a conjunctive pronoun or not. nnm nn "^nD' vb 'a son or daughter will not be able to restrain Mahsah . B3.

B3.. Though the majority of the examples under consideration have vb with the lead verb. ]mr pnn ]n 'if you can bring' A2.. when our idiom leads us to expect "I3yn\ 1032 pej-j^aps possibly in a loose fashion: b^i^m "trBl 'my soul desires to reclaim' B3. 8 : 4 1 .. Let Though a supralinear correction has nrr.. See also B2.. B3.7:15. . 4 : 7 .. he shall not be able to press him (into) slave(ry)' B3.' ib. 12V ninny . B 6 . if not 'my soul desires: I shall reclaim. w e shall not be able to get up B3.4:22. -\nn bnn ]n 'if you can go' D7. which departs from the standard syntagm by its use of the perfect.11:12. ly nniN HDN 'I Uriah or son .9:10f.. an impf.' B3.12:27.. l l . in the second verb is a most remarkable deviation.b iiy ly] i:v 'I or son or daughter of mine . T h e following case with the conjunction joining die two verbs is only an apparent exception: . There is no need to take "inw as a G passive..5:12. The following are examples of extension of this syntagm: n mv' n-^ 'what he w a n t s to do' A3.10:18. where. ]n mir vbi m::v biy vb 'Ananiah will not be able not to do the law of . and likewise biDv vb . ('"'") T h e use of the pf. as is shown b y the following examples: pDD nn rb ]i2vr 'as you can do for him' A2.256 PART IV b: §13 a-b B3.13. Let them give (it) to m e . verb 'eskah used asyndetically with another finite verb. see Noldeke 1966: § 337B.3:4..8:37.. 'he will come. ( ' " 3 2 ) 'b mr 'b rmvn' punv 'Let one take thought of m e . as Degen (1972b: 16) does..9:6.. B3. which is apparendy a function of the opening conditional parUcle |n..4:17.' .8:7.24:4. the tense of the lead verb is determined by the general context and that of the second verb. n/nnvn bnn ]n 'if you can go across/do' D7.. . the imperfect. also B 2 .1:5f. ] n m m vbi vnmm bmn vb 'Jehoishma will not be able not to do the law of. is an indication of syntactical subordination.39... nn b:^:nv nn'i^ 'I desire to reclaim them' B 3 . the negator is not an integral part of the syntagm.45:2. and not vb biy vb 12V\ Similarly i n .7:14.' But the clause beginning with the conjunction Waw could be understood as a circumstantial clause. cip] . which can only be accounted for as a mechanical imitation of the standard pattern. B5.10:3('"^'). B3.. npntz^N bnv vb 'I cannot leave her' D23. A long insertion has led to a shift in some grammatical categories of the second verb in briDv vb . 7 : 8 . T h e one exception mentioned above is p)in plD vbi 'and w e were not able to cleanse (it)' B3.9:4. B3..5:5.1 11:8. 8 : 4 1 . On the corresponding Syr. however. B 3 . where the inability not to do something can apparendy be expressed only in this way. B2.

2:6. but the actual reading is nbrm'' (so his own reading:Whitehead 1974:44).('"") b) A slightly different kind of asyndesis is a s y n t a g m in which the second verb indicates w h a t happend or will happen after the action indicated by the leading verb.7:23. but in the imperative and expanded by a subordinate infinitive: nnizb -|T NiiaK bv nvvm 'Give thought to that temple with a view to having (it re)built' A4. B7.).7:23.Jongeling 1995:489). See Degen 1969:127.('"''^) W e note that this syntactic feature. particularly with the verb bD'/biD. perhaps a dittography caused by the preceding 'nK 'my father' or an accidental omission of 'N-iQ 'my lord' or such like. Hence the first two verbs at A6.. is a favourite one in the Elephantine legalese.nnN . 1036 Whitehead (1974:83) adduces rbtD' A6. though by no means confined to it..SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 257 m e hold-(it)-as-heir'(""^) A6.r]bw (all three The translation is that of Porten .11:3 are possibly in a relationship of subordinate asyndesis with a new feature of the formal discord b e t w e e n them . or followed or will follow logically. also in a petition to a higher authority.11:3 is higiily problematic: (a) the change from the 3 m s to 3 m p . An asyndetic syntagm also with bnD as leading verb is known from OA. namely the 3ms of nDvr\\ may be resolved textually by postulating either a scribal error for nwrw (impv. .Yardeni 1986:118.3:5 for his impersonal interpretation. namely repetition of the negator with the second verb—also noted by Degen (1969:123): [IT n'^m^'? buD^b 'I shall not be able to put out [a hand]' Sefire II B 5.' though his translation is prosaic: "Please consider giving (it) to me so that I might have it. At A4. which is a perfectly normal impersonal use of the passive: see below § 80 a.(""0 The final difficulty. (b) a third verb asyndetically following. tEough the third can be considered logically (and perhaps syntactically also) dependent on the second.7:23. and (c) the impersonal use of the 3ms of nwrr. for the subject of the leading imperative is not identical with that of the following infinitive. the same verb is used. and that with yet another c h a n g e from 3pl to I s . and widi the following verbs as the leading one: b^ ." 1035 ^ similar discord is also discernible in the above-quoted A4. T h e above-given translation is in line with the understanding by Whitehead (1974:83)('"^^) of this structure. This is c o m m o n in a stereotypic phrase npb TVDB:b 12V 'he took and m a d e his own' A6. It is thus not just that the auxiliary is "followed by a verbal form of the same conjugation & person" (Hoftijzer .5:16. but with a significant difference.. 1034 "Yj^g S t a c c a t o effect of these orders/requests issued in short asyndetic clauses .

broke into . gateways and their doors .. p n"!" yriD vmm 'a rescript (?) w a s written (and) given to us' A6.nm" 'he should come (and) avenge the blood of. Here the leading verb is semantically more independent than byhm . give to them .10:7. B7.1:76.. .' ib. ..7:8f. give [= Give back] to Masapata. nnn 'led (the troops) ..20:2.12 // 'ni opm nnt«n 'you should come and avenge my blood.. Let him m a k e (them) over to my estate' A6.. vnm . Whether the second verb indicates a purpose of the first (so Garr 1995:202f) is largely a subjective consideration. nnn anb nn 'Restore. ]rnn 'they demolished . ummi wi:.7:29. .. same error twice in such a proximity.1:5. In the Akk.' T h i s contrasts with a series of juxtaposed verb phrases all n e a d y joined with the conjunction W a w in the immediately following lines. '"'^ The Akk.c verbs of physical movenient["''^]). came . 3 2 ( ' ^ ) . and m a d e their own' A4.. This s y n t a g m is exploited with impressive effect in the manner of the proverbial veni. which give details of different types of vandalism perpetrated on the marauders' arrival: -iinv Dimnnbi )npb . 017V -[HNI 'and I shall go (and) grind' D7. they burned with fire and they took the basins .' C2. and smashed the c o l u m n s . vmvi .15:6.1:3.lO. ins .'n:i and the like. it-tal-ku. nnn ..liSK^"^^). b^v imnm 'they assembled. rb^v ip'mb nnnvi 'I went (and) found Ahiqar' C 1. reads: a-lik-ma du-[uj-ku.. vici to highlight the speed of a military expedidon consisting of several actions occurring one after another at A4. and yet it is fairly closely ded to the following verb.1:15+('"^'). Twsb mv npb 'he took (and) m a d e his own' A6. the two verbs are idiomatically joined by the enclitic /-ma/: ip-hu-ru-nim-ma. vidi.. T h e syndetic s t m c t u r e with a litany of heinous misdeeds perhaps gives an expression to the intensity of outrage felt by the local Y H W worshippers and their sense of attachment to the symbol of their piety: "that scoundrel (vrb) and his soldiers demolished " ^ ^ ^ Similarly in OA.. vpmo] isne? imn . . -n bv .. enter' D7..1:94.15:7. version the two verbs are separated by itti uqu 'with the troops.i?n.7:9-13. p m n ]rh>v 'we sent (a letter and) informed' A4.' Sefire III 11. bv im 'Come...' In Akk. w e n t . bl vrcn bv mv nnonb ni nnn 'Restore.258 PART IV b: § 73 ^ . N '[i ]nD o r nnp 'PT[N] •[w]ent (and) did b a t d e with the Marg[i]ans' i b .. stand with him' D7.. N-IN nip 'a lion went (and) approached [= went near]* C 1.. Examples are: bnp 'PTN 'GO (and) kill!' Ca . 'mm} ...nnn ..nnD .' It would be too uncharitable to the stone mason lo suggest. Dl Dp. as Fitzmyer (1995:153) does..... demolished i t . 'Dip "b^v 'Go.2:6..

briDV vb '1 shall not be able to bring (suit)' B2. l : 17. ymam ib. and they demohshed that. as is shown in ND'7Q bv bm ps: umv ID 'when Arsham left and went to the king' A4. they smashed (nnn) diem" A4. U"^—piab nn^i 'you '"^^ Cf.7:8f In ncD p n •'['^"'T N]-ODDT vniy m D n [ N ] n r a K 'You. does not have to be the rule. as argued in the preceding paragraph and as also shown by the fronted position That two asyndetically juxtaposed verbs can be separated is exemplified by ^mnr 'pnf) mpb 'you took (and) m a d e (them) your own' B7. demolished it CmtDiD) leading verb.. In some of the cases cited above the first verb is semantically subordinate to the following one to some extent. lamented' C l . T h e y c a m e {m) to the fortress broke into {bv) that temple.26 iriM ^ps 'Come out!. c ) Verbs such as by/b7]D{^^^). bbn n J i r i D vu vnznp 'he thereupon tore his garment.15:6.4 // MDV v\imi[ ijnir^nN DraK •''^[•'t jKT'ps'? 'You.7:4. as demonstrated by the standing phrase ibw ICDHN mentioned above. with which contrast T\m±> IDV npb 'he took (it and) made his own' A6. Contrast also Twnf> IDV r\pb A6.12:3. b e diligent in stricdy guarding my domestic staff and goods!' A6. nnN.15:6 quoted above with wxpb mv unmbl A4. nmnb .." The asyndesis of this kind is not grammatically obligatory. be diligent and issue instmction to tmjy official!' A6. l : 4 1 .10:5 die second verb explicates how the diligence denoted by the first is to be manifested. Examples are: biD—vbyn nnn ubnnb bijv vb 'I shall not be able to serve in the gate of the palace' C l .SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 259 this...' and see Muraoka 1966:160.("^^) T h e position of bw in the second slot has not caused this deviation from the majority rule.. which. 'nui.. .. see Folmer 1995: 634-40. though in the latter case the syndetic structure may h a v e been purposefully chosen.11:7. and they did this and diat. rmvm and others discussed above can also be expanded by means of an infinitive. T h e lack of such dependence is manifest in a series of asyndetically juxtaposed verbs widely separated from o n e another as in "Naphaina led {-ni) the Egyptians . see Folmer 1995: 371-76. however. and this has not to do with the formal discongmence between the two verbs: we have two almost independent verbs in r n s N 'bv irrrr T\mr\ 'Dispatch (them).. 'f)43 P Q J .2:6. g comparison of the two verbs as regards whether they take an infinitive or a finite verb..7:12f. Dn 3. let them bring (them) to m e at once' A6. ptDD .14:2. sim. and on their distribution patterns in the Achaemenid period.

20:4. vbD—.10:2. . sec an altemative interpretation discussed above. Expansion by noun phrases or pronouns a) A nom phrase or a pronoun. § b.. p n i i — ' n o s nm:Dnn['7 HDJK p'l)^ 'I a m entitled to bestow it on Psami'B7. . mob -\:vbDv 'I shall restrain you from building . There are t w o possible e x a m p l e s of a participle c o m p l e menting its main verb: nnn pn' ]'nv 'we have begun to give (out) allotment' D 7 . to be [ ]' C1.13 ]'i ]-\nbtD2 i2i>rb ^'bw nn:K KSJit^ '±>n biDn 'you have (enough) power over all the kings of the earth to mete out justice to all of them. where the infinitives explain how the control can manifest itself. 9 : 1 1 . n c N — n T r a D i N DDb IDV i riD ]vnd? 'what Armantidata will tell you to load on it' A3.. .. nmzb p : ^ 'they do not desire to come' D7. 5.7:7. the second verb may be a perfect.7:23.3:6. l 4 ..6:6.. im—nmnb imn bv 'Do not fail to c o m e ' D7.56:7. 1 : l l . nonnb vbD' 'he will restrain M a h s a h from building . rmv—mnb -JT NiiJK bv rwvnv 'Take thought of this temple to (re)build it' A4. ':^lD—bvTb v:iyD vb 'they did not succeed in breaking into' A6. a substantivised adjective and a numeral.4:4.('"^^) § 74. nnnb nbv TON 'you have right to build .. nbv—vmb vnvn nmb nb nnbv ^^v vnbn 'b wnnnb nb nnbv 'I sent to h i m (asking) to explain the matter to m e and I also sent to him (asking) to s h o w the order to Hosea' D7.' B 2 . Cf. In both cases. however.7:23. . see Sokoloff 1990:567a.' 1 0 4 6 jj^g second case.1:149. including their equivalents such as a demonstrative pronoun. npbnb ]n'bv 'have right to take' B3.' B2.260 PARTIVb: §73c-§74t/ desire to give' B3.4:12. i b .. . ptin pnD vb^ 'and we were not able to cleanse (it)' B3. mnQ'? . 1 : 6 ." B 2 . can also expand a verb.4:22. A number of distinct parameters On the morphologically difficult mno'p. pDV—mnb ]b ipncD vb 'they do not allow us to build it' A4.14.15. sim.16. In the follov^'ing case w e observe a transition to an epexegetic infinitive: "^Db\d7^ "Dnmnb "p a-bc.. The corresponding Syriac verbs D sarri 'to begin' and meSkal} 'to be able' are both attested with the participle: see Muraoka 1987: § 97 and Muraoka 1997b: § 98 d. For examples of Jewish Aramaic "W + p t c .. It is precarious to postulate another syntagm consisting of nyi + 't phrase on the basis of one broken text: 'T 'nD n:v nD"^ ]n [ ]mnn 'if you desire. 'DN— nmnb vb 'they did not wish to come' ib.24:15('"^).1:9. i^b 'not having control over you to brand you and to sell you' B3. nbv—'D\ v^i vv:nb nm n'bv 'Let h i m be allowed to carry on that grant' A6.1:8('"''). m y son.. IQapGen 20.. see above § 37 h..

7:16. whether direct or indirect. A2. see Pardee 1976:221-23 and Muraoka 1979:92-94.10. mediated by a preposition. can be mediated through either b or bs: 'b ' n b c 'Send (word) to me!' A2. with a participle— ]ivv npb nn 'Do take barley' A2. in nnpv Tn 'b nbv 'Send (word) to m e through Akbah!' A2.('^^) Let a few examples suffice: nns"? o n D i n 'I blessed you to Ptah* A2.e. E. (2) the morphological category of the c o m p l e m e n t — n o u n phrase or conjunctive p r o n o u n . yn: nnb 'we instituted (suit) against a son' B3. '"^^ Thus n b c . different meanings of a verb may require different complementation patterns. .4:9.e. i. F o r instance. Which preposition serves as a marker of indirect government of a given verb is essentially a semantic and lexicographical question. namely no preposition occurs with the complement. A2. with an indefinite o b j e c t — p i v 'n nnpb 'you took from m e a security' B3. (5) the aspect of determination. m s o nrbv 'I have sent tiiis letter' A2. '"^^ For some general remarks on this subject. whether a given c o m p l e m e n t refers to an animate or inanimate entity. which latter are traditionally called objects. '"^'t)n this idiom. i. K ] T N H D O '^n D D D 'Haggai wrote this document' B3.1:13. c) Indirect government.g. H e r e w e are concerned about essential complements. both of which are illustrated in pTb nnm "irnD'p "b 'to give m e y o u r daughter Mipta(h)iah' B2. b) Direct government. d) The preposition b marking indirect government is unique in having two distinct roles.1:12. 1 : 4 1 .6. (3) w h e t h e r c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r s necessarily mediated by a preposition or not. i. the notion of agency is less essential than that of what is sent and to w h o m it is sent.2:17.6:15. A 2 .5:3 'Blessed be before Osiris'. 5 : 1 . Here one needs to m a k e a distinction between all sorts of non-essential adverbial complements and more or less essential complements. (6) multiple complements. whether the entity denoted by a given nominal complement can be regarded as determinate or not. "bl mnb npni 'adjoins m y house' B 2 . A2.9.2:2.e. mnnn pnn 'he allowed us to gloat over Vidranga' A4.1:2. (8) the position of the complement in relation to the verb.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 261 are involved in such a verb complementation: (1) the morphological category of the verb—^participle or non-participle. 1 : 4 . (7) verbs of physical movement. and (9) the infinitive.4:6. with a definite object— nWD v\2 'he tore his garment' C 1 .6:3.6:l ('""'). there are other potentially relevant parameters: (4) the semantic aspect.16 // 'nn bv 'nb^ 'Send (word) to Tabi!' ib.('"''^) In fact. for instance. nn nynn n o N Dip D20.2:8.4:14. see Muraoka 1992:99-104.

On the whole question. 13 andl995: § 114 e) regards this as an Aramaism. a preposition which is followed by a dative conjunctive suffix (von Soden 1965-81:47b). 1052 jj^j^ 1 ^ jj^g Bisitun inscription corresponds to /ana/ in the Akkadian version. nvro vb -pn vrn^xb 'your wife I did not strike' B7.33. '"'^ C f Bauer .12. vnnyb bm mm 'the king questioned the men' C 1. . 1 4 : l .. nDT m±> nb nnw n3« 'I gave you this house' ib.I:2.2:9("'*') // Nnn3 t c H D 'nvna i nb 'he stmck the domestic staff of m y lady' A6.2:4('"«). 'b n\vn 'yrob 'Dispatch tto m e ] . though von Soden (op. cit.in 11 out of 16 certain instances of the absence of the preposition in her corpus the object precedes the verb. whether before or after the verb. v^mn' ]vt> ~\n nbm 'I asked you for Lady Jehoishma' B3. A2. pb nv vb 'they did not capture Nathan' D7. 5 persons. is not a determining factor for the use or non-use of the preposition. A2. 3 : 3 . t^\p ']b i vbn . and is usually lacking as in NSOD -p ]ri3N 'I shall give you the silver' B2.. demonstrates that the position of the object.. np'nvb nnnm 'I found A h i q a r ' C l . m in same function: the former is typical of our idiom and later Eastern Aramaic dialects.g. nniib nbnp niv '1 killed Gaumata' ib.74. e.2:5. vTivb nnn vnnn 'the ass mounted the jenny' i b .7:14. the latter of O A including Samalian (once in B A ]1nri^) and later Western dialects. [N']inQ':''my troops killed the rebels' ib.('"^") Other examples of b marking a direct object are: rnrb "b piab 'to give m e Tamet' 3 3 . There seems to be a dialectal contrast between the preposition Lamed as exponent of direct object and the particle n't<.5 // nbv vr\n ~[b ran' 'I gave you these houses' B3. [.262 PARTIVb: §14d-e The b of "b indicates the recipient as indirect or datival object.7:2.. 1051 jj^j^ p^j. and C f also Folmer 1995: 340-71. rr.8:3. m y tunic' D 7 ..15:3.n]N 'I gave you the house' B2. but the addition o f f o r direct object is optional.1:16.1:13 // inn nbnp 'you/I killed them' C1. l 8 6 . whereas the prefixed to "[mn indicates direct or accusatival object. from [Nakh]thor' A6. l : 7 6 . vmb "ob ran.1:13. 'rravb rmn 'you stmck my wife' B7.. vnnnb bnp 'they killed the rebels' C2.10:6. N ' t n J n D ' ? -"^-T vbn t>n\p] 'my troops killed the rebels' C2. see Kutscher 1961a: 129-33.15:8.. (2) that a direct object so marked may either precede or follow the verb('"''').1:77 // mnn[n] ] p bm 5 pn: vnbn 'he asked for Cilicians. The author of the Hermopolis papyri docs without any of these particles even where he could have used them. One notes (1) that the entity referred to by the direct object marked by b is either animate or inanimate('"^^).Leander 1927:340f Folmer (1995: 363) finds it significant that.2:17.

1:102. o n e comes across a case such as [nin':' -nt> itD nm nT[n'] nD 'when a good man sees an evi [l] m a n ' C l . and not nu—then the b in -pmwb | n n n nniDDi 'we showed (it) to Shumshillech and his colleagues' A6. both meaning 'give': e.6:30.7:16.lO. 1055 1056 ' Thus contra Kutscher (1972:101 " n r a "iDb pi").10:9. Likewise n]K nnn nmb i n n n 'you expel her mother T a m e t ' B3. l : 186.('"^^) Infrequent attestation renders it difficult at times to say whether the preposition b is obligatory for the introduction of direct object or not.g. Also ambiguous is KTitij'^ 2D1 Nnnn 'An ass mounted a jenny' C l . If nnb | n n n B8.1:5. for the verb in question occurs only in its infinitival form with a suffix three more d m e s : nniDnn':' 'to expel her' B2. B3. | m po nbv bnp" 'he will complain against y o u (to) a prefect or a j u d g e B 2 .9. D[n] bnm" n 'one w h o humbles an exalted man' ib.8:30 and nronrb 'to expel you' B3. 1058 In contrast to Hebrew. as Jouon (1934:38) proposed. |n]K vb nb nnn" 'we d i d not give it to y o u ' B5. C f also IQapGen 20.2:8 would be the exponent of an indirect object.('"**) There are.-iD '7V "pbjp l complained to you about Pharaoh.7:16.' Perhaps a different meaning of the verb requires a different preposition: i n i3:s n 'who touches you' C1. as against mob DDU 'he taught his son' C 1. sim.3:14.1:12.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 263 (3) that. synthetically attached to a verb is a direct (accusatival) object. KnDi po'p nbv bnp'' 'he will complain against you to a prefect or a lord' B3. ' It is now scarcely warranted to insert o t p . See also mvb Nnn] 'a leopard m e t a goat' Cl. This is tme of such high frequency verbs as nn" and p ] .' b or zero as in | m jao o n p -]bs bnpv bov vb '1 shall not be able to complain about you before a prefect or a j u d g e ' B3. ' Another instance o f optional marking of an indirect object involves a G verb bnp 'to lodge a complaint': the word for a person with w h o m a complaint is lodged m a y be preceded by o n p 'before. though such an object is mostlyC"") determinate. t^nOT yi -\bv rbnp '1 complained about you (to) a judge or a lord' B3.11:12.1:1 w e have only two more instances of the verb. "nnn yn-^in n pb 'Give it to w h o m e v e r y o u desire!' B2.14ii.10:19.('"") e) In the majority of cases a conj.2:5. 3 : 1 3 . For instance.l:166. in which a verb such as ]n] often takes a datival . most likely a direct object. l : 9 9 . nimn p n n n n pb 'you may give it to whomever you like' B2. in both of which the c o m p l e m e n t is a conjunctive pronoun: n o D n 'he taught him' ib.12:5 means 'we showed to them'— urb. B3. pron. 150. nTODn 'I taught him' ib.

of person such as ddii yi "Dn^v buDV vb 'I shall not be able to institute against you suit or process' B2.1:9.' B 2 .. ']:vbDV 'I restrain you' B2. pron..2:13.("^) But w e do not find a single case ofb + conj. • t D ] ] t i ] c .' Of its 4 0 occurrences. however.: i^bD 'I restrained you' 3 2 . 1 : 7 .. Thus "+ acc.IM PARTIVb: § 74 e however. obj. -p m m nnb TI31 I T I : |n 'if they instituted (suit) against you and instituted (suit) against son or daughter of yours' B3.11:8. is always prefixed with b: e. 9 : l l . noun]: e. 1 3 .Jongeling (1995:1086f. .('"^') Thus.("^^) On the other hand. restrain' occurs 4 times with a conj. a G verb vbD 'to detain. D D ^ n ^ 'they will not be able to bring (suit) against you . ]'\m" p ' ^ H D ' vbi. and they will not bring (suit) against your sons . The same holds for another G verb n~i: 'to institute suit. we meet nb nnb I N n o n n ' p vbD" 'to restrain Mahsah or a son of his' B2.8:7 and five cases in which a finite form of the verb is followed by a syntagm \b + 3.pron.) is misleading unless it is clearly stated that every pronoun synthetically attached to a verb is accusative. 24 are with a conjunctive pronoun referring to a person as in "b id D D C J m DDn^vn 'I brought (suit) against you and a son of mine brought (suit) against you' 32. whether determinate or indeterminate. A participle must be treated as a separate category: "b nmn rat^ 'you bring suit against me' B7.10:12.' Our corpus has 24 cases of it with a conj. Cf. pron. bnD: vb UDb nnD-] nDb nm: 'we shall not be able to bring (suit) against son or daughter of yours' B2. b is non-^ obhgatory. Folmer 1995: 351 f 1060 g^jj gjgQ occurs once: y'n bo^ ybn ntDiQ*? 'to bring suit against you and against your sons' B2. without being able to say whether such a is an exponent of an indirect object or an optional exponent of a direct object. s.g." of Hoftijzer .. G nton 'to bring suit. On the other hand. In a case like this we can only state that a conjunctive pronoun has the same value as a + a noun. A noun complement.1:6.. In other w o r d s . ba. examples in which such a pronoun represents in fact an indirect object..("^') In the light of this it is rather likely that the object is direct..4:18.v. Such a decision can be m a d e when a noun phrase as a complement of such a verb is consistently marked by h or some other preposition. Consider a kindred legal term.10:10. if a verb consistenly takes a pronominal conjunctive pronoun: see Bogaert 1964 and Joiion-Muraoka 1993:§ 125 b. nt>D 'they detained him' A4.g.. T ]'\bT]y vb .3:5.

each time with b + a conjunctive pronoun (e.' where.g.C"^) T h e G verb wc.2n" .12. j u x t a p o s e d in o n e sentence .4:3 one is therefore allowed to interpret the pnn as indirect object. "b n-^n bv 'Do not worry about me' A2. however. "bvnb nv2V 'I hate m y husband' B3. and the object appears to be direct. especially b. and Z a k k u r your son' B3. n o u n phrase. and as a non-participial form it occurs four times with a conj. In pnn"? ^pn bv 'Do not worry about H a m d j ' A2. A2.. There is no e x a m p l e of diis verb with a conjunctive pronoun.3:4.2:3. about m e and about Makkibanit' A2. as a son w o u l d support his father. bno: inn nnb 'we shall support Z a k k u r your son' B3. T h i s is true of verbs such as "iDN .4.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 265 complement mediated by a preposition.. another question whether these objects are direct or indirect: if the use of b was obligatory with a c o m p l e m e n t of this verb in our idiom. hate her husband' B3. pron.1:7. namely a non-participial verb + a conj. B3. of person (e. the preposition "7 has been put to effective use.]riD: e. B 2 .6 nvbn^ n«i on'ra nt^i crbDni 'and she swallowed them up as well as their houses and their tents' (Joiion Muraoka 1993: § 1 2 5 / ) . Or is the preposition here an e x p o n e n t of direct object as in ynnb "^^ We have not found an example such as IQapGen 19. appears to attest to indirect g o v e r n m e n t : n'^i^n'? vwn . 'b ~\m in 'he said to me" A4.3:5).3:7('"^^)..g.8:21.12:24. as well as with b + a.19 't^pnb ] i r T p2mb 0*71 'they will seek to kill me.6:12). including one reasonable restoration). diough not of frequent occurrence in our corpus (8. sim.g.12). sim. maintain somebody (materially. In vb -[nn niDbi nnvb nn bno" m I'bno: 'we shall not support you. Likewise with G ^li'': riDDDn'^T "b ]b is:^n bv 'Do not worry about us.. '"^ C f a similar use of nt^ in BH as in Dt 11. it would then be an indirect object. The D verb bno 'to support.6:13 we have two syntagmata. " ^ 5 Two remaining occurrences of the verb in the corpus are those of a conjunctive pronoun. .. ybno: 'we shall support you' B3.5:4. ^ODD nb p\r\ 'you sell (it) to h i m for silver' B3. ]n 'if she .g. pron. but you to spare.3:9. As a participle it occurs three times.4:12. nb n^^n bi^ 'Do not worry about him' A2. It is.8:24. nb pnon 'are supporting him' A2. n'^ uw pDDi ^OD 'they gave h i m silver and goods' A4. reflecting -j^nm in the Hebrew text fronted for contrast's sake (Gn 12. A2. mm Tmvb 'I hate m y wife' B3. it is safe to regard such a c o m p l e m e n t as indirect object. financially)' also involves indirect government.3:9("^').6:13) and widi b + a noun phrase of person 4 times (e. 6 : 2 3 .

" A s with -3 m% the preposition is basically instrumental.4:7.('«*«) g) Double objects S o m e verbs take two objects.4:10 and -[DQ nn'piSDn ]n 'if 1 should reclaim h i m from you' B3. n — nrDpT nDnn. fSODn -prbv vb 'I did not repay you your silver' B3. the .]n 'if Reia give you wool' A2. in the case of double objects.'I gave it to you' B2. as perhaps corroborated by the sequence of the t w o pronominal objects analytically expressed in b inn nc. 'b nrbv 'Send it to m e ' D7. his commentary (1969:219). 6 : 5 . np'b n-T um n m '1 have b o u g h t olive oil for Jake' A 2 ..11:13.3:14 possibly indicates also that.("^*) With these compare. one direct and the other indirect.l6... ybv inn :'PS] 'we shall divide t h e m to o u r s e l v e s ' B2.18 mrr n^a .'he will inherit her [= from her] her goods and her property' B2. i'^ nbv NDDDib.6:21("^^). l : 3 6 : 'nobody caused any damage in that temple. In the light of this w e The context of ^Ti':>:i]n B8. The verb occurs no more in our corpus.9:16.3 in b2n i<b t^nwn DVi-n m't^ A4.7:14 must be local in view of ybv t^na bzirr' 'he will damage our land' C l . direct and indirect. Note -p nnnn. p — -[DQ b)ii\r\ ]n 'if she shall reclaim from you' B2.266 PARTIVb: § 7 4 / .8:35 is reasonable. neither of which requires a preposition. 20 jCJiD ^OD "fpsiT] 'he reclaimed from m e silver. 2 : l l .10:5. the direct object has the priority over the indirect for synthetic complementation. l 5 .in 'Dispatch them to m e ' D7. bv pbn. Thus the restoration in TAD B.1:7. Kraeling's text (1969:206) contains a printing error. .A discussed above (§ ec)l f) A preposition of indirect object can be other than b.2:16. Pace Cowley (1923:116).2:15 is too fragmentary.' '"^ On the striking bv. cf. c f 2Ch 23.7:16-f-. O n e is usually mediated by a preposition: n n r nb im 'Let her dispatch to you wool' A2. T h e first three e x a m p l e s also s h o w the o p t i o n a l n a t u r e of t h e synthetic complementation.l:14. 2 0 karsh' B 8 .("^') However. 1068 jj^g example perhaps means "I did not settle the matter with you by means of your silver that I o w e you. p t in the sense of "to spend money (to obtain) something" takes two objects.i b . and the second e x a m p l e at B3.2:7.3:14 and vb ^DD bpu b-^iv ^D\v 'I shall not be able to reclaim from you m y field' Bl. "nv I'vi nb nn. nr^pi rvo^2^ n[n]][ora JranT 'he will inherit from her her [mo]n[ey] and her goods and her property' B3. a phenopienon strange in our eyes: ins) i»n ]in33T 'you bought grain with them' A3.11 // NSOD 1':' pn'^c.

8 : 3 . l : 166 must also be the exponent of a direct object.. 1 3 : L h) In c o m m o n with Aramaic in general(""^) our idiom also uses inn/nn. 9 as direct object. A2.13 nirr nsm-n^ nvni nio? '(for you) to cover the altar of the Lord with tears'. and immediately after the verb.'you gave m e her' B 3 .6:10.1:98. NQ. nn b)i:nv 'I shall reclaim them' '"™ C f the same general idea couched in a different syntactic form in Sefire lA 36 nbn mn ]nn n r "May Hadad sow in them salt. sim. indirect.'they will release them' A3.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 267 must take the suffix in "inr nnm 'p 'to buy grain with it' ib. disjunctive pronoun. '"^^ On TA. ]nnn Ipvwb 'we showed (it) to Shumshillech' A6. nn ppnc.1:207. S e e also ]':'an "mpv 'they beat m e on the legs' B8. as an exponent of direct object. See also nbn N^IN 'I shall sow the land (with) salt' D23. a third person pl.n 'to bring (suit)': see above. sim. In the passive transform the second object would b e c o m e the subject of the verb in these cases: e. nnnn. nnn nn 'they smashed them' A4. § ed. an interpretation possibly corroborated by nnb pnn B8. nn psn. SA and Mandaic as exceptional in this regard.3:2. N H D . see Muraoka 1992:99f .S D p n n 'he s h o w e d us the boat' A6.'May he show m e your face' A2.2:2.1 Va:13.6. -mncJin 'Dispatch it to m e ' D7.29:9.4:5. troD ©a*?? n\nr\ 'you covered it with the deep as with a garment' Ps 104.2:8. nnb -nDnD-T 'and let h i m give it to you' D7.C*'^^) E x a m p l e s with a pronominal direct object attached to a verb followed by another pronominal object. A2. A2.24:16. Likewise -DDS n m D o n n [ ' p n:]v p-n:^ '1 [am] e n u d e d [to Ibestow it on Pamisi' B7. '^^ C f BH Mai 2.2:7. l 5 4 . A2. Examples of mn(""') with a noun of a person to w h o m something is to b e shown are: vvnb vnvn nnnb 'to show the order to Hosea' D7.3:6.g. are: pb nm" 'Let them bring it to you' A2.1:2. 3-n.'May h e let m e see your face' A2.('"™) T h e same can b e said of some causative verbs: J S N -Din.6:2. p-SK--3Tn.' N o relevant example of nm is to be found in our corpus.nnvb -in[n 'show an Arab the sea' C 1. Examples are: nn ipnv vb 'they did not leave them' C 1.7:9. Here also belong verbs such as nn: 'to institute (suit)' and nc..9:13.12:5 if it means 'we showed to them' rather than 'we showed them (to someone)' where the text is unfortunately not well preserved. T h e suffix in 'Dvn -DDODN 'I will cover you with m y skin' C l .1:6.'they will heal them' i b . T h e second example with an indeterminate noun indicates that the object is most likely indirect.5:2.-«nD p -T ub vn "b 'the domain which was given to m e by m y lord' A 6 .4:2.

7:7. 8 : 5 . "b nn-no vb nvm [V]n[n:]n "] 'who is not bringing m e the (agreed) r e [ n t ] . "im: no example of direct h n k a g e b e t w e e n verb and destination('"").' D/H 'to bring/take near'.1:20) or widi bv of person (e.6:5. with a person.13:2 et passim // nvnn ]nb nnv 'I shall bring you something' A2. but lacking "7.1:10. vnbn bv b^v 'went to the king' A4. mn n-nm vb "nm 'I did not bring them (to) M e m p h i s ' A3. A6. G nnp 'to draw near.1:4. See also at A3. nnv: + 0 ]n)in \\nvn 'you c o m e to Egypt' A3. nnv 'came to M e m p h i s ' A4. A4. G bhv 'to enter. H nv" 'to despatch'.15:4.' H 'to bring/take'. V e r b s belonging to this category are: G 'pm 'to go'.7.6:35. . G p s ] 'to exit. and b a person w h o benefits from what is b r o u g h t — " ] m D bv rnn "\ nnnv nn:v 'the letter of Arsames which they brought to Psamshek' A6. A3. A 3 . i) Verbs of physical movement with a complement indicating a destination call for special a t t e n t i o n . at all' A6. D7. but only with b of place {mnv n"nb -[nn 'she shall go to ""^Cf.10:5. -]n"n n"n[v] 'I c a m e (to) your house' B2.t The rule that the disjunctive object pronoun must direcdy follow the verb overrides the "Pronominalregel" (§ 78 bb): nvn b ran 'Dispatch them to me' D7.11:13.' H 'to bring in'. sim.4:4 (rather than But cf. G -[in 'to go'. 1 0 ^ 5 . D7.268 PART IV b: § 74 i B6. Cl.9:17.6:3('"^').4:8. G nm 'to come. Given this fluctuation in syntax. B2.g. D7.38:4. D7.' . one hesitates.' H 'to bring/take out'.9:4.3:10.' S o m e of these verbs are complemented direcdy without a preposition to indicate a destination: e. B 2 . G nn] 'to descend.17:2.3:10.2:l 1. pace Fitzmyer (1971:149).8:8. b\v: + 0 iniiiD nnv p\v n "b"] ]n"bv 'servants of mine w h o are going with him to Egypt' A6. 1 2 : l .9:16. 7 : 5 .g. G pbo 'to ascend'. p in. ]io nnv 'is coming (to) Syene' D7.npn 'Let them bring us castor oil' ib. -\n"nn ybv n"nv n]t% ]1D3 'I c a m e to you at your h o m e in Syene' B3. '"^^ Hence "bl W2 bv 'house' as a building)? 'they came to my household' B8. ]VfW n"n 'brought (to) Susa' A 6 . to assume a scribal error here for yrnb on the ground that this is the only case of a common noun indicating a desitnation with this verb.9:3 // "BTh .' H 'to make descend. . G nbv 'to send/send oral or written message.lAbis. bv indicates a destination or recipient('"^^). also Folmer 1995:589-621. 1 2 . usually with b of place (e.14:2. G bn" 'to transport'.8:42. Sefire III 5 nbn prv 'they go (to) Aleppo. G vm 'to reach'. D nnv 'to send'. A3. B3.. D7. G vm 'to carry'.g.3:5.7:5). B2.16:6.. G(?) bno 'to carry'. onniiB b'w 'he went to Urartu' €2.

8:6 (also A3.. but with an object of person usually with bv as in -["bv mn[n] v\ mmv -TD 'when this letter reaches you' A3. bDV -DK 'Let it be delivered (to) Luxor' A2. and bv with person as in "bv pny 'let him c o m e out to m e ' D7.vb 'they will not go d o w n to Sheol' C 1.g.. b of place (e. iv ]n:^n mn" 'until he reaches Egypt' A6.39:4('"'''). pD3: no i n s t a n c e of direct g o v e r n m e n t .7Kv2:l et passim). -SDQ nn 'Come d o w n (to) M e m p h i s ! ' A3.8:l 1.pron. b u t b of p e r s o n (beneficiary) as in -"^n "b pnv 'Take out for m e an implement (?)' D7. mn: + 0 -DDQ Nniii mn 'Seha reached M e m p h i s ' C3. "in mnnb 'upon arrival in Media' C2.bno pbo—no relevant examples.8:13. it is indirect.25. Possibly a haplography for Wza in view of . "bl vmb -]rhm 'I brought you to my house' C l .7:6.25).10:7. all of which seems to suggest that when the destination is a person expressed as a conj. nuvb mn vb"n nn 'the troop c o m m a n d e r arrived in Abydos' A4. 6.4:23). but otherwise b and bv used indiscriminately (e. A3. nm: + 0 bim pnn.. pron. 1 : 4 1 .3:3) or n followed by a place-name (t%CD[f3D'7] mnn 'upon arriving at R a k h a ' C 2 ..28. (beneficiary) as in pnD "b nmn 'Bring m e down a tunic' A3.g.g.1:17..8:28)(""«) and exceptionally with bv of place ("IT t^sn-n bv pm 'will have gone into that house' B3.g.27:2. in a standard d i s p a t c h address in Hermopolis letters (e.-7:5.8:6 with [. "iDO "b imn nb 'he did not dispatch to m e a letter' A2.g. m: . bbv: + 0 nDt Kn-D bvT\ 'you shall enter this house' B3.9:5. mmnn "in nnnnb 'upon arriving in Media at Kundur' ib..2:1:1.12:22.9:2 with the same meaning.' B8. bm: + 0 noitDS r r n ion t>m 'Let them bring them (to) the house of Petosiri' D7. Bl.10:5 followed by ybv nn-[n-] 'he will bring (it) to us' ib.10:8. HDHD "T\nn = mnn "bv nnn 'the tunic reached m e ' A2.1:4('^<') and with b of place (e.8:5).8:7 // "nnb mv nm 'you come down to M e m p h i s ' A3. vn"b ipsan 'they took out to the sea' C3.2:6. especially the above-quoted ybv m2[n] t ^ T t^mJK ID 'when this letter reaches you' A3. '"^^ C f n-32i 1 ]v< nb i n n 'she may g o off to wherever she wishes to' B2.5:2.. rm 'II'PT 'they brought me into the land of. iv H/A: always with b + person (e. B2. .SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 2()9 her father's house') B3. w t^nijJK -[Mn ID A3. l : 4 8 // ]-nn bv \\r\bm 'you brought (it) to our houses' A3. with'p + pers.5:4). being a shorthand for'^r + conj.. Cp.1:25. always with the destination preceding).

. having compared the syntagmatics of "imin and nbc. F r o m the above survey it appears that some('"^^) verbs of movement take a direct object of destination of place.g. v[T>] 'a [brambjle dispatched to a pomegranate' C l . n n D . (beneficiary?) as in -p bv 'entered to you' D 7 . 4 bv and 33 b.24:14). // b of beneficiary (e.7:9 et passim). of direct object attached to a verb {b nrbv 'Send it to me!' D7. states that the direct object of the verb ~i2?in is usually goods.l:54)('"«'). -t bn b rbv m)sr\ 'anything you want. '""^ Contra Folmer 1995:609. is personal. In the case of a personal destination. lib + person (e. also with C"ip (-moip m p n N 'I shall present before him' A6.g. its indirect object. of course. -TiV 1 I mb m . nbv -]mpn 'you will present m e to him' Cl. 3 3 : l .13:2). bbv.g.2:6. which takes such a pronoun as an equivalent ofbv + conj. 1:101). pron. l : 193. rbv\ with bv of addressee (e. t^nniQ by> m p : 'we shall offer on the altar' A4. with only one sure instance of a conj.: with 7 of p e r s o n ([ v]Tnb mc. bv j n ^ i Q ' p 'entered Egypt' A4. Such a use of Lamed for dativus commodi is not. with b + pers. mp: with bv of person (.^bv m p 'he approached me' C l . with n of place (e.g.. always requiring b.l:l\ umbv ubv -DO '(word) was sent from m e to them' A6.g. without the preposition.3:4 et passim.24:2.D ] bv rbv rrm 'he sent a letter to Naphaina' kA. Folmer (1995:657). with b of place (e.n n n n b rbvn 'Tamet brought in for m e in her hand 1 woolen garment' B3. but not always.3:6). . but also b often indicating a beneficiary (so-called dativus c o m modi)("*^)." In fact..4:7). bn\ vm. | . i^sm^Kn bv -ft 'they m a d e forced entry into that temple' A4.21:4. This supports our view that the preposition with these verbs indicates a recipient as beneficiary rather than an addressee.8:25 is quite distinct. Finally a conjunctive pronoun synthetically attached to a verb of this semantic category is mostly that of a direct object. -nc. the only exception being that attached to NCDQ.. confined to verbs of movement. but not of person (p\v. pron.7:13). vmb "brbv 'Send m e [=for me] a garment!' D7. This direct linkage is sometimes replaced by indirect linkage by means of the preposition b (occasionally n). Moreover. to this element [= toponym] is direct. her own statistics contradict her: 29 direct vs. m n n n ] bv rbrmn miQ p xrm 'May a letter be sent from my lord to Nakhthor' A6. hence as a free variant ofbv. who states ". send (word) to me' A2. -[T\ b rbv -T 'which R a n k sent to me' D7. most c o m m o n l y bv. rbv). it is always mediated by a preposition.270 PART IV b: § 74 i -k ]1D bvv 'I will enter Syene' D7.4:7. most texts agree that the linking .

4:6. n'^ nDN nnv nb pnvn pnn nn 'as you could do for him..1:4.3:4. 10.. Lemaire (1995:86) emends nnn' nrum. abs.. See § 4 6 / a . nbn mm nnnDCJK 'I found it all frayed (?)' A2.— [n ]ri -pnn IT vnnv nm 'I/you saw that slave walking about here' B8. which fits the context.— pn .11:3. ptc.— m:: nnmn n i ^n)nnv ' 1 dyer's stone which they found stolen' A4.7:14.10 andp'pn ']Non 'came (or: has come) lo m c as portion' ib. np':' ^in .. the complement.4:12. see also the above-quoted A4.' ib. forms an embedded classificatory nominal clause is confirmed by the st.g. I (rather) worry about you' A2.9:6.7:14('"'*''). and leave every beam . nnD2.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 271 j) In the case of a predicatively used participle its pronominal complement mediated by b can be ambiguous.4:4. shown by these complements. together with the object.3:4.7.3:3. the meaning of the obscure nu'^nno does not affect the question of the tense of "[t^CDn at A2. most likely as a participle. nnv nnni^n'p 'to m a k e him slave' 63. nm bv nnnnn nnnbv pnv vb 'they do not find his lass marked under his name' D7. This verb. translating it "il la trouva demeurant.9:6. l : 1 4 . ('"^0 S o m e exmaples are: -iact.. "inn nn n "nb nnm 'I gave you a house renovated' B3. which is always marked indirectly by means of the preposition.11:2.5 the verb is a perfect. m)... pace Hoftijzer (1983:114. (""*") An example of what is most likely a pronominal direct object of a participle is: i nb mv pnv nb '1 a m not leaving him alone' A2. + passive ptc. I am doing for him' A2.7." .9:5. since a participle does not take a conjunctive pronoun as its complement.9. nm bn 'Do take . k) Object complement The object of a verb may be expanded by anodier comple-ment in the form of an e m b e d d e d nominal clause. + adj. ]nKnnDN -SDN n-Tn 'I saw Esarhaddon's countenance favourable' C l . Therefore in cases such as pbnn "JNCDQ 'came (or: has c o m e ) to you as portion' B2. That in clauses of this type. mv pb "b isiin bv 'Do not worry about me. the complement must be an indirect object: e. + noun—"nmnn" nnv 'to press him into slave(ry)' B3.1 11:9. for the pronoun can represent either a direct or indirect object..n mn -[T tiJm3K 'he found that temple already built' A4. n... nnnn'TOCJt^T needs to be emended to nnn' nnnscjt^i 'and I found her sitting' D23.9. nnv nmbv -pn im 'they made a Margian king Thus. occurs elsewhere in the same document with a bare direct object: pnvi .. W h e r e the same verb occurs as a participle alongside a non-participial form of it and both have a complement mediated by the s a m e preposition.

.3:24.2:6. l : 186. those of saying.272 PART IV ab: §74/-p over themselves' C2.5:2. Anodier example of a passive transform is 'ms'^n 120 I ' p Q 'has been made an official in his stead' A6... nnn -[t nv]nn 'the oa[th whijch M e n a h e m .. n .6:2.11:4. 3 : l . etc. «'n'ps ID "b van 'I have heard that the officials .4:3 w e have a passive transform of the syntagm under discussion. T h e subordinator -T in . m o s d y -t and its compounds: rb Dvm -t p n n p ipsn 'you should k n o w that nothing is being brought to us' A2..' A3. in pnnN vbn DV vn-^n nnn p s j A4.n nDN -t N . riTOD -p nran'I gave it to y o u (as) an after-gift' B3.'("'^^) In n-ps 'has been m a d e an official' A6. n) Cognate object S o m e verbs are e x p a n d e d by an object derived from the same root: nnnv vnpn nrnw pn nn. swore' B 7 .1:5. m) Verbs of intellectual perception or communication m a y also take as their object a clause introduced by an interrogative word: ]nnnv nn n-m ]n 'if I saw what you had in abundance' A2. 2 too [x3 i]nn« |-n 'they captured 3 0 2 ahve' C2.9:5. NO-. omtj! mn": 'thou shall build the altar of the Lord (as) whole stones' would typify an active transform in Hebrew of this Aramaic sentence. pnns.. nmbv pDV vb -T nnvb 'to say diat they d o not find his lass' D7.10:3.bv n'm 'branded on his right hand (with) a branded reading(?) in Aramaic' B2.11:7. .. -n -"^-t ID nbmDi 'and I swore to h i m that it w a s mine' B2.m 'the rebuilding which y o u will have executed' ib.6 m^nn^ nnn nia'pq.' A6. [ ] -[-N nrnD*? 'to see h o w [ ] ' C l .Muraoka 1993: § 125 v. -T yv vnn C2.. C f Jouon . . nbnv 1 vbnvD nvnv 'I heard e x a c d y what the effort you p u t in was like . knowing.4:3. 1) Verbs of intellectual perception or communication. See also p N 1 nb'on yn 5 p s ' t p i n '5 stone gates built of hewn stone' A4. ybv in nm i DDb 'it is known to you that K h n u m is against u s ' A4.1:17. nDN TDV -T jv vm 'Make k n o w n how y o u are' C2.6. .1:30. See our discussion on this passage at §16d. . nnnv rov -T vnnnv 'the work you did' B2. l : 3 7 .1:66 quoted above signals conversion of an original direct speech into a subordinate clause. T h e notorious c m x ..3:7. can take a clause as their object introduced by a conjunction. others (as reinforcements)..7:10("'").4:10.. nn vnnb nvnn "b •j\:vn 'they imposed upon you the oath to swear by Y H W ' B2.1:66.. \\vn n::vn' vbn: 'he(?) will load h i m with a camel's load' C l ..7:8 m a y be interpreted in this light: 'Nephaina took the Egyptians with the troop.l2. Dt 27.

IQapGen 22.3:9 with nDTUn pan"! n pb 'you may give it to whomever you love' B2.6:25.12.13:10('°^') and nnb NDp nv p o n n N 'is c o m i n g to Syene with the sheep to sell (them)' D7.SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 273 o) Object ellipsis Precision of tiie legalese seems to require the repetition of a conjunctive p r o n o u n with each consecutive verb: T I ib ]yinvh> TiTiTb^ nnpbnb 'she has no right to take it and give it to others' B2. nn}^ i ]V nb .vb nb 'I did not give (it) to you' B2. -p p n n ]nT p:v 'we sold and gave (it) to you' B3. p]K 'they have right to their share to give (it) to you. .' On the centripetal Lamed. usually one of physical movement. Pakhnum.4:10. may be elided when it is the second or the following of coordinate or otherwise linked verbs: inw p bl Krrn bv ^mv^ 'bi vnynn n c D o i .n c . s i m .10:6.('°^') " ^ ^ ^ Cp. nnnn pnm pm pr n n n 'and do let him buy beams and leave (them) in his house' A2. bvn-] ^vn .28.3:20.1:4. ''Dbnb^ nnwnb 'to brand you and to sell you' B3. and other statues. A verb object. 1 3 : 3 .6:7. i n .. p D n n . p) Centripetal b T h e preposition L a m e d may follow a verb. however. |T<]>nDn pnnn i IN IT Nrrn nb pmn i nn: rb 'a person to w h o m you sell that house or to w h o m you give (it) in affection' B 2 .n . 1 0 : l l . .11:7. .4:9.9.vb 'I did not give you that land to build (it) u p ' B2. and make (them) over to my estate' A6. B3. T]l2Vd7^ nnmnb 'to brand him and to m a k e him slave' B3.. i m p i n N p D n s .12:2. traditionally known under the misnomer of . I D H D nnv bv 'Let him make a statue .4:14. Cf.. l : 22. 3 : 1 8 .2:14 At times an object must b e mentally supplied from the wider context: pnnvb pid? nn b:i2nv vb '1 will not reclaim (it) from you to give (it) to others' B 2 .[ n n 'she shall g o off to wherever she wishes to' B2. to indicate complete dissocation of the subject from the environment: 'nnb b nbw 'I went away to m y house' C l . ]]n]n 'nnm n pb 'you may give to whomever you love' B2. See also nnnb -[T vpnv -\b ran. nnn.12:22+("^«'). s i m .24 -p pTb ]^npb^n2 ]'CD''72. im pnv 'From elsewhere seek domestic s t a f f a n d bring ( t h e m ) a n d mark (them) widi my brand. -[n n s r '1 borrowed from you' B 3 .9:7.10:9 (not same scribe). S6e also nnnb "nnvn n'b^ c i D n s nDN 'you. suffixed by a conjunctive pronoun matching the subject of the verb. l 9 . and (you) dispatch (them and) bring (them) to m e ' A6.n i i i pb 'you m a y give (it) to w h o m e v e r y o u d e s i r e ' B2. .. have right to my security to seize (it)' B3.

the restoration is plausible in view ofb -inD[Q] ib23 for which also the Akk. see above at § 24 p and 38 e.2:13. "p mnm 'Watch yourself!' ib. Kottsieper (1991:339) sensibly suggests an emendation nmnnm 'to put it (=Dn'7n 'their foot) down' as in the second version (line 171). unlike the pf. np[53]] b[m p nnv] ethical dative. Such a pronoun invariably indicates the object of the infinitive('^^): G nmvd? 'to m a k e i i i m ' B3. W h a t calls for special attention is a conjunctive pronoun attached to an infinitive. . its subject m a y also form a nominal clause with a complement.§75 q ) Though akin to the above-mentioned centripetal use.. G "Dbnb} 'Jnmb 'to brand you and to sell you' B3. impf. l : 18.5. vnw pn mm mv 'he will b e greatly agitated. nnv ['b n]nDD nnv v[b nvi]n vnnn 'then Dadarshu did ntot] d o anytthing].3:7. see Joosten 1989. H 'Tb:^nb 'to rescue me' A l . Unlike the centripetal Lamed. l : 1 7 0 ( ' ^ 3 ) . hearing words (such as . t) Subject complement of a verbal clause In contrast to an object complement (§ k above) where the object of a verbal clause and its c o m p l e m e n t form a nominal clause. What has been said above concerning the complementation of a verb equally applies to the infinitive.. iTnm Don] n s o b ^bm im 'and he will succeed me as [a wise and skdful] scribe' C l . this kind of Lamed can be suffixed with a pronoun not matching the subject of the verb: e. nm]onn[':5] 'to bestow it' B7. D 'Dnyinb 'to expel you' B3. p o 'b -nnn n nT\D 'the garment which you brought for m e (to) Syene' A2. Dnmnmn 'to put them down' C l . (i-dag-ga-lu-') for "inDQ... l : 7 . called by s o m e authorities dativus commodi o r incommodi (dative of advantage or disadvantage): pn Nt27[D]n " " T -p m 'Carry away what you would carry away from us' C l .81.. § 133 ^f. or impv. (line .6:7.274 PARTIVb: § 7 4 ^ . see Muraoka 1978 and Joiion . A Hebrew example is u^b ntp Gn 22.)' ib.7:16.g. On the morphology of the syntagm and for more examples. ^ ^ " ^ Though the Akk. the queen') is totally unknown to our idiom. waitting for m e ] ' C2..1:17('^'^). there is another well-known use of the preposidon Lamed.1:6. s) The infinitive and its object.7. E.29.g.Muraoka 1993. allowed direct attachment of the object suffix "them": pb Dnaimd:) 'to dispatch them to you' A2. and on an alternative view as applicable to Syriac. version (line 53) has a pl.9:6.85. r) T h e prolepsis of an object pronoun so farmiliar in a later idiom such as Syriac (sadddra:h l-malkta:^ 'he sent her. l : 169. On the basis of the following examples one may conclude that the infintive.

57) presents the pl. w h o previously saved you' C 1. good. bnm -p rnbv 'I sent (word) to you yesterday' D7. I answered' C l . S o m e examples follow. § 75. ^b i ]nD3D C^JDD mn pi ]nnm m'pr *a burntoffering and sacrifices. pDV nn:: 'acting thievishly' A4. tomorrow or (the) next day. . shall not be able to reclaim Pilti' B3. noun phrases.7:28.2:5..SYNTAX: VERB PHRASE EXPANDED 275 [np "PTN 'after that I depar[ted from Babyjlon. as regards" and the like: e.25. etc. Dn n i D -{bv p 'if it so please you' A6. ]nan nnnn -T pb 'to whomever you give (it) affectionately' B3. l : 14. it has been s e n t .1 vim nb vnv nnvn 'to the west of it (there is) the temple of Y H W B3. NT vnm nvy 'and now this year . s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s i n t r o d u c e d by a subordinating conjunction. prepositional p h r a s e s . equal to the worth of 1. l : 4 0 . -n nn-n m n nnNn ]n 'if she says thus. They may b e further classified in terms of granmiatical form: single lexemes (mostly "adverbs").. purpose. vb ]ir\v nv I N "inn nbvn ri:v nbnb S^SDN biDV 'I.C^*) Such adverbials can be classified in semantic terms: adverbials of time..20:7.g. quantity. N-nnD yn "pnn n a N i 'and I was walking among the vineyards' C l . -pw pip i ipnv 'Ahiqar. Expansion by adverbials A verb phrase may be expanded by an adverbial in the form of a word or phrase which functions other than as direct or indirect object . nbv . King of Assyria. vbv pnnb 'to go upwards' B 3 .12:23. . l : 4 8 .. whether single or composite. Adverbials of time—^|lKn"iDN mm im 'thereafter Esarhaddon b e c a m e fond of him' C l .. of manner—nn: p o n 'he guarded firmly' A6. 7 : 1 3 . .7:8.1:2. 5 n 8 "["IN m n 'it was 8 cubits by 5 in terms of length' B2. l : 11. u) So-called accusative of limitation or specification This is a use of a noun phrase which dehmits or specifies the area of a p p h c a b i h t y of what is denoted by another noun phrase. ' A4. of place—ip bnnn nnn nnn 'there I was supporting you' C l . Meshullam. in terms of worth.12:18.6. manner. mnnv vnmn mnnb 'upon arrival the relbjels assembled' C2. going to Mcd[ia]' ib..10:2. cardinal numerals.000 silver talents' A4. and its force can be reproduced in English by "in terms of..1:46.6:8('"^^)..3:13. Pace Joiion (1934:39) w e do not find anything unnatural in the use of the pf after ir\bv:n 'she brought in' ib. ] n N n n D N "-SDN n n n ID n'^v ]Dn mnN "pn 'when I saw the face of E. place. i n .1:20. whether exphcitly or impHcitly expressed. form.

of quantity—mv ']Qnn mbD nn ^mo 'Sennacherib the king liked m e much' C 1.16:2. NQ-n -n-N vb n n n 'there is no lion in the sea' C l .276 PARTIVb: § 75 . Likewise ambiguous is Tnr nm ' D . of purpose—T]\mb HDT i p . iSN p -p mnv nJN -T bnpb 'in accordance with what I did for you. Other semantic categories are: reason. do for me' C 1.1:52.4:8('^').1:52. which may be translated either 'when such a thing was done' or 'when it was done thus' A4. n3Q bn pi)in nbv nm-] 'and they demolished the temples of the gods of Egypt altogether' A4. l : 165. so.7:14. 'nn nn n'n'v vb 'n nnb 'bnn bv 'Do not be full of anger because I did not bring them to M e m p h i s ' A3.1 :52. see § 22 a-c. Alternatively. 'iTnpn bv 'Do not kill me!' C 1. niD is equivalent to a direct object.1:52. mvn n i D pnn'? niN mv m 'bv nn 'as much as I am doing for ff arudj thus may Banit do for me' A23:7r'). ground or cause— 1 bv 'nnn 'he liked m e on the (ground) that I saved you' C 1. l : 6 2 . •pnn 1096 jj^g morphology of adverbials. l : 165.§ 76 a she is obhgated' B6.n N n m ^ s |nn[N] nbiD" mbn pnnN pn: 'the king will send other men after us to see the corpse of this Ahiqar' C l . negation—vbn'n nnn nbnv bnnv vb 'I shall not be able to serve in the gate of the palace' C1. riD also would have to be so interpreted.7:15. 7 : l . [njinn annvb'] v'rbvb mv p 'So do so that ^ou may gladden the gods and Arsham' A6. . yvnp' p bv vnb vn/npb 'therefore they will call the ? sea-lion' C l .1:17. If one takes the "D-cluase as adverbial. then. mv bvv vnv nbv ]vm nbv pv bnn 'May the god of heaven seek after the welfare of our lord abundandy at all times' A 4 .3:10.

This a g r e e m e n t takes place at either p h r a s e or c l a u s e level. n^T n n s o 'this letter' A2.9:3).abs.4:13 thoth ms.PARTFOUR SYNTAX SECTION C OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES § 76. 1 : 1 9 must mean 'Vahumisa by [najme. nno n o r 'good counsel' C 1. are not inflected with respect to status.g. for instance. n'^n |32n 'three handfuls' A6. n u m b e r . A clause level agreement concerns: 17] a noun subject and its predicative adjective (e. . and status agrees in those respects with a word to which it is logically subordinate. a Persian.1:95 ).] / / n n n c D vmv C l . and that only for "one" to "ten" inclusive as well as any higher number having a digit as its smallest component such as "diirteen" (= 10+3) or "thirty-three"(= 30+3).' which would require K ' D T S .1:57 Iboth f. masc.det.sg. 13] a noun and its quantifier (e.^j) QQ^^^ C 2 ..det.10:1 thoth ms. T h e agreement in status applies only to the st. fem. N -mp N T p s 'the former official' A6.g. [2] a noun subject and its verb predicate. [2] a noun and its attributive demonstrative pronoun (e.^J (fpr .Q.].]. and det.' and not 'my Persian servant.QL. abs.abs.].1:49 [all ms.g. including a participle '099 . nn':'n ppv 'three shekels' B3. ]mm p i n n prb 'after m a n y m o r e days' C 1. Agreement and disagreement a) A word-form which is variable with respect to the grammatical categories of gender.C"^) Not every word category or part of speech is inflected in all the three above-mentioned categories: verbs and d e m o n strative pronouns.12:5 vs.L. and cardinal numerals are inflected with respect to gender only.. ntD 'his heart is good' C 1.pl. A p h r a s e level a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n s : 17] a noun a n d its attributive adjective (e.g. l : 4 2 tbodi f.]).0-13 .sg. my servant.. at phrase level.

""'Cf Jouon .13:2 w e d o have a case of "proper" concord.6).("^) In .2:18 w e may have partially transformed passive sentences in the m a n n e r of B H iDV -nnn"nN npnnb n-in 'the words of Jacob were reported to Rebekah' Gn 27. nnm [p ]n pnN 'other sons and wife' B2.])' A2.. nbr^ for f.npnii A4.. the striking sequence in nKl 'Dti. 'my mother and my father' B3. its grammatical gender and natural sex converge (e..g.42. ""^So Cowley 1923:114. 6 : l l . "[T ynin 'that Vidranga' ib. Note. bb) In nn'bv nbm' ipi nnyv 'Let a letter b e sent (m.TtJJn .' A6. nn (m. D. and their doors' A4.. By contrast.('"^^) See also jjnnN nnm nn 'other son or daughter' B2. Though w e do not know what the 3fp suffix may have looked like.5:19 (for the expected'DW ' • « ) . 'the wood (pi.278 PART IV c: §16h~ch (e.7:24 cited above the subject precedes. nbnm -Nnn p nnJN 'Let a letter be sent from m y lord .("^) b ) Disagreement in gender b a ) In the case of multiple referents of mixed genders the masculine g e n d e r is m a d e to double for both genders (genus potior)Q^^y..?] 'tunic' + i nnpn nnDtj? 'a beautiful vessel' [f. Folmer 1995:429-96. in the Aramaic) which will be given' A6..3:10. though in both here and at A4. Where a referent is animate.. rbrm) from you to them' A4.'(any) month in which I d o not give you interest it will b e c o m e capital' B4.. pin 'gates .. In the following paragraphs w e shall be chiefly concerned with cases of real or apparent disagreement.2 11(""').Muraoka 1993: § 128 b.nnp np mn.'(""^) An apparent carelessness may be excused in mn mn.7:27 it is possible to render 'it [= your actioo] will b e considered a merit for you before YHW. and Lilu her son')' B2.11:13.) t>ni 'we shall divide them (= bbi .. ""^ This is also a case of disagreement in number.n-nnn nn -p ]naN vb -i Nnn. • n n n M ' p 'to dispatch them (m..g. n3K bDHD nb>v 'I a m relying on you [= the writer's m o t h e r ] ' A2.7:24 and nn-n.g.7:13).. for we expect \nm. nnvb nnm nn bio" n '(a)s a son or daughter supports his father' B 3 . IT Kil^K in I'HDK 'our forefathers built that temple' A4. .) (= nm 'oil' [m. mnN nnn 'their mother .6:33..] + ]nn [f. in in.2:4 where the Cf. [3] a noun or its equivalent such as a proper noun and a personal (whether conjunctive or disjunctive) or demonstrative pronoun referring to the former (e.7:2).7:10.-T N-pi. however.

sim. 7 D v l : l . have right to the h o u t s e j ' B3. though her perspective differs from ours. subject is to be regarded as a mere error or solecism.mn -T mim] 'the du[ty] (fem.(""^) See further n-n mnm -T i ^ ^ n i i n N [nn-33 =] 'dyer's stone 1 which they found stolen' A4. my daughter.2:16("'^'). distinct from that for the 3mpl.7:17 the disagreement between the masc.9. . Cf. But a decision on these t w o cases depends also on our view whether our idiom had a form for the pc. the passive voice is apt to lead to disagreement. T h e scribe's careless grammar is betrayed a few lines later in n'^nnND pi N-C^] | .bv ptD p'V 'Let t h e m not darken g o o d eyes' i b .' C 3 . a fem.. 155 and I D D N . . one may be dealing with partially transformed passive constructionsC'"**). That is. and the cardinal numerals for "two" and "two hundred.= ] nm p nor n-rn 'if Reia [a w o m a n ] gave you wool' A2. A similar uncertainty prevails in respect of Nnn }N icn 'die letters arrived' A4. 7 D v 2 : l .) which was surplus (masc. ' '"^ The first. l 5 7 . as mentioned above (§ bb). if RRIJ -i does not mean 'the shepherd. (see above § 24 j).7:8. 7 E r l : 7 with mv] anm n p n : ^p'j '?D mbn n n bv 'all (the) silver of (the) men which was collected from them and m a d e over to the (store-)house of the king' C3. Since T 'hand' and ]-r are fem." For the purpose of agreement the dual is treated as plural: thus yyv pn 'good eyes' C1.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 279 grammatical subject is mi2.3:3. n n r and its fem. c) Disagreement in number ca) T h e category of dual is known only in nouns in their st. see also lo rara n-n.' " 0 8 por Folmer (1995:457-59) also. 3fpl.7:17..) in year 10' C 3 . abs. be) In ]b T2V Nfffl-Nn Nt 'this evil has been d o n e to us' A4.20 where he ought to have written p-nr. = ] nbv -nnn vnmrr 'you Jehoishma.1:157.1:187.7Fr2:6. T n ] n nic -m i vm:n 'the duty which w a s collected from it and m a d e over to . but not the second.. 7 A r 2 : l et passim. l . j'^n ]-nnn 'two things' C1.2:15. niK [N]n-nn [nto^e. a m a s c . one would have to a d m i t g e n d e r d i s a g r e e m e n t in the following t w o fragmentary passages or take the nouns in question as objects: . cf. ib.n n r 'our wives are being treated like a widow' ib. noun: the writer may be thinking of the amount of interest rather than the feminine word nnnn.as meaning 'they w d l destroy my hands' C l . whereas the subconscious subject is «^0D or nm. cb) In s o m e cases.2 and C 3 . noun. and c p . can be understood as a case of imperfectly transformed passive (§ bb). bn n ] D n j n pnKi mm C 3 . also nvm' n n n m n 'its interest which shall remain' ib. also nb [nnn.T pnncyn. A4. as a rule.

mn nnnv 'the names of ""^ See Whitehead ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 5 f ) . «^DD bD . w h o is. which is rendered in English as "why do you conceive evil in your hearts?. troubled by the This is also a case of disagreement in gender.(""^) cc) In a long sentence the train of thought seems to become lost. even if it is singular in form: nnn vm: p [ |]Dn3 nnp^ n nn nnb nn 'whatever you took from the domestic staff in the way of possessions."('"°) ce) A collective noun such as "^-n and nna may be treated as plural.). cd) In the following case.eg though it is difficult to say whether the same consideration applies to the sg.. sim. disagreement. 1 2 : 2 ( " " ) .' A6. restore.280 PART IV c: § 76 cc .. or man of m i n e — w e (shall not b e able) to stand up to make him a s[lave]' ib.4'iva T L ei^uiieiTe TTovTipd ev T o i g icap6iai5 up-tov.' B7. For an alternative interpretation. brother or sister of mine..6.12:22 and bvn nnD nnnm "] n]T Nnn 'this house whose measurements is (sic!) recorded above' ib. See also bvn i -pv vnn DTD 'that emmer (pl.1:16. T H D in . is capable of writing in the same year n]T NHEDon ]2TD MiQinn 1 Nnn B3.15:3 m a y be a defectively spelled G pf.3 palimpsest -nnn[na ] ] • bm 5 ] . give to them' A6. Nmn.11:7. nna ]]nnNn 'hke other domestic staff A 6 . or man of m i n e — h e (shall not be able) to press him (into) slave(ry)' B3. however.7:16.) the rebels' C2.7:20 where our logic demands "widows.8:15 // bD .13:5. Cf Mt 9... brother or sister of mine... 'b vv) 'b nnvi nv 'b nnm nm n m N n D N 7nnN vb iDV -nDran*.. what we perceive as disagreement may not have been so perceived by the speaker of our idiom: ymv nbnnvD pi vm 'our wives are being treated like a widow' A4. or son or daughter of mine.15:9. Uriah. WD nvD [i nD} bD mnn ]nm ibnp vbD '[every one that] sought evil . they were all killed and we gloated over them' A4. nm naN bnDV vb [nn]r niDvA m p ] b vvi 'b nnv) nv -b nnm 'I shall not be able—I. however. see § 66 a.'I shall not be able—I. T h e same scribe.9:4..) that is mentioned above' B3. mi iTBOD T D D -niDnm nnnm -T rr3T Nnn 'this house whose measurements and boundaries is (sic!) recorded in this document' B3... nDnv [ 1] ]DDJ1 'all silver and goods [that] will be found (sg. leading to grammatical disagreement: ." but in Dutch as: "Waarom overlegt gij kwaad in uw hart?" (sg.28. .5:9. IVD n ]nn3 bD t>np A4. t>[n]p V'[i]nnb bl vbn 'my troop killed (pl. passive used impersonally: see below at § 80 «.Q 3 vnbn 'one asked for 5 Cihcians from N.. or son or daughter of mine.. ponnn nn n]T vbn 'this troop had been leasing' A5.) .

.15:l ... though it does not explain why a preceding predicate is liable lo trigger a disagreement. whether or not joined by the conjunction W a w . This also speaks against regarding ]i'im in ]iim vb'n nr Kni^o -im ]'S] A4. 4 : l l .. 'b nvn' 'you.11:6. 1 : l . In standard legal formulae in which a number of legal persons w h o could be involved in a case are mentioned. .. a similar concatenation of multiple subjects mediated by the preposition uv is surprisingly in concord with a plural verb: b ]vnnm vb mb n vb'n nv 'nnnv 'Armapiya with the troop which is at his c o m m a n d do (sic!) not obey me' A 6 . 1' 3 3 . '"^ Cf. In the following cases... hence the verb in the plural: niN pnb nnnmn .. . n'onni n'rr 'You. nnn nvt>o 'Salluah daughter of.7:8 as a simple attribute of vhrn (discussed below..2:4. often prefixed to the name of a w o m a n in legal documents and treated as sg. nmv nnnn ym . Jedaniah. have right to that house and (so do) your children after you and (anyone) to w h o m you desire to give (it)' B 3 . along with Jethoma her sister' B 5 . ]n . KnirT" (hardly i^nin-).. On the "distributive" force of the noun b'u.. n'::v mv ]mnb nn :i n pbi jnnv 'You. . by contrast..('"0 cf) A peculiar kind of plurale tantum is ]{'')V2. -i^v nnv 'Anani said . satisfied our heart' B2. agreeing with its head: mt.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 281 the Jewish troop' C3. often agrees with the first subject noun. [d]).9:12+.. which is a statistically interesting discovery. M e n a h e m and Ananiah.9. In the following example. 1 2 : l .. the multiple subjects carry equal weight. the verb.' B 2 . Jouon 1934:51f and see also above at § 47 c.6:2. for otherwise one would expect "p-n pm or i^nnK vb'n. 8 : l . said. nnnv nnnv nmnn . .. 4 : 3 . Jedaniah and Mahseiah. along with your wife and your son swore to m e . Folmer does not apply the same argument lo cases of disagreement in gender.. and (so do) your children after you' B2.T O i t D S n n'bv n-]T niN 'You.j .. in 'a great lady' C3. Moreover. and my sons will give . w e are withdrawn from you' ib.9:8. "soldiers" as against "army.. have right to Petosiri. .' B2. the qualifying element is in the sg. i p ] 'woman. ]mv N -s niN 'I. however... Pen..("'') e g ) In the case of multiple subjects. along with M s T a p a m e t his wife' B 3 .) sees a strong correlation between the word order (PS) and disagreement. the rest being accorded less weight: "]nm ynm nv .m "jT N n n n nbw . jnnv yni ..." see Joiion 1934:41-44.| D D nimv p'nn n -]3ri nnm niv 'I. 8 : 9 . where it precedesC"').. . That this cannot be called "pluralis majestatis" is manifest from its application to a slave woman in nosn ]V: 'Ms (?) Tapamet' B3. Folmer (1995:455f. Ananiah . the overriding '"^ As in the immediately preceding example..

" has now been disproved in the light of new texts: KH'PKI . he decided to adjust the form of the main verb.9:12. nw m: i i n n n Cf. form as in N*? . If the series of multiple subjects consists of groups of individuals. but when he reached the end of the long series of multiple subjects. Jouon's (1934:26) argument that our corpus does not usesn'^K on its own for "God. l : 187 (for ]TDcy).i ]n3 ~a monn 'Mahseiah son of Nathan. bD'' was chosen because the following nv was initially dominant in the writer's mind. Folmer 1995:492-96.. the main verb is a 3mpl. shall give' B2. in standard legal formulae. p n m Dnp nnv) nv\ mv 'I. also pT . near or far shall not be able to institute (suit) against you' B5. 2 : 8 . the chief thought seems to be about any one of die individuals listed.282 PART IV c: §76ch-cl consideration is "Should any one of these persons act in a certain manner. l : 126 (for t^n'7t!!)("'*'). or near or far . various thought processes seem to be involved. . . pno" nra'nn'' is too far-reaching. pl W") ] n m pm n ™ |m 'and if we or our sons or our daughters or a person w h o is ours . son or daughter.7:8. s o m e t i m e s begins with a verb in the singular agreeing with the first of muUiple subjects.11:2... hence the 3ms as in 'bl n n ' m mv bDV vb 'Dim' pnv ID}) 'I or m y sons or a descendant of m i n e or any other person will not be able to bring (suit) against you' B2.("") In ~a inv) m bD' vb 'Dy\-\T p-n-n Dip m m 'Brother or sister... institute (suit) against you' B 3 . W h e r e a sentence begins with an auxiliary verb such as bD' followed by multiple subjects and then the main verb. W h e r e such a hst of multiple subjects consists of groups of individuals. as required by the context: ]io n ]mv 2 bD i p: ID r r n . " To assume. an error for . or brother or sister. Cf. Jedaniah son of Nathan 1.7:10. the use of the plural is readily understandable: DDmm . Aramaeans of Syene.1:5 the sg... On the other hand. ch) In some cases one must reckon with plain scribal errors: nmBV pn ynnn 'two things are beaudful' C l .. as dealt with above. our brothers or a person of ours .. near or far.9:10. as Lindenberger (1983:118) does. jbv -mmnnn n n n r n n^o. will not be able to br[i]ng (suit) against you' B2. Moreover. said' B2." hence the singular form of the predicate: nn«i m ~f-i3 ]n (p^nn = ) p~n 3 -ip 'should brother or sister. and this despite Lindenberger's (1982) theological argument. A scribe. however. should bring (suit) against you' B2. 1.. all (told) 2. pi vvi ynv pm pm mmv bnD2 [vp D[D]i['\]m' ybnD' 'we or our sons or our daughters.vnbv nnb 'lest the god come to his aid and turn it back to you' C l ..

either: I Q a p G e n 21. it seems to be indeclinable.. an Aramaising Hebrew version: Bar Kochba 5. est.28:105.7Dr2:5. vm is an attribudve adjective (quantifier).' B 2 . in an a c c o u n t — n o o n 6 'string of beads.9:5.3 Dbv m 'Keep well!'("'^) This usage probably has its origin in an oral greeting. . pv 2 nnno 'wooden support.g. 1 incompletely corrected to 5 bp\D instead of 5 pp^. 5' C 3 . lo ^OD n n'^Dn 'amulet of silver. 5/6f}evEp 11.1:90. just like " ^ D C " * ) : p n vw 'a lot of sons' C 1. est.. CI'PC? -in 'Keep For a similar syntax in BH. '"^ One may assume an error resulting from incomplete scribal correction:'7pc. Though it is not absolutely certain that.' B3. e. 5 bpv '5 shekel' B2. or an adjective? If the latter.' ib. 10. 5 nD-DO 'boat. Its part of speech is not clear: is it a noun in the st.-3:5). ck) T h e word Dbv in a greeting in a letter presents a special problem: e. '1 bronze mirror worth . n o nn j n n vl]m 'what good is the abundance of your thorns?' ib.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 283 . 6 : l l (cf. Lat. the following cases suggest that the word is not an ordinary substantive. cl) np'^n nn3 of distributive force is functioning as a kind of adverbial adjunct in ]onn3 np'^n nnji ybv inn ^bn: 'we shall divide them among ourselves and take possession. each of his portion' B2.1:65.. 2' C3.32:5 and i^nbt^b npncD ^na^i 'you are released for thegod'B3.31 vn^*? CJ-N luns'i 'and they swore to each other.19 ubv 'mv bn nn^nv 'I found all my men well'. though attested outside of our corpus.13 well!' See Kutscher 1961:123f. items tallied in a list often appearing in the singular: 2 n m n r s o ) • 'from 2 large ships' C 3 . Gn 26. 7 D r l : 2 2 .g. multum auri 'a lot of gold. Obviously this vm must be viewed differendy than vm in mv ]yD 'many years' A6.11:13 . ]3™]Dr'p ]vm 'after many more days' C l . On the other hand. see. Also in a hst: 4 ra3 7 n 'all (told) soul 4' C3.6:14.. 7 E v l : 6 . and not an adverb.' '"^ Cf. mw i im 'I mirror worth ..6:10. w h i c h has subsequently become fossilised.14:4 where it follows a noun. in -p mm vw mim cbv 'I hereby send you abundant welfare and strength' A 6 .("") ci) It is possible to regard vw preceding a (plural) noun as in St.3:12. 3 : l + .' .("2«) ] n T t D 'and the god saved us' D 1. 101. there is no such doubt about ]vyv piD 'many lies' C2. cj) T h e following examples in a customs account seem to be a class of their own. 1:49. 6' C3. '"^ Cf.l06. vbD K-pin -pv rbv 'It is well with your mother and all the infants' A3..

'a troop. . 14.15:l. these are the boundaries of that house' B3. should b e in the st.("^) Both words are quantifiers in a certain sense. apposition. however.' but Greenfield Porten 1982:38 had restored ['m] hyf z^r'].7:8 where again one expects i<3nnb^ if the clause mean 'Naphaina led the Egyptians with the other troop 'C"). das sind die richtigen and Fr. cases of agreement are also attested: e..(''^') H o w e v e r . We would translate. see § 46 k. Ginsberg 1955:492 ("with the other troops"). n. the C f Germ.12:6-8. Grelot 1972:409 ("avec d'autres militaires"—note the indeterminate). ]3nnN N^n NV NniiD nnn j-S] A4. though not his syntactic analysis as reflected in his translation.g.[ T ] VBN 'the small force [whijch (was) in Persia' C2. a fem.4:4. RH-n nnmn mT 'this is [sic!] the measurements of the house . -nimnn nn 'this is (sic!) its borders' B3.1:7 w h e r e the n u m e r a l as well as the verb are masculine. noun. and behold this is [sic!] the boundaries of the house .e.' At C2.' Here Porten . Cowley 1923:113 ("with the other forces"). for which the Akk. sn^n .' T o take pnn« as in apposition would virtually amount to the same thing. § ce. .i^'^-n nuan n3i 'diis is (sic!) the names of the Jewish troops' C3.("^^) d) Disagreement in state This occurs only very rarely. So Porten . "ft mn -Dnn nbv «m 'and behold.. n vm nnnc.Yardeni apparently have adopted Wesselius's suggestion (1984:443). On this question.1:38 where the scribe or translator may have considered the adjective as predicative. abs. See also above. Another possible case is n -rt onsn ..11:3. writes: . disagreeing with 7\m.1-44 Porten .Yardeni 1986:71. reads:^ u-qu sd KUR par-su mi-U-si sd-ni-tu^ 'the other small Persian force. where we propose taking pnnN as an "accusative of specificadon"—'Nephaina took the Egyptians [= the priests of the Egyptian god Khnub (line 5)] with the troop [under his c o m m a n d as] others (i. few (in number)': on the emphatic state of the noun. t^mn. 'the troops..m n n nit Km ..Yardeni (1993:66) want to restore [p^Vf vb'U [nv] '[with] the sma[ll] troop. see Paul 1960:304f The same scribe. version reads it-ti u-qu i-si 'with a/the small force.. n3t 'this [= the following] is (sic!) the names of the women w h o .' i. .. T w o of such examples involve the use of the adjective ]IM: BL ]R\M V0D2 'my other properties' A6. C f also below at § 77 he. Furthermore. ce sont mes frkres.§ 7 7 ^ cm) 7U or nn of cataphoric force as predicate may be followed by the subject in p l u r a l : . The Akkadian version. reinforcements).4:7.e." A4..' B3. Haggai. Wagenaar 1928:20 ("benevens ander krijgsvolk").. Very striking is WW ]"'3n vm ]m 'and if a second year has arrived' B3. few soldiers. which.284 PART IV c: § 7 6 c m .10:8 where one expects K-3nnN. according to the A r a m a i c syntax..

g. similarly at B6. sim. 0 .) when no prominence is intended for the subject. NPd = determinate noun phrase. See. our idiom presents a considerable degree of freedom in its word-order. je I'aime" . "^^ It is commonly assumed that the fairly rigid word-order in Modern English resulted from the loss of case endings.4:8. "dweller of.("") W e shall see that.S(pers. P = predicate. Ptc = participle. O 2 = indirect object. A good example of a functionally significant fronting is "Don't worry about me.6.9:5 where the fronted object is due to an anaphora. the former lacking a finite verb as one of its two major components and the latter having such. dweller of Elephantine the fortress' B3. O = object. dem = demonstrative.12:2 ]DV is in tiie stcst. it is a burning fire' C l .8:33 the subject pronoun does not refer to a particular noun mentioned earlier. Prep = prepositional phrase. sim.Muraoka 1993: § 153-154 a. e. Bloomfield 1933:197. V = verb. A2. § 77. by attraction. which is rather rarely a factor in the verbal clause.("^^) Examples are plentiful: p "^^ For a general survey of recent discussions on this subject with special reference to Hebrew.1:7. and the feminine gender of M has been m a d e to match. = direct object. V C = verbal clause. Thus the use of "moi" is unjustified in "Ub Dm "moi.4:12.p s p 'if you have been issued an order.4:4.um -p i . n m p . ib. N C = nominal clause. and the predicate in such a pattern appears to b e prominent.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 285 position of the numeral is abnormal. NPid = indeterminate noun phrase. Word-order: Nominal clause a) W e adopt the traditional twofold classification of clauses into nominal and verbal.("^') b) Bipartite nominal clause A bipartite N C with a disjunctive personal pronoun as one of its constituents shows the sequence P . whether n o m i n a l or verbal. that of the preceding predicate. and it is remarkable indeed that there is hardly a case in the entire corpus in which this freedom could have caused serious difficulties in communication. In KH-Q T pw vnbv irr n mrb 'a (female) servitor of Y H W the god. The following abbreviations will be used: Adv = adverbial other than object. About you I worry ph)" A2. S = subject. but to a general thought expressed earlier. see Joiion .("^) It is in the nominal clause that the wordorder variation indicates some significant functional opposition. Pron = pronoun.pron.." e) Special cases of agreement In "if she do thus. A4. l : 87. n n n]t t ^ne nt> 'This ration give them' A6. pers = personal. it is hatred (-n nvm)" B3.

nbvb 1 mnb 'to its corner.. See also M nip" nm 'it is a burning fire' C l .' ib.10:3 probably introduces D23. nnpbnb n m^bv 'she is not entided to take it. cp.5:4.3:9.1:4 and nnt p nbvb 1 Trn 'from the c o m e r of my house. 1:17. m r r n m 'because w e are few(er)' A4. M bl in .7:7. so that it m a y be part of the following clause.4:6. the southern room—^it is east of the large r o o m of mine' B3. in vrbv p NCon 'it is a punishmentC"'') from God' ib.206.1 11:8. m n n r n J N 'how you are' C2.) is expanded by a preposidonal phrase or such like.4:8.pron..3:25. ••n n m n 'she is obligated' B6. Here we may include imvb -pnv -T nntJ? nnrb b pnb 'to give m e Tamet by name. b a ) W h e n t h e p r e d i c a t e in an N C of the pattern P S(pers. Also B2.10:8. which thus assumes an enclidc position: u±? in p o n vb 'it is no loss to you' A4. 128. . which is above' B2.3:3. that it is mine' B2.5.7:5.. l 6 3 .g.11:3. vb "]]? n n n iinb r\iv nbv 'that house you are not entitled to sell' B2. mostly a locative prepositional phrase. in 'dri 'it is yours' B2. niN n n n n n r n 'I a m glorious in my wealth' ib. for wifehood' B3.7:16.1:66.84. HDN -jnn 'blessed be you' A3. in ybv m n n ]n 'if he is a beloved of gods' i b . T h e text is broken after the pronoun.1:57. mv vi'^v] n nnn 'it is v[ery] good counsel' C 1. bb) Where the particle n is followed by a N P or an adverbial. ] • in nbi nbv IV n]T b^m"* 'it is yours from today and for ever' B3.. Peshitta and Targum at Lv 20. E . 138.13 etc.8:42. vb .. w h o is your maid. The gender of the pronoun here is probably determined by the preceding P. in nrf7 nna o 'for he is a bad person' ib.("^") In view of this the pronoun inn is striking in inn b n pnv Ti'v 'there are slaves w h o are mine' B8. H e n c e the p r o n o u n in in in -onnn nb bl vnnn nn p vnv nvn nnnm 'I gave it to you. O n e m a y include here an emphatic.. 13 (Lemaire 1995:84). such a n can be interpreted as the S of the relative clause: see above at §§ 42 a and 68..9.286 PART IV c: ^11 ha-be n]N nn ]ni niN -n 'whether I a m ahve or dead' A2.3:2. The reading is somewhat uncertain. Nu 19.2:7. for n m on its own cannot mean 'J'aime. this latter follows the S. r e sumptive disjunctive pronoun as in: m o n m T ] T mv in nnbi 'it is yours.20.' On this meaning of the noun.5:9. niN nv l a m old' C l . l : 8 7 . which is above' ib. you Jedaniah and Mahseiah' B2. be) In the majority of the examples mentioned above the P is indeterminate. in m n 'he is obhgated' B3. ] • in i n n piv [(Ynn I'DO 'it is sharper and mightier than a [double-]edged knife' ib. rbv vbm in ur> |n 'if it is thus in accordance with these words' A6.

.' B 2 . . b d ) Sipers. B2... sim.NP This sequence is similar in function to the two examples with in mentioned towards the end of a subsection above (§ be).5:15.. nmn in 5 pnD f^OD 'silver. B3. but the other way round in in n-nnn T I D N m^b^ 'you have right to hyt.) . B2. sim.e. y vnn nnn nil vn 'Behold.11:6. For example. and is often preceded by the presentative t<n: e.pron.3:3.7:13. l : 102. l : 1 5 .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 287 the subject of the following phrase . half of the hyt (in Egyptian)' B3.P This is a sequence in which a disjunctive pers. B3. i. T h e in positioned in such an explanatory gloss does not have to be emphatic as in the cases to be dealt with in the following subsection. B 2 . B2. Once this pronoun introduces a gloss on a preceding term in a foreign language: nniiD n'nn jhn in mnin ±>Ei 'half of the courtyard. "jT n n n -mnn n':'^ vn 'Behold.3:9. So also Kraeling 1969:240 and Grelot 1972:243. pron. i. ib. B3.1:4. 3 : l + . these are the boundaries of that house' B2. that is Epiph' B 3 . O . vnnv nbv 'these [= the following] are the witnesses' B l .11 :l. 4 : l l .e.16:4 (words of praise).pron.C'^') See also B3.. B6.. § bd. "b inonD vyD niv 'you are very praiseworthy to me' A6. pD -pD mv 'you are all thorns' C l . B 2 .10:4. and pace Porten Yardeni 1989:89 "I gave it to you—that is the southern room. be) Dem. B3.12:22. w h e n one S is contrasted to another: -n &?v n n n ]T n o t p nbvD nm Txm 'she is my wife and I a m her husband from this day and for ever' B3.. ib.10:9. is cataphoric. [^]]li^D in bbv nn-n 'In the month of Elul. s i m . i.niv . l : 188.6:4.9:15. niDnb nbv ran 'you have right to build .1:7.lO. Cf.\\'3bis. pn bD p p -nn 'you withdraw from any suit' B2. 5 karsh. .8:4. B2. mv n[np] n-p. B3.10:20. sim.3:14. 8 : l l . 1 : I . sim.6. 8 : l . 1 : \\." . W e find this sequence. five' B3. B 2 . that is Pay [ni]' B2. sim. 15. In all the remaining instances of this pattem the dem. vmnb vbn p np'DV 'nivi 'and you are released from the shadow to the sun' B3. T h e use of this sequence is understandable in legal documents in which claims are staked out between contesting parties:.n]T vn 'Behold.6:8. for instance. that is day 8 of Choiak' B3 ..e.g. pron. this is precious in the presence of Shamash' C l . ^pv in "wn 'Tishri.2:15. B2. B 2 . as the S often is accorded some measure of prominence. sim. the courtyard' i b .9:l. This kind of H which introduces a gloss is c o m m o n in a double dating of a document: "^nnb 8 ur in iivb 20 • 'On the 20th of Adar.

4 cited above).62. A phrase lacking a preposition may be regarded as syntactically equivalent: vnnn nn nyv nb mv nnvn 'to the west of it there is the wall of the large room' B3. Pprep ..15:l. O T n Kisoi 'while diis document is in your hand' B2. Note the presence of the two patterns next to each other in vnbn pm . So also B2. sim. slits in a wall. But the p r o n o u n is also anaphoric in the Bisitun inscription in statements summing up a military campaign as in mnv i m s n n HDI 'this is what I did in Parthia' C2.5. n'bvb vnbv n nn nh> nnniD nn nb 'above it is the house of Shatibara. m pDi 'and diere are windows in it' B3.8:22.1:29.10:l 1 (by the same scribe.22. n KniDtyn HDT 'this is the crime which . Haggai. . see above at § 76 cm. T h e reverse sequence. ib.' A4. sim. B 3 .9.10:6.' "Open windows" here probably means apertures. B3.10:10. K"n3t% nb nnnn nmn.S.4:7.5:9f. rTC!. L i k e w i s e B 2 . bf) W h e n a prepositional phrase is one of the constituents of a bipartite N P .11:3.3:3. No instance of the reverse sequence has been found. B3.10:6 ("'0. nnv bv i 'he with w h o m El is' C l . pron.' A4. B3..4:7.15. with NPd— D. l : 9 1 . nnn ]n'na i^bumi 'and up above (there are) open widows there.NP .5:8("^^). may be elided when it has been mentioned in the immediately preceding clause.7bis.12:6-8^w. For instance.lO.7:13£?w.NP .g. 10.NP. of this type is best regarded as predicate. T h e d e m .7:5.4:5.TDn VDbn mv 'and there is King Road between them' B2. s i m .11 b g ) Subject elided The third person subject of a bipartite N C in the form of a disjunctive pers. as B3. B2. nnvnb vrhv i. B3. B2. "^^ Cf.35.. B3.4:8. sim.5. C3.. 3 : 8 . the sequence S.. B3.m -n3« rt> van 'to the west of it diere is the temple of Y H W the god' ib. .9. below it is the way of K h n u m the god' B3..288 PARTIVc: %llbf-hh this is [= these are] the boundaries of that house' B3..11:3..14.^-^ ^DD 'silver of hatred is on his head' B3.6. nmyn vnbn pwi 'and King Street is between them' B3. N.3:18.PprepQ^^^) is the norm. "^^ S..i . pron. nn i n m 'there is one d o o r in it' B3. -r vm nnoD ' behold this is [sic!] the names of the women w h o .7.. ib. pron.4:4..10.noun phrase functioning as subject. occurs solely in legal documents in giving relative orientation of a property: e.5:3. ib.50. 3 : 6 f e 7 . Examples are: with NPid— iTi pirb nbv 'it is well with IJamdj here' A2.10:13. B3 . and the following noun. nnD vb l bnp "•nnniK nso bv 'since (it) is not recorded in your marriage document' "^^ On the disagreement in number (and gender) between the dem.

.. followed by nmbv irn 'Look after them!' "they" refer to specific individuals.B3. w h o is not my son' C 1.3:5.6. (it) adjoins it wall by wall'—as to take "mmp mn as the grammatical subject of pnn and regard the whole as one long clause. the bread you dispatched' D7.I4:4... .." A4. "^'^ This and nnrroQ 'its measurements' ib. Finally.B3. -T vcw pc i^n 'behold many years that ..' ib..4:4 // i^n . Similarly B2A0:3his. the N P in this pattem is determinate. these are the boundaries of that house' B2. but in nn'bv nnn ]''nv 'they are c o m i n g there to you' A4. NP A n o t h e r type of o n e .4 should be interpreted in the same way.5:7. Also A6. behold. [nj'^n vb n vbmn 'the burden which is not his' i b .5:9.. by definition. l 8 5 ." A6..10:9. vm nnnv nJT vn 'Behold. vnn: nnnv 'behold. its subject: vb m^yzb p ]pnv 'they do not allow us to build it' A4.44:7. cnbv nnn ]-nt^ t^n pn 'now.. the boundaries of the house which . n ft vmn nnm vm 'and behold. l i : 5 it is as possible to see two short clauses loosely joined together—'above it is the house of the shrine of the god. bh) b^n - . The impersonal 3 m p also lacks.. Subject deletion is only apparent in the case of phrases introduced by n: 'nn vb n 'nn 'my son.3:5.. voici): . -mninn ^n 'behold. D[nn]2Jin n vnnb vn 'behold. B2.. jin'^nn mnv inn ]in33r []]n nn ym bv 'if you bought grain with them and brought (it) to our houses. ^ n n -mnn b^ni .l\ B3.. 3 : 5 . n 'and behold.1:30. 1 0 : 8 .3:5. the measurements of that house which .. die names of the men ...("'^) "^^ The text is broken at .m e m b e r N C is represented by bv ]n nn ]vnD 'if it please our lord' A4. this is [sic!] the n a m e s of the w o m e n ..m e m b e r N C is introduced by the presentadve vn (Fr.7:23. A different kind of o n e . in a similar description of a plot of ground we encounter a caption-like -mmnn "Its boundaries:.. Let us note that. Also B 2 . 2 : 7 . almost without an exception("^''). its boundaries' B2. This presentadve particle can also introduce a well-formed clause as in "]i vmn -mnn nbv vn 'Behold. I I : 7 .' B 3 .5:7.11.' B 3 .. 5 : 5 .10:4. (they) are c o m i n g there to y o u ' A 4 .10:5.11:6.7:7.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 289 B 3 . ^ In mm mv nb p m -mmp mn nb vbv B 3 .. so that the preceding m n in nnnwn m n is to be construed with what precedes.." B2. cf. n nnn n « 3 vb'n v'pvnb nnon vb f n i i^^nnrp [ijn mu 'a well which is built inside the for[t]ress and does not lack water to give to the troops' A4.7:13. (it is) good' A3.

and the s e q u e n c e is -n-t^ . A4. here our focus is on clauses containing .11:1.7:2.. 'I have no other son or daughter . for the entity the existence of which is about to be negated can be said to be "given. In affirmative existential NC's. 210-16) there is no need to postulate extraposition in cases such as A6. l : 165.15:9. sim.N P : ^ D D -n-K ]m 'if there is money' A3..("^') The sentence-end position of -n-K in []]'n -T m'on n[-]npD 'n'v[ mpn 'like a strong city in the midst of which there is water' C l . K .5:6. n pnv 'mv 'there are slaves who .4:3.9:2. the N P m o s d y occupies the first slot: « D n -n-t^ vb mnv 'there is no h o n in the sea' C l . -n-K vb bnnn 'diere is no injury' A3..11:12. A3.10:3. A3.H-KC '^").5:2. .7:5.3:7.6:19.: see Muraoka 1987:66.6:3... A6. 62." a theme..D D ] [']n'v 'there are the goods .2:3.' B2. A2. TT'i^':'. nncy vnn 'mv «JK 'moreover. In only three instances d o we have a determinate N P .2:2. On variant spellings n-i^ and -nK. We might include the following: mn p nb^ 'we are well here' A4. See also A2.3:9.3:2..6:20.. B l . vm 'mv vb ][n] I'np 'if there is no cucumber seed' D7.' B2.9:5. there is (one) named Taba' B2. B4.Pprep as shown above (§ ^y)("").33. B4.. see § 2 2 / Expressions of non-existence by means of'H-K i^^. though in two of them it can be viewed as essentially indeterminate: [n]aD ] 1 D S -n-K 'there is (one) nam[ed] Pamun' A 6 . a specific particle of existence. nh> 'mv vb nnpi\ nnn nm nbvn mnov p 'without her having any male or female child by Eshor her husband' B2.3:10. "^^ Pace Whitehead (1974:80. B3. ]]p [']b 'n'vb 'I have no rods(?)' D7. and rr^b will also be discussed here.290 PART IV c: %llbi-bl bi) Existential NC with Whilst the existence of an entity in a certain location can be predicated with the pattem NP . the N P is m o s d y indeterminate.. In negative existential NC's..8:29. vmnn mvb rbn |ni 'and if there is no salt in the house' D7. i b .' B8. 1 1 : 1 . This opposition in word-order between positive and negative existential sentences is not arbitrary.32. C f Japanese koko ni hon ga am 'there are books {hon) here' as against kokoni wa hon wa nai 'there are no books here' or 'books—there aren't here.4:8.. Exceptions are: pnnn nnm nn 'b 'mv vb .("'^) b j ) N o case has been confirmed of -n-K used redundantly as a copula as in some later dialects ('""). Lindenberger's (1983:159f) . l : 15. l : 9 5 is unique..1:4.10:2.35.4:4. UDmn m n ^bv 'b 'mv 'I own a boat in your hand' A3.' Notably Syr. thus contextually determinate. l 8 . vb nmnv •p 'mv 'you have no business' A6. nnnv 'b 'n'v vb yn 'I have no suit with them' B8.

3:7. 8 : 5 ." The same applies to "Tnmnn 'its boundaries' bl) S.1:5. be my son' ib. mv van 'his mother is Taba' B2. nn mim nnn 'Be j o y o u s and strong!' A 4 .7:7.74.. l : 132. but distinct syntagm of the periphrastic mn + acdve ptc. .—mnn "im l 'who will be after me' C2. mn nin n «Dnnns mmb 'to Vidranga the Chief.. mn yn^^nn W 'there was the unrest in Egypt' A6. l : 19.3:8.9:5.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 291 bk) The predicate ofmn. w h o was troop c o m m a n d e r . if our psychological analysis as presented in the preceding footnote applied. which is ill-suited to the context at C 1. v"nv ibv nip nn ynulb 'Be in favour before the god of heaven!' A4.3:16.11:2. l : 4 3 . regularly precedes mn: pf. . A4.. though it does not necessarily indicate a negative clause.. is striking. -n^i^i to illustrate this allegedly copulaic use of "TT'I^. On the asseverative TT't^ and Heb. l : 9 5 is to be rejected in favour of m ] n [pn n r c n n[']npD -n-i^f 'like a strong city in the midst of which there are water' (Porten Yardeni 1993:38).P.. w h o was Chief here' A4. however. nn ]"Di 'Be pure!' A4. but there it has a very specific asseverative function. vbD mm mn -m'^m nncor b[v] 'on his counsel and words the w h o l e of Assyria was (dependent)' C l . as in iin pbv 'Do send!' A6.nnn .. moreover.' which is in fact a sort of caption: "Its measurements: its length from below to above . ""^ In any case. D'D n mn n n Nnnn 'which was built in Elephantine the fortress' A4. mn is hardly to be construed with the following nnncn 'its measurement(s)..1:64. will be a forgery' B2. ]n 'A man's charm is his reliability. on this syntagm.9:4.17 by . mn. or subject in an existential clause. pnnn "pn 'a king is like (the) merciful' i b . A4. 9 1 ..NP m m D-':'^. and his hateful aspect is his lips' deception' C l .11:4. n ' n i n n n r o n n n p D 'like a mighty city which is built on a hill' C l . nn-nn vnbn i mrh 'the third is pleasing to Shamash' i b . nn n mn 'who was commander' ib." A4.10:9. see § 55 g.. nmnv nnnn nnvwi nmin-n nn. t ^mpn [. nnv mn. -T vmn "|T 'that document which .8.. mn b'uni n nnn yn: 'Naphaina his son. nn "nv pip i 'who were previously with me' ib.3:2. Lindenberger cites Dn 3. mn "b vnn 'the land b e c a m e mine' C2. 7 : 3 . . l 8 7 . lb mm ipw m[D:i] 'he will b e c o m e your seal-bear[er]' C l . [|]nbN mvn nns nnsn 'the opening of his mouth is an utterance of god[s]' C l . mn "hi 'which w a s m i n e ' or 'it w a s m i n e ' B2.1:29.. sim. mm -nn 'he shall be my son' B3.5:4. impf. irrespective of tense or mood. Compare this with the related. w h o was here' A 4 . n]3 V"VD mn vbi VDWUD pv nb)in m 'a man restoration -n-Nf..59.—"M nn: 'Be a man!' A3.NP .tD\ see Muraoka 1985:77-81. The position of "Pi't^ at the very end of the clause. l : 162.-nn -|T n-]T 'that Jedaniah shall. mn 'Hor is a servant of Hananiah' A4.—3nTi mn n]n -pmn n 'Vidranga.7:5.3:3("^^). . impv.1:95.1:3.

l : 9 5 . n i K mv i yv 'how you are doing' C2..1:66. •n':' nan mv i 'which I a m telhng them' A6.Spers. l 8 7 . vyn nb rm nnn 'I love her very much' D23. .1:10. y o u r s ' B 2 . the restoration [iiv] nan nnn. w e are separated' A4. nayt nn« fc«. -p mv -jcynoD n bi vm m^ 'the affair of my estate which Psamshek will tell you about' ib.5:10.3:2.3:9. "Dbi D S N Nnn 'the house is.S. "pl UBV -\] vpiv 'that land is.' B 3 . niN -pn 'blessed be you' A3. irm ponnn n vurno 'the boat that w e hold in hereditary lease . . npn VODD nmnb "pn n-scy nnnn 'Beautiful is a king to look at like the sun (or: Shamash) and precious is his splendour' ib.pron] forms an indivisible syntagm: .1:83.. moreover.3:19("'^). In the light of this rule. nbl -]t vpiv 'that land is yours' B2. rb r\:v 03n rb 'I do not m a k e h i m leave . moreover.92..pron Examples a r e : .292 PART IV c: ^llbm-bq who chops wood in the dark without seeing is (just) as a thief. resulting in a chiastic structure. pnD p nsKD Ti:t 'his anger is swifter than hghtning' ib. 2 : 3 .. to Jehoishma . '[I] a m (line 5).12:23.' A 6 . yours' B2. yours' B3.nn[n nn] ]nv 'then I say in Elephantine the fortress . 2 : 3 ..8:2.. bo) Pptc . bm) W h e r e the predicate is an adjective Padj .NP is the usual pattern: Dubn 2iv p DD tnr n 'for ambush of mouth is mighder than military ambush' C 1. the position of ranb is possibly influenced by the immediately preceding nnnn.12:30. 13.l 7 3 . yim pbv yni 'and your sons have right after you(r death)' B3.. b u t nn-Dcy pn ynm 'two matters are beautiful' i b .. with which cp. as in D D K -pi wnaK 'the wall is.5:16.("'^) In nnnn TDcy w ... § 59 d..7:2." ib. 2 : 1 5 .. so that the core [Pptc ..pron. piv "pn bbncyDi []]-DD j-DO p in 'Soft is the speech of a king (yet) it is sharper and mighder dian a [double]-edged knife' ib.. nn riv m)^ p 'if you desire. '^"^ Parallel to n n 0 ^ ' ? © n^r n 3 K ib.85..Spers. m y son' C l . p n s imv 'moreover. "pl vm 'the house is yours' B3.22. '"^ Probably not "that land of yours": see above.. vann'b . . . bn) T h e subject also precedes when its predicate is bl + a conj.. 3£D nnnbi 'a m a n (whose) stature is beaudful and good is his h e a r t . .84. moreover. nnbv rm rbv -\n 'for that (reason) I am sending (word) to you' A4. 7 : 1 ..' A 2 . ' C l . Any increment to g o with the participle follows the subject pronoun. l : 149..1 11:8. niN bnm pn 'now I a m relying on you' A2.

m. l : 6 8 . and his colleagues say thus' A4.7:4..8:4("^").7:20.4:12.-i:iiN nb mv nvn vnmb nyvn nyv pni vnbn 'to the east of it the royal treasury adjoins wall to wall the protecting wall' B 3 . Grelot 1972:166. .. 1:40 is a rare circumstantial clauscC'"^) bq) Examples of a N P subject having a participial predicate are rather less frequent than NC's with a ptc. a pf.C"') bp) T h e r e are only a handful of e x a m p l e s of the reverse sequence [Spers.6("'"). B7. In pnv vb p nnm 'but you are not doing so' A6. In the first two cases.3:5.1:8 is resolved by reference to n:v pb 'it is rather about you that I am worried (ptc. see above at § bf.6:9. es [= mraK] korrespondiert wieder mit dem folgenden p^^ i^'-tD]'-' does not seem to us to be a good enough reason for the fronting of the pronoun.pron. sim. ""^ We know that a disjunctive pronoun.5." see § 67 b. iisia a recent general discussion on this subject. riKCDa. ]mb ]ppv vimv 'we have been wearing sackcloths' A4..Yardeni 1986:56. On the unlikelihood of "one portion. nvnn nvnn yiv nbv 'then the oath reaches you' B2.5:10 may be a pf. see Muraoka . cf. w h e r e the pronoun can be said lo be a mark of self-assertiveness in a letter of bitter complaint..2:12("''^) is somewhat problematic . is expected.Pptc]: [nb]V b nm nivi .3:5 and C l . . 'in accordance with that which we have said'. 1 1 : 3 . when used with a finite verb. Jedaniah.. precedes the latter: see § 39 On the interpretation of the example in A2. and other classes of S (§ bo.)' A2.6:9.("''^ ]nm in pnv n]m« n bnpb A4.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 293 happy with it' A4. "'•^ Circumstantial clauses are rare in Aramaic. For another possible interpretation.("''^) A similar ambiguity about the tense of the verb which might have existed in p"^ ]n3N pb 'it is rather about you that we are worried (or: w e worried)' A2. bp): pnv p nmani H-DT -{inv pn 'now your servant. on w h i c h you are bringing (suit) against me' B7. l : 6 8 the position of the pronoun may be due to an element of confrontation between the t w o parties c o n c e r n e d . ^pv pn p:v 'we are seeking a boat' A2. ib. So Porten ... "'•^ Degen's (1979:41) ". t]^. Lastly vnnn pn ibnn n:vr 'whilst I w a s wandering between the vineyards' C l .10:5 the fronting of the pronoun is due to a contrast. In Classical Hebrew circumstantial clauses the subject idiomatically occupies the first slot. The participle would then be comparable with a subject complement of a verbal clause (§ 74 s). nm n:v i bnpb nnv 'Do just as you think' C l .

l : 166. ]-TDr n'^nn^D pi vm 'our wives are being treated like a widow' A4. sim. n. This is contradicted by examples in our corpus (see below at § ca).13.1:12.34.3:17. rb p D i rh nnb 'my heart is not attached to it' A2.. ]iJ"in 'gates .. 8 : l . Though the text is broken.8:28. Possibly also the notorious c m x in p'p nrntDn . b r ) A nominal clause of the sequence S-P is the norm for a circumstantial clause subordinate to the main clause and following it and connected to it by the conjunction W a w : vnvb W D N~ID3 n n r 'a leopard met (or: meets) a goat when she was (or: is) naked' C l .tence as in "It is m y father that told m e that. or "left dislocation" in his terminology. see Muraoka 1985:7f.Leander 1927: § 7 2 d..7:9. l : 171 // nnDD[ ] ] Q p s i n mrt? p 'if something bad issues . .. pm p imni rryi' -pnv pn 'Now your servant Jedaniah and his colleagues say thus' A4. and Joiion ." Thus the pattern is [NP. which matches the former in gender and number. c) Tripartite nominal clauseC^^^^) A N P introducing a N C m a y be given prominence by means of an immediately following disjunctive pronoun of the third person. "^^ On the definition of "identificatory" different from the general usage. and we do not believe that B A is unique in this regard.. Muraoka 1987: 61. To regard this kind of pronoun as copula (Bauer .3:5. DD p out of their m o u t h ' i b . ib.I22 and Joiion Muraoka 1993: § 154 .. and argues that its function is that of a clitic used where the predicate is determinate when otherwise ungrammatical clauses would ensue. Naud6 (1994). n. l 7 2 .Muraoka 1993: § 154 ea.1:5.6:17.. n'vb n3p3i "iDt n-DDr r\n'[ ]]m . mi KDPCD n o n 'Bagasrava knows this order' ib.. Tb 'and should Ananiah die without having a male or female child. in his discussion of this structure in BA.—NP2\. Fitzmyer 1956:31) is rather unsatisfactory: cf. B3.' B3.—Disj.4. m n n3T t^-iDOi ym upbr? vbi 'it shall not be accepted in court as long as this d o c u m e n t is in your hand' B2. The resuk is often an identificatoryC") N C comparable to a cleft sen. w e have most likely a circumstantial clause in ] n "pm im vmn 'and I was walking among the vineyards' C l . B2. sim.19. rejects the notion of the pronoun being a pure copula or a resumptive pronoun involving extraposition. . ' C l . "b pmnn vb rrrb i vbn uv nniv 'Arampiya with the troop which is at his command do not obey me' A 6 .pron. lb pnun prmi nnsm 'and Tapamet and Aliatsin are supporting him' A2. l : 4 0 .3.7:4.7:20. they smashed with their doors (still) standing' A4.294 PART IV c: HDCD H p s : ^llbr-ca p 'if something good issues out of the mouth o f .20. M u c h use is m a d e of this [forthcoming].

. B 3 . Likewise B2. B3. 1 0 : 2 2 .5:7.8:29. see Muraoka 1985:134-37.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES Structure in legal documents as in in nb n n r o '2:v mv n t n a o 295 HJT 'it is this d o c u m e n t which I. -niDnp Dip. Here the N P . C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n mnov n nn-DD no'bv n mnnnn 'it is Miptahiah that has right to the h o u s e of Eshor' B2. nD p'bv nn 'b mb' -T 'n 'it is m y children that you will have b o m to m e that will have right to it' B3.n in p 'who is the one w h o would stand before him?' C l . .. now in a N C and now in a V C . nn-DD n r n n [ « ] n vnmm 'it is Jehoishmah that hol[ds] on to him in (regard to) his house. that is valid' B 3 J 1 : 1 6 .. l : 9 1 ( " ' ^ ) .' On the use of enclitic m with an interrogative." In fact. A n a n i .5:17." According to Milik 1967:549. ['^ nn = ] -nn b inntDin nb n s o n nn 'what is this that you have not sent a letter to me?' A2.' B3. N P — d i s j . can also b e reinterpreted in t e r m s of extraposition: P — s — S . the pattem can be expressed as S—P—s. the meaning is not "it is not-yours that that gate is. i : 4 6 ( " ' . the pattern discussed above. B 3 .4:12.. for instance. for the NP2 is m o s t l y C " ) indeterminate. 1 2 . Grelot (1973:449) "c'est moi 'Ahiqar. . DnD pnim 1 in 'that which he produces. it is not yours' B2. T h u s . . See also in |rnTD VTinb n-ps 'it is a Mazdean w h o has been set over the province' A4. mnm in mnov 'it is Eslior that w d l inherit her ib.. In ybv in Diin 'Khnum is against us' A4. — N P .12.5:17. nD p'bv nn n-ntDDo p j n 'it is your children from Mibtahiah that have right to i t . and to use Jespersen's scheme.21 shows that the same in is playing an identifying role. in -pi vb -|T vvnn in 'that gate.1:12. it is false' B3.("^^) W e submit that the p r o n o u n is not playing an identificatory role as in the cases discussed in the preceding subparagraph. Jespersen 1969:91-3.) .. 3 : l l . The only exception is in K D I S P ' D mn nnm t>^\ 'and half of the stairway and beneath it it is the p€ras{-s\zed) storage area (?)' B3.10:8. wrote for you.3:7 one may compare in to an accusing finger. ^'^^ Cf.2:6.4:6.1:4. or to use the classical terminology. n np-n« in niK 7 a m A h i q a r w h o . is a casus pendens.. See also B2. has been extraposed. p r o n . tV^ p n n in -ni^ 'Is not Harudj my brother?' A2. ' B2.11:16. .10:4. n:iDnni -n vnv 'and its courtyard. it is (barren) land' B3." C i . it is yours' B2..18. ^b is asseverative. Ginsberg .3:8C'^0. 'indeed.4:4. ca) Another type of tripartite N C has an enclitic pronoun in the third slot. .6:18 and . A few m o r e e x a m p l e s of the pattern S—P—s are: n -pi "[T «n2« 'this wall... qui jadis te sauvas (1955:428) "the same Ahiqar.

.. wrote this d o c u m e n t at the instmction of Konaiah' B2.2:24.g. S .1:15.2:16. This is true not only of verbs in the 3rd person with an explicit subject.9:16. thus [V-Oj-JC"*'): e. A3. B2.' B2.296 PART IV c: ^7Sa-bb B7. 1 7 4 .L. even in the third person. even before the subject.] — n n -Q IDS nnv 'Pasu son of M a n n u k i c a m e to M e m p h i s ' A 4 . son of A h i o . sim. it tends to c o m e immediately after the verb.^ .C ''^) b ) The verb often occupies the initial slot: V—. j n ^ D nbv ]w:Dnn 'and the gods of Egypt will gather' C 1.8:11. Cf Folmer 1995:586f.p.. namely subject and predicate. cnb nnv i nn pmb m'nan-iN 'what Armantidata will tell you to load on it' A3.10:2. ..g. but also in the 1st or 2nd person.. or the 3rd person where no explicit subject is mentioned. bb) W h e n a pronominal object of a verb is mediated by a preposition. 2 : l l . § 78.3:6("^«). 1160 A jussive verb does not always stand at the beginning: e. Dn-Dip -pv bp' bv 'Let your n a m e not b e hght before them' C l . A3.. tmr vcrbv^ ]ir b-DZi "pb^ 'May the gods seek after your welfare at all time(s)' A4.^ P^jL. B3. C l . it is mine': pace Folmer (1995:538) there is no question of disagreement in gender. b a ) With an explicit subject: [ V . Examples without an explicit subject are: . ]DDD3 [ 1 nmvnn w nw 'a man will place the sons of their lords . A4.11:17. also Folmer 1995:521-87. B2.jj.4:1.1:l. nb^n b nm n vnn 'the house which Meshullam gave 1158 . l : 141 (jussive)('"*).o r d e r : v e r b a l clause a ) The question of word-order in verbal clauses is m o r e complicated than that of nominal clauses. 'bpn "p raro 'I gave you my field B 1. [V-S-0-]—HIT KHEID rnt^ nnbn nnD my\p DDD 'Pelatiah. W o r d . The following paragraphs will focus on select patterns around relative positions of a number of key constituents instead of discussing all possible or attested configuradons .7:l.. "'^ Cf. j j g ^2nt* 'she-ass']..10:l. on b o a t s ' C 1. and also because a finite verb. 1 : 9 1 .1:8. n-Jip nn ]n . nmi n n c o n nnt ODD 'I have bought striped cloth and scented oil' A2.. contains within itself two of the essential constituents..4:10.. because a verbal clause often contains more essential constituents than two. pnv DV i« "inD 'should Konaiah die tomorrow or another day . nnv mvn nb nm p 'if Reia (or: the shepherd) g a v e y o u wool' A2.2:25. ..1:2. which is the norm in nominal clauses. sim.

Nyberg 1938:326ff.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 297 me B2. i n m ran 'b rbv^n 'Tamet brought in to me in her hand: 1 garment . which Mahseiah her father gave her' B2.. mnnnn nn 'the house of Mibtahiah . The cohesion of this syntagm finds an expression in the two words being run together as in. 'bpn np nan] 'I gave you my field' B 1.7:2. RtniDm 'issue instruction to [m]y official that he [br]ing to me ...n]K "]t vnnn 'this document.10:7..g. Reckendorf 1895-8:119f. I gave it to you' B2.. 8 : 5 .2:3.14:3 one m a y infer that "me" is meant to be emphasised.3:3. nb mv pn\D nb 'I a m not neglecting him' A2. A2.] are best considered as "^^Seeabove... mv nnv nb 'I am doing for him' A2. nnv nnnn nb nnr n .' B3..1:2.3:4. nnb mv nnv 'which I am telling them' A6. .2:13. § lOfe..3:25 . for instance. in my lifetime and at m y death.. n'r^nnnn. The restoration n i n n (Porten Yardeni1986:128) is unlikely.8:2.("^^) However.. 261f. 'bu n n f n ' "p^ Vi'n jn-iM 'b[i ^e^rpsib n n i .("^2) In a deviation like | n n n 'b 'n [npv p 'Do thus in order that you will gladden m e ! ' A6.. Note that the s a m e verb. the rent (?) of [those domains]' A6....11:5 (with a pronoun) with ^nuiD in n vn:nb mvn mv pnn vnbn n-^iv 'the royal treasury adjoins wall to wall the protecting wall which the Egyptians built' ib.. e. a house.suffixed prep.4:4.' B 3 .("^^) This rule. shows the same word-order: [njnnn DOIK':?! vnbvb 'n 'so that y o u gladden the gods and Arsham' A6. . clauses which end with [verb -I. mnn 'nnb -\nnv 'Jehoishma your sister brought in to m e to my house: money . (with) land' B2.16:2. see above at § 77 bq.4:4.3:4. l : 19 pnv i n 'nnm "nn 'nb nnm n:v 'I gave you. where the subject is a personal pronoun.4 (with a noun). ]'n -[vnn -p npn' ]n 'if your m a s t e r deposits with you water' C l ." applies also w h e n the predicate is a participle: contrast mvn mv nb pnn Tomp mn nb vbv 'above it the house of the shrine of the god adjoins it wall to wall' B3.14:3. ^'^^ A s noted by Whitehead 1974:98f. TDOnm 'b nbvn . In view of the pronoun enclisis discussed above. and a preposition with a conjunctive pronoun as demonstrated in nb mv on nb 'I a m not m a k i n g h i m leave' A2. the degree of enclisis or cohesion is greater between a participle and its pronominal subject than between a ptc. and Muraoka 1985:44f "'^^ For an altemative interpretation of the former. npn 'b n o i n 'Dispatch to m e castor-oil' A2. since we do not find a jussive in a real subordinate clause: cp. in similar context. sometimes referred to as "PronominalregerC'^) or "pronoun enclisis.

.13:4.6. 559-65) has identified as favouring the fronting of the object is precisely one in which the direct object is a noun phrase expanded by an attributive demonstrative pronoun. '. 8.2:13. tcnm 'the share . the direct object precedes in most cases (9 vs. ] vnbv mvn 'phn 'Also my share of the boat's rent hand to him!' A3. give the money to A.9:5. that see (= take note of)!' C2. D1.4:9. A2. n t D . B2. . so that one may speak of anaphoric attraction. In three other cases (A6. the single most significant corpus as regards the question in hand.. as against ]DD3 ynD p t>i\ onaN 'you. A6.13:3).15:l (= SV). An example which has apparently escaped Folmer 1995:551. There are other cases where the word-order in question is not a purely morphosyntactic issue. excepting presentatives such as nVD and disjunctive personal pronouns: e. n'liD bD n-^Dn nTDV bD iDV] 'Harvest every harvest and perform every work' C l . l : 127.15:6) the noun phrase serving as the object has been mentioned earlier.3:27. lavish from our houses goods' A4. . 5).10:5.10:5. be) An i m p e r a t i v e occupies the initial slot.. Folmer's (1995:551) formulation is inaccurate when she states Uiat..14:3) involve a fixed idiom with the object being an Iranian loanword (inu m^n 'to issue an inso-uction') where one should also note an instance of the same idiom in a non-volitive form (pinr"* nmn -tD 'so that they would issue an instruction' A6.10:3. D7. nnv 'IDV pn 'Conduct the case with him' B2.3:l 1(''"). -np ]'n 'nniv nip p 'From before Osiris take water' D20.14:2. Exceptions are(''^^): '2D -]T vpnv 'Build up this land' B2. D7.9:2. A4. pm "b nmn 'Dispatch to m e skins' A2.>.298 PART IV c: %lSbc-ca ending with a verb: TiV ubv vnbv 'May the gods grant you peace!' A6. in the Arsames documents..3:8. but rather functionally motivated: see A3.. We are left then with a mere three unmotivated examples of the pattern < 0 .. A6. rb nnbv nn mp.. . nn[n3Q]nN T':' n n vnoD vb p 'if not. nn 7 . 10 and many others. Two other cases (A6. to which one may add 'bv pb^ in .7:23. nbn n'v\ 'b 'nmn pD 'now dispatch to me a httle salt' D 7 . 7 n':' Dn vnnn 'Give that one the ration' A 6 .4:5 (quoted above). vnn: 'Guard the domestic staff .4:5. do send me' A6. One of the categories which Folmer herself (1995:545.nbv 'Do send her greetings from Yekia' A2. 2 : l . . ..4:7. Likewise A2.' A6. bv nbv 'bl NTps nson 'Masapata my official sent (word) to me' A6.6:7..3:27.9:4. A6.g. 1 2 : l . p2b> p]ns n m ]'Dbn 'and give rations to Cilician persons' A6. P ]N nm bv n n [ .16:5 (= S O V ) .' ib.. A6.1:2.10:2) the verb concerned (nun) is a perfect. Folmer seems inclined to leave two cases of a combination DUO nn of the same meaning out of account presumably because of its idiomatic nature.6 (cited above).5:6.10:3.("'') " 6 6 Driver 1957:79 seems to have been unaware of them. In one case (A6.Impv. D 7 .1:68. 1 : l l .5:3. '•pEiDn "jT K I E D 'Produce that document' B2.

. 8: 12. has generally been attributed to a foreign influence. which is virtually a case of the "Pronominalregel" at work. We are not concerned here with an adverb or presentative occupying the initial slot and then immediately followed by a verb nor with a disjunctive personal pronoun placed immediately before a finite verb. '"'Kaufman 1974:133. See Ginsberg 1936:98. 1 : 1 9 1 . <n>E3D nbv p s r n 'whoever shall take out against you a docu[ment]' B2.o r d e r V S O . ca)5-Vor5-VE. which is the rule (see § 39 e) nor with cases of extraposition (see § 79) or of emphatic fronting.("'^) However. which contradicts the classical S e m i t i c w o r d . and Persian on the other. in view of a substantial number of cases in w h i c h the verb occupies a non-initial position. a non-Semitic l a n g u a g e ( " " ) . however.o r d e r in our idiom. t^mm nn pv:m m 'when the J e w s let t h e m in' A3. c) In our corpus w e find a considerable n u m b e r of cases where the verb. mnn KnuiD n |':'n 'detachments of the Egyptians rebelled' Akk.g. form. Akkadian on one hand.g.]n 'if your master deposits with you water to watch' C 1 . n n n p n n « o r 'he will bear shame from his colleague' C l . also nonSemitic. Similarly nnnb ]n n^vnn ip i p s . being followed by an explicit subject: e.(''") S o m e explanation is then to be sought for this situation which does not agree with the classical Semitic pattern nor with the Akkadian pattem. it is m o r e accurate to speak of free w o r d . usiQn nnn'm 'and One w h o will drink wine' ib.2:9 rebutting the accusation 'Tm^ rmrcn 'and you sU-uck my wife' ib.): see also § 40/z for another perspective with respect to this example. follows an explicit subject or object or both.5 (so also Folmer 1995:279f. l : 185.1:36(^'^^).SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 299 bd) W e may assign to the classical Semitic pattern cases in which the verb occupies the initial slot. -]T « n n nb ]intn n nn: 'a person to whom you will sell this house' B 2 . be) T h e pattem V O S is essendally the same for our purpose: e. viz. without.g. or sc. either pc.("™) This verb-final position. which in turn is said to be ultimately influenced by Sumerian. 188. Apart from our attempts on the following pages to classify those deviations. it is only rarely that we can speak of a functional opposition as in an OV example in nmn^ tc'? p'\ ^mxbl 'die wife of yours I did not strike' B7. 71: itm KUR par-su a-si-ib.7:12. 1 0 : l l . ITiere remain many cases where one can invoke the notion of prominence or emphasis only as a subjective or ad hoc interpretation. ons nm 'residing in Persia'C2.

. 1 1 : l . .. 'bnnn... nnnn 'Petosiri .. i D « "jT 'this one perished' ib. which Dargamana . m n b2p "bl vn'bv . [commit]ted'A4. piv nn n o n n -':'-T vn'bv 'my servant^ w h o m Bagasrava brought to Susa' A 6 . pniQ "lEiD . . introduced by the temporal " ' T D — D 5 : ? i « n3 vnbn bv b^v 'when our lord A r s h a m went to the king' A4.13:2. m i Q ]n2iQ in 'when E g y p t . -p mvm mn nn2 'a harsh word will be directed at you' A6. the l a n g u a g e of w h i c h is often cited ais representing a Western dialect(""*): .' A4. p nnnm vb bnnn n r i i D 'no d a m a g e has been found against us' ib..5:2. p2ii 1 1 'a document of withdrawal.300 PART IV c: § 78 c a .. 3 : l . .7.5:3. 2 : l . but it is hardly confined to them.9:6.c c A 4 .3:6. A6.10:9.3:3.7:8. A4. 17...7:6. vm vbn nn 3 m n --p nnvb 'when Vidranga the troop c o m m a n d e r arrived at Abydos'. vnn[n] « T «m2K *:D -1-":^ 'when this letter reaches you' A3. 5 : l ...-':'i: nbn bl vrpn ync^ 'Psamshek my official sent (word) to me' A 6 . i. -[C0Q[DE3] '[Psa]mshek. 1 0 : l . mnnn] bv nbrwn 'vm p m2v 'Let a letter be sent from my lord to Nakhdior' A6.e. Kutscher's position (1970:365) is nuanced —"somewhere in between"—but his opinion on the position of the objedt-is wrong..2.3:23. wrote for me' B2. Furthermore.7:4..7:6. 8 : l . ip lav "pncB 1 'about which Psamshfek will tell you' A6.. vnnn 1 vmMi 1[12V] 'the crime which the priests . bvznb r)i2V vb n m m i t vnnn ]nv vmnn 'then that Pariyama and his colleagues did not succeed in getting into the fortress' A6. n 2 i nth nnn n r T « n 2 i n n':'DT 'whatever desire and thing Djeho shall seek:^ of you' A4. see also ib..22. "pn nv ]D « m n "|t «"n3K 122 ynnv yi-^n 'since the days of the king of Egypt our fathers built this temple in Elephantine the fortress' A4. see also A4.. Min vn'^n in 'when the Egyptians rebelled' A 6 . the same pattern is also attested in the Proverbs of Ahiqar. HKonDn nm vnbn mmnnv m 'when King Artaxerxes sat on his throne' B 2 . This pattern is c o m m o n in subordinate clauses: introduced by the relative pronoun i—14 nynn vi2 -|T vnb 22111 1 'which that wicked Vidranga destroyed in the year 14' A4.8:6.8:2..3-16. ]r\m vbn nv vn^^in "Qi yn: inv 'then Naphaina took the Egyptians with the troops (as) others' A4.7:13. rebelled' A6.2.2. . l 3 . my servant complained here' A 6 . nip b'iv nnv 'a hon wentj^ Greenfield 1968:368. Glancing at the examples cited in the preceding paragraph^ one cannot fail to notice a remarkably high frequency of this pattern in Arsames letters. nv rbv . p s D nnnv 'when A r s h a m left . ]n)inb bv n n n 'when Cambuses entered Egypt' i b ..7: 16bis. 1 2 : l . sent (word) to m e ' A 6 ...

5:7]. ym o r nnzv pn pnb ] p p t D ]-m 'we. « m . Kutscher 1970:368 "'^ Our findings significantly differ from the impression given by Kutscher (1970:369) based on his partial and approximative count. the idiom of which is sometimes said to b e a representative of a western branch of I A ( " " ) . l 8 3 . together with our wives and our sons. i).Q 'my own son spied out my house' i b . my troops killed the rebels' ib. pnn nnb ]n 'if bad goes o u t .o r d e r of its verbal clauses to b e of the classical Semitic type. mn. .. cn':' pn':'.e.33 Akk. .7:15 where the pronoun is a mark of self-assertiveness (§ 39 e. as subject of a finite verb is not very cohesively joined to the latter so that a word or words can intervene between the two: e. . niivn T\XP vnbv nnb 'lest the god come to his aid' i b . see Folmer 1995:543-84.1:10 (= A k k . as many as 7 exceptions out of a total of 46 instances in which a direct object occurs. esp. gods will make bad for them' i b . counting cases of direct object only.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 301 approached C 1.).. -[pnv vb pnnn n r a 'we did not abandon our post(s)' A4. 2 : 6 .g..t^-nt^ vb'vb n m 'a lion will lie in wait for a stag' i b ..1:16 (= Akk.vb jnny 'your bones shall not descend to Sheol' C 1 . 1 2 . + prc. l 7 2 //p n n t o np^n ]n . ii). pron. cc) 0-V{'''') N o t a small n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s of this pattern can b e found in the H e r m o p o h s papyri.n r D nTD[mn«] '[Ahura]mazda helped m e ' C2.. ) .g. "™ The conclusion reached by Folmer (1995:578) in this regard appears to be in need of some nuancing: ". 186. l 2 2 .5:l where the pronoun emphasises contrast (§ 39 e. l 2 6 ." On this example of categorical negation. l 6 1 . [v]nnnb ibn[p ']b -t vbn . l 9 0 .. « m « n n vb n o E i ] 'my soul w d l not know the way' i b . cb) In contrast to the syntagm [disj.n D nbnm ]E3D 'hunger will sweeten bitterness' i b . E. The only possible instance is found in one of the Hermopolis letters [b pntoin rb nso -t rn -nm 'what is this that you haven't sent us a (single) letter?' A2.. l 7 1 . i. almost no evidence for OV word order in private letters on papyrus. But w e fmdC''^). V S O . .' i b ..]("") a disj. nn mn -mn . so that one expects the w o r d .pbv .('"^) These seven cases See above § 77 For an attempt to establish grammatical or semantic categories which could U-igger the inversion.. ibn[p] v'[n]nnb -'7-T vbn 'my troops killed the rebels' C2. nnn vnnn vnvb 'the ass mounted the jenny' ib. N o t e also bivv pnn. l 3 9 . were wearing sackcloth' A4. Greenfield 1968:368. 545.pron.1:94.. l 2 3 . nntop -|nn nn 'one drew his b o w ' i b . D i n pn yvn ]n p s o ]n nbm 'a sword stirs up calm waters between good companions' i b . nn 'if good goes out from the m o u t h of . SOV).

' A4. nrn. p r nDC7. .7:8..3:l et passim.5:8.1:50.c p n nVDi 'and now.. 5 ]]sn "b in. -n33rto.l 1.1:7.-r no: bD 'every beam he finds let h i m buy' i b .7. DnD pnnQ n s o 'he wrote a withdrawal document' B2.19.D D ] 'they took m y goods' A 6 .. T\b nn"?© -in n-p. F r o m before Osiris take water' D20.5:4. -[p nnoin nnnoi ubsv 'I am sending you abundant (greetings for) welfare and strength' A 3 . M o s t of the above examples are either in opening well-wishing formulae or jussives. "*"]nn3 fornn]. line 7 5 V O ) . [innr t<!nn]pi'[and they did the battjle' C2.. inn bD ]-n-in 'nbv 'nm 'they d e m o h s h e d all the temples of Egyptian gods' ib.. 8 : l ..t « .18.. 5 handfuls' ib.4:8.3:l 1.pD3i P ]OD 'they gave h i m silver and goods' A4.4:4.2:4.21.npn n ^ D i 'And now.7:3./. A6. b u t followed by 'nvn: nn'r'Ei -in 'Do serve the Lord of the T w o T m t h s .14. to Banitsar' A2.6:27.9 /7w . . -mnn^ n ' : ' n D n D nsio 'I wrote for her a document about it' B 2 . ' cd) Categorical negation appears to trigger the fronting of the direct object: nnm 'nnbv nb nnn 'you have not sent a single see§ 83fi.20^w. . . inpb .. "p nrbv |-m n':'^^ 'I have sent you welfare and life' A2. 14 with many more examples in this document (hues l. she shall take out' B2. H E I D D n o n ( " ' ' " ) 'an amount of money .]n -T bD 'all that she brought in . don't give rest to your soul' ib. l o n n ' ? . nam bDV nnCJDi i w 'and h e will shed his blood and eat his flesh' ib. ip ]nr ]D-nK pn 'May h e grant you longevity!' A4. Some more e x a m p l e s elsewhere are: -p iDv vb [vpv-'VD'] 'and h e did not d o evil to you' C 1. f n o K .cb^ 'Do send her greetings from Yekia' A2.nrDi 'and n o w let them bring us a chest' A2. n n « inp':' .3:25. 130. nb nrbv ]-n [i ubp 'I have sent y o u [welfare and] life' A 2 .10.53.302 PART IV c: § 78 c c - are those for which one cannot estabhsh a functional opposition to the V O sequence: ]':' in.1:42 Akk.4:5. n3]n]n -nonn -T ]nb 'to w h o m e v e r you love you m a y give it' B2. nnn nnnv vb 'Anything evil she did not d o and the slander oif any m a n she did not say there ..25.. 3 : 5 . n-on bv -pnib ybv Knsr p]tn |[n ] 'even if you took out the loan. pEiinn nn-D n':'i. but note pn« p mn.| [ T ] VIDD 'they drink water at th[at] w e i r A4. vv ^unDi niDV vb mvD uvnn -np | . let them bring m e castor oil.Q .5:2. ... . 7 : l .6. let them bring us castor-oil' A2. nb n n . l 8 6 .29).... l 5 ..12.D D 3 1 'and the goods which they took they returned . .D -noit^ Dnp p . 4 : 4 . ] n n ] .vbn: prto 'the load of the camel one will load (on) him' i b .l84. I gave .-nton 'and h e will seek my counsel' ib.

3:6.n m bv uvm nvD 'now. See § 44e. give to them' A6.10:2. ce) A significant type of object fronting identified by Folmer (1995:569-72) are cases of the generalising relative clause introduced by -T (x) bn. nmvn nbn nnb ]TDvn' vb 'they shall not find (even) one bad thing about you' A4. don't buy anything as clothing' ib.10:3.. and possibly A3. therefore. T h e same applies to a negative clause in which mv is not directly the object: nnnv vb mv .g.8.1:164.15:9.6. and holds that the fronting of the object in these cases is semantically conditioned. ground and water and all his possessions' Sardis line 7 (KAI 260B.H I D 'she did not utter calumny against anybody' D20. nnp':' T nni nnb nn nnn vnn: p []]on2 'and what you took (in the way of) good(s) from the domestic staff. 'my household did not suffer anything of a loss' A6..2:15. echoing the preceding phrase.7). would turn out to be only apparent exceptions: -\\ t^-wy^b o-i^n 1U3 'they sought evil against this temple' A4. in a revised version. all in positive clauses. the equally indefinite pronoun wt^/m does not seem to be subject to this rule: tD'i* UT ^b DnnnatD 'nobody knows their names' C1. A4. This type "A letter you have sent to him about him" is unlikely. A6.8:16). pr nnm -T nm bn 'every b e a m that he finds he should buy' A2.lO. W e believe. his house. "b jni^in nb nso 'you have not dispatched to m e a letter' ib. TOT "iDDE nv -inr.ton p i 'and whoever causes damage to this relief Kese9ek Koyu line 3 (from Asia Minor: KAI 258:3).5:2.3:5("*'). with the exception of oneC"^').7. his property.m3k^D nvTJ2 vv bnn 'nobody caused any d a m a g e to that temple' A4. For some reason or other. vb -JT n.5:2.5:2.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 303 letter about him' A2. but their use in categorical negation that triggers their fronting as direct objects. restore..3:8. but . the fronting of noiTi occurs also when it functions other than as direct object: e. . po ]Q p ]pSD nb c n n 'they are bringing us nothing from Syene' A2. they are all negative utterances. Also A2. rv\rr IRAOD criDD ib. A4. Seen in this light. Folmer (1995:566-68) has assembled an impressive n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s (some 15) in which cri (])r2 or a noun (including nvnn) qualified by mvn constitutes a direct object and precedes the verb. roDD . As a matter of fact. n nn or -t p : e.15:8.7:14. n^niT nnnui^m j-iD nr :p nnn niinnn 'may they scatter his court.7:17 (sim. It is significant that. that it is not the semantic contents of these nouns. cxinn nnnv vb mvn 'she did not do anything evil' D20. sim. An attempt by Folmer (1995:568f) to account for the occasional fronting of 3D in similar fashion as a synonym of has little to commend it in view of its poor attestation. / .4:7. a mere three examples.g. ib. three exceptions of hers..

Folmer is aware that the clause type—dependent clause—and the tense—suffix conjugation—^are not the necessary conditions for this type of object fronting.10:3.12:23. and (3) the identical phraseology of the inverted clause See examples in § 84. whatever you desire.n n ran' 'my house which I b o u g h t with m o n e y and the price of which I paid' B3..12:25 and i^DD -mm rt> ]nn-i p p\ -t . that/which he sold to us and the price of .11:13.. then and the protasis regularly c o m e s before the apodosis. B3.vb nb ] i .pv -TD p'D 'when it will be time.. for neither condition is met in nnD3 pbn nnm pnn: npbn nnai ]bv inn b>n: mn. but Tinm n pb n n 'Give (it) to w h o m e v e r you love' B2. ]nT2v "Db ]nr . B2. w e shall divide them for ourselves and we shall take hereditary possession.3:10.("^^) This interpretation of ours is c o r r o b o r a t e d by another e x a m p l e mentioned by Folmer (1995:570): b nbv nn-^n i bo nuDi 'and now..3:9. sende mir (Nachricht). shall give you a penalty .1:10. B3.' B3.9:4.a r n i 'what you d o for him will not be hidden from Anani' A4. w e find the fronted clause functioning also other than as direct object: p pDDn. Hug's (1993:38) non-literal rendition: "Wenn du etwas mochtest.. send (word) to me' A2. It is said to be confined to dependent clauses in Elephantine legal documents wherein the coordinated second verbal clause with suffix conjugation verbs displays object fronting: e. More examples may be found a t B 2 .. (2) the identical subject of the conjoined verbs("*').12:29.10:19. cf) Another striking type of object fronting has been identified by Folmer (1995:572-74).8. ] n n -nQm n pb 'to whomever you love you may give (it)' B2. 'whoever shall bring against you suit or process . See also B2." This feature is missing in two exceptions mentioned by Folmer (1995:574): f ]D3 -mm p nnn-i "p ]nn-i jnt -t n3t Kn -n 'this house which we sold and gave you and the prince of which you gave us (in) silver' B3. n n n | n nxDT i . too.3:24. Cf. sim. Significant features shared by all these examples are: (1) the genre (legal). (each) person (of) his portion.. anything that meets such and such a condition....11:7.("^*) Here. and we shall write a document of our division between ourselves' B2.g. 4 : 4 .. '.4:7 where the introductory clause is not strictly the object of nbv.304 PART IV c: %lSce-ch of clause is akin to the conditional clause (§ 84 p ) : if there is anyone.7:3.. B3. m f D m ^ODD n n t n .. nb nvnn nb nyvn vam VTi nip nbv nm T D nnD pnnn nnni n 'bi 'when he brought suit about it and an oath was imposed for h i m and I swore for h i m that it w a s mine and he wrote a withdrawal document' B2.

Yardeni 1989:170 at pn:^ ].g.36. but different in configuration: S V O (5x) and V S O ( I x ) .10:l would be a third exception.IDN I E D I nb ra[n3/n. A comparison between the two versions allow us to m a k e the following observations.B8.1) with its Akkadian counterpart. O V . but ybv vnn bnm n nnb 'why should he damage the land against us?' ib.. In three out of the six cases the Aramaic disagrees with the Akkadian (SVO vs.1:21. nvm vnnn )n 'he will seek the good' ib. in w h i c h the object follows in the Aramaic version.24. SOV). forms preceded by a direct object is noteworthy: "jnTD:^ 11 'he will d o your work' C 1. ch) Because of the oft suggested Akkadian influence on lA in favour of the positioning of the object (or subject or both) before the verb we have c o m p a r e d the Aramaic version of the Bisitun inscription (C2.("*'^) The results are shon on the following page. nvm -near 'he will seek m y counsel' ib. S O V (4x) and S V O (2x). and which happen to represent clauses with virtually identical m e s s a g e — k i l l e d Y.("'"') On the other hand. T h e A r a m a i c version also has t w o sequences.53. The Aramaic text is often poorly preserved. coupled with the fact that. W e have made a case study of the first three tripartite V C patterns appearing above. In the t w o cases where the Akkadian version shows this minority sequence. S V O .32. the V O sequence is typical of the suffix conjugation. in the A r a m a i c version. correspond with the classic Semitic pattern. This picture. ''"^ E. p:v mv pn: nnb 'I shall give you goods' ib. and also the fact that in three cases the Aramaic version agrees with it. pm nbm vnbn nnv 'the king will send other men' ib.62. The text as restored by Porten . typically Akkadian sequence. eg) According to Cook (1986:125). the t w o versions agree in showing the verb-last sequence. l : 5 0 . but the frequent use of the fixed formulas and standing expressions and the extremely close relationship . V S O . marking or signalling temporal sequence or consecution. -p -QU vb [Ninrsm 'he did not do the evil to you' C l . T h e Akkadian version displays two alternative sequences.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES M)5 (either nro i s o or nm vm). w h o studied the wordorder in the Aramaic of Daniel. in the majority of VCs consisting of V and O alone. where the Aramaic sequence represents the less frequent of the A k k a d i a n patterns. This seems to hold for the A h i q a r narrative composed in a comparable style with very few exceptions in the O V sequence with the sc. the number of the pc. S O V . In only one instance does the version agrees with the typically Akkadian tripartite S O V pattern seems which we paid (in) silver' ib.66.

30.DU. a Persian. t^n-iD'p t)Qp 'bn vb'm 'my troop killed the rebels' 13 = li-qu at-tu-u-a ana ni-[ki-ru-tu id-du-ku] 51.51 OV 19.g.g.76 2x("«'') V S O 55 TtSOV 81 lx("^) S O V 16.' nnb^ DfintDK-Q -"^-T xmbr] -ons nnc n-nn"iN 'Artavarziya by name.MES sd it-ti-sfu ussab-bi-tu fab-tu 'Vayazdata and the nobles who were with him they took captive.' E..77. 53.70. I sent' = I-en LU '"ar-[ta-marj-zi-ia [suumj-sii LU qal-la-a LU par-sa-a-a ra-[buj-u [ina] UGU-[su-nu a-na] KUR par-su ds-pur 'a certain man. 79.69("'''). and the Arm lines Akk lines frequency S V O 13.57 TtSOV 51.DUMU.c/ to indicate that the syntax of the Aramaic of our inscription was very much akin to that of the AJdcadian.MI id^u-ra-mi-iz-da li-qu at-tu-u-a ana ni-ik-ru-tu id-du-ku. my subject.' "^^ E.bvr\] 'my troop killed the troop of Vahyazdata' (43 ) = li-qu at-tu-a id-du-ku u-qu §a ""u-mi-iz-da-a-tu^ (75). he became a leader over them. ..C'"") All objects preceding the verb in the Bisitun inscription are personal. whereas most of such objects in Elephantine legal documents and the Hermopolis letters are inanimate. D]^r^vn2 i n CJ-N 'a certain man [he sent] at their head' = [ilj-ta-par a-na I-en LV sd ra-bu-ti [ina UGUj-sii-nu 'he sent a certain man as their leader. n p r 'T N"im nn« m n 'Vayazdata and the nobles who ^were) with him they seized' (48) = "'u-lmij-iz-da-a-tu^ u LU. Artamarzia by name.48.78 3^("^') = OV 53.26.72.' .58.46 =SVO 75. to Persia as their leader I sent. "^^ E. "^^ nnr uvrbv "pa i n a 'a Margian they made king over them' =LIJ mar-guma-a-a Su-u a-na ra-bu-ti [ina] UGU-sti-nu it-tur'a Margian. [ m n ynb'ubi t>^]p ibi] vt.g.g.. [my servant at their heajd..61 /7w = S O V 52. "^^ E. i'PD[p] N 'nna':' bl N'p'n ntmrriN n n'^ra 'with the protection of Ahu[ramazda] my troop [kjilled the rebel[s]' 16= ina GIS. E. a Persian.306 PART IV c: § 78 c/^ .38.83/7w IxQ''') IxC""*) OV 52 5 t V 0 79 OV 39 =OSV73 lx("'') between the two versions renders it safe to draw upon the Akkadian version for the reconstruction of the Aramaic version.g. at-tu-u-a a-na u-qu ni-ik-ni-tu id-du-ku.33..81 3x("«») S V O 43.

T T vb cvnv vbn ]b mv i m o 'Arsham did not know about all this which w a s done to us at all' A4. then one can speak only of general influence of Akkadian on Aramaic. cj) SOV or S. nnv' n -]nnnv 'your work he shall perform' C l . a pattern typical of Akkadian. that such a distribution pattern is a linguistically meaningful one is not certain." Further.. l : 2 1 ( " ^ ) . draws our attention toHDt rmv n3N 'this I did' C2. sim. . Elephantine— vbv nb rano vino 'I wrote the document for you concerning this' B 2 . and the Babylonian as well as the Old Persian version were based on it or them. A 4 .1:3 (Bistitun). n. . This pattern is not directly to be related to a similar Babylonian wellwishing formula. a student of ours..I:62. ci) In addition to e x a m p l e s of the pattern O-V there are even a few cases of the pattern O S V : ibvm v[b]D vnbv nv nbv ]iv bon 'may all the gods seek the welfare of m y brothers at all times' A3.V T h i s is a fairly frequent p a t t e r n . « ... 7 : 9 . 534.16:2. "^^ Folmer (1995:534) stands in need of correction when she says: "neither the Arsham correspondence nor the Behistun inscription have instances of OSV.66.. vnnn 'Nakhthor has taken the wine .15:5("'*). 957. I 0 : 4 ..("-'^) Examples are: Bisitun— t>n[p] vnynb 'they killed the rebels' C2.I6:5. but is rather plausible—that the Aramaic version or the Aramaic version together with the Elamite were first drawn up. for our corpus attests to alternative patterns: SVO— ^'n 'PN pv bD2 ~pb\D '\bm' 'may the gods seek after your welfare at all times' A 4 .62. a .. The Akkadian greeting formula is mostly of the SOV pattern: see some examples in Salonen 1967:86.n j ]'on Dn-N-m •'DDDI 'they are closely guarding the domestic staff and the goods of their masters' A 6 . See Folmer 1995:524. Hermopolis—-]':' nnbv ]-m nbv 'I have sent you (blessings of) welfare and life' A2. though the subject is a personal pronoun. 4 : l . ]nn: ]nn[v] nbv vnbn ]nnv 'the king will send other men after us' ib. However. 7 : l ( " ^ ) .4:5. nnb |rai^ n^i^ pni 'I shall give you goods' ib. There is a contrast between "you" and "him. and the grain of the lands entirely' A6.. npb mnnra vbn vnpnv m n n . SOV—i"? ID©' D ^ D N-H'PN 'may the gods grant you peace' A6. "'^ Some examples of the preceding animate or personal object are: N-H'PN'? [njinn ocnKbi 'you ought to glad[den] the gods and Arsham' A6.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 307 rest of our corpus presents a mixed picture in this regard. ] n n [ N ] rb\ir v^Dbti pm p n j 'the king will send other men after us . .C'"") Examples are: pnv vb pnnn nn:v 'we did not 1 1 9 7 a If Borger (1982:130) be right in his assumption—an assumption which he has not demonstrated.7:30." Among the groups of documents studied by Folmer (1995:533) this pattern is particularly favoured in the Arsames correspondence (A6. 550.7:I. sim.10:1.' C1. Opree (1997:34).1:16.1-16). A3.

l : 104.16:5.' : ' nnn. vnbo b mnob nb nnbv winb vnvn mnn*? n':' nnbv 'I sent to him (asking) to explain the matter to m e and I also sent to him (asking) to show the order to Hosea' D7. A4. See also A4. A4.4:5. 5 : l l .8:2. 1:204. 1 0 : l .4:6. 5 : l . 15. inm'pi nnt':' n3« o'b^ vb y\ vmo 'you have no right to sell or give away that house .g. cl) 0-Infinitive The object of an infinitive also precedes the latter at times('^"'). your servant Jedaniah and his colleagues say as follows' A4. 2 0 ^ / 5 . lovob nnmiv 'to do its needs(?)' A6. be diligent in stricdy guarding my domestic staff and goods!' A6. Cf.7:6.]Dnnn 'these goods I lovingly gave to Jehoishma' petition addressed to the Persian authorities (A4. Only once do both objects precede the verb: nvn bv -{vnt) ybv 'Do not give rest to your soul' C l .pron.c o abandon our post' A 4 . . See also Folmer 1995:536-42.8). A6. T h e general m l e is that an indirect object immediately follows the verb: e. [i]2V' oniv jKHDi 'and should our master make a statement' A4. .2:9..10:5.7:15. . two letters belonging to the Jedaniah archive (A4.10:12. nm3DT m^m -[inv pn ]m2V ] D 'Now. v:bi «-DD3 I vim vmp vmpn -{mo 'Samshek. E . . the Bisitun inscription and the Samaria ostraca. A4. nbv v['']002 M n n .14. "[T win nnEiQ':' n'b>V 'have right to open that gate' B2. nmob ]rn 'to bring suits against you' B2.7:4. A 6 . also Carmignac 1966:507f 1 2 0 2 Pace Folmer (1995:537) the contrast is not between living in the house and disposing of it.. .11:8.2. stricdy guarded our domestic staff and goods' A 6 . -itD3 ]-on . also with disj.5:8. 1 nmn 'to see the corpse of this Ahiqar' C l .3. . ' B2. In the first instance quoted the fronted object is meant to be contrasted with -|T vpnv 'that plot of land' B2.1:14. cm) Double objects Some verbs take two objects.C'"2) There are cases of the reverse sequence also: vbm vpmb nnon vb yo 'it does not lack water to give to the troop' A4. ntnK vb J2D1 mv 'I shall not see your riding' C l . one direct and the other indirect.308 PART IV c: § 7 8 c A : . ck) Clauses with m o r e than two constituents and ending with a verb are not u n c o m m o n : e.5:7. mvm iimiv pnvhi 'and immediately let needs (?) be done!' A6. A6. Kaufman (1982:154) would attribute this to a Persian rather than Akkadian influence. l : 130.24:15.7.5). g .g. ntD yon ibi vrooy] vim M'^T\[V] nmv 'You. bbnm n n m n ]Wi [ n n p ] '[a town of] wicked (men) will split asunder on a day of wind' C l . ntn^':' n3T np-ni*. l : 6 3 . the former official.2:6. as S at A4.

A 3 . to Petosiri' A6. nnb nT\T 'he will give it to you' D7.3). See. p a r -r <n >SD nbv 'one w h o takes out a document against you' B2.n3« 'I gave you during m y life time and upon m y death a house (with) land' B2.1:50. This is particularly true when the indirect object is a personal pronoun('^"^): DnD n s o vbv 'he wrote for m e a d o c u m e n t thereabout' B 2 . -\b npD.. ' D7. B 3 .. I gave you' B6. T h e conjunctive pronoun is always a direct object. "b nnnn vb nvnn [v]n[n]n -T 'who is not bringing me the (agreed) re[nt] . pnv 1 n -mDm --nn nb nnn.. . B2. .g. 'b nnnm 'you gave it to m e ' B5. 1 : 5 .. nn T3i: natr nD n-D*??: nn:sv nn -T «mn« T D -\b nnbv 'I sent to you by the hand of the brother of T a m wife of Malchiah son of Azgad one g o a t . 3 : l l . 7 : 3 . nn ni^ 'I gave the estate .7:10. -\b n2T\2v 'I shall give it to you' B l . 4 : 2 0 .7:16.11:13 {//pv ybz rrncaa -t nn2V 'we divided Mibtahiah's slaves for ourselves' ib... nnoDi nbv vnn: 'these goods and the silver . at all' A6.. 2 : l l . A 2 . .14:2. l : 191. '^"^ See above (§ bb) on pronoun enclisis. co) Adverbials W e shall discuss here not only adverbial adjuncts found in V C s .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES MY) B3. But quite often the verb stands between the two objects. 1 0 : 1 1 .2:4.'we did not give it to you' B 5 . A 2 .6:10.57:4. -[b nnv vb [vprnvni 'and the evil he did not do to y o u ' C 1.11:5. so also B2. 7 : 3 ..9:14. sim. 8 : l .vb -[nv •nn 'your father did not give m e a he-ass' B7. The unusual dislocation of a direct object at the far end of a long verbal clause with an intervening adverbial adjunct is due to its l e n g t h : . § 74 c on cases where one or both of the objects is or are pronominal. pb mim 'Let t h e m b r i n g it to you' A2. np'b n-t nm nnt 'I have bought olive oil for Yake' A 2 . nnb nnn.7:12. ybv ran 5*73] 'Let us divide them for ourselves' B2. 7 : l .]n |-D -{vnn 'if your master deposits with you water' C l .(''"^) Both objects may follow the verb as in ]i3nTr.29:9.8:41.5:7.4:5. l : 11. sim. the indirect one following as stated above: e. B3. '^"^ The only exceptions are pm pb irw . b Dn. -\b nnnm 'I gave it to you' B2. . -mocDS':' n n n . ib.3:3.n 'because the Egyptians give them a bribe' A4. . nn':'tD ]-m nbv -[b 'I send you (best wishes) for welfare and life' A2. cn) E x a m p l e s of double pronominal objects are: piv vb nb nnn.9. ..3:7. n m: -[T K m nb 'a person to w h o m you will sell that house' B 2 . but also similar words and phrases forming part of NC's. however. -\b pnv |-n 'May he grant you longevity' A 4 .9:4.4:7.

but also elsewhere (e. 2 4 : l . B 2 .310 PART IV c: %7Scp-cq cp) Clause-initial adverbials Certain adverbials mostly occupy the first slot of a clause.48.11. A6. 1 0 : l .45. then. A 6 . 7 : 1 .('^'«) H e r e a l s o b e l o n g "int*! 'thereafter. "I brought you to m y house.7:5) as well as p K 'then' (e. though not confined there by any means.15 these words mark the beginning of a paragraph. Jouon . TpE p D ' t 1206 -j^jg occurs with the conjunction Waw far more often than not (60:24). Following the standard introductory formula giving the names of the addressee and writer and the greeting.56.. usually rendered 'now. and open with ]VD or PD^D: e.29. It is a notable feature of the officialese of l A . bbn nmD vu «rQnp 'immediately (thereafter) h e tore his garment. lacing their private letters with them. e. .13.. '^"^ Hence ]VD in ]VD iv 'until now' A4. '^"^ On these epistolographic matters.. B2. This last does not occur in the Arsames letters. the body of a missive is introduced by one of these wordsC"*^'): e. In some fairly long documents.23.. lamented. S o m e writers indulge in the use of these short words. See Fassberg (1991:95-96) where he shows that the Mishnaic Hebrew T q 'immediately' is generally clause-initial in aggadic passages. ib.4:2 has a different function. Some brief letters.' ubiquitous in the Bisitun inscription (C2. 2 5 : l .g. D7. A 6 .3:7. as c a n be seen in s o m e of the Hermopolis letters (A2. almost each sentence beginning with them in the manner of "and then" in children's diaries or letters. The conjunction is never prefixed to nvD.' ''•^ Cf. a kind of anaphora.' Their primary function is to mark the beginning of a new thought or turning point in a discourse. 2. c o m p l e t e l y d o a w a y w i t h the introduction.10. but thrice only to ]ID (3:63).g..g. D 7 .21.' C 1. and rarDC^"'). A6.1:41. but clause-final in halachic passages. D 7 .2. 1 7 : l .('^"^) As such their position can have no functional significance.10:1+. 4 : 8 [ ' 2 " ] . sim. D 7 .59.8:1.1. This xranp reminds one of euGus in Mark's Gospel: Mk 1.1:48. T h e most c o m m o n are H ^ D C ^ ^ ) .19:5 and in 'who has now been made an official' A6. A6.Muraoka 1993: § 155 p. particularly in the ostraca.g. see Fitzmyer 1979:193 and Alexander 1978:164. 3 . always nrDi) and in the Padua Letter 1 (nrD 7x in a fourteen-line letter).. T h e r e I w a s supporting you (^noQ nnn nQD •]'?)"C1.. 2 .1). iDwcjn 'mn nm nnn »pm pm DV ina p 'if tomorrow or . The clause-initial position of these adverbials is due to their role of marking a logical connection with what precedes.g.('^^) Similar interpretation apphes to the following cases: . where the latter speaks of'transition marker' and 'spacer.

. This is certainly true of 'furthermore. n .3:27..1.. 5 : l.' B 2 .. moreover.Yardeni's (1989:115.. l . of Shemaiah. . 1 0 : l . O In some legal documents. of Nathan (B2. 3. the king Artaxerxes. year 3 of King Artaxerxes.12) and [Date . rnonn-'?..1.3-6. 5. I ':'DD '7 3 n .8). B2. -DDr mv yiv vnbn vanmiv 3 nyn innb s 'On the 20^ of Adar.g. did not k n o w .I'lN . reladvely late ones in particular. B3.9.1-13.. 1 1 : l . E.7:30.. . vn vb ODiv vbn p nnv n m o ^« 'Moreover. there appears ]nK between a date and the verb mv or the indication of a place followed by This temporal adverb is most likely resumptive after a fairly long dating phrase.5.8:3. see also B 3 . . mm vnbn nnvnn v'-xn t=]v another day you build up that plot (and) then my daughter hate you '2'=^ Whitehead 1974:51.10.C^'^) cq) Sentence adverbials As regards s o m e of the clause-initial adverbials dealt with above.namel is typical of Haggai s. B3.name] of Mauziah s. non-initial position makes im unstereotypical in ubm . 6 : l ."iDN . that is the 8"" day of Choiak.10.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 311 B2. then said in Elephantine the fortress Jedaniah .. On the basis of this style. it is sometimes not easy to decide whether they are to be constmed with a particular clause constituent or they relate to the clause or sentence as a whole.place .g. 9 : 1 .7:1. always stands at the very beginning of a sentence: e. 6. '^'^ E. Porten .6 to Haggai may be justified.. year 5 of King Amyrtaeus' B4. B 5 .11. and not ' .1-2. see also B 2 .' which latter relate only to a single constituent of a clause. of Shemaiah (B3.' B 3 . Its unusual.6. as is exemplified in many an Elephantine document: e. This ^v.g.13:1. may be identified with this same Haggai s. The former would be the case with the highly frequent clause-initial or paragraph-initial ]vn and its s y n o n y m s . 7. 6-11.8:4).12:l.. too.[ D D rhnp im ["[Jtonos 'if Psamshek later sends a complaint about you' A6. of this which was done to us Arsham was totally ignorant' A4. either'.3 T 'On the 3"" of Kislev . then Anani .g...189) attribution of B4... 4.('^'^) Legal documents often begin with the indication of a date on which an agreement was reached and the contract was drawn up." T D K . mv vnm nn ynv vnbn vnvin . 1 0 : l . said to J e h o i s h m a .6:1.. B 4 .' not 'also. B3. ur n iivb 20 n . which is also by definition anaphoric in a sense. B 3 . ViDbti o'E-nnK 5 rw ^nUTEib 23 n 'On the 23"* of Phamenoth. who calls himself "Haggai" without a patronymic. rmr nnv ]n rb'^b 'Contest the case with iiim accordingly' B2. 3. 9 : l . Also the scribe of B3. see a l s o B l .1-4. IDate .

1:51.. "Stricdy guard my domestic staff and goods so that there will not be any decrease in m y estate" A6.7:4 to impress the writer's personal concern. B 2 . 4 : 8 . At p p r ] V i pnu"? rnsN 'bv in-n. A2. See also Tnv nun -TD 'when it was done like this' A4.10:2.6:3.12:2. '^'^ Rather than seeing here a repetition of the adverbial (so Porten .g.p 'Let it be known to you as follows' A6.. "p nn. ".6:17.'B2.3:13. in a rare exception such as..nnD 'tomorrow or (the) following day. 2 0 . ]VW ]nn« pr':' . however. 1 5 : l l .3:12. very often and immediately precedes the verb: e. . Arsham says as follows' A6.g. c r ) Not every fronted adverbial can be explained in terms of functional opposition. 3 : 2 6 . nQH..3:6.. should Eshor die . jbv pnv .1:46. cataphoric—^l':' n-Qt^ p 'it has been said to us as follows' A3. sim. King S e n n a c h e r i b loved m e very much' C 1. A2.g.§ 79 'moreover. apparently because the cohesion between the two words is rather strong.4:13.2:3. C1. mnOK nn. In ah these cases of . Also cataphoric is -tD p meaning 'in such a way as .8:13 ('2'^). 1 : 3 .. also A4. A 6 .11:4 it is not clear whether the writer..7.2:17.l) or he intended some nuance. previously also (as I am doing now) I sent..10:5. ]D nnnv nv[D 'Now. the verb precedes.' ib. thus d o m e then' C 1. '^'^ Ati-i:ian nin Ktr ' O 'when there was an unrest in Egypt' A6.C^'^) Fronting may be interpreted as an indication of insistence or some importance attached to what is denoted by such an adverbial: e.TD p .3:4. make them over to m y estate just as the former officials had been doing"ib. A2. T h e word p . for there is only one verb.': e.7:15. Hence. sim.|[nn]« ci.1:52. .. A2. A6.Yardeni 1986:44 with their T m fpn). " [ n D n p 'after m a n y m o r e days I presented you . I D K p J? nnnv n]« -T bnpb 'b nnv 'just as I did for you.r-n. m p 'Count as follows' A 4 .10:5.' A6.10:8. Arsames. . immediately and imme[diate]ly' A6. Adverbials w h i c h often o c c u p y the initial slot include: temporal expressions—^-DT bnp p "pw pnp -t 'who rescued you previously from an innocent death' C 1.12 :3 the pair is undoubtedly a case of emphatic repetition reinforced by a synonym (unEt*). 2 2 . B 2 .49.10:6..'Let them bring (them) to me at once..6:4.. i b . ^-^^^^ pn*:)© ]Dd7Vib '(to inquire after) your welfare I am sending this letter' A2. and immediately bring m e a tunic down' A3... which escapes us. nnbv pnp ^« ]VD the ^« must be construed with pnp: ' N o w . is just not quoting accurately (Ntv ['TDJ mn p-aca ib. anaphoric—*^':' p ora^ pnv 'you are not doing so' A6.. A6.D D S 'my heart is torn over you' A3. p vnv p 'we have heard as follows' A3. whether anaphoric or cataphoric.312 PART IV c: § 78 c r . pnD 'b nnin pnvbi pnvb nn 'Come down immediately.1:12. sim..

pv -TD 'when it is Ume. A nD -temporal clause m o s d y precedes the main clause: ybv nn abs] mn.. quantifiers—mm \rw 'will be very agitated' C 1. n n n mv '1 rejoiced greatly' A3. A6. n-3r .1:5. For an approach based on the notions of functional grammar and discourse .11:6.21+.n .6:6. i n r s D viyb n p n 'mnb 26 n 'on the 26"^ of Payni they inspected for the sea 1 ship' C3. I answered' C l . knead for them 1 qab before their mother comes..n ] K nbv nvi 'you. stand with him in Syene this day' D7. Jedaniah.o m s D n'bvi n-n.1:75. p V'OD ]D . In n D n nitan n^i^nnn 'on the day that you w a s h it. n-Tn -TD 'when I saw . you should shear it' D7..8:6 the temporal clause is fronted.5:2. for the need to shear the e w e had already been indicated. cu) An adverbial may appear at the end of a clause as in mT Km.3:13.4:4. but n D i nb n3K pDc. nb 'T nv^D 'I a m not leaving him alone as m u c h as 1 am capable' A2. A4. as the d m i n g of shearing is n e w informadon. ct) An adverbial p h r a s e may be interrupted by a relative clause: mT K Q V p pbnn ^vm -T y vnnv nnv . who c a m e to you as a portion.]1DD nnv -mp b^v 'Go.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 313 B3. from this day and for ever' B2.C^'^) T h e phenomenon is also known as casus pendens We thus exclude clauses in which an N P or a disjunctive pronoun precedes its finite verb predicate.51. but without it being explicitly repeated in the form of a pronoun.11:13. we shall divide t h e m to ourselves' B2.T D «T vnnyv nnno 'I wrote this letter w h e n w e had heard .. whereas conditional clauses generally precede their apodoses: nnb ivb Dnmb on: ]n K n o s pnvn nov 'b nbv anm nnvn nv i Dp 'if their bread is ground. . cs) A n adverbial clause can either precede or follov/ the main clause: ub n3K nnr nb ]i2vn pnn n n 'as m u c h as you could do for him I am doing for him' A2. S e e also A4.. Temporal clauses introduced by nn^. and especially nr (n) are as a m l e placed after the main clause.7Kv3.. E x t r a p o s i t i o n Under this term we understand a constmction in which an element of a clause is fronted and is subsequently referred back by means of a pronoun.15:7. b u t . that slave. l : 14. Send (word) to m e when you observe the passover' D7.5:2. h a v e right to Petosiri by n a m e .3:4. iniiTiv [']nv 'they were very diligent with me' C2.7:15. § 79. .1:29.' A3. mnn VDbn n n ^ m o vyn 'King Sennacherib loved m e very m u c h ' ib.8:21.

B2. nDT Nnson |nnD m m n m mnm n n3T Nnn -p mnm . it is your children from Mibtahiah that have right to if i b .15. I Anani gave it to you' B 3 .. It can be a ) the subject of a clause with a subject N P preceding a finite verb or b ) the object of a verbal clause.0-18 (on BA).7:7. nb mm vr\n n3T 'as for this house.245 and Kottsieper 1990:17. .. C f Cowley 1923:225..314 PARTIVc: §79a-§80f> or nominativus pendens..11:7. An alternative interpretation identifies here two separate clauses: "he will not be his paymaster. nn O'bv mv vnnv vbiEn 'as for the other half. nf2]s jpiDnnl':? m]v pnii .. 4 : l l .7:14 (// DDVU n n y [vnm] A4.). give h i m the rations' A 6 . seeKhan_1588:l07-08. or c ) the complement of a preposidon. 1 2 : l .. B3.8:12). -n-N vb nnnv bi viny\ n3« :ib 'you and the domestic staff of m i n e — y o u have n o business (with them)' A6. So behaves a good man towards a bad man": see Grelot 1972:445 and Lindenberger 1983:165. sim. b ) TUiDVT] n n -{T K-n3N 'that temple.6:21. of prominence. More examples may b e found above at § 39 c.usually_ receives a measure. they d o not bring m e from there anything' A 6 ... Nan 'bv ymnn vb nnn p nvnn 'the domain .. 11. n Knn pbn n3T nb nrnn.15:9. . d) Unique to the Arsames correspondence is a double extraposition whereby the demonstrative pronoun ~\\ or n\ resumes the extraposed N P — t h e choice between the two demonstratives is conditioned by the gender of the N P — a n d the demonstrative is in turn resumed by a suffix pronoun or its equivalent. l 2 (with a double extraposiUon)..3:4. that one. you have right to i t . 132-46 (on Syr. -pnnn n 'b'^ vmn n m p nnvi nb ivnnm n r . 1 3 : l . terms ill-suited to a grammar of Aramaic.7:7.. her' B2. Possibly in n[nb nn]3 nv nu nna nb mm vb mv bmi 'and a paymaster.3:8. ' B 2 . a snake bit me' A2. n :nT r i -nnoK 'it is Eshor that will inherit from. h e found it (already) built' A4.. r n p'bv nn nnmn p j n n v6n 'as for that half. . 'W n3K 'this house whose measurements and boundaries are written in this document. 1 0 : l l . 123-28..mw mv nnnm pnn mm 'this part of the house whose measurements and boundaries are written. " { T .5:8.C^'") c) . This phenomenon occurs in nb nn Nsns "ft . I a m entided to bestow on Pa[misi' B7. B2. nnn : TID 3 n3« 'as for m e . obey analysis. I have given it to you' B2.. T h e fronted constituent . .25. which has no case markings.. might say to you . 5 : l l . that o n e . nnv 'mn '(one) named Hinzani . (concerning) that.. 'p nnv 'the matter concerning my estate (about) which P. I Ananiah have given it to you' B 3 ... l : lOO.. a) . he shall not have a good man with a bad man' C l . n w n ^ 'as for the she-ass which .

3:6. plus A6. it shall b e meted out to them' A6. B6. whatever you desire.. "fm nmv See § 80 a. but o n e ir. will order to b e meted out to them.. '^22 Though not impossible: see Noldeke 1898: §§ 253. w h e r e one expects nn with I O T C . N or such like. I m p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s a) T h e 3 m s of the passive pf.12:6 there is an oblique reference to the subject. In one case. send (word) to m e (about it)' A2. which P. but it is better to analyse such a clause as an imperfecdy transformed passive structure in which the N P is still felt to be the object of the verb: nb Dn. sim.4:7. or impf. though some scholars take it to mean "he did/does not ask .8:2. Pace Grelot (1972:316).SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 315 him and do accordingly' A6. nc?rn. nb vmD' ib 'no hearing shall b e granted to him' B3.8:42.2:8.2:6.11:3('22'). nmbv nbv -3D -T ]nnv 'some other matter (about) w h i c h w o r d w a s sent from m e to them' A6.3:7.4:8('^^").'Let note be taken of me!' A6. § 80. not reflexive: "Soucie-toi de moi. Perhaps there b e l o n g s here also finn bv bvv nb 'no enquiry was m a d e about I J a m d j ' A2.15:8. All these examples. The preposition here is that of advantage or benefit (dativus commodi).' but "he does not" with a participle and without the subject pronoun is harsh. ubm nnp':' -r nn 'what you took.|n nnui n-p3 'if you be given a l a m b and its wool' A2. you shall pay damages (for it)' A6. instead dealing with an impersonal passive. 314. b ) In s o m e cases a passive verb appears to have a N P fiinctioning as its grammatical subject." The reading is not nornK as in the editio princeps.2:4.('^'^) e) Rare examples of extraposition in which the extraposed constituent is not referred back in what follows: r7D:in -T bD nrDT nbv 'and now.16:2 where the text is too fragmentary. a second resumptive pronoun is only seemingly absent: mvnb ortD Dmb [uvy "ftDDDS n Ktrr]K?no nnb invrr -DT 'the chasdse[ment].g.('^^^) In vb vnn ]n ybv p nvnnv 'there did not remain for us (any) of the price which could be charged against you' B3. . where it is not necessary to postulate a disagreement in gender between the demonstrative and the following verb. is sometimes used to focus on the action itself when no reference is intended to an endty formally indicated as 3 m s : e. that one. N-nDnon bv nbnvn 'and let (word) b e sent to the accountants' A6. diough his analysis is unsatisfactory. have been collected and discussed by Whitehead (1974:210-16) as cases of extraposition.

3 : l l .10:8. Coordination('"6) a) A constituent of a clause is often expanded by the addition of a term or terms of syntactically equal standing: thus nvb bnov 'I shall support my father' m a y b e expanded to nvbi nvb biDV 'I shall support my father and my mother. -mnm . ]a ] i D D n . W h e n the first term consists of a preposition with a conj u n c d v e pronoun.7:24.4:12. see Garr 1985:176-79. .. c) A 3 m p form may be used where the personal subject is not known. Cf. also ynnv p 73n -n -pi vnn 'the house is moreover yours and of your children after you' B3. For a comparative overview in the first millennium BCE. possibly n p s n [ ]]ipEa 'one placed (them) on deposit' B2. which..§ 8 1 c nbnm 'Let a letter be sent from you!' A4. C f n'^nwn -m-m p r\-m 'Let a letter from my lord be sent!' A6. '225 See above at § 30. indicates flexibility in this regard.7:23.316 PARTIVc: § 8 0 c . Nn3nam ]"iom n-n 'in Elephantine or in Syene or in the province' B 3 . -n-T ]'nnv vno: p iv vnn: p '(decrease) in the domestic staff or in my other goods' A6. 5 : 3 .. and from PN' B 3 . Hug 1993: lOlf. the following term(s) often repeat(s) the same '"^ See § 76 bb.1:9. ' 2 2 6 Cf. On which see Kutscher 1969:17-20 and Folmer 1995:380-93. 1 3 : l l .13:2. [n]nnn UDivbi vnbvb 'you gladden the gods and Arsames' A6.n n 'in my lifetime and upon m y death' B2. vpim pnnbi ft vvnn nnnnb 'to open that gate and to go out into the street' i b . nmyn m .3:3. by virtue of the gender agreement.3:10. l 4 .('"^) d ) It is rare to find the second person plural as the impersonal subject: -33:.9:7 (rather than a passive H). § 81.(''") The notion of passivum majestatis{^^^^) is not very convincing: not every case of passive with or without the agent-marking ]n occurs in utterances in which respect and politeness are due.apn 'Let them bring m e castor oil' A2. b in.' b ) A preposition may be repeated with each of such coordinate termsC^^'): m n bv\ -tan bv n-rn nn 'Do look after Tashai and after her son' A 2 .5:2. p pntD 'they do not allow us' A4. or the speaker or writer does not wish to specify it: p ipsa Tt? n n a 'they do not bring us anything' A2. bniv p nn\ 'I bought from PN .4:16. nb nnb "w nono*:' vbm 'to restrain Mahsah or a son of his' B2.16:2.vb rb ] n n r n n 'what you do for h i m will not be hidden from Anani' A4.

A6.9:14. nnb mvi nnnvi nmn'p 'against your children or your brothers or a person of yours' B 2 . nmiDl -pmvb 'to Shumshillech and his colleagues' A6.N I D bv 'To my lords Jedaniah. n n . T h u s in letters j o i n d y addressed to two or m o r e individuals: vb'm miiv mwn n^T .8:2. 9 : 1 1 .9:3 (brothers).10:19. This repetition is of course due to the conjunctive nature of the pronouns. the coordinate terms seem to form a cohesive unit. 1 : 7 .n n n a m N n . in these examples and many others where the preposition is not repeated. C p . ]n 'if .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 317 preposition: -]ib 1 vbrnib"] -p mv 'will say to you and to the troop which is at your c o m m a n d ' A6... A 4 . B3.n n m ^ s o n n -\nnbw vb 'I did not repay you your silver and its interest' B 3 . 3 : l .12:26.29:5. IN Dynb CDb | n r jltDl. See also n-onm n':nb 'to Jedaniah and Mahseiah' B2.2. in our n a m e to Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat' A4.. Mauziah.m o D D i mnoN n n n n p nmnrh 'to deprive her of the h o u s e of Eshor and his g o o d s and his possession' B2.p s mnnn] bv nbnm . 2 : l .. Uriah and the troop' A 4 . In Nnm ]:ob 'to prefect and lord' B3. 5 : l . c) That the repetition of a preposition is optional v/hen the leading term is not a conjunctive p r o n o u n is shown uy aic following examples: nbDl nnur b[V] 'upon his counsel and his words' C 1. l 8 where the cohesion of nnm nn is made evident also by the position of np. -mODDT mnoN -T n n . sim. biy iv 'ynb nmiv l shall give it to Haggai or Igdal' D7.. mnnn: bv Dmv p nmim D n o m 'from A r s h a m to Nakhthor. However.7:8.14:1.12:28 a range of possibilities is given.n m 'to m y sister(s) Taru and Tabi from your brother N a b u s h a and Makkibanit' A 2 .2:8.nN -Q3N bv nb -n-N -T bm ny:pi 'to the house of Eshor and his properties and possesion and all that he has on the face of the whole earth' B2.1:43.4:14. m:v 'Let a letter be sent to Nakhthor the official and the accountants' ib.7:29. -p nnm nnb in: . they institute (suit) against a son or a daughter of yours' i b . 1 3 : l . nrDpi . sim. ynb mnm t ] D D n nb p:n -n ~\n:ni 'to bring (suit) against your sons or your daughters or one to w h o m you give (it) for silver' B3. Nn-nnm vmbvn 'in the Upper and L o w e r (Egypt yn^^n)' A6. bv pm pbv nnn nn^Nn tD'^nN3D -3n n-D':5cyi n-':5n 'in a letter we sent . K e n z a s i r m a and his colleagues' A 6 . n n -nnN bv n n n m nm: pinv p .7:6. nmDDT y vb 'will not do to that Pariyama and his colleagues' A6..10:15 with the ..n n n':'D Ni. T h e same applies to nnm ']b nnb 'to a son of yours or a daughter' B3. nmni p':?Df2':5 'to ascend and descend' B3.6:30.6:18. N .11:13 and ] .m vmi ]:ob 'to prefect and lord and j u d g e ' B3.n ]nh) 'will give to you or to your children or to whomever they bring (suit) against' B2.

must be nn. or an asyndetic clause. n. T h u s 'b nnm 'b n n 'a son of mine and a daughter of mine' B3. while in B2. e) Coordinating conjunction -T or IN In the following cases of asyndeton the terms do not appear to be equal in weight: mn 'b'\ pnv i n . all (told) 2 said' B2. ox. 4 : 3 ( ' 2 3 ° ) .4:3.8. coordinate terms are linked by means of either proclitic W a w or " IN ..2:14.1:8 et passim..8:17. where taking pnv as an imperative is unlikely in view of n n n 'vn p pw npb nm . eb) W h e r e three or more terms are coordinate. Exceptions are ibpn m n ]pT nnn nnvn' v[b] 'and sheep.3:3 it is on the house. there may C f // pmn. nnEnnb 'to open . 2 bn i ]n] nn n-n.1:14 with two infinidves with two words intervening. T h e same interpretation may b e applied to nnnn pnm pm ] n T n n n 'and d o let him buy beams and leave (them) in his house' A2..nm bn pnm pmn 'and do take barley from Tashai and give (it in exchange) for b e a m s and leave ..7:18('"«) where a total of five terms is classified into three categories. Also instrucdve is nbwnn 1 N -iHD vnm vnn vmD ]]mn.i p : nn n -onn nnN 'Mahseiah son of Nathan 1 (and) Jedaniah son of Nathan 1 all told 2 said' B2.4:9 where the impv.bv JKIQ bv A4. See also nn n n n n nQN 2 bn 1 ]n] nn n-n. however. every beam' A2.7:15. goat are [n]ot m a d e there as burnt-offering' A4. ea) As a mle. ' 2 ^ The emphasis is clearly on the land in B2.bvi II ]vnD <bv> ]nbv nmv vnm' n m '::v i m n N jnoiN bvi II 'we sent a letter (to) our lord and to Jehohanan the high priest and his fellow priests who are in Jerusalem and to Ostanes the brother of Anani and the nobles of the Jews' A4.i ]n] 'Mahseiah son of Nathan 1. . and to exit' B2. and fasting and praying to Y H W A4. ' 2 2 ' A case of sandhi (§ 10 b).11:2... Jedaniah son of Nathan 1.11:2 where the singular verb is due to the fact that Mahseiah is the one w h o is drawing up the contract. ]nnN nv I N nnn 'tomorrow or the next day' B2. pnN fit N n n 'that house (with a plot of) land' ib.10:18.ec above-quoted ppTbi ..318 P A R T I V c : % SI d.10:10. of nn. each of which is headed by the preposidon d) The auxiliary verb mn in a periphrastic tense is not repeated: M'b yb:^^^ ]-D-Ki pn pnb ppv 'we were wearing sackcloth . 15. i n p n N '(a plot of) land (with) a house' B 2 .. 3 : 3 ( ' 2 2 ' ) . nb n n m 'I have given you a house (with a plot of) land which was mine' B 2 . 'it was mine.. Alternatively a haplography for -"^-T n.' C f Porten 1996:165.

and the Jews' i b . /and/ his colleagues] [Bag. . Mauziah.. and we do not drink wine' A4. .. f]N ] ~ i t D 3 .. member of a detachment or town shall not be able . guarding. are being diligent .. Kendasirma and his colleagues' A6.b ] . /and/ his colleagues] //and// [the scribes of the province]}. See also vb'ni nniv mwn mrr 'vm bv 'to my lords Jedaniah. brother or sister. d and e ] .. 1 0 : 3 ( ' 2 " ) . B a g a d a n a and his colleagues and the scribes of the province' A6. which is c o m p l e m e n t e d by vynDi n'niv n'Tt' 'vnn bv V'linn 'to my lords.. bvm "^2 .. 3 : l . aj A3 ) -».c ] ..'ib.14:1. [c + d] + e. Jed. 1 3 : l ( ' " 2 ) . Ur. .1:1 where the internal stmcture could be represented as: {your servants [Ach. thus [a + b + W a w + c ] : m':':."! nn]Q "meal-offering. 'the officials . we do not anoint (ourselves with) oil. mnnn: bv nmm D-IDTDD 'to Nakhthor. near or far. ] n K r i D . w o o d e n and palm-leaf utensils. or alternatively.5.. b[V ]s]Dinm .11:1... and make over to . '2^2 DTDIDDI "nnnn] bv 'to Na.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES ^19 occur only one coordinate conjuncdon between the last two terms. and the priests. 1 2 : l .. incense and bumt-offering' A 4 . l 2 where we have a basic stmcture of [a -». . whereas it also joins two constituents of a sub-constituent at a lower level. 8 : 2 1 .7:20. and mark . Uriah. bv ^12V^. and Kendasirma and his . and the troop' A 4 .. Uriah and the priests' A 4 ... .b -». guard . {x} = [a -».1:8 nnv pm II pm pv mn pnv\ ii bnm m: mn pm nnp 'mb rrrv 'there are the(se) goods—woolen and linen garments.. A 6 ... thus [(a + b). In contrast to nm]Di colleagues' A6. ini:]n[KJ 'Be diligent. ec) As shown in some examples above.. moreover .. Likewise mmv vb "inm ynm vb nm ymv nbnnvD pi vm fm^i pn pnb ppv 'nv 'we were wearing sackcloth and fasting. TICDDI . our w o m e n have 5 e e n treated like widows. a string of N P s may consist of smaller units which in turn form a cohesive string members of which may be joined by a coordinate conjunction: With no Waw between the larger nnpi bn bvn ii strings— ii pnn nnp ii nnv) nv ii nnni nn ii bny vb ii «-DD 3 'son or daughter. grain and This contrasts with. seek and bring in . vmpz .. c.' A 6 . bronze and iron utensils.. ^ n n o n s o i nmm ]in nmm m^nv p 'your servants A c h a e m e n e s and his colleagues.. 2 : l . w h i c h m a y be interpreted as a string of t w o t e r m s . the conjunction W a w is used between the last two of three constituents at a higher level. and adding to .. seeking . the first being in apposition to the following three n a m e s : [a (= a..' B2.. A 6 .. In other words. ino . Likewise bv vynni N N I N nri' 'to m y lords Jedaniah.b ] ..

n3N nm a + (b + c + d) With a Waw between the larger 'in my name. or in the name of children or w o m a n or man of mine' B2. b:)y\ ]D m p i n]i Dipi f*?! br\':^ mpi. Jedaniah. B a g a d a n a and his colleagues..10. male or female slave.10:12('"'*) Finally mun -nsoT n m m pn nmni VTm -j-nni^'your servants Achaemenes and his colleagues. .9:5 cDb w nri]N B nnNi I I CDb m m mb ii um: bm: vb 'we shall not be able to bring suit against son or daughter of yours. e m m e r or any food that you might find' B3.320 PARTIVc: § 8 1 g ^ . I. all (the) goods and '"^ In the treaty of Bar-Ga'yah we note a long series of divine witnesses paired as here.. n n r i c]Dn bv n n s : iraN n s D i ]-3pi ]DD] bn bnni vm vnbi 'a litigation(?) about silver and grain and clothes and bronze and iron. woman or man of yours' B2.1:l illustrates a c o m b i n a d o n of the structure under discussion here and the one dealt with in the preceding subparagraph: a [= (b + c) (d + e) + f]. and the scribes of the province' A6. die members of the second smaller string are also connected by the Waw. but all the eight pairs are in turn linked with the conjunction Waw: . barley.§ 8 2 other things' B2. bronze or iron.a « nnm 'son of mine or daughter.. woman or man brought suit against you' B2. 3 0 : 3 ( ' 2 » ) strings— nnb w utm « m m nnb ii pnm (a + b) + (c + d) 'and they will bring suit against son or daughter or woman or man of yours' B2.1:9 br\y\ mv ii n3i bn 'Bel and Nabu.10:10 w nn3N II m m b . '2^'* The internal hierarchy here is [a + (b + c + d)].10:12 " T ]"iT bm ]n3D ]-)vv 1 1 HDNi IDV II b P D T m: II n n n = ] D n n pnb n -n 'brick house. brother or sister..10:14 'b w nn]Ni ]]n nmi ii n-n. H o w great the scope for stylisdc variation is in this regard is easy to see by c o m p a r i n g the e x a m p l e s cited above from a single document. B2. Moreover. ed) A coordinating conjunction may be repeated ad nauseam: -GNi -ran -2jm umi n: nbv 'Greetings to Nky and Ashah and Tashai and Anathi and Ati and Re(ia)' A 2 J : 3 . 'and in the presence of Nergal and Lats and in the presence of Shamash and Nur and in the presence of Sin and N i k k a l S e f i r e I A 9. Shamash and Nergal' D 7 . silver or gold.

14. or m y children. 'b w nnDNi n . m o s d y a nominal clause.16. C i r c u m s t a n t i a l c l a u s e A form of coordination at clause-level is a syntagm in which the second clause.] and [NP + adj. along with J e h o i s h m a your daughter' B3.1:11. ef) M a n y strings of coordinate phrases. '23** See above. § 7 6 eg. t h o u g h the preposition bv is not repeated. n .-':' to-Ni 'b nnv nv 'b nnm 'I shall not be able. 6 : l l . a n d such a W a w traditionally is known as W a w of accompaniment: . do not count as multi-membered consdtuents for the purpose of grammatical agreement.12:30.. or man of mine to press him (into) slave(ry)' B 3 .6:33 (with disagreement in gender and number). ( ' " 5 ) eg) A N P prefixed b y t h e conjunction W a w is at times logically subordinate to the preceding N P . I.vbi -nn-n n3T N n s o i 'and it shall not b e accepted in a suit while this ' " 5 There are also cases which display varying degrees of agreement: see above § 76 eg.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 321 p r o p e r t y .12. ee) T h e syntagm [ N P a n d N P + adj. T h e lack of g r a m m a t i c a l a g r e e m e n t between the apparent multiple subject and its predicate can be partly explained in terms of W a w of accompaniment.n n nnn n s c 'a document n e w ui old' B2. 11 (namely.12:29. B2. 9 : 4 .10:9.7:12. " W e shall serve you'" ib.. B3.] may be shorthand for [NP + adj. or w o m a n or m a n of mine' B2. Jedaniah. ynbn' ]mv nnnn vanm nnsn nn^N 'Tapemet said.the verb is in the singular. cf. also on behalf of J.6:8. since it is not about a son and daughter j o i n d y looking after their father.. whether j o i n e d by the conjunction W a w or not. So also nm n-niN n]N ':'nDN N':' 12V .n D i o n n . B3. . and the w i f e h o o d d o c u m e n t ' B2.11. Uriah. but rather a range of possibilities is being mentioned: 'a son or daughter wUl support his(!) father' B 3 . and logically subordinate to the leading one by means of the conjunction W a w . Examples are: pnn np':'n. j o i n e d to. m n n nb jran m "]-n n i "]-'?T N n n 'the house is yours and of your children and of whoever you give (it) to affectionately' B3.m n-naen ]nb pnN nn:m [p]n 'other sons and wife besides Miptahiah and her sons' B2.8:3. nn-nnoT "[Donn N':'Dnn 'you are fully paid back your silver together with its interest' B3. np-nc? -raN -nnnn vnmni 'you are released .(' 2^^) § 82. or son or daughter of m i n e .n .]: p .18. brother or sister of m i n e .n]ts 'I. Thus in -nnN':' nnm nn ':'nD.3:16.). with J e h o i s h m a h e r daughter. describes a situation which prevails when the action described in the first clause takes or took place.1:7.

.('"') A rare example of a circumstantial clause not introduced by the conjunction W a w is: nbv vrsp ^"lim ppn 2 pp nbn b nffiin 'Dispatch to m e salt. (with) the basket on if D 7 ..' B3..' C l .Q I my^v mnn ]]m 'if A..10:13.1:12. nnn vb 'you will not die' C l . nnn in vby nrb b rwm bv 'don't dispatch to me bread w h e n it is unsealed' D7.abs. . the particle of existence—^-m^ vb bnnn 'there is no injury' A3. l : 159. two qabs. dies while he has no chUd.7:10. W h e n immediately preceding a predicatively used verb or adjective. p -SKn bv 'Do not worry about us!' A2.g. though the style is telegrammatic.7:20.1:5. male or female .322 PARTIVc: § 8 3 a . ynv vb nnm ynm vb nm '(we) do not anoint with oil and do not drink wine' A4. |np':'n bv 'Do not take!' C l .34.44:4. Negation a) O u r idiom k n o w s t w o negators: bv and vb (regularly spelled nb in the Hermopolis letters!'""])... ..1:7.20. ann in vbi 'and it is unsealed' D7. Exceptions are: n nnv bv vb 'one with w h o m El is not' C 1. all with " i m HIT N i s D v . rb 'mvb nnpn I D T .5:7. fine and coarse. d) vb may negate: the perfect—Timn vb -pl vnin:vb 'I did not beat up the wife of yours' B7. § 83.1:97. 7 : l .7:19.8:28.§ 8 4 f l document is in y o u r hand' B2. pnmn nb nno 'you did not send me a letter' A2. B3. sim.13. the participle—nb pnn nb nnb 'my heart isn't attached to it' A2. '23»Seeabove. b) bv is used only in verbal clauses. . l : 166.1:6. "but their doors are standing" (Ginsberg 1955:492).1:5. 'they demolished gates . ib. cannot have an attributive function ("their standing doors"). . it negates the veracity of the entire statement.3:17.44:5. Cp..19.10:8. placed immediately before a jussive or energic form to indicate the speaker's wish that something does not happen.3:7. l-':'^ irbv vb nnn nn:N 'they did not send us a single letter' A4. with their doors standing' A4. vn vm: r\nv m vnvb 'a leopard meets/met a goat while she is/was naked' C l .. Otherwise it negates only the constituent immediately following.. p mp' n -n-N vbi 'there is not (a thing) w h i c h is heavier than . the imperfect — -\ivbov bnov vb 'I shall not be able to restrain you' B2. l : 167 (with an energic). § 5 g . mvb nbn |m ' 2 3 ' pp in the st. yopp umm: wn .. sim. nnn pnm bv 'Let him not be far from you!' A3. c) T h e use of vb (including nb) is far more varied.2:9. l : 177.-mN vb nmnv "p 'you have no business' A6. 3 nn pm '(there are) 3 windows in it' B3.15:9. E. nb nnm p:v vb 'we did not give it to you' B5.

D7.44:5. B2. w h o is my degraded son' as Hofijzer would have it.4:6. the adverb— ybv b>n: IV vb 'we shall n o t yet divide (them) b e t w e e n us' 82.2:3.37:10 as singular. n o u n ( ' 2 3 ' ) : [n]2b vb nn: 'a m a n of n o mind. 9. nnnn vbl [sic!] n w pmn'my enemies will die. nnb n n o n vb 'it is n o loss whatsoever to you' A4. nnn vbi pn vh 'without suit or process of any kind' B2.abs.1:5.7 must have resulted from ellipsis. A case such as nnm nnbv nb nno 'you have not sent a single letter about him' A 2 .) which states a consequence which follows or would. Also negating a nominal clause in in ~ibi vb "[T Nunn 'that gate is not yours' B2. a protasis (= prot.l 10.10:6.11:13. l : 8 2 .|n]N vb 'we did not give it to y o u ' B5. § 84. l : 171.8:10 et passim.20:2.1:30 does not apply. nnn in vbi 'and it is unsealed' D7.' B2. a totally senseless man' C l . "pn vvn j m vb 'it is not in your hands to lift your leg' C l . Thus. and that not by my sword' ib. could. introduced by ]n. of the examples collected by Hoftijzer (Hoftijzer 1976:196) n n \^b -T C 1.3:14.. Amherst 63: 6/3.16:3. l : 8 6 .1:97. .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 323 'if there is n o s a k in the house' D7. for it hardly means 'my son. 3 : 5 — m o r e examples in § 7 8 cd—is syntactically distinct in that the negator does not precede the noun. m o n vb yn 'it does not lack water' A4. ynp nNC? vb 'no leftover of cucumbers' D7. states a condition.) which. or might follow when or if the condition is met. but apparently not in bv vb n 7\nv 'one with w h o m El is not' C 1. For the same reason we would take pm vb-\ 'without fail' D7.3:9. Conditional statements a) The standard conditional statement consists of two clauses. seems to us to be important. prepositional phrase—ynm vb[\] -[nn 'you will go and (that) not in your days' C l .b 'it is not I that wrote it' B 2 . D7. g) vb ]n 'if not.1:12. W e are concerned here mainly with the variation in tense in both ' 2 3 ' This morphological constraint that the noun in question must be sg.17:ll. otherwise' A3. and an apodosis (= ap. e) Elsewhere vb occurs in cleft sentences: nnnnn n3N Vi.5:7. f) vb m a y serve for categorical negation with a sg. the predicative adjective—mb niN nbv vb 'you d o not have right to sell . and/or abs. nb nnn. One can naturally include here a substantivised adjective as in 'DDn D-n ^b 'there is no evil in my hands' Pap. 3 : 1 7 .

pf. pledge or commitment on the part of the speaker. The syntagm signifies that.. sim. possibly or most likely would become a reality: m nnn ]n mT\v ]nnnN 'if 1 saw what you had in abundance. See also p n'bv -|-]m nbm n3N . -p p:v yrbn p 'if I restrain you. .. pnvb nn D S N nnn^n vb pi 'should you not find.-f j^^g already reached you. pnn-\ []]n 'if you have bought.7:27 (with a W a w of apodosis and // mvn A4.. '2'"'Cf Folmer 1991 and Folmer 1995: 394-415. send (word) to me' A2. should the situation as indicated in the prot. .2:8.. B3. nvm pb um pnn m Dunm p 'if 1 find someone tmstworthy.' B3.. B3.C^*') c) Prot.8:8. that which is indicated by the ap. 9 ..' B2.i clauses and with the correlation between the choice of tense and the logical relationship between the two clauses of a conditional statement.. pL.. nnp vb p 'if I did not stand .8:8. see also A3.. I shall give you . (it is) good' A3.1:5. l 5 .1:7. I shall give it to you' B l .13:9. n-p] nb nn.—ap.. .' A2...1:6. s i m ..npn^ii 'if they did thus . I would bring y o u something' ib. pf—ap. vnn 'if (a second year) came round and I h a v e not (yet) paid ..g. 1 0 .. the apodosis appears to indicate a promise."). following a pf...7...-p np'^m nnnb 'if my children fail to pay . I shall give . should the situation indicated by the prot.. B3. So Hug 1993:137 ("ubergeben wurde") and Grelot 1972:154 ("si on t'a remis . still come down at once' A3. ( '2'"') b) Prot. impv. no . 3. NC. that which is indicated by the ap. The syntagm signifies that. 'nnvn n'bv nmn n ]N . then it would be considered a merit for you' A4.18. impf.8:26). E.' B3.20.. l : 10.6:35. In m a n y cases. mv p p -p mn.. be or b e c o m e a reality. npnbv vbi. The protasis indicates a situation which m a y already be prevailing or may arise in future: 'b nbv .8:5. 8-9. have the s a m e morphosyntactic value.. nin inn nnvn p 'if I remove them from her. § 5 2 e .... -p nmv . B2.. d) Prot. sim. you M e s h u l l a m and y o u r children have right.10:5. as prot.5:14. as ap. 1 6 ( ' 2 * 2 ) . send (word) to me' A2.L.1:7. would certainly apply.. you Pakhnum have right over my security to seize (it) and take for yourself.' B2...5:17. B3. This last example shows that an N C and an impf.—ap..9. pf.p 'if you have been given a l a m b . •2*' C f . •2^*2 ..324 P A R T I V c : % S4 b .2:5-8.^^ p . be or b e c o m e a reality..4:6. 1 might give it .6:13-14. ]ri3N .4:14-15... B3. nbm vb p .

you will be stricdy called to account (]i':?Nre?n) and a harsh word will be directed (invrr) at you' A6.9:6. ~{mb -sm vwn ]intr ]n mn p n c y 'if the wicked take hold of the comers of your garment.B3. npbnb nb n[i]n[-] t>n .' B2.3:26. ]n) any decrease in the domestic staff or in m y other goods and from elsewhere you seek not (vb yvnn) and add not Qisonn vb) to m y estate.10:8. if the verb immediately follows ]n orvb ]n. produce this document' B2.7:27 // ... i[n ^v] "b nnr. mn" ]n 'should he be .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 325 e) Prot.10:12. g) Prot.1:107.5:14 a n d B2. B2..—ap..C^'*^) Even within a single Joiion's (1934:21) view that the prefix conjugation.' A6.. E. nno ]n 'if tomorrow she ..1:172.4:19... half the house [s]h[al]l be hers to take but the other half—you shall have right to it' B2.177. Kutscher (1954:234) noted the syntactic preference for a pf. b^iinn ]n nn nbv n:v v:nnv vt>ni 'if she reclaim . impv.4:10.6:33. can account for the tense variation does not convince us.. h) Prot.... See also Cl. B2. nnn .g. It is difficult to establish a functional opposition between the two tenses in this syntagm.. he bring (suit) over that house.. and impv.1:7.. though he was apparendy aware that the rule is not water-tight. b o t h w i t h a d i s j u n c d v e p r o n o u n intervening. "{T N I D D y vm bv nvm . The only example found is ..191(7). nnvn p p 'if you do thus' A4.—ap. build up she has n o right to take it .. This syntagm is funcdonally related to (e). h[e also] would do (good) for me' D7. do not give .]Ton n3[G nb] ]nnrn ]n 'if you do [for him g]ood in Syene.4:8.4:10. see A4.B3. bv . being volitive forms.. impf..3:20. in the prot... impf—ap. leave (it) in his hand!' C 1. Especially instmctive is . n-]3r 'if Ananiah die . both the j u s s . and impf..' A4.. Mnv p p 'if they did thus .8:26 in a revised official document of same date... which can have a volitive nuance—"if you wish to act..11:10.g...."—.. which is the normal position (§ 39 e). is a m o o t point. ]n -psn 'if.—ap. .. nnpbnb -n n u ' ^ c y vb . NC. mD-[ ]]m nnnn[N] -n vnvnn'' . ... and the N C in an apodosis. impf.8:28. it is Jehoishma that holds on to him' B3.. impf E. impf. and B3. E. The last example shows the morphosyntacdc equivalence of the impf. B2.7:27 quoted above u n d e r (b).. juss. f) Prot. i) Whether there is a functional difference between the pf..g. "if there be (nn.

O as in nm vb |n "i. impv.('^'") For example.. bring (suit) against you and .' A 3 . ..l 72. k) Prot.' 82.. Attested only once: .. 8 : l l . l : 171 vs. nbv vbnn "in nn p 'if it is thus in accordance with these words . even within a single sentence— nnb yvri. but it is performative in force: . wenn.' 8 2 . NC—ap. 16. nvm "IN . you m a y give (it)' 8 2 . do not leave . bring (suit) against you . p) Though not introduced by the conditional p . m) Prot. Ds p nnn 'if good c o m e s out from the moudi of .5:14 v s . a generalising relative clause is similar to a conditional clause: | n ] n -nnnn n pb 'to w h o m e v e r you care. . Cf.326 PART IV c: § 84^ . juss. Attested only once: "inn ]p32J....13:2. appears in an apodosis.. pnm bv nnb i DDN nn] p 'if you c o m e down alone to M e m p h i s . impv..' A3. 3 : 9 . l 8 ... See the above-quoted pair in B3. or w e bring (suit). bring him to Tapamet' A2.5:17. Folmer (1991:73-77) thinks one can speak of a gradual dominance of the impf.. pT -TD .1:4. Anani. NC—ap..' A4. I hereby give . o) Once the pf.. die 100 years old' i b . and if he does not give .' A6. j) Prot. i n r pm i n a p 'if someone else bring (suit) against you' ib. Attested only once: n':'n2:n -Nno ] • nn3N nn nn nb -Nnn bv p . -Q mnN -Dir HDN ]n «^NI 100 ]yD 'and moreover.11:3.. ]2V n~a TiiTD ]n 100 "if you die 100 years old' B3... Another synonymous stmcture is headed by ... n'ti—ap.18 and p -Dnna TO 'if I bring (suit) against you* B3. they will release them' A3..7:23.10:12. nvvnv nn pnn bv p 'should it so please our lord. The only example is riDSn':' n-DN nbv mv riN ]n 'if you have a guarantor against you. is morphosyntacdcally equivalent to the impf. and they bring (suit) against son or daughter . 1 1 : 9 .'A6. H e r e again the ptc.3:9..... Germ..('^'") See ^^"^Pace Folmer (1991:74)...8:10.. 'when he gives . 'should it thus please m y lord. 1) Prot. take thought.lo pnn "p mN ]n 'if you have ten asses. impf.' C l .. /7*K—ap. if I. n n m 'if I. as shown by npD] p . nnDDl ]\n p s i n mnb p 'if evil c o m e s out from their mouth' ib. nnm .. Jedaniah.§ 85 a document both tenses occur.. let a letter be sent from my lord ...5:17 vs.. DDEJTi DDrntDi n-3T HDN ]n"i . n) Very occasionally one also finds a participle in a protasis as in .. Nrn -]Tm ]n 'if we bring (suit) .

-p mm npnKi 'if you did like this undl that temple is (re)built. it is Miptahiah w h o has right (-n n-nt:sn ncD-'TO) to the house of Eshor .. sim. though the verb of saying is '2''^See Jouon 1934:22.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 327 also mn.. which latter is a result of sandhi.. § 85.| T 'that document. by Miptahiah his wife. Direct speech a) A direct speech is often presented as actually uttered without any external marker signalling it as such: vmnv nnv bv nJV mnn nnvn 'May the rich not say. In N-DD3 -TD .':'n[D]n vbi nnb nnm pnnn .22.. On the apodotic conjunction in OA.3:22 and pnK. I gave you in affection'" B6. ib. nn-2. he will not win' B3..vbi pn ~fn-i 'Should he go to law. Garr 1985:1941.^JN 'Moreover. male or female..DID "Dbv ]ips3n.. male or female . .3:2.][in]v m.. 6 : 3 3 . which they might produce against you. .vbi ym ]iDn.7:7..11:15. [n':' nnN]n . "[Tjhese goods and the silver ...34. ib....7:27..' A4..]n IDV nnnv p s m 'if they will help / hoe (?). N S D D I n':5[N] 'and Jehohen . I shall not w m ' B2. sim.. < in K*?. This is virtually certain at ib.-/]nni. thus 'if it is not (so)' = 'otherwise. and on that in Egyptian Aramaic...31.. The particle at C 1. 1:206.4:6 we possibly find direct speech introduced by -T in the manner of OTL recitativum. C p ..' D 7 .."' B 2 .' A4.2:8(''^').IN nnn) not having a child. Another implicidy conditional statement is illustrated by pnKN vb-] ]-nn -pv 'Should I go to law.' B3.. i. "In my riches I a m glorious'" C l . the general context allows one to recognise such in a case likeC^"^): " T o m o r r o w or [the ne]xt day. Grelot 1970. they would not win' B 3 . 1 0 : l . vmoii] 'were I put [in] the stocks. ]by ibiu 'if w e had revealed .7:15.. not having a child. ib . then it will be (considered) a merit for you. q ) An unreal c o n d i d o n contrary to fact may be introduced by ib:u or b as in. see Dion 1974:317. should they KO to law. shall b e fraudulent' B2.' So Ginsberg 1955:427.20. then let Ahutab take out wool' D7. ppnK.l 76. sim. 1 : 1 9 ... "ilm . shall not be a[b]le to [say to him] . ]mn. nnv mm mv -TD nnN ] D 'Thus he said.. ub 'mvb n3p3i nDT nm mw mn-[ 'and if Ananiah should die. a so-called W a w of apodosisC^'"'): mnm -]T ^naN -T IV iinv p p .. B3.... "I have . and Fitzmyer 1995:217.. 6 : 1 7 . T h o u g h totally lacking a formal feature of a conditional statement. ib." B 2 .8:28.-T N n s o . "When I w a s coming .. r) An apodosis may be introduced by the conjunction W a w ."' A6..1:35 is probably a combination of p and t?. ]nn:.e. -mN nnN p 'If I say. should Eshor die (mnoN mn.3:1 6.

'^"^ Folmer (1997:147-49) believes that a few more examples of this kind.. Here belong also cases such as: nnn nnn nnvb mv 'b nnv 'Jaush said to m e . "About this . 6 : 1 3 .l77. o my son.3:13.' C l .. nnn vb nn yvnnv p 'if I hit you. Nm ]D0DDn3 p nnv 'Tell us. Then it would be a plain optative: . Dip b mv pvvn nnvb nnbv 'vnn 'I have sent (word) before m y lord.. "we will not support you"' B 3 . § 9 0 e. and the former is renouncing his claim on the disputed piece of land. borrow grain!' i b . all n a m e s . "We began . The first word may be restored as "ir. you will not die' ib. serves to signal the onset of a direct speech: ybno: vb nnvb pp p 'should w e stand up."' A3. See §24/7.§ 8 6 / a restoration . § 86. nJT bv nnvb 'we w e r e told thus. are: . o my son. p nnv p . when he is supposedly reporting what Mahseiah swore is difficult. To make n3K refer to Dargamana.n [ n ] rbn nnv i nnv npnv 'May you survive.. o m y son... mnn n nn n:v 'if you desire. a perfectly idiomatic utterance for emphatically claiming ownership: see above at § 39 (vi). see below.328 PARTIVc: §85 ^ . vnvn 'b inbvv] nb ]nnbv 'you sent (word). l : 149. b) A word or phrase that functions as a form of address does not normally occupy the initial slot in an utterance: nn^ ]r7 . coming immediately before n 3 K .9:10. moreover. In both cases. Other e x a m p l e s of the vocative. can be found in our corpus. l : 5 5 ( ' " ' ) . O Ahiqar.. o my son."' D7. saying. N D H n i N 'You. harvest every harvest!' C l . however. l : 127. l 2 9 t .. c) On D ' : ' . saying "Let them send me the instmction'" D7.44:2. "inN'?. yiv lovb 'when you hear.3:4.C"') Also with nbv alone: bv nb nnb n[nbv] n 3 N . vnv p in p t D s n n nnvb p 'when w e have heard.. b) Equally frequently.48:7..7:4. Nil is perhaps an error for "Ti. the addressing form follows immediately an element (niN. Then one would obtain 'bl TON. saying.2:8. "something of an injusdce w a s done to m e ' " A5. yvnvn m . notably B2.. "]-) w h i c h is referred to by the former. that you be .2:7. TOinn 'I sent (word) to you: "Don't dispatch D7. In neither case does the particle occupy the initial slot. "you will b e released'" A3. "Give it for gold'" A3. the father of the whole of Assyria' C l . the fossilised archaic G infinitive without the prefix Mem('^^"). Vocative and interjection a) The Ahiqar idiom uses as a specifically e x c l a m a d v e particle: T K D bn n:inn m m niv 'You.

5:6.4:6. 1 7 : l . w h i c h Uriah gave me' D 7 . The legal parlance would probably suggest apposition. Brown 1987.8:2. T h e conventional translation of these particles with "lo.58. nan ynv vn ]VD nmbv 'now. see § 77 bh.n N n n im 'Now. O Tamet' B3..3. nn3N nn niv vn . I shall dispatch the legumes tomorrow' D 7 . c) An exceptional case with the vocative in the initial slot is: NQr t}[i]'7n bv ' O my son.g.n .. d) In some cases it is difficult to tell vocative from apposition: e. nvnv 'Behold. See also A2. but play nonetheless an important communicative role is indicated by the fact that they never constitute an utterance on their own and that. i^v p -iK3 bv . see.g. survive!' ''"Cf. regard the gift (?). but it is. nn vnbv bv 'Look after the servants' A3. voila.. Nn nivn nnn nmv vbpn 'now. e) Our idiom has at its disposal a rich variety of presentatives in comparison with Contemporary English and the difference in nuance between them eludes us: niN.2:4. they may be followed by a plain noun phrase: e. T h u s their natural position is clause-initial. 1 6 : l . Tamet' or '. in reahty.D nniN b nn.2:7..15:3. 1:80.("'") f) nn may look like a presentative.1:2. 'May A . you haven't sent a (single) letter about him' A2. an ordinary verb often followed by an object: e." "behold" or "verily" is stylisdcally unsuitable: their use is not confined to the lofty.i^^^) Their function is to draw the hearer's or reader's attention to a message about to be communicated. familiar tone of the Hermopolis letters and other similar documents.24:l. . look. A4.3:8.20:6. as is clearly seen in that they often follow the clause-introducing ]VD.5:6. A6. . as is demonstrated by the h o m e l y . inflected in the pl.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 329 O N a b u s u m i s k u n the young man!' ib. D7. you.g. they are c o m i n g there to you' A4. see. . A2. non nb nnn" 'I gave you.—r. in the m a n n e r of Fr. do not curse the day!' C l . D7.9:2.3:5. as a righteous (one) with you!' i b . '^^^ On this type of nominal clause.p n 'Establish m e . 9 : l . That as presentatives these words do not substantially contribute to the contents or substance of a message.. vn. D7. O El. e l e v a t e d style or officialese. I saw a dream' D 7 . l 0 9 . inDntDN n N n m nnnv vn 'see. nnn i nbn ibn ]vn 'now. D7. nvD or n:vD: nann nnbv nb n s o nnv nvDi 'and now. the names of the men w h o were found at the gate' A4. see. regard the letter of Arsham' A6.3:5.D:. "bn.

7. c) Quite often the preposition i n stands on its o w n .. rb ran. n p s n [ J j i p E a 'one placed (them) as deposit' B2.D at B2. vbv vm ipvn ]n 'if w e bring (suit) againt y o u about it' B2. can be perceived as a predicate of an equational nominal clause. sim. B3. sim. Jouon Muraoka 1993: § 133 c. B4. i n mnm [-{IT 'th[at] was abandoned therein' A6. . the repetition is inevitable: n n n ] m -3n 'between me and its owner' A3.n3N3 'I gave him as payment' B8.g.14:34.12:6. Prepositions Without touching on purely lexicographical matters. which in turn is elliptical for nniucoDS n-3 ]-m ]ni fn.9:9.4:6.12:19. sim. i n npd7 ntD 'your heart was satisfied about it' B2. sim.11:9.2:3. cf.' B2. vbnim Tn. This is the n o r m where it precedes a list of witnesses to an official document as in . For a similar phenomenon in BH. B2.11:3.330 PARTIVc: § 8 7 -§SSb § 87. B3.'was given as die food' C3.7:11. i b . which. b) f 3 'between'C'^^) An object situated between two other objects may be indicated by repeating the preposition prefixed with the conjunction W a w as in ] m nnn yn 'between Tamet and Anani'B3.p n and p n K 3 .e. 9 : l 4 . l 2 6 . 11. E. as a righteous (one) with you!' C l . n3K p n n i n . in relation to a preceding N P . Although our idiom uses p with a referent in the plural inclusively—e.21.1:14 cannot mean "between us" in the sense of "between you and me" [pace Grelot 1972:173—"entre nous"). n-DirtDSD n-n |-m ]-3n 'between us and the house of Peftuauneith' B 2 . ]n-rD «D'7Q pic? 'King Street is between them' B3. Joiion 1934:3If. pbnn "[NCDG ' c a m e t o y o u as a p o r t i o n ' B2. C f Haneman 1975 and Muraoka (forthcoming).g.10. B 2 .8:5.9.. It must be an error for p .10:2. l : 109 where there is a nominal clause underlying between the pronominal object in .11:2. O El. n i i r n n s o .3:12 II'W yn nam ib. d) Likewise vbv. i. vbv b n n n n s o 'he '2^* Cf. 1 : 1 3 .12. B3.. W h e r e one of the objects is expressed as a pronoun. nnn i n vnnv 'The witnesses hereto: Menahem .n n-DiyoDDi.5:15.9:7. E.4:9. "jor pn:iin bv -]Q -pn 'Establish me.. yn nn 'Dwell herein' B2.6:5. ib. its complement understood from the context: 'bv vbnp -t 'pi vnn yn '(?) of yours about which you complained against me' B3.vnbv mb 'lest the god (*'5') should proceed as his help' i b .11:15 et passim.7. l 5 .. the context indicates that p .g. '^^^ Assuming K-H'^N as an error for NRR'PK. w e m a k e the following observations concerning prepositions: a) n essentiaeQ^^'^) This preposition sometimes occurs prefixed to an N P .5.] D .

Jongeling 1995:310-18.l:91('^^*).g.12:l (= ]innN '7D). vb ]DnD -jnn p pm.('"') Another case of similar ellipsis. nna p .. e) A preposition may be elided from a phrase prefixed with the preposidon of similarity. c f Hoftijzer .7:27. n n n 'vt>i nS nn Nsns -fi \r\mD 'As for that one.. ^ sity^jiai.9..17 . also involving comparison.ib.. sim. pb introduces.phenomenon in BH. see Brown .('^^) g) On the so-called centripetal Lamed.('"^) W h a t e v e r its origin. T h e r e is n o c o m p e l h n g r e a s o n for postulating such a Kaph i n n n r pmn 'something of an injustice was done to me' A5.' '^^ On the whole question of the "emphatic" Kaph.' A4. for an antecedentless relative clause usually has an indefinite antecedent. 1260 Originally the phrase may have meant "in the manner of a violent man.g. see above at § 74 p. § 88. mn. f) Some authorities admit an "emphatic"(read: "asseverative") particle -D or "Kaf veritatis": e.9:14..Muraoka 1993: § 164 b.9:7.(''") b) p "ipsn lb Dvm i pm 'you should know that nothing is 1257 P Q J .Driver .. are quite diverse. the ubiquitous n displays (c-f) a rich variety of other uses. is . the phrase pnn 'forcefully' does not belong here: bl Nnn -m ]0T1D 'they came to my house by force' B 8 . a) ]bv n Din -T un. see Muraoka 1985:158-64 and Jouon . ' ^ ^ " ^ On this affirmative/asseverative force of l -n-«. pnnn "po 'a king is indeed merciful' Cl. So Vogt (1971:79): "rex est (vere) misericors. 10. B2. An example in B A is Ezr 5. Dri? D^ip KD ^n 2Jni3"]P—7 -n-if. the following cleft sentence: 'but it is your sons .7:3.SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 331 wrote a document for m e about it' B2.' So Porten .. 4 : 4 .npn2i 'it will be counted as a merit for you .2:5.Yardeni (1993:37) as an alternative translation. that have right to it. first recognised by Staerk (1907:30). in the last example. ]n 'if it is really so that an order was issued by Cyrus the king .' Porten .Briggs 1907:455a.Yardeni's (1989:43) translation "There are (these goods) which were placed on depos[it]" is forced. n clausesC'^') In addition to its function as relative pronoun and a conjunction introducing a) a subject or b) object clause.'it is known that K h n u m is against us' A4. give h i m and his household personnel the ration as (to) others' A6. nnp*." For details..." Vogt's examples. as an adversative conjunction.. Alternatively. . see also Muraoka 1985:77-81.. npsn[ flnpsn n -n-N 'it is the case that they were placed on deposit' B2.. than for any (other) person w h o . D: e.3:7. including such as ]-Finril ]-np pc? ng? "(iam) filius 6 2 annorum. however.

and the Akkadian prototype as in maidiS libbaitiya mali 'he was very angry with me' (CAD L. sim.' A6. . -jn-nn -T bv 'on account (of the fact) that I spared you' C l .. O my son.. ]mnn i nn PDN nnii |n 'if you. n-Tn -TD 'when I saw . final—nnb ynnmn' vb nvvn nbn -TD p nnbmp np 'You. line 20).. I answered' C l . also A6. . pace Fitzmyer 1956:228.9:8. l : 14.3:7. 1 : 1 4 9 . ]mp -TD 'as previously' A6. A6. '^^ Comparable to Gk.6:13. Not an object clause. u)9.5:2. " I . which.7:9 is probably elliptical..2:4. so that there w a s not any decrease from my '^^^ The emendation is virtually certain in view of the idiom attested elsewhere. ..5:4.7:23. nnvb "]nnn ni^ -T p n3 'unless you evict his mother' B3. resultative—"Samshek . b e c a u s e she supported m e (-3n':5DO -T bnpb)' B3.3:10 ('2"). p vnv p -TD NT Nnn^N nnnD 'I wrote this letter when we had heard thus' A3. ym^nn miT -T p 'since Hananiah has been in Egypt' A4.. A5.10:17. A4.5:3.3:9. ynb \^b^ n-in 'I was angry with you' A3. -TD pipb nn 'as it w a s formerly' A4.1:2.3:6. stand by them so that they shall not find a bad thing about you' A4.8:6. by definition. strictly g u a r d e d o u r domestic staff .11:13. "l]2?nos -T bv 'concerning the fact that Psamshe[k] said' A6. «n Kbn TQb 'he is angry against me' (Ashur letter. modal—pnv in V'n[np] vn'pn -TD p .3:13. 'n\nvb nn bno' -TD ybnn: vb 'we shall not support you as a son would support his father' B3.2:l 1).. always with a conjunctive pronoun {'Tab -n*??: 'you were angry with me' A2. desire to b c ' C l . nnn -T bnpb nb nn nnnmn 'Give h i m as much as you can' A4. I Q N [. gave it to J e h o i s h m a . since you left' A2. A4. may be combined with n when its complement is cast in the form of a clause.13:2(''^^).332 PARTIVc: §88c-f/ brought to us' A2. Appendix III. l : 5 1 . rorub --"pn 'they are angry with you' A4.. The most frequently occurring combination is -TDAnD with a range of nuances(''^): temporal—nn' pv -TD 'when it will be time' B2. is followed by a noun phrase or its equivalent.. Cf.. n-3r .7:8.. p n .11:2.n 'Don't be angry [with me] because I didn't bring them' A3. c) A preposition. nnv vb V'vn mvnn mv -TD uvn nm' 'Let an order be issued so that one does not d o any bad thing . nnnv n s o bv nnn vb -T bnp 'since it is not written in your document of wifehood' B3.2:7..11:6.10:7('^^'). 'in such a way that the former officials used to do' A6. Thus nps] -T p 'from (the time) that you left. bm nn 'nnv pns ]f2np -T bnpb 'in accordance with (the way) that Pamun his father formerly used to pay' A6.3:6..]nb nnv N-n^n -TD 'because the Egyptians give them a bribe' A4.11:7.3:14. 164a). <->ra':j bnn bv nn n-n-N vb .

1 : 7 4 ( ' 2 ^ ' ' ) ..nn -^ras^m . hatta:. they drink the water in that well (]nn.2:20.4 Driver (1957:76) cites Akk. l : 4 9 ..7:27 and -T in A4.7:27 w e have a c o m p o u n d form.14:3. . adi muhhi. adduiku ( 1 0 9 f ) with a p f can only mean 'when I killed.. as the source of the Aramaic expression.-pv vn ]nnn nv 'in order that h e bring the rent(?) of those domains to m e ' A6.. But in innnp p'yv ]nnv prbi pn[v ]pvb mv .8:26..8:26 can be also translated as "in order that": on the semantic link between the notion of "until" and purpose.. 'and I h i d y o u from h i m .. quantitative—n':' ]nDrn ]':5DN nn 'as m u c h as y o u can d o for h i m (1 a m doing for him)' A2. however. an asseverative particle with verbs of oath. The context is difficult of interpretaUon: see Lindenberger 1983:73. nv pm 'undl they build' C 1. ' A6.3:4. But no such specific nuance fits any of our examples..1:80. In the revised version of the latter we have the c o m p o u n d in the reverse order: [ n ^ j D n . . pnv m n vb m . ib. 6 : 1 2 .m a n ]n n D ]Tm vn "I IT] vmn)" A4. T h i s latter s e q u e n c e is attested in "pv vn nnn nv n nn-nn ps3n.4:7. Arb. -[mn n n 'till your death' B 3 . sim. . 1 3 : 3 . until s o m e time later a n d s o m e many days later I presented y o u .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 333 estate ("bl mn p mn vb I H D D D n r n m nD)" A6. Not "while": the Akk. cf.3:24.1:8 IC'^**).10:3. on which see Muraoka 1972:38f. d) nv 'till' is unique in that it can also serve on its own as a conjunction: nnw nv 'until they rescued m e ' A4.4.'in order that h e release the rent(?) of those domains and bring' A 6 . n m n nv 'untd y o u see' C 1.. ki: adi.' '^'^ In connection with -t at A6. -n 'bl m Tt> nvn" 'I swore to him that it w a s mine' B2. The sense "until" is not in dispute in "pyp .1:49 and n nv nnv p p nnm y vnm 'if they did thus until this temple is rebuilt' A4.. possibly causal—nn[''T]v mv bnn m • n .' C 1. probably also B6."[T Nm:N nv n A4.10:2(''^'). 'T 11) in A4.17. which attests to the same semantic range. "there is a w e l l .3:5....13:3. Pace Fitzmyer (1956:230) the phrase i r hardly introduces an object clause in these passages. is simplified in bv nn[-n. n':'tDp n]N nv 'until I killed' C 2 .5:7. which..1:11. presented you' C l . vnnb pnib 'to swear that it h a d never been a plot (of land) of Dargamana' B2. though such an Akkadian caique did survive in QA.™ 'because their eyes and ears are everywhere' C1.. -t iv> 'until I .. which does not lack water .6 we find an almost identical version with the only difference that mn is replaced by nin\ which points to a close logical connection between purpose and result. noun clause (object)—'b vnv p . / / pn nv 'till now' A4.3:7.2:6..('^™) ''^' At ib. -[SODD N ':JNNN nv 'until y o u are fully repaid your sUver' B3. so that whenver they would be garrisoned. m 'I have thus heard t h a t .

. nnn bvi bv nnn nn 'Do look after Tashai and after her son!' A 2 . Examples are: a) NpnNi vnm 'heaven and earth' A 1.2:8.11:9. c) -1 'and' This can j o i n a) single w o r d s . Examples are: a) IDID iv nnn 'wine or beer' A6.. has grown u p and he will succeed me' C l . M o r e than two components may be concatenated: IN unb ]n3N]n3-3N prrr n pb iv umnb 'he shall give you or your sons or whomever they bring (suit) against the penalty' B2.§ 89 cd e) n preceded by an interrogadve turned into a generalising relative pronoun has already been discussed above (§§ 4 2 e.1:8. f) n followed by a pc. b) nnnn':'! 'b 'about me and about Makkibanit' A2. 3 : l l . T n m n o n n s o 'a wise and skilful scribe* C l .1:2..1:3. ca) This proclitic conjunction can concatenate m o r e than two components: vni -CDNT -n ^n -2?m nvvi .3:8.334 PART IV c: § 88 e . IN P ] D D 3 nnnn 'for silver or affectionately' B3.5:8. b) nonnb vby rb mb IV 'to restrain M a h s a h or a son of his' B2. ed. may be final in force.1:66.. W e would here add only n |N in nn:i n ] N 'wherever she desires' B2. nni:n n-p3 'a lamb and its wool' A2.. "in order that": vnm-) "iPDNH n NntODm ^JT 'Borrow the grain and the wheat so that you may eat (it) and be sated!' C l . though we may have here a slightly nuanced relative clause.12:26. nr iv nnn pm 'tomorrow or another day' B2. 43) such as p m r n i nn 'whatever you do' A4. l : l .6:25. ]-m ub^ 'welfare and hfe' A2. See on coordination: 1271 Fitzmyer 1956:71. l : 18.D D 'Nky and Ashah and Tashai and Anathi and Ati and Re(ia)' A2.. or his brodier or his son' A6. See above on coordination: §81 a.1:6 et passim. Nnn -nn nnv p : b ^bm ini 'Nadin by n a m e .1:9. . m y son. b) phrases or c) clauses.4:5.. "pm p -p nnm mb 'should w e bring (suit) against you .14:4. the snake had bitten m e and I w a s dying and you did not send (to inquire) if I was alive or if I w a s dead' A2. -nonnnN nnn I N mm iv . l : 129.9:3. 'Ahatubasti. Conjunctions other than and compounds a) IN 'or' This can j o i n a) single w o r d s . c) mn: nm n:v nn ]m n^N -n p pnbv nbi n-n mm nnn 'and as for m e . b) phrases or c) clauses. b) ]n 'if: see § 84.('^") See § 5 2 / § 89. or should w e bring (suit) against a son or daughter of you' B2.29 and n jv in raN mv n m n 'make known how you are' C2. c) nm: iv .9:14.

A 6 . cb) The combination nrDT is used in two distinct w a y s . and in A2. A6. n3p3T nnn nn *a child male or female* B2. At A6. 8 : l . 1 1 : l .7('"^). so that he introduces the real business with another nv^D^ (line 2 ) . and at A6.. member of a detachment or town shall not be able to restrain . I complained here .8:2. near or far. A6. A6. here it is well with me. A6.10:13. vb pnbi nnb n:v n^rbv 'you have no right to sell (it) or to give (it)' B2. after having written "And now..3:16. so also A6. are very liberally laced with n r D at every turn: in A2.g. T h e particle =]N reinforces this nuance: the e x a m p l e j u s t quoted is followed by: nn nnb nm nm f^vi nns2? i n n p n nb f^vi *and also for you a '^'^ The author.2:l 1. A6. A 6 .1:1. a letter of 15 lines. A6.13:4.3:5.10:3 ]VD\ On the other hand.. rbip . later in the body of them. o n e counts as m a n y as five instances of it.13:1. Cp. And now.15:3. A6. all Hermopolis letters. without the conjunction.3:26. pni npb nn nm nn] *1 bought olive oil for Jake.11:3. A 6 .' B2. nm" nbi nn iv pnn pnv nv iv n n n ]n *if tomorrow or the next day D a r g a m a n a or son of his bring (suit)* B2.1. 1 0 : l . Some of these letters also use nrD. especially in the Arsames archive. A 6 . 1 : 3 . with the exception of A2.16:1. brother or sister.. .. A6. vbn" nnpi bn bvn 'son or daughter.g. in order to mark the beginning of a new thought unit: e. the phrase follows the opening address and introduces the main body of the correspondence: "From PN to PN and PN and his colleagues. where "or" may be a better rendering: e.. A 6 . 6.2:1.4:6. A6. in official correspondence.g. p-nm nnp nmi nv nnni nn bnn" vb .10:5 ]VD occurs instead. p . T h i s is p r o b a b l y a popularisation of the officialese. 9 : l . A6.1X1 rj?m)" A 6 .3 (14 lines) we find eight occurrences (once without the W a w .6:20.6:4. 6. A6. cc) T h e conjuncdon W a w is c o m m o n l y found in contracts in enumerating various possibilities and options.1:8. 1 5 : l ..SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 335 §81^^.12:1.7:1C^"). and frequently. introduces the main body of this short letter.n n n i n nso 'a new or old document' B2.2:22. cd) T h e conjunction W a w is s o m e t i m e s used to add a parenthetical thought or afterthought: e.. 1 4 : 1 .14:2. '"^ Note that ]VD\ not n r m . umi nm "33 *in my n a m e or in the n a m e of m y children' B2.A6. (.9.3:6. A6. N n m nnnn nb ]n:n -m j n ni -{bi *and the house is yours or of your children's or of one to w h o m you give (it) affectionately* B3. written by a scribe other than one(s) who wrote the rest of the corpus.7:8 and A6. and also a tunic* A2. On the one hand.12:30. A 6 . for instance." apparently realised that this is really part of the greeting. line 6). also there may it be well with you.

336 PARTIVc: § 8 9 c e . T h e only word that can precede is pD as in ^v pD . I bought olive oil So Porten . This is t m e when the pardcle is repeated: nb> [-]3n nnp ^v anb ^v 'Give him both bread and flour' D7. In a case such as nb ran..10:4. ce) It is not certain that -T -i can be used with the force of "both . Also there m a y it b e well with you (nnn «]N nn. B2.1:68.14:4. nop nnb nh ["pn 'Give h i m both bread and flour' D7.. however. B2. W h e n that which is to be added relates to a statement as a whole. ' B2. though the first conjunction can mark loose connection with the preceding. S o also with an adverb: "here it is well with m e . for basically the same idea is repeated in pnv nm p ^v ib.1:13. they might g o to law. 112x) T h e basic m e a n i n g of this highly frequent pardcle is that of addidon..D^cD 7 [-]nnp)" A6. W h e n ^v relates only to part of an utterance. I have sent (word) previously . it immediately precedes that part. i. B2..('"'^) N o r can the particle b e constmed with -rr'N in . they are seeking others from another place and adding to the h o u s e of their masters' A6.7:13.11:12 nor with the presentative vn 'behold' A6. Thus. it occupies the initial slot in an utterance: "moreover. m y heart has not been glad..Yardeni ad l o c .. your mohter") A3. and": nb pion pnnv nnsm 'Both Tapamet and Ahatsin are supporting him* A23:5. there is a document of w i t h d r a w a l . pace Jouon (1934:22). gave (it) to her" is clearly precluded by the context.niN B 3 . not only someone else. 11.7:2.3:2.3:23. ."('"^) That this additive function does not relate in such cases to the immediately following word or phrase is evident in a case such as n-n b[v ]S]oinm pnv nnv p []]"P3 pnnv •n -Nin 'moreover. Likewise. 1 0 : 1 7 a translation "I too.C'*) See. Some p a r t i c l e s a) (ca.Porten (1982:48f) this must apply to C2.2:7. i p m n nso "n^N 'moreover. what is more. . in ypn^ vh) yin pDH' ^JK 'Moreover.. but they would not win' B3. moreover..§ 9 0 ^ pretty vessel.1:13. and also scented oil for the Temple of Banit' ib. T h u s ^ N must be c o n s t m e d with ~[nv in a highly elliptical -]Cv ^v ("Since the day that you went on that w a y ..1:19 is not strictly a conditional particle: it retains its basic additive force—even if one went that far.10:5. sim. It may appear in the middle of a clause where appropriate.2.e. '^^^ Pace Greenfield . nnbv pnp ' N o w .' A6. S e e also t]NT pDi np^b n-r nm nnt nvDi nn nnb nnn nm f^vi nnsto i nnpn nb 'and now. § 90.

D S N <rp'']> -|T Nn.9:8 forcefully restates the freedom to be conferred on Jedaniah ("he shall be m y son". 2 : 1 5 . which is no doubt derived from iqN.1:10. s o diat -pl DSN *]! NpnN B 2 . DSN. 1280 'the house is still exceptions are to be found at B5. with only one exception. DDbi DSN Nn-n 'the house is still yours' B2.l6. occur in private letters. said to P a k h n u m . m a y occupy the end position in a clause: in addition to the above q u o t e d B3. repeated ib. with only one exception(A6. Noteworthy is that D S N . a J e w of the detachment of Nabukudurri. cannot mean "that land of yours still. 2 : 1 L One notes that all these examples of ^|N.5:6 and A3. Yaron 1961:88. 7 .5:16. '"'^ The same scribe shows a variation: 'Dbl nst^ yours' ib. relating to the inmiediately following N P .('"'') Like DN. also D S N m a y b e found between the subject and the predicate of a nominal clause: -pi DSN ft vpiv 'that land is still yours' B2. DSN unbl -n-n 'my house is still theirs' B3. nbi D S N Nn-n 'the house is still yours' B3.SYNTAX: OTHER S Y N T A C l l C 15>bUti^ :>. see DSN -nrrn Nn-n 'the house is still your house' B2. as can be seen from " A n a n i . This particle.9). occur always in the same position in legal d o c u m e n t s : A certain agreement is reached. DSN "pl Nn3N 'the wall is still yours' B2. sdll c o m e down!' A3.8:8.8:8. b )DSN (17x)('"') Just like its s y n o n y m mn at mn nbi on3Q 'your share is furthermore yours' B5.13:2. ib. for instance. See Skaist 1983:34. irrespective of the context. an A r a m a e a n of Syene of that detachment also (DSN -]T vbnb)" B3." though the reverse '"'Cf.N 'that wall is still yours' i b . just tike DN.5.9:8.M and a tunic for Y a k e . and also a pretty vessel for you.3:15. n n D S N nnDC?n vh |m 'and if you do not fmd (any). F o r e x a m p l e . and also perfumed oil for the T e m p l e of Banit' A 2 . .'he shall still b e m y son' B3. p p-nn D S N im N-0D3 n'PN 'and h e is still w i t h d r a w n from these possessions' B2.2:15. .9:15.7:2).1:7('^^*).10:16. appears to have the basic m e a n i n g of addition. as well as DN dealt with below. T h e intent is most likely to confirm that the agreement is "still" valid despite the breach.5:22.22. DSN alwaysC^^") appears in an equational nominal clause.. DSN mn. which is rounded off by a statement to the effect that the agreed terms are DSN/DN in force. and then a clause providing for a penalty in case of contravention of terms of the agreement is inserted.

10. l : 138.9.9). for the opening of his mouth is an utterance of god[s] ([]]nhv n:vD nns nnsQ . B3.7. .Szubin 1987:187.g.10:20. This exception suggests that both particles of ours m a y b e interpreted as asseverative particles in all their occurrences in our legal corpus.D ) " ib. hold that o is sometimes "'"See above. Attarshuri (B2. all the other scribes.\:6bis) all occurrences of this particle are confined to the proverbs of Ahiqar.13). Thrice it stands between the preceding subject and the following adjectival predicate: mbv D N vnmm T I 3 N 1 'and you. 7 : 1 1 . his w o r d s soar (?) above him.4. § 5 9 £/.4:16. but in two instances it stands at the end of one: DN -]bi Nn-n 'the house is still yours' B3.('^*') c) DN (7x) On the sense of this particle. Itu (B2.1). sdll have right' B3. "A little man. '^"^ An alternative interpretation mentioned by Porten . R a u k h s h a n a (B3. S o m e authorities.3 3 no'bv D N -niNi n]T 'and you still have right to this house' B3. m a y (the) su[n] not shine [for him] for he is a bad person (in nnb 1 3 3 -D )" C l .3).338 PARTIVc: §90c-e is not necessarily true. Only once in a verbal clause.4:8.2). In most cases it appears to indicate a logical reason or ground for the preceding statement: e.11) and D S N by.('^") Both are spread over a similar chronological range. Jehoishma. "[A person w ] h o does not exalt in the n a m e of his father and in the name of his mother. d) o ( 1 2 x ) W i t h t w o e x c e p t i o n s {Al.('^*^) As regards the relationship between these two synonymous particles.14. but it rather seems to be asseverative in force: Dnnn bv DN U H N inpb -T N-ODDT 'and the possessions which they had taken they certainly returned to their owners' A4.11:11. see above under CDN . B2. when he becomes big.10. 1283 See also Porten 1984: 396. also in the middle of a nominal clause— O'^n DN <N>n "'m 'and (the) house is sdll yours' B 2 . for the statement containing them invariably reiterates and reinforces the main tenet of the document in question. Shaweram (B3. for"]'7n "]T vpiv could mean that. h o w e v e r . The largely fragmentary nature of this text often m a k e s it difficult to capture the precise meaning of the particle. it appears that they are variants of scribal style: DN is used only by Haggai (B2. M a u z i a h (B2.5).l62. and this happens to be the sole exception where the above definition of the particle and D S N does not apply. B3. B3. N n . namely Pelatiah (B2.19. It does not occupy the initial slot in a clause. B3.

Hoftijzer Jongeling (1995:497)—"verily. 1 3 : l (after an antecedent of a relative clause). l : 2 ..l (after a clause-initial adverbial adjunct). A. . l : 101."' B 3 . ncDinn bv cb CDb n[nbv] TTDN 'I sent (word) to you: "Don't dispatch .SYNTAX: OTHER SYNTACTIC ISSUES 339 "emphatic..2:2.. The etymological link with Syr.Muraoka 1993: § 164 b.. however. See also ib.7:6. ib.. lam is generally recognised. Ahikar.... . In two instances in the Ahiqar narrative. and it possibly occurs at B6. b\v nb 'Go . Kaufman (1977:121f.. that the Ahiqar narrative is presented as the hero's monologue.44:2.Jongeling (1995:578>-"I.."' D7.29:4. in a mid-seventh century legal document from Assyria.. a stage earlier than •':'.g.cb VID 'and he said. "I repaid you your silver. feared."("''*) In so far as the context is available. also Hoftijzer . See further Muraoka 1985:158-64 and Joiion .9:2. ..) has identified a variant form.H N I D -T cb viii rbv n s o n 'Masapta sent (word). D7.15:5 (ditto). ncD m n cb 'vnn bv \n 'If it thus please m y lord' A 6 .2:21. . np-nN cb 'and I Ahikar prostrated . b mn.1:45: Cowley (1923:221)—"I. See also C l . 1 3 . l : 2 0 .. ..1 II: 12. vn-b N-30 cb[ v]n'-b 'A bramble sent (a letter) to a pomegranate: "(From) the bramble to the pomegranate . 1 3 : 2 . nnn.' A6.1:2. For instance." Such a claim. indeed w a s afraid"('^«^). Lindenberger (1983:70)—"the 'emphatic' kt'. .60 (possibly between two clauses). l : 13. nn-n.58. The latter can occur also in the middle of a clause...g.15:8.1:53. is difficult to substantiate. 1 : l l . A6.20:8. .. answered . See also Cowley 1923:220: "Surely he shall . 54 (at the end of a clause). nh nnv bDV vbi -[SODD -\mbv 'and I shall not be able to say to you.45. "The share which is given A6. nnnv cb mN 'I said . S o m e authorities view the particle as somewhat emphatic.-t cb vnn cvn p 'an order was i[ss]ued to us.8:5. the particle appears to be mostly confined to direct speech: e. A6.. surely..3:8 (broken context). mD .. Porten .. indeed was afraid".HIT vmm cb ubrm 'Let (word) be sent. "These materials are to be given .' C l . and the abovequoted ib. D7.Yardeni 31—"I was afraid. A4. '^^^ So Kottsieper (1990:209)—"zur Einfuhrung eines betonten AbschluBsatzes »Ja!«". B 3 .. A4. Ahiqar.. "He has assaulted the domestic staff of m y lady .' D23. A4. n -3P np-nN cb nbm 'I.. 1 : l l . iiv v[T)\ . Cf. It ought to be remembered."'A6.. however. l : 4 5 . at C1.48:8.. indeed (I) Ahiqar" (the Hebrew translation indicates uncertainty: ]Dt</"mK'7). A 6 . .' C2.' C l . "he shall be my son'" C l . D7... ."' C l . cb may not seem to have m u c h to d o with direct speech in the strict sense: nn^oi . The particle may also appear after the initial word or phrase of a direct speech: e.

b "Litt. n.340 PARTIVc: §90e be a son to me" ( C l . Grelot 1972:433. l : 2 ) . : «Certes il sera pour .

.265. 204.. 141. 303. 85. 324 A2. 12.. 148.5:4 .276 A2.. 313. 335 A2. 329 A2. 288 A2. 295. 298. 123. 38.2:19 27 A2.1:7 10. 309.l:l 220 A 1..53. 83. 36. 303. 120.61.324 A2.277.. 121. 274 Al.138. A2..2:4 77. 334 A2.2:12. 144.32.242..209. 123.49. 66. 35. 267 A2.313 A2. 296. 303 A2. 78. 66. 112. 140. 152. 49. 95.199.4:l 48. 109.2:7 9. 138.2:ll. 307.205. 303 A2.256 A2.302.APPENDICES INDEX 341 OF 265.4:5. 115. 191 A2. 115. 310. 131.270. 326 A2. 199. 30.278. 108. 168...1:6 27. 294. 165. . 144.53.3:5. 292.. 153.14. 309.297. 121. 105.94..1:2 II.. 146. 125..98. 168. 246.265. 324 A2.3:14.3. 286 A2. 123. 203.17.316. 205. 318 A2.1:l 27.5:7 3.94.98. 53.2:10 10. 109.267 A2.127.266. 246.1:12. 123..4:4. 146. 121.73. 269 A2. 302. 168. 324 A2. 324 A2. 74. 322 A2.261. 198. 123.. 141.41.5:9 53..105. 155. 198.2. 193.57. 172.295. 173.2:17 26. 48.5:10 119 TAD Al.73.4:3 8.1 310.66. 102.94.3:7 3.4:8 79.. 302. 315. 76. 53. 261.27.5:I.142. 196.3:ll. 145. 12.. 138. 177.3:2 3. 271.267.5:8 194.82. 108. 63.2:13.2:15. 147. 334 A2..l:7. 121.43.3:12 3.29.120. 115. 194..297.137. 316 A2.. 337 A2.94. 271. 12. 271.273. 125. 123. 196. 335 A2. 5.274 A2. 334 A2. 334 A2. 141. 199. 136.2:6 198 A2. 80. 112.33. 297 A2. 148.267 A2..45.230 A2.23.265.84 A2. 63. 62.4:2 146.. 332 A2.53. 141. A2. 127. 232 A2. 203.66. 38. 48. 146.3:6. 296 A2. 66.256. 303. 303. 329. 115. 146... 155.317 A2. 56.. 206.2 310 A2.293.94. 102.23. 298 A2. 115..2:14.. 54. 80 A2.261.271 A2. 107. 318 A2. 98. 11. 302. 77.1:10. 183. 183. 144 A2..28.. 22.49. 298. 66. 324.135.. 146. 80.95.1-7 23. 322. 196.36.1:4 48.9.54. 176. 14.1:15 249 A2..312 A2. 144. 312 A2.. 322 A2. 54.. 198. 83. 98. 336 A2.1:14 8 A2.50.2:8. 261. 18.279.66. 83.5:5.3:10. 69.1:ll 220 A2. 59. 335 A2.4:12. 198.4:I4 119.l:4 9 Al. 105.l:8 9 A2. 37.68.. 333 A2.1:2 30.. 271. 38.. 324 A2. 294.5:6.249 A2. 36.l:6 338 Al.4:10. 80. 302. 104.1:13 74. 302. 265. 79. 118. 21.2:l 36.48. 209 A2... 249 A2.4:9 206. 190.4:6 144. 190.. 172. 80. 205.272. 115. 79. 135.. 173. 290 A2.261. 78.. 156.78. 59.3:8 48.23. 206.. 251.314. 128.1:9 20.4:ll 36.3:9 54.3. 199.1:5. 139.315 A2..3:3 54. 138. 334 A2. 269.2:18 119 A2. 329 A2.85 A2. 316. 266. 261. 63.298.4:13 53. 141.1:8 .36.2:16.. 123.5:3 11. 302 A2. 115....290. 14. 4. 135. 63.268 A2.. 111. 158. 323.109. 304..4:7 115. 12..223 A2. 115. 151.205.2:9 9. 110. 105.33. no A2.49. 115. PASSAGES 172. 10. 121. 139.49.244. 94.1:3 320..297. 108. 98.202.5:2 12. 38. 209. 334 Al.141. 198. 102.79. 315.3:l 28.3:13 3 A2. 26. 261. 240. 267 A2.23. 148. 24.265.293. 85. 129.75. 66.274.2:2.242.. 150.. 266 A2. 334 A2. 332 A2. 49. 128. 336.3:4.

105..2:6 81 A3.5:4 28. 125. 208 A3.98. 199. 249 A3. 302. 139..48 A3.9:6 77 A3. 276.246 A4.92. 48. 116.5:9 76 A3. 63.135.123. 195. 139.312 A4.10:1.1:6 3.8:7 126. 272 A3.9.1r:6 33 A3.1:6 102.. 8.324 A3. 135.201. 269 A2.80. 79. 148.3 100 A3..269. 328.227 A3. 78.248 A3. 293 A2. 177. 268. 291 A4. 289.290.8:10 326 A3.290.1:5 131 A3. 323 A3.1:10 7. 93.1:3 58 A3. 260.6:II 119 A2. 80 A3.6:l 177.204. 126.10:9 101.248 A3. 66.2:8 83 A3..7:3. 269.250. 248. 296.223 A3. 129. 233 A2.6:l 144.299 A3. 168. 177.12:4 233 A4.4:l 49 A3. 156.107. 313 A3.1:15 45 A3. 309 A3.342 A2.268 A3.3:l 65.9:7 32. 128 A3. 198.312 A2. 199. 336 A3.1:8 146 A3. 102. 115. 14.267 A2.4:3 123.1:3 45..21. 300 A3.37.312 A3.4:2 49. 137.5:2.1v:l 222 A3..11:2 79 A3.8:6. 196. 150.6:3 30. 68 . 146.3:10. 324 A3. 101. 324.9:3 141.10:3. 124.8:3 92 A3. 151.8:5 112. 166. 142 A3.6:5 20 A3.. 129. 48. 169.3-4 232 A3. 199. 130.275 A4.1:4 78 A4. 337 A3.83.8:10 81. 326 A3.10:2 22. 101.118. 134 A4. 292.8:13 54. 126. 328 A3.290. 159 A3.8:ll 269.10:4 122.82 A3.. 307 A3.8: 21. 268 A3.6.102. 80. 12.3:6 127.8:l 65.3:5.10:7..7:l 105. 278.3:9 32. 83.98..5:8 28 A3. 73. 332 A3.7:l 37.10:8 53.5:6 329 A3. 123. 322 A3.291.: 179 A4. 86 A3.10:6 269.283 A3.290. 240 A3..3:7. 160 A2. 63.. 32. 129. 138. 125.6.3:4 53.7:2 80 A3.39.5:7 87 A3. 57 A3. 140. 246 A3.2:2 6. 330 A3.49.8:8. 268 INDEX OF PASSAGES A3..269. 83 A3. 167 A2. 63 A3. 192.. 115. 206.6:I0. 53.9 45. 286. 227.73. 85. 68.54.138. 173. 168.248 A3.3:ll 92. 303 A3.118. 128.79. 292 A2. 176.7:3 123 A3.6:4 11. 134. 25.1:7.267 A3. 189. 63.6:4 163 A3. 54. 196. 86.269. 298.6:2 12. 324 A3. 17.1v:7 92 A3. 83. 266.. 198. 77. 207 A3.1:2 3.6 234 A2. 78. 119.7:2 13..3:12 248.. 302.2:10 84 A3. 101. 146..9:5 22. 148.4:5 63.290 A3.8:2 112 A3. 269. 165.. 268. 138. 36. 65. 172.312.298. 93. 261 A2.6:6 3 A2.6:18 233 A2 7 335 A2.2:5 79 A3.10 101 A3.3:2. 196. 127.247 A3.1:8 53..312 A3.4:4 123. 269.10:5.326 A3. 146.7:4 328 A3. 332 A3. 54. 190.57. 159. 209.210. 150.9:4 123 A3. 195.7:5 49. 144.1I:3 233 A3.203. 169. 98.230.11:3 85 A3 . 32. 126. 79.5:3 102.50.7:12 206 A2.268.26.11:6 233 A3. 58.3:13 32.. 203.3:14 20.. 147 A3.8:9 9..49.267 A3. 192. 114.1:5 3. 54. 54. 238. 313.67 A3.1:4 95.8:4 26.n :5 114..210 A2. 67. 50.7:4 50.66.6:5 127. 202.9:l 199.5:5 65. 64. 309 A2.24. 84.2 79.267.6:3 78.9:2 127...52. 63.309 A2. 141. 115. 68. 322 A3.256.54 A3. 268. 312. 80 A3.3 54.

2:10 . 314 A4. 201. 249.2:13. 139. 144..5:5.92. 248. 191 A4. 56. 268.APPENDICES A4. 302 A4. 74.. 131..3 252 A4. 79.302. 191.3:5 87.222. 142. 278.241. 187.3:ll 118. 169.7:13 . 135. 329 A4. 75. 248.5:23 60.223. 101. 246.180. 221. 177. 80. 291.2:5 93.221. 308.81. 86. 237.182. 78.300. 308.. 81. 52. 81. 220.7:15. 74.221.2:15 28. 303. 69. 84.22. 114.50.329. 113..69. 135.271.268. 308. 259.. 198 A4. 119.. 296 A4. 198.37. 187. 158 A4. 178.290 A4. 182. 294. 118. 292. 166.7:7. 79. 302.67. 61. 174. 164 A4.236. 231.252.. 115 A4.76.317.7:17.. 142. 178. 319 A4.92.7:19. 180..7:22 35. 66.3-.271. 230. 300 A4.220. 302..5:21 118.292.87.. 131. 333 A4. 237. 140. 142 A4. 193.276. 322 A4. 92..5:7. 272... 264 A4.6:15 74 A4. 186. 22. 339 A4. 94. 145.7:3. 244.7:14. 187. 302. 87. 133.300.. 116.318 A4. 167. 220. 127. 114. 174..3:10. 37. 182.. 166. 79..7:8.40.5:3 84. 39. 193.2:2 92 A4. 317. 138. 207. 24. 270.289.5:8. 338 A4. 343 245. 94. 279.226. 139. 294. 291.2:11. 222 A4. 173.240.7:20. 123.38. 53.4:6 16. 329.204.65. 14. 313.5:17 84.3:2 77. 222. 200. 302. 88 A4. 249. 332 A4.... 139.295.3:3 . 265. 172. 238. 248.66. 139. 270. 78.. 139.41. 172. 222. 209.78. 235.2:8 12.4:5 10...201.4:8 5.2:14.5:2 91. 220. 168.286. 247.3:4. 284. 108. 167. 62. 128. 288.291 A4. 190. 267. 332 A4. 181.6:12 78 A4. 85.7 249.127.327 A4. 107.291. 195. 180. 131... 139. 88.4:7 249 A4.. 332 A4..230.7:6. 127. 173.252. 144.. 174. 278. 291. 76.4:l 198.4:9 54.293. 118. 278. 250. 131.308.58. 73. 166. 293.291 A4.7:21. 245.6:ll 249 A4.101.74.82. 169. 127.223. 196.302 A4. 308 A4. 323. 78. 302.94.7:ll 24.. 13. 102. 82. 332. 84.294. 167.. 251.7.280. 300 A4. 322 A4. 109.. 301. 300 A4. 334 A4.67. 148. 181..77. 74 A4..32. 54. 189.223. 83. 233.5:14 109. 279..37. 62.2:12 240. 39. 82. 93. 193. 261. 279 A4.. 95.203. 119. 237. 20. .5:13 26 A4.293 A4. 275 A4.135. A4. 172. 82. 226. 40. 126. 80.7:4.3:9 . 220. 13.2:6 66..7:8f 258. 244.302 A4.78.60. 66.231..219. 80. 35. 115. 118. 123..6.54.295 A4.7:2 129. 246.265. 218. 25. 225.289 A4. 138. 259 A4. 181.7:5.3:7 85. 153. 177.307 A4. 173. 120 A4.300 A4. 126. 87. 247.4:10 233 A4.3:1.. 81.84. 141.2:l 34.. 119. 303.7:12f 259 A4. 167. 323.. 300.318 A4. 197.80. 62.233.169. 316 A4.73. 302.2:17 34 A4. 300 A4.201.227. J44.126.5:9 64.3:12 319 A4. 178.7:12 6.252 A4. 240.7:16. 118.276. 78.221. 181. 182.7:10 38.5:6.312. 308.36.2:9 12 A4. 298.7:18 65.7:23.. 289.5:l 82.7:l .5:10 45. 155. 80. 249 A4..58.. 313 A4.233. 68.301. 236. 231.2:3 . 75. 65.236. 146 A4.178. 289. 220. 30. 69.2:7 102.139. 223. 14. 280.22.54. 81. 302.243.. 302. 107.302 A4.63. 219. 333 A4. 190. 284.. 192.308 A4.157. 197. 269. 193. 119. 322 A4.247.79. 177. 300 A4. 238.220. 246. 204. 132 A4.7:9.. 62. 192 A4.5:I1 83 A4. 288. 272.303.8. 52... 85. 333 A4. 245 A4.246.219 A4. 223.223.7:9 223 A4. 54..201. 293 A4. 203. 300 A4.26. 270. 179. 95. 68. 300. 332 A4.72. 227. 308 A4.2:4 54...68. 199. 20. 309 A4. 131. 331. 72. 304.5:4 171. 131..207. 312. 302.73. 124. 180.61.319 A4.302 A4. 286.272.

8:23 208 A4.98.7:25 70. 83. 77.90. 258.10:9 207. 89.344 208.5:l 86 A6.89. 185.55. 84 A6. 318 A4.9:4 291 A4. 78. 34.. 187. 131. 193.316.7:29.4:2 163. 93. 308 A6.201.2:ll 6. 98. 119. 83. 89 A6..205.52. 327. 220.64.91 A4. 78.2:9 6 A5. 246. 140.77.331.4:l 84 A6.327 A6.5:8 32 A5. 78. 177.314 A4. 77.316 A4.9:6 237.2 198 A4.62. 64.74.251.. 280 A4.2:25 196 A6. 328 A5. 131 A6. 167. 73.205. 257. 182.. 108.7:24 54. 159 A6...270. 220. 89 A6. 245.. 158. 236 A4.260 A6.83.335 A6.260. 79. 74.7:30 307. 120. 232 A6.210.230.227 A4.247. 165. 248 A4. 171. 253.289.. 302.2:24 85 A6.1:3 . 272 A6. 332 A4. 83. 169.2:23 84. 178.1:3 70 A5. 123..241. 237.247 A4. 209. 178. 77. 84 A6. 202. 226 A5.2:4 58.58. 144..2:7 3.268 A4.. 177.8:27 6. 331 A5. 57.7:27 80.4:2 78 A5. A4.319 A4.87. 182. 308 A4. 76. 138.226 A4.1:4 36.8:10 74.. 174.332 A4. 107.8:5.8:20 35 A4. 89. 108. 33. 172. 159.79. 167.83.2:18 37.2:21 26. 82. 339 A6. 84. 335 A6. 324. 325. 84.207 A4.8.2:6 221 A5. 319.3-16 300 A6. 82 A4. 197. 139.70.2:13 . 190.81. 220.270.. 124 A4.69.2:20 74. 325.247 A4. 333 A4.50.9-13 258 A4. 173. 302 A4. 246 A4..1:7 83 A6. 335 A6.315 A6. 302. 69.230. 93. 7.2:9 3.69. 86. 243 A4. 289.76..2:10. 131.267 A6.10:12 83. 83. 84.2:2 74 A5.2:5 83..7.2:17 68.82. 92.326.76.221.81. 84.252 A4.291 A4.8:ll 60.2:8.10:ll 80 A4.3:2 135.2:14.8 53. 83.74. 88.8:22 35.8:8 36. 248. 131.5:9 280 A5.311 A4.62.247.9:2 339 A4.2:16..8:18 76 A4.. 123.85 A6.2:2 339 A6.4:3 69. 331 A5. 317 A4.10:8 118.10:10 22. 335 A6.1:2 77.7:28 13. 302 A6.5:3 28.247 A4.8:26 . 190. 163.8:16 335 A6. 82. 308. 125.2:8 3.84. 76. 177 A6. 89.315. 320. 324.8:13 226.5:12 125 A6. 246. 84. 300.70. 62.315 A6. 182.4:4 167.2:4 84.8:3 207 A4. 75.2:15 64.2:6 40.210. 88. 209.5:4 34 . 233 A6. 332 A5.225.9:2 22.5:2 81 A5. 176.3:7.2:3 12.2:22. 298. 159.333 A4. 123.3:1.278 A6.2:3 119 A5.8:15.278.9:l 82 A4.90. 191. 223. 68.83..8:21 81. 170 A6. 167.8:12 74.8:19 62. 79. 123.1:l 28. 335 A6. 335 A6.77.220 A5.2:7 84. 84. 80. 86. 80. 33. 220.3:5 .9:3 207.275 A4. 107.220. 278. 80.9:8 61. 339 A4. 73. 118.. 37. 291. 231 A6.201.246.2:19 7.9:ll 118 A4. 52. 131.10:13 10.339 A6.226 A4.. 227.2 44 A6..89. 184 A6. 70.1:2 12. 300 INDEX OF PASSAGES A4.7. 291. 335 A6. 155..5:2 76. 142.3:6 70. 78. 199 A5. 241 A6. 80.221. 239 A6. 167 A5.9:10 61.49. 144.79. 89. 248.3:8 167.62.7:26 79. 88. 317 A6. 244.68.5:7 75 A5.8:9 75. 79. 178.84.292 A6.8:14 207 A4.10:5 62.80. 70.54.

6. 186. 314. 124. 172.250 B 1.11:l. 172. 173.15:7 42. 112.8:l 55.7:5. 310.. 275. 335 A6.83. 160.80.8:2.11 310 A6. 335 A6.15:6.52. 199. 86.335 A6. 160.12:3 92. 105. 73. 105. 244. 19. 229.. 324 31. 290.10:4 24.335.205.298 A6.269 A6. 333. 34.81. 172. 298.330. 308 Bl. 112. 332 A6.66. 92. 300 A6.312.8:4 294 A6. 119.310 A6. 326. 14.215. 335 A6. 19. 332 A6. 247 A6.243.1:2 296.. 245. 184.10:6. 259. 329. 83. 308.198.55. 238. 215. 284.297. 201.7:2 163.238..197. 180.14.273. 268.. 191. 280. 335 A6.65. 268 A6..290. 275. 160.312. 300. 81.196. 233.311 Bl..281... 172. 258. 202. 207.11:3 85. 166.118.249 B l .11:2.94.. 197..23.339 A6. 170.8:2 308 A6. 118.84..15:2 62. 192 A6. 33.277.312.213. 67.. 326. 268 A6.23. 163.317 A6. 26. 242. 244..81.10:5.84.317. 233.300.. 162. 92. 129.240.126.. 118. 156.15:8. 317..202. 244.l 10. 160.. n. 257.. 107..214. 333.8:3 308 A6.10:9 118. 322.15:9.91. 298.332 A6.219 Bl. l : 4 .98.12:l 85.14:3 180..l:9 11. 335 A6. 258 A6. 125. 159..81.242.1:7 83 Bl..214..159.262. 333 A6. 298.21. 259. 248. 190.15:10 42.6:l 6.73.10:7. 335 A6.333 A6. 314. 65. 336 A6.. 336 A6. 123.. 9 1 . 125.1:11.191. 60. 334..93 81.9:7 246 A6.. 249.14:4.220.10 53. 278.16:3 78. 164. 280. 262.7:l 310.. 159. 207.11:4 26.7:ll 34 A6. 277.91.. 186.APPENDICES A6. 205. 205.202.221.. 53. 84.14-6. 123.126. !« A6..210. 300. 161. 80.9:3 7. 198. 128 BM:10. 163. 310 A6.16:2 197. 81. 241. 74.92.16:4 85. 303. 84.79..166.16:l 118. 165. 37. 88.222.5:16 257 A6.64.316.238. 160.200.9:l 244.83. 147. 33..238.8:6 94.l:5 79.250 Bl. 272.9:6. 238.7:10 41 A6. 141.244. 335.83.5:5 34 A6.7:6 83. 59. 298. 158..15:3 159.267.10:2 31. 335. 303. 294. 337 A6. 332 A6.14:1. 140. 159.. 252.. 87. 339 A6.280. 129 A6. 335 A6.155. 130. 84. 258.203.310.336 A6.259 A6.13:2. 335 A6.292. 134.l:l 74.. 297.14:5 50 A6. 210.. 300. 34... 335 A6.. 309. 197.317.9:4 61.6. 79. 33.. 286. 300.85. 163. 145. 336 A6.208.l:6 92.. 290. 159.325 A6. 185.16:5 105. 237. 244.21. 173. 335 345 A6. 339 A6.309 A6.7:8 .77.15:5.247 A6. 185. 126. 335 A6. 160. 68.221.10:1.21.. 300. 332 A6. 298. 191. 167. 172.312 A6. 172.214. 132. 336. 151. 178. 65..15:ll 34. 177.84. 102. 180.67. 178. 293. 339 A6.13:l. 84.8:3 26. 85. 196. 133. 243.312 A6.11:5 78.9:2 .319. 252.33. 116. 21. 268.48. 139. 98.13:4.7:7.202. 141.237 A6. 166. 117. 176 A6. 118. 308. 160. 80. 93.68. 93.13:3 12. 259.173. 198.1:3 148.. 139. 315. 268. 160. 160. 335 A6.270.15:1.69. 166. 158.6:4 312.81.81. 222.315.200. 184.312. 76..291.79. 335 A6. 126.317. 213.. 339 A6. 226..40.86. 242. 241.12:2 37. 173.84..222. 335 A6.297. 247.68. 259.312 A6.15:4 66. 331. 84. 334 A6. 333. 197. 118. 165. 287 A6. 123. 78. 123.6:3 117. 300. 178.300. 215. 173.11:6 164.. 180. 243.10:ll 64.8:2bis 70 A6. 335 A6. 182. 82..311 A6. 179. 131. 77. 332.10:8 59.315. 158 A6. 307. 158. 78.238.. 84. 131. 148. 135. 120. 314.105 310 A6. 329 A6. 167.276. 159.104. 335 A6. 129.300.91.5:ll 308 A6.316 A6.10:3 6..313A6.9:5 82. 300.273.204. 319. . 215.126. 325 A6. 319. 12.. 180. 145. 317. 84. 283.319. 138. 140. 64.260.14:2. 140. 80. 238..

227.. 61.255.3:ll 85.6:2 33.2 17..2:5 40.61. 166. 127. 167.236. 310. 163.4:12.. 176. 126.. 78. 302.1:10 32. 243 B2.4:6. 128. 73.1:9. 309.311 B2..167.. 179.272. 330.3:7 288 B2.1:l 209. 157.-2 14. 158.214.346 ]49. 244.4:14 158. 179.123. 216.295.3:8 37..44.263 B2.24. 166. 292.286.266 BI. 80.1:4. 160. 325 B2. 337 B2.69.318 B2. 287 B2.273 B2.. 287.6:4 85. 338 B2. 84 B2. 255. 335 B2. 64. 186.298.3:25 .2:15 81.1:13 52. 223 B2.2 338 B2.38.278. 34.244. 158. 286 B2. 73.43. 322.234 B2. 68. 28. 255. 208. 127.287 B2.33.167. 180. 261.287. 125. 167. 134 B2.291.296. 179. 334 B2. 223..56.323 B2.223.68.312.159. 186. 290 B1.77..81. 158.208.. 289 B2.55. 194.3:12f 56 B2.3:19 49. 162. 324.3:20 124. 32. 184.166.6:7. 223 B2.1:3 80. 123.. 335 B2. 79.4:5 138.80.3 17. 225. 321... 157. 114. 177.86. 327. 173 B2.244.163.2:9 80. 333 B2. 157. 79. 191.3:3. 262.92. 81.3:10 56..215.337 B2. 67. 133.3:17 6.6-11 311 B2.2:7 81. 208. 287. 73. 67...316.4:2 58 B2.2:8 22. 92.6 17. 127.94.226 B2. 197.2:22 82. 273.. B2.6:8. 304. 87.1:5..4:4 41. 79. 300 B2.2. 56. 335 B2.1 165. 158.3:22 .147.222.. 337 B2. 158. 304. 93.273.275 B2.222 Bl..81.4:7 45.94. 323.314 B2.297.1:20 79. 52...3:4 20. 80. 75. 171. 173.2:4 12. 220. 297. 166.2:3 68.281 B2.171.l:l3bis 7 Bl 1:14 10. 50.2:19 81 B2. 287 B2. 286.2:6. 82. 83. 322.3:15. 167.3:36 17.2:12 77. 74.81. 230.1:8 32.237.217.. 335 B2. 312.3:9.3:13 84.94. 146.53. 22.333 INDEX OF PASSAGES B2...226 B2.240.4:10 157.3:21 158 B2..292 B2. 255. 289. 295 B2.77. 84.213 Bl.176. 135.223 B2. 193.273. 144.. 50. 128. 337 B2. 158.138.. 273.76. 62 B2. 314.1:12 7. 337 B2.1:2 28. 327. 314 B2.1:15 83.208. 166. 316. 308 B2. 286 B2.31. 288 B2.1:5.252.325 B2. 232 B2.3: 245.6:5 48.296 B2.4:8. 244. 336 B2. 58. 295.1:14.107. 50.216. 125..4:9 197. 164 B2. 180.. 172. 124.2:I6 9. 264. 208.135.294.l:13.261.3:l 251..6:l 231 B2.70. 145. 194. 197 B2.128. 223.231 B2.3:18. 194.36. 160. 238. 334 B2.2:l 325.318.3:26 . 264. 223.268 B2.237. 232 B2...2:14 229 B2..2:l 1. 260.3:35 223 B2... 304. 300..3:23 41.325 B2.. 250.1-4 311 B2. 225.. 166. 292. 155.6. 223.4:13 86..3:24 41. 185. 12. 243 B2.255 B2.78..319.272.6:9 81 . 166. 78. 22. 318 B2. 336 B2. 21.295. 214.223 B2. 184 B2.266. 87.4:l 1.3:28 166 B2. 272.3:12 49.230.3:16 58.323 B2. 239. 126. 82. 158. 338 B2..32. 298.82.4 17 32. 130.1:6.119.58..3:6 22.288. 193.8I.58..128.221.81 B2. 197.68.214. 10.69. 158. 316. 158.216 B2.330 B2. 224. 129..308.309 B1.220 B2.65. 123.158. 17..216. 304 B2..318 B2. 86. 220. 166.318 B2. 326 B2. 80.. 330 B2.214. 70. 193..290 B2.210.24. 323 B2.260.1:7.33.41. 126.. 197. 77.3:14 79.6:6 14.1:16 34 Bl.170. 158. 79.224 B2. 122.92.l:19 78. 209. 287.287 B2.4:3 95. 288 B2.94.. 109.302. 308.I:15 87.214. 287..3:5 50.40. 187.264.32. 14.224 B2. 272.58.1:11. 80.

6:31 226. 160.41 32..7:18 82 B2.38. 282 347 32. 145.40.7:16.268. 158 82. 250.10:14 196. 179.266. 181. 31. 226.9:3 317 82. 330. 272. 269 82. 174. 297 82.53.272. 121. 246.6:27 128. 30. 194. 137. 294.10:8 . 253..297 32.288 82.40.3. 255.9:5 223.. 334 82..8 31 32. 128.7:8. 58.50.8:2 20. 168. 304 32.62. 226. 68.6:15.9 44. 80. 311 82.80.55. 282 32.. 235.7:9 3. 16..318 82. 142.11:3 .8:8 58. 148.7:11.290..10:5 289 82.231..6:32 21.6:20. .3. 236.239 32. 236.7.7:5.58. 264. 130... 177. 100.. 238.218. 24. 174.250. 245.49.. 98.115. 295 82. 235.37. 327 82.10:2 33. 148..9:15.250. 146 32.288.9:13 55.6:16 34. 290.6:22 312. 159.158. 194. 31. 236.327 187. 250. 235.9:4 3. 325.7:2 158. 84.224 32. 22. 102. 147. 246.255. 109.324 82. 282.7:6 32.11 44 82. 3. . . 144.6:18 290. 164.31. 158. 36.7:13.. 290 82. 317 151.3.309.11:5 24.9:11 217. 321 82. 83.. 256.80.59. 94. 263.. 146. 309 B2. 264. 336 82. 14.335 82.295.6:19 87. 286.6:14 283 32. 78. 327 82. 192.87.10:4 33..8:4 36. 81. 244.9:6 .331. 286.288 B2. 168. 140. 115. 327.150..75. 150. 80.238. 286. 314 82. 180. 144..35. 302.236. 335 82.231. 123.6:11 82.281 B2..262. 227. 216.7 17. 158.34.10:1 146. 326 32. 265 82. 79. 67.131. 263. 145. 84.221. 126.66. 181. 118. 320 B2. 287. 82.7:14 30. 309.8. 309 82. 304.293...119. 112..8:7 .3.311 32.. B2..317 32. 287..10:3 50 32.33. 330. 84. 146.11:1 245 82. 250. 273. 246 32.. 231 32.247.11:2.92. 167.177.6:30 110.6:17.334 32.6:24 7.251 32. 161.10:13 87. 166. 83. 26.6:23. 3. 191 82.92.8:9 3.282...302 82. 247.66.11:6 93. 167.9:7 .. 77.106.70..81..219. 129.121..10:16 244. 77.8:3 31.317.250.10:11. 291 B2.290 B2.224. 75.226.9:11 255 32.224..75..327 32. 235..256. 161.337 32. 176. 161.9:10 52.238 82. 287. 167. 320.243.236. 33.317 82.338 82.37 82. 320 82. 204.231.10:7 36. 82.7:15.6:26 77 82.26. 135.82.62. 121.289 82..6:12 62. 145...243 82. 288. 289. 310 B2.299.7:17 162 82.271. 312.217. 130.. 55..10 320.262.331 82. 79.37. 203. 321 B2. 321.3.3.6:21 ..8:ll 177.221. 128.7:3 226.10 78.6:25. 309 32. 79. 158. 23.323 B2.288...6:10 9.3.. ..114. 264 32.81..120.10:21 50 32.. 50. 223.9:2 .53.81.338 32. 161. 49.266.281. 194.APPENDICES B2. 321 82. 282.222..222 82.6:35 121.10:10. 65.11:4. 12.227. 93. 49. 281 B2.320 B2.34.146. 173. 179.9:8.. 119. 288 82. 255. 231.. 237 B2... 309.8:5.3...6:29 59.338 82.330 B2. 167 82. 129.10:9 . 128. 171. 294. 151.9:14 . 58. 135.3. 82. 82..7:7. 167.10:12.309. 255. 287.273 32. 1.331 B2. 273.126. 49.145.295 82.3.7:10 33.236.76..217.3. 232.7:12 33.296 82. 316.283 32.230.49..256. 307.216.9:12 53. 70. 251. 331 B2.225. 166. 5.256. 334 32. 312. 80.31. 325.6:33 .33.221. 102. 338 B2. 330 B2. 299.160.324 32.. 217.244.330 32. 167.9:18 20 82. 236. 82.9:l 245.10:15 33.6.9:16 296 82.28 73.

324 B3. 185.4:22.309.220. 204. 232.1:19 129..2.4:14-15 324 83.216 83. 148. 275 83.3:10 7 83.1:2 184.217. 145. 172. 287 83. 250.1:12 255.5:24 82 83. 243. 194.1:14 99..5:10 36. 183.204. 332 B3.45. 25. 35.... 150. 265 83.208... 255. 126..1:9 .270. 321 83. 288 83.2:7 185.313.222. 100. 30.54.11:5 128 82. 308 82.250.. 208. 186.5:3 33. 286.4:13 166.217.294. 264. 338 B3. 224 B3.4:7 34.220.223. 23. 84. 266.4:3. 78.324 B3. 77 B3. 220..5:25 223 B3.2:5-8 324 B3. 13.1:15 112. 45.5:14. 330 83.5:7 77. 225.. 226 63. 77. 82.1:8 226. 107.4:19 244. 184. 324.1:4 88. 183.316. 256 83.3:13 87. 158.25 127 B3. 87.11:11 45. 244.86 B3.3:14 .334 82. 158.33.3:11 157.70.332 82.225.5:18 129. 222. 232 B3. 326 B3.5. 271. 171.. 288 B3. 338 83.3. 330 B2. 288 83. 288 B3. 255. 70.3:4 181.4:18 40. 45.4:21 3. 118. 324. 190 .348 281. 78. 83.263. 158. 283 B3. 295.289. 330 83.218. 327 B3.5:ll-12 158 B3.5:30 126 83. 288.80.1:13 82. 65.316 B3.232.36..2. 91.3:2 30.4:20 129. 259.11:14 102. 229. 338 83.220.5:2 158.217. 339 83. 144.1I:13.144. 158.5:17 .3:l 245 B3. 260 B3. 288 83..290. 168. 101.245 83.5:16 145.139.268. 128. 34. 266.5:9 161. 5.260.. 260..3. 337 83.48.33 B3.77. 82. 333 B3. 223 B3. 166.321. 325. 229..4 55. 182.294..3:3.226..5 166.6:1 36. 321 B3..263. 304. 322.1:6bis 22 B3.294.. 336 B2.289 B3.223 82.174.324 B3. 145.. 321.1:5 7.338 83. 295.11:7..304. 191. 166.4:8. 112.185. 330 INDEX OF PASSAGES B3.2:8 144. 323. 297 83. 80.244.295. 145.4:14. 283.5:13 146.11:10 33.2:5 263. 158. 168.288 B3. 326 83. 320 B3. 171.20. 88.2:8-9 324 B3.2 216.4:12 3.6:3 80. 166.4:10 273.1-13 311 B.73. 321. 317 83. 251 B3. 223. 124.. 158.4:11 170..4:15 77.33. 239. 325 83..11:8 .5:19 161. 157. 191. 288 B3.. 223 83. 289 83. 337 B3. 237.11:9.321 B3.204. 171 83. 75. 82.266.5:21 77.5:4-6 158 83.. 166.6:2 184. 191. 281 83... 170.23.4:16.4 3.135. 82. 124. 260 B3. 129. 246. 281 B3. 226.1:ll. 78..216.. 330. 55. 50. 127.3. 194 B3. 129.1:16 69. 82.261. 266.213. 126.3.220. 79. 129.4:25 101.130.5:12.. 260 83. 295 B3.1:10 23.333.287.11:16 30 B2. 7.226 83.3:6 7.253. 178. 174..77. 314 B3.330 82. 256 83. 266. 255.313 B2. 219.. 217.78. 22. 281 B3.269 B3. 330.67.3:9 23. 256 83. 261. 322.244. 78.99.4:17 3..204.40. 247 83.1:17 23. 246 B3. 330 83. 144. 181.79.284. 292.233.22 55.216. 273. 150. 85. 225 B2.262.87.287 83.3:8 7.148.1:20 322 B.11:15 330 82.322 B3.317. 295.94. 288 83. 85.240 B3. 271. 253.85. 112.4:23 84..3 84. 329 83. 260 B3. 282 83.4:5 3. 284..1:18 255. 83 83.286 B3. 339 B3.4:2 28. 271. 158.5:8 35.29.3:5 7. 131.5:5 166. 288 83.4:4.5:11. 163. 220.. 92.5.324 83. 68.3:16 7 B3.5:20 20. 324 83..4:6 184.330 B3.287.5:6 80.33. 151.3:7. 278.266.11:17 79. 256. 92 83. 83.326. 184.11:12 273.1:6 69.9.1:7. 192...246.3:12 157.22. 250..

243 B3. 102.145. ..10:9 83..8:35 290 B3.8:5 83.10:10 288 B3. 28.94. 292.216. 76.6:13.251. 265. 78.247 B3. .. 291.126.77. 85. 25. 223.8:30 110. 328.93. 79. 287. 182 B3. 286.317 83.. 78.6:9 7.. 87.. 245..8:23 80. 82 B3. 145.8:45 223. 221 B3. 128.10:12. 275 B3. 126.10:13.10:10.6:7 49. 224.75.314 83.APPENDICES B3.6:ll .. 135.. 126. 181. 269. 287.6:12.. 333 B3.7:12 158 B3.. 110. 327 B3. 271.8:29 41. 194.8:15 226 B3.8. 338 83.232.338 83. 235. 85.2 33.8:32 238 B3. 241. 223.322. 313 B3.62. .44.8:17 34. 241. 173. 191.38.41 349 83. 240.274. 85. 49.8:14 76.10 44.7:l 204. 110.10:17 7.33.. 114. 146.10:3 22. 121 B3. 148.7:ll 330 B3.204 B3. 112. 50.8:8 61. 50 B3. 274 B3. 115. 309 B3. 83.242 B3.242 B3.8:ll 85.6:5 13.8:37 256 B3. 223.263. 239..243 B3.273. 225. 240 B3. 130.9:4 77. 288. 50. 49. 156. 262 B3.223.29.8:38 243 B3.8:25 65.8:31 33 B3.8:28. 297. 232. 238.216. 62. 239 B3.36.9:5 77. 158. 85.221.82. 62. 337 B3. 205.8:34 41.287 B3. 33.10:14 3. 20. 110.10:8 34.20. 34. .8:36 12 B3. 79 B3.8:24 76. 144 B3.8:6 9.10:11 3.7:4 80. 79.7:5 85.225. 127. 128. 280. 80.246 B3. 250 B3. 327 B3. 44. 183. 137 B3.10:5 167 B3.. 271. 239. 271. 222 B3. 34.256.219. 144.265. 83. 145.8:39 224.42.151. 193.321 B3.8:21.232.2. 79. 80.7:3 44. 290. 223. 286.220 B3. 278. 159.8:16 81.223.6:15 261 B3. 79. 55. 44.337 83. 294. 83. 84.28. 128. 190.7:6 87. 236.7:13 44. 223.7.49. 289 B3..6:18 20 B3. 265. 174. 243 B3. 287 B3.28.. 288 B3.8:3.7:8 33. 180 B3.6:4 48. 194. 220 83.49..8:4 40. 288 B3. 93.243. 322.44. 332 B3. 274 B3.. 256. 214. 240.8:26 24. 176. 223.8:12 68.20.10:15 14. 155.8:l 156.9:2 84. V<]C. 309. 158. 321 B3. 83. 263 B3. 94. 232 83. 223. 179. 321 B3.205.9:7. 79. 315 83. 327 B3. 268.44. 243 B3. 148.9 186.6:13-14 324 B3.10:3bis 44 B3.330 B3.224.. 288 B3.9:6 110.7:17 33 B3.78.8:19 76. 180. 288 B 3. 304 83.311 B3.44. 153.88 B3...279 B3.3.6:14 33.37.10:15 287 83. 224 B3.49.10:16 20.8:10 68.9:8. 304.295 B3. 325. 242.. 273. 249. 222 65.28. 120..121. 223 83.7:5. 186. 262. 294.6:10 202. 84..230 B3.7:21 44 B3.7:9 44.8:7 9.. 82. 158.7:16 44.7:15.224.6:17 17.81.9:1 245.250. 241 B3. 58 B3. 288.8:33 285 B3. 274 B3. 158. 196. 79.9:9 87. 186.8:18. 271. 322 83. 88. 224.50.. 70.28.337 B3. 148.311 B3.20. 267 B3.. 256. 89.64.8:41 256. 287 B3.. 126 B3. 135. 256 B3. 265 B3.7:18 129 B3. 280 B3.126.. 149.7 44 B3.6:6 13.209. 78 B3.. 80.289 83.10:2.7:14bis 44 B3. 58. 131 B3.221.8:13 177. 192. 224. 3.6:8 13.10:6 92 83. 57.10-12 33 B3. 68. 124. 33.10 14.291. 78. 126.10:l 311 B3.8:2 3.99. 18.287 B3. 49.8:20 76..44. 226 B3.10:4 165.7:14.8:40 2. 129. 288 B3.158.

193 B4.2:10 34. 332. 165. 275 34.317 B4.. 126. 293 B3.4:7.296 B3.221. 166.11:9 49.241 83.164.244. 226.49.13:11 40..191 53. 256.216. 146. 245.11:3 3.1l:8bis 3 E3. 256..55.. 216. 338 B3. 182.4:12 40. 168.273 84.80.12:27 165.2. 33.6:l 311 .3:17 76. 33.314. 95 B3. 178 83.311 B3.66..ll:6 9.317. 165.297 B3. 38.216.3-6 311 83.3:8 12 B3. 22. 255 B3...I1. 289. 178.3. 292..3:18 44.234 B4.11:12 49.226. 109. 330 14.12:9 34. 287.44.12:ll 84. 207.285.3:3 34.79.10:23 216 B3.12:28 173.40 84. 118. 120. 245.263 B3. 180.4.I2:19 54 B4. 338 B3.13:7 33. 337 B4.11:17 3.214.1:3 14. 167.12:12 45 34. 244..12:22.5:1 221.. 183.232.66. 321. 236.277 INDEX OF PASSAGES 10.12:1.229. 44. 226. 304 B3.250 83. 142. 124. 158 83. 125.12:26 49.223.. 255. 49. 165 B3.206 83.69. 78. 325 B3. 304.4:11 184.4:5 120 83. 40.4:l B3. 219 B4. 289.84..2:8 178..311 B3.13:15 224 84.78. 284. 176. 117. 87.11:7. 226.12:6-8 288 34. 244.11.214. 234 B3.40.4:18 87 B3.10:19 170.317 B3 10:20 33.II 165.1:4 79 B3..163. 206. 84..12:3 13.4:17 4.16:12 28 B4.12:13 33. 95. 324 34.321 B4.12:10 216.13:10 22. 280.316 33. 287.13.4:15 45 33 B3. 137. 297 B3.4:4 84 83.236.12:18 229.77..4:3 69. 120.4:2 63 83.13:3 250 B4.40.240 B4.49. 292 34.12:31 80 34. 85. 288.229. 124.222..318 B3.12:17 34.2:4 79. 17.4:16 B3.77.4:9 45. 334 34.317 B3.80. 129. 338 B3.250 83. 184.13:1 221. 163. 271 B3.81.11:16 . 164.13:5 40.3:12 84 83.12:2 . 287. 167 81.13 338 B4.2:9 48.12:23 180.295 B3.54.94.12 3.1:2 B4.13:2 158. 330 83. 287. 280 B4.2:7 226 B3. 33. 115.49. 73.12:16 31. 287 220 B3..33. 84.11:2 33. 182. 269. 124 B3.11:I5 3. 223 34.209.4:13 B3. 182.246. 34.12:8 31. 222 B3. 114. 226. 124 83.158. 122 83.2:3 .73.5:5 221. 221. 118 B4.156.11:14 3.10:22.311 B4. 75. 82.216. B4.17.217 84.338 B3 10:21 125.12:29 17. 26. 79. 158. 158 B3.II:5 25.99. 281. 227.227 B3.12:5 155. 240 84 83. 304. 115. 223 83. 180. 164. 295 B3. 172.33..1:5 34. 120. 135. 33. 22.12:15 167 34. 336 B3. 146..239.268.101. 133.12:33 180. 327 B3..ll:ll 33.12:21. 227 B3..242..256 B4. 214. 223.21.224. 126. 225.12:7f 20 B4. 278 83.180.12:24 158.57. 167. 279 83.. 335 B4.3:5 81 273.4 221.2:6 68.280.2 B3..82 227.41. 227. 236.10:18. 206 B3..217.332 B3.246 B3.246 315. 179 84. 165.289.4:10 231 45 83.11:l 180.. 163.33. 133.. 205. 293 B3. 146.350 144.1I:8 165 B3.2:5 79.1l:7bis 3 B3.13:9 22. 165 34.. 121.2:1 11.204 169.10 3. 272. 192. 184.60.5:2 290 84. 265 84.57.217. 131.250 B3.13:8. 164.12:31 17. 273 84. 190.. 161. 180..244 B3.250.5:3 78..165.12:30.253.

5:ll 41 B8.5:6 33 B5.262.1:6 146.6:5.10:1 224 B8. 144. 167.1-2 311 B7.1:5 7.6:2 158 B5.3:8 34.4:8 .. 323 B5.1:2 30. 322 B7.266 B8.271 B8. 223 B5.3:5 293 B7. 309.2:10 79 B5.2:5 126.227 B8.6:4 223.8 85. 260.267 B8. 221.6:l 87 88. 144. 285 B6. 148.2:7 30 B7.3:4 78.6:14 78 B4.. 169 B5.250.7:5 37.1:8 6 B8.2:6. 122.315 B7.81 BR. 221 B8. 106.3 palimpsest 280 B8. 68..1 311 B6.6:ll 33 B6.7:4 163 B8.5:4 81 B5.268.3:2 61. 158 B5.4:2 84.246 B5.4:2 224 B6.77.6:4 75 B5. 286.7:6 166 B8. 145.3:7 110.4:5.1:4 287 B6.242 B6.337 B5.1:7 93. 146.61 B7.68. 158 B5.156.1:14 82 B8. 126 88.6:6 62 B8.5:3 88 B5.7:l 214.2:6 78.8:3 83 88.2:9 221. 68.5:l 204. 112.APPENDICES B4.1:3 158 B6. 129.64.1:4 61 87.6:9 43 B5.220 B8.4:14 54.5:2 84. 267.331 B8. 41.2:2 203 B7.10:4 58.61.36..54.2:4-5 164 B7.6:8 186 B5. 158 B5.255 B5.131.226 87. 290 B8.5:9 182 B5.1:3 13.5:8 144. 158. 144.274. 239 B6.314 B7.3:1 82. 223 B8.4:4 37.9:5 84 88.5:ll 92 B5. 41.3:9 83 B8. 333 B6.6:10 77.1:4 58.4:4 83.1 311 B5.7:3 62. 281 B5.3:7 80 B6. 131 B8.68.6:3 6. 213. 191. 95 B6.2:4-9 215 •3» 1 .223 B7.5:7 100.2:8 133.45. 144.2:7 78 B6. 79.4:6 224. 151 B8.200 B4.45. 276.2:2 82 B5.76 B7.4:6 79 B8.4:l 125 B6. 150. 221.40. 121 87. 269 B7.35.3:3 28.8:9 134 B8. 327 B6. 144..257.1:l 92 B6.5:15 330 B8.81. 197.6:6 40 B5. 82.7:2 222 B8.5:2 68.2:5 239. 309. 144. 226 B8.1:ll 69.7:5 286.6:5 82.146. 263.1:13 83 88.2:23 74 88. 290 B8.2:l 77 B6.10:2 166 B8.151.2:3 58.6:10.5 311 B5. 210.8:8 190 B8.1:5f 256 B5. >>>«*>*>aa>>i>>>>*>>*a*a. 181 . 220 B8. 77.214.3. 221 88. 144. 127.I:5.311 B5.3:2 128 B7.3:6. 63. 73 B6.3:3 82 B7.223. 322.83 B8. 128. 128 B8. 132.262 87.2:15 145 B8. 258. 309 B7.3:5 140 B8.73.2:16 223.1:6 61.2:10 127.•••>•••••••••> 272 87.. 259 87. 235 B8. 164 B7.2:7 126. 296 B7. 256.62.9:4 78. 131 B7.121.219. 148. 238 B5.3:10 33 B6.4:7 135.2:4 81 B 8.2:4 158 87.3:4 108.167.1:17 84. 148.4 224 B7.. 127. 191.1:8 61.9:3 127 B8.2:10 85 88.5:12 80.4:7 40.9:2 54. 290 B4. 235 B8. 309 B5.1:3 41.244 B4.81 B8. 112.10:3 3.70.

310 Cl.146. 146. 113. 35.69.242 INDEX OF PASSAGES Cl.l:64 94 €1.144. 102.104.l:54 .79.140. 157.219.81. 73. 292 €1. 156. 224. 328 Cl.200. 286 Cl.78..1:68 170.. 144.310 Cl..79.1:92. 147. 77.33.1:17.295.. 323 €1. 147.68.5.l:35 32.l:59 28.l:5 219 Cl. 312 Cl. 276.l:52 . 305 Cl. 140.l:71 119 Cl.. 339 Cl.166.1:82. 176.352 B8. 224.332 Cl. Cl. 339 Cl.79.80.7.l:44.l:70 118. 289 CM. 18. 329. 259... 139.79. 176. 270..1:19 67.219. 263 €1. 223.l:63.94.l:76 258. 80. 191.294 Cl. 159. 307 Cl.69.l:55 . 3J# C1.l:72 29.286 C1.1:81 ..l:37 139.l:56 94. 248. 94 88. 223.1:94 77.233.87.l:20 94.123. 35. 274.119.l:n 275 C1. C 1.1:14 63. 179. 76. 258. 186.1:10 62.317 Cl. 261.-33 38. 312.. 224. 138.169. 160. 157.220.235 Cl. 184. 176. 77.l:41 85.283 €1..118.1:90. 140..81.l:61 81..108.l:60 77.67. 220.6. 83. 323 €1.1.230. 169 €1.235.. 267 Cl.. 185. 323 €1.276.1:98 39. 200.144. 190. 192 €1. 194 €1.274. 191.. 200..1:80 81. 308 Cl.l:15 48.l:73 26.l:22 273 Cl.171.1:30 135. 28.l:48 121.10:6 119 88. 138.1: 205.339 Cl. 82.220. 76...313..l:67 74. 155.141.247 C1.135. 79.l.126.92.263. 82. 277. 310 Cl.. 44 Cl ..79. 79.l:36 59.1:89 32.7.263 Cl.190.64.1:83. 242. 239.9. 131 €1.233 Cl. 296. 178 C1.267 €1.68. 220.l:53. 100. 153. 191.1:13 339 C1.l:77 262 C1.221.1:86 ... 305.274. 85. 233. 182. 81.l:45 6.. 156. 144. 178.313 C1.81. 184. .166. 329..314 €1.1:101 69.79. 220..220. 305 Cl.248 C1.200. 263.l:28 155. 140.94. 239. 275. 243. 148. 333 €1.I:79 70. 192.93..l:34 43. 146.l:21 157. 94. 230. 277.l:50. 133.141.208.l:40 191.123. 221. 139.310.1:97 78.23 131. 259.293 Cl.79.334 CI..313.l:74 81 Cl.1:3 6.292 €1.5. 144. 295. 178 CI.l:39 240.62. 305. 222. 339 CI. 81. 79. 32.242.248..205 Cl. 286.69. 142.112.187. 118. 138.1:4 219. 233 CI..63.222 Cl.l:42..62.1:2 181. 307 Cl.269. 146. 333 Cl.1:96 77. 14. 86. 111. 78. 80. 112. 78.32.6..1:93 94.24.1:66 305. 292 €1.1.l:58 125.170.. 192 Cl. 79..10:7 166 B8. 277 Cl.83.203..291. 292 €1. 1:57. 200. 179. 225. 84..242 Cl. 170. 220. 247.. 333 €1. 174. 332 Cl.274. 223 Cl. 14.1:95 . 209. 150. 118.200.252 Cl.185. 288..312 Cl. 222 €1. 290. 309 Cl. 186.79.155. 88.l:38 37.1:87. 123.1:12 9.93. 134. 291.134.312.77.223 Cl.l:43 73.l:25 139 Cl..l:49. 63. 129. 126. 339 Cl..1:99 219. 302.131.1:85.220 Cl. 6..275.81... 80. 144.I2:5 140. 283. 199.271.224. 307 Cl. 199.310 Cl. 305 Cl.1:18.144.70. 182. 137. 189.. 179. 339 Cl.297 Cl.12:l 222 B8. 291. 277.81..l:47 221.66.l:46.77..222 Cl.293. 190. 113. 184. 84. 118.. 79. 177... 252.219.27. 186. 112. 119.86.. 190.203. 83. 78. 138.331 €1.. 77. 86. 78. 43. 301 €1.1:84 7.9.11:3 70 B8.302.l:9 36. 252.l:6 77 Cl.l:51 46.94.62. 322. 78. 172. 145.l:24 157. 276.59.10:5 84.l:29 32.220. 292 €1. 166.263 C1.272 Cl.1:91. 179. 285 €1. 176. 227 Cl..

82. 186.292. 78. 16. 191. 161. 80.302 Cl. 222 Cl. 187. 65.22.64 Cl.1:138 6.301 C l .7.291.1:128. 106. 176. 125. 203.87.78. 79. 226.9. 177...62. 129. 176. 14.1:125 76. 118.125.290 Cl.76. 32. 179.1:112 79. 182. 95. 302 Cl. 291.1:104. 73. 179.. 124.1:186. 283. 79.l:127.226 Cl. 1:132. 181.81... 296 Cl.. 146. 140. l : 126 .279 Cl. 197 Cl. 308 Cl. 129.81...299. 308 Cl. 160. 77. 194.287. 69.220. 182. 69.108.140. 133. 79. 129. 142. 182. 107. 177. 112. 181...78.14. 84.106.. 131. 185 C l .. 326 C l . 137. 122. 200. 328 Cl.270 Cl.71. 185. l : 167 12.292 Cl.1:119 76 Cl.1:109 131. 185 Cl. 294. l : 180 74. 129. 126. 253. 286.1:164 77.1:137 20.206.1:183 77..1:121 73.173..1:I14 224... 125 Cl.1:141 82. 155.223 Cl.18.200. 113. 169 CI.1:175.81.6. 225. 185. 79. 107. 135...125..1:113 169 C1. 220 Cl. 145. 126. 77. 42.240.274 Cl. 92 Cl. 146 C l .1:182 80 Cl. 121. 220..80.APPENDICES 189.267. 1:129.246 Cl. 118. 80.69. 301. 153. 182.l:179 81 C l . 186.. 338 Cl. 179. l : 172 63. 309.219..219.298.1:150 263 Cl.338 Cl.1:122 73.220 Cl. 140. 108.32. 301.301 Cl. 73..1:178 79.. 138. 301 C l . 226. 110.1:139.224. 144. 221. 199. 187. 118.78.. 153.1:171 .1:165 24. 328..78. 82. 325 Cl.l:lll 79. 77. 82. 141. 169.263. 148. 65.1:131 68..80. 81..24. 322 353 Cl.112.226.1:145 36. 220. 103.1:142 77. l : 184 29.69.325.126. 192. 210. 187. 328 Cl.201.1:189 39. 197.1:181 79 CI.247.. 45.. 78. 181.1:198 14 .223.95. 108. 177. 191 Cl.173.l:130. 148 Cl. 82. 125.79. 134..220. 301.. 169.32. 78. 75. 70. 82. 181.1:105 80. 77. 323 Cl.1:151. 185. 187.l:157. 106... 128. 111. 80. 10. 170. 128. 204. 103..1:140. 82 Cl.77. 161. 222 C l ..l:110.75. 64..80. 282.69.220..209. 282. 220. 54.l:123. 78.296 Cl.1:193 124. 181.81. 322 C l . 272. 191. l : 173 6.203. 80.301 Cl. 186.76. 185. 187.225 Cl. 127. 255 Cl.1:102 76. 174.108. 187. 199. 64. 267 C l ..81. 145.. 68.1:109 191 Cl. 191. 76. 286 Cl. 80 C l . 179. 299 C 1. 35.78. 79.. 223.. 142 Cl.218. 270.1:154 24. 185.1:107 13.80 Cl.227 Cl.1:170. 226. 243.208. 127. 66. 134.. 322 C l ..92. 224. 170 Cl.33.94. 123. 322..330 Cl. 146.291 Cl. 325 Cl. 279.l:177.37. Cl. 123 Cl. 287 Cl. 220. 334 Cl.1:147 7..79.91. 222. l : 160 32. l : 149 260. 128. 129.94.. 221.59.1:190 42. 160. l : 191 9.263. 106.276. 252.1:143 80. 302.74.61.240. 80.1:156 79. 81.294. 182 Cl. 274 Cl.. 195.292 Cl.1:176 25.73.1:106 70. 103.6.110. 177.299 Cl.1:161 35..68.79. 330 Cl. 177.35.1:187 20.176.81. 80.70. 326 C l ..24.1:186 78. 112.78. 39. 329.. 286 Cl.1:124 26. 187.1:174 .132. 133. 103. 155.. 332 Cl.1:166. 325. 125. 140.279 Cl. 181.220 Cl.l:134.36. 185 Cl.243.1:130 80 Cl. 195.88.1:103 79.323. 77.203.219.l:185..80..26 Cl.61.76.1:158 18.1:136 .339 Cl..220. l : 169. l : 155 37..78. 110.1:163. 63. 78. 78. 80. 301.32. 220 Cl. 195.. 224. 294.1:148 133.1:146 141 Cl. 177.29.81. 77. 147.l:133. 200. 186. 126. 301 Cl. 289. l : 159.78. 163.1:192 78 Cl. 119.1:188 181.78. 148. 181. 191. 301 Cl.

225.2:3 145.1:17 203.7Crl:10 83 C3.1:201 94 Cl. 301 C 1.1:53 125. 166.306 C2.1:41 22. 87 C2.1:57 79.1:3 36. 262. 288.1:12 9. 222. 306 C2. 286.1:4 36 C3.5:4 83 C3.224.1:43 180.1:44 69. 288 C2.307 C2.2:18 C 1. 107.7Dv5:l 84 C3.1I:2 C2. 288 C2.2:7 73. 1 :215 6. 306 C2. 77.2:6 9.4 C2 .1:31 258 C2. 192. 234.1:9 9.1:21 54 C2.2:19 C 1. 130.7Ar2:l 279 C3.1111:2 C2.313 C2. 258 C2.l:210 C2. 240 C2. 78 C3.1 C2.1:47 180 C2.61 .64. 296 234. 1:207.220. 184. 125.I:70 81. 291.l :212.83 C2.312 C 1. 126.1:19 28.31. 83.1:66 .1:42 38.302 C2.2:25 C2.1:25. 306 C2. 80.262.1:30 272.299 C2.. 268 Cl .83 C2.1:2 36 C3.5:ll 220 C3.im:l C2. 126. 133 Cl..291 C2. 267 Cl. 301 C2.7Drl:ll 246 C3. 79.306.64. 144. 272. 181.1:221 77. 222.1:200 26.1:46 306 C2. 262.2 :l 85.. .2 232 Cl . 72.l:33 262.. 180. 31. 67.1:I6 Ibis 306 C2. 74. 80.l:l3 201.210.1 :206.223 C2.. 180.1:64 137.2:2 220 C 1.7Erl:7 279 Cl.185.1Iir. 1:209 68.306 C2.78.1:22 180 C2.286. 82. 223 C2.1:208 145 Cl. 169.2:24 C 1.269. 252. 10.1:20.1:65 13.1:15.310 38 164 38 131 32. 159 C 1.1:204 78..7Dv3:10 77 C3.354 Cl. 235 C1. 162 54.1:36 253.1:199 69. 227 INDEX OF PASSAGES C2.7Dr2:5 283 C3. 191 C1. 125 Cl.63.291 C2. 306 C2.22.1111:1 C2.1:11. 224. 76. 327 Cl.. 142 Cl.1:50 169. 79.1:52 173.1I:3 C2.64 Cl.1:10 38. 306 C2. 301 C2. 220 C1.1:51 306 C2.208.32. 32..1:29 73.164. 145 87.7Ar2:4 223 C3.1:26 38.7 9 C3. 258 C2.1:203 146. 301.78. 88.2:4 94 ..55 306 C2.7Drl:22 283 C3.301.226 333 7.1111:3 127 24.1:35 158.7Dvl:l 279 C3..2:23 C 1. 1:213 22 Cl.2:20 C 284. 339 C2.1.l:69 77. 306 C2.274 C2. 220 Cl. 164 C2. 306 C2.1:68 84.1:72 146.7Drl:9 84 C3.7Ar2:21 28 C3.201. 79 .220.298 C2. 187. 82. 79.22. 191. 1:214 61.1:48 244. 275 C2.81. 82. 305 . 220.1:75 84. 283 C2.. 334 C2.7Dv3:15 78 C3. 269.1:62 288 C2.72. 306. 79. 87.1:59 291 C2.1.7Dv2:l 279 C3. 268.1:49 84.2:5 12.269 C2.7Ar2:l8 82 C3. 227 Cl. 159. 203...220. 200.7Cr2:l2 220 C3.1:217 81 Cl.1111:4 162.7Dr3:17 80 C3.7Cr2:2 243 C3.220.80.7Dr3:ll 243 C3.6:14 84 C3. 220 158 . 126 CI.1:39 162. 125.7Ar3:21 83 C3. 69.1:8 79 C2.61..333 C2. 306 C2.1:74 262. 118.31. 210.210.1:5 36 C3. 292. 185. 308 Cl.275 C2. 224 C2.7Dv2:2 279 C3.296 28. 222. 126.81.1:77 87 C2:l:66 123 C3. 118. 1:205 78.59. 78 Cl.

28:29 C3.28:53 C3.7Fr2:23 C3.13:7 83.9:5 79.9:12 281 C3.250 59.13:l 62.13:13 62.7Gr2:l2 C3.21:2 C3.52 36.13:15 69 C3.7Jv2:3 C3.27:2 C3.27:30 C3.178.15:28 C3. 226 C3.12:3 68.11:4 18.16:2 C3.7Fv2:2 C3.26:37 C3.7Gr2:9 C3. 82 35 85 84 79 77 81 269 225.28:85 C3. 230 C3. 225.7Fv2:4 C3.28:87 C3.7Gr2:9 C3. 117.7Fv2:14 C3. 84.7Frl:21 C3.15:21 C3.9:18 50 C3. 118.11:8.13:50 69 C3.8IIIB:25 83 C3. 223 C3.7Kr2:4 C3.78 79 92 243 221.8IIIB:30 130 C3. 79 C3.228 C3.7Jvl:28 C3.185.8IIIA:8 4 C3.28:86 C3.l9r:l C3.22:5 C3.7Evl:6 C3.13:14 223 C3.15:96 C3. 174 77 91 222 84 84 92 34 82 83 83 81 83 25 80 54 82.7Kv2:l C3.28:77 C3.7Evl:ll C3.12:27 67 C3.12 18.224.14:34 22.7Fr2:20 C3.28:79 C3.15:123 C3.28:91 C3.13.22 C3.7Kr3.13:45 79 C3.13.7Kv2:4 283 220 85 114.21:8 C3. 288 C3.7Fv2:5 C3.13:20 69 C3.15:l 64.7Jv2:4 C3.28:90 C3.81 37 79 53 12. 173. 126 C3.81 83 162.APPENDICES C3.223 C3. 126 83. 83.7Fr2:6 C3.28:96 C3. 192.7Jr2:26 C3.8IIIA:3 140 C3.28 C3.7Fv3:9 C3.16.213 28. 126 61 83 279 83 83 82 241 83 69. 87 62 62 . 123.7Kv2:8 85 C3.7Gr2.7Gr2:23 C3.28:2 C3.7Gr3:23 C3.12:28 77 C3.27:29 C3.25:16 C3.83 C3.19:33 C3.19:7 C3.7Jv2:19 C3.284. 52 123.11:9 18 C3.28:97 355 6 6 20 20 58 123 57 57 53 78 83 78.27:22 C3.13:54 221 C3.14:35 221 C3..7Jv2:6 C3.13:4 223 C3. 226 C3.13:9 124 C3.330 C3.28:l C3.18 C3.7Evl:14 C3.4 C3.84 61 61 161 12. 230 66. 37. 283 C3..7Gr3:25 C3. 79 91 243 71 13. 190 10 224 61.19:6 C3.7Gv2:3 C3.16:5 C3.7Gr3:3 C3.56 124 C3..18:10 C3.8IIIB:36 222.11:6 82.13:ll 4 C3.11:10 117 C3.15:109 C3.7Ev2:6 C3.12:26 67 C3.7Kv3:21 313 C3.52 76 92 36.7Kr2:19 C3.7Gr2:14 C3.27:31 C3.18:13 C3.6 69.28:56 C3.:2 C3.11. 281.12:7 71.167.7Jv2:10 C3.13:3 62.52.223 C3.8I:10 83 C3.7Gr2:25 C3.7Evl:15 C3.222 C3.7Gr2:6 C3.226 C3.7Kr4:21 C3.7Jr5:25 C3.12:4 68.54 C3. 37. 83 92 82 269 79.7Gr2:8 C3.28:48 C3. 80.81 C3.7Gr2:26 C3.7Frl:23 C3.8:18 83 C3.68.19:l C3.

:j^ll3 C3.17:9 Dl. 269 D7.8:15 63 D7.313 D7. 147.6:5 268 D7.79.6:7 131 D7. 79.9:2 146.ra2 Dl.6:9 59.298 D7.210 D7.31:l 141 D3. 30 D7. 141 105.4:10 C7.7:4 79 D7.1:ll 146.27:5 78 D3.2:9 138 D7.17:12 01.17:11 01. 77.9:l 31.8:4 55.30:3 01.4:7 147. 225 D7.290 D7.6:8 73 D7.290.9:5 6.1:3 22.34:4 01.79.5:6 298 D7.92 80 65 131 126 12.4:2 7.5:8 138.29:16 C3.225. 8 1 . 104.21:4 D2. 225. 82 238 76 34 34 76 247 36 23 144 123.24:2 02.268.28:I06 C3.7:10 83 D7.6:7 298 D7. 146 D7. 138.30:3 181 D2.15:l 122 D5.b D1. 147 D7.220 D7.4:l Dl.8:8 133 D7.26:3 77 D3.298 81 54 82 125 125 50. 83. 133.56.4:8 290 D7.1:9 124.7:2 81 D6.272 . 227.5 Dl.147.1:14 147 D7. 147 D7.2:2 242 D7.1.6:3 137 D7.3:4 79 D6. 126.298 D7.l:14 Dl. 163. 6 . 322 D7. 123.1:7 325 D7.28:II2 C3.6:6 313 D7.12:2 D2.8:l 12.52.32:11 01.8 Dl.214 D7.l:6 Dl.7:l 123.7:5 92 D7.1:l 80 D7.13.46:4 78 D3.128.6:10 205. 69.94 D7.l 82 D3. 230 D7.8 :ll 9. 226.5:3 36 D7.25:2 66 62.6:4 123 D7.8:l 81 D6.56.1:4 9. 270 D7.9:6 DM Dl.29:2 131 D2.3:6 78.356 C3 28:104 C3. 133 D7. 125. 121 104. 125.8.30:2 01.47:9 79 D4.:2 Dl.2:6 95 D7.17 D1.39:2 76 D3.3 126.12:6 D1.266.81 126 57 146 INDEX OF PASSAGES D2. 146 D5.4:9 77 D3. 329 D7.12:1 D1.5:7 123.l 1:2 D1.81.1:2 329 D7.6:2 240 D7.298 D7.2:l 123.214.13:1 78.17:8 D1.5:4 125.298 D7. 208. 121 65 20 30.5:10 124.9:3 31.30:2 82 D2.11:1 Dl. 155 D7.209 D7.6Frag.22:l 81 D3. 283 283 84 52.1.329 D7.7:6 69. 54 54 79 83 45 118 129 84 28.1:10 79 D7.3:2 79.8:7 9. 168.2:4 225 D7.2:7 131.232 D7.r.28:!07 C3 28:108 C3.214 13.28:I05 C3.33:2 116 D3 .27:3 79 D3.l:l C4. 273 D7.1:13 336 D7. 323 D7.4:3 77 D4. 150.2y:2 C3. 7 8 .17:6 01.9:4 4 .41:l 89 D6.28:2 84 D3.16:8 80 D3. 125.34:5 D2.7:7 327 D7. 146.7:3 78 D7.5 109. 313 D7.8:2 7.l:l Dl.i^.31:3 77 D2. 145 D7.220. 168.5:4 D2.2:3 95.8:6 125. 84 D7.258.29:17 C4. 137 D7.1-57 232 D7. 131.

240. 83 78 77 30 221 81 D7.39:3 D7.29:9 D7.16. 145 121. 268 30. 317 125.16:4 •7.16:1 •7. 270 40.224 20. 145.33:2 D7.34:7 D7. 275 339 24.48:8 D7. 329 38.45:8 D7.209.33:3 D7.17:2 •7.16:6 •7. 50 270 208.9:14 D7.1:l D8. 116. 131 127 262 191. 308 109. 172 12. 77 82 191 134 79 79 98 82 82 41.29:4 D7. 80 262 125 140.267 310 44. 140. 133. 118 328 102. 339 125.24:l D7. 270 38. 124 10.56:8 D7.260 35.9:16 D7. 66.15:12 •7.27:6 D7.24:3 D7.39:6 D7. 139.27:ll D7.16:9 •7.14:3 •7. 150.16:12 •7.16:2 •7.230 268 73.16:3 •7.17:1 •7. 146 38.30:l D7.57:7 D7. 147. 255 30 123.37:2 D7.3:15 357 76 225. 148 53 48.21:2 D7. 138.269 12.27:8 D7.9:15 D7.24:14 D7.56:12 D7.26:5 D7.23:4 D7.12:3 •7.260 81 140. 232.21:1 D7.12:4 •7.APPENDICES D7.208.44:5 D7. 209.21:3 D7.209.45:2 D7. 12 4 328.10:1 07.58 78. 136 105 323 30.3:9 D8. 309 53 48 320 78.56:13 D7.56:14 D7. 128 54 78 53. 105. 147 80 24 50. 133.56:5 D7.232 121. 329 268 43.40:9 D7. 84 36.48:7 D7. 108.9:17 07.20:6 D7.10:3 •7.17:4 •7. 339 123. 146. 82 135.9:10 D7.233.14:11 •7. 125 81.9:13 D7. 131 131. 271 120 26. 121.47:8 D7. 77 80.18:3 •7. 80 123 83 141 328 339 '. 38. 133.56:ll D7.48:4 D7. 139. 267. 126 22. 323 83. 126 83.36:l D7. 77.44:2 D7.56:3 D7. 190.35:7 D7.26:l D7.56:6 D7. 112.56 0X56:2 D7.24:5 D7.17:3 •7.15:3 •7.20:7 D7.260 139 54 82.57:4 D7.24:15 D7.29:3 D7.54:6 D7.258 D7. 187 135.310. 309 83 18.39:10 D7.329 9 124.29:10 D7. 78. 83 50.28:3 D7.24:2 D7.44:6 D7.29:5 D7. 322 322.95.57:2 D7. 102. 139.14:8 •7.9:6 D7.24:4 D7.35:ll 155 139.256 35.10:7 •7.9:12 37. 323 13.25:l D7.24:6 D7.268 268 327 79.57:8 D7.24:7 D7.9:9 D7.14:1 •7.47:9 D7.10:2 •7. 94.40:2 D7.44:4 D7. 329 133. 137 78.20:3 D7.57:6 D7.33:l D7. 289 256 8.17:8 •7.2!:4 D7.15:13 •7.27:4 D7.24:16 D7. 39 37 30 270 76 310.39:4 D7. 126 110.20:8 D7.57:9 D8.20:2 23.269 77 7.9:ll D7.26:3 D7.56:7 D7.3 • D7.32.17:10 •7.20:4 D7. 323 83 78.260 329 92.2:2 D8.30:3 D7.16:7 •7.267 79 241 266.10:6 •7.17:11 •7.44:7 D7. 260.35:l D7.38:4 D7. 82 129 81 77 78 .

15 Ezr 4.4:16 64 D8.n :5 77 n|. 41. K 39. 84.I 11:11 55 D23.17 Sefire I B 25 25 Ezr 7. 298 P20.2 23 D20.89 62 183 107 121 72 132 64 151 128 70 89 230 121 230 278 250 252 9 100 235 250 Qumran Aramaic and others iQapGcn 19.201 D20.4 ii 5/6HevEpll.5:4 207 V20. 103 Beyer..261. 118 Dn 6.2 249 D17..9 74 Dn7.22.1 XII:7 D23.M 43. 151. 250 INDEX OF PASSAGES 267 Dn 5.8:4 82 D8.111:10 41. E.. 131. C 133 Cook.18.1 XII:4 D23.9 Dn4. 134 Dn 5.7 19 Ezr 6.26 64 98. Z . 132 121 103 98 90 .11 128 Dn 7.I:5 84 D20.126. 122 D23.26 134 32..27.2 203 D20. 250 Dn 5.1 Va:13 D23.14 116 Barrakab II 7 55 Ezr5.2. 126 Dn 5..19 Dn4.1 Vb:6 D23.47:4 249 D22. 151 D23.292 D23. 43.42:24 80 "l..20 56 IQapGcn 21.5.43 Dn3.5:3.9:7 83 D8.111:8 121.1 XII:5 D23.7:9 79 D13:3 84 D14..358 D8.101 103 .111:7 126 D23.250 Dn 7.3 Dn3.6:1 78 D15.. 45.6 84 D22.9 Zakkur A 9 55 Jer 10.305 .5:l 85.98 .24 124 Neh 1.3 283 Megillah 73a 149 Modem authors [data in footnotes not covered] Ben-IJayyim.203 D20.2:4 80 Dl 1.1 Ezr 5. 86 Dn 6.2 Dn3.13 203 D22.256. 131 D23.29 Dn4.1 Va:10 41.42 Tel Fekheriyeh 21 105 Ex 13.45 Ezr 4.2:l 80. 303 D20.!4 Dn4.12 Sefire I B 35 12 Ezr 7.18 Tel Dan 10 55 Ezr 7.201 D20.1 Dn3.5:2.41 Dn2.l6 32.l9 Job 38.292 D23.7 Dn3. 173.3 Sefire I A 31 183 Ezr 6.1 II: 15. 172.1:1 84 DI7.203.11:2 78 D8 .1:2 81 D22.19 283 lQapGcn22.51:2 80 D23.1 Va:4 125 D23..207.21 Tel Fekheriyeh 11 Tel Fekheriyeh 20 105 Gn 27.3:l 201. 138 D23.4 Tel Fekheriyeh 22 105 Lv2l.11 Ez27..1 Va:9 82. 136 136 70 64 64 39 92.30 Dn2. 125..l8 Dn4.I:1 84 D20.10:1 85 D8.l9 Dn3.1 XI:8 D23.15 Nerab 1.22. 302.1 XIII:2 D23. 32.1 11:12 339 D23. 150 Brockelmann. 12.17...21 Old Aramaic Ezr 5.4:l 201 D20.11 Barrakab 1.98 .26 Biblical Aramaic and the Bible Dn2. 241 121 103. 130.1 Vb:9 D23.1 Va:8 82.1 VIII: 12 D23.1 XII:3 D23.1 XIII:4 Dn2.1 Va:ll 32.166 D23.1 11:13 151.1 D23.1 4 D14..

P 54. 132 Kutscher.325 Leander. 56. M.244 Porten. 138 Degen. 304.Z 232 Kaufman. P.M 103.43.Yardeni.A 14. J. J.42. 15. B. 326 Grelot. 11.207.! 14. 195 Muraoka. A 339 Dalman. A 244 Whitehead. R 20 Driver.31. 132 Lindenberger. 106. T 207 Kaddari.Muraoka. . 233.Y 40. . 229.V 150 Joiion. G. G 136.A 93 Folmer. S. M. 171.185.D 257 359 . 5. 244 Hug.R 19.! 184. E. J.APPENDICES Cowley. 10. B 120.214 Jouon. 185 Eilers. J. 16 Kottsieper. T 207 Porten. 303. W 19 Fitzmyer.

77be. 63. 62j Akkadian influence § 2c. n. f extraposition cataphoric § 41a. 24d.) st. 61 h.abs. 49f binyan-tG § 2 9 binyan-ID § 2 9 binyan-tH § 2 9 causative H or A § 49f factitive D § 4 9 e inchoative § 49g ingressive § 49g passive § 49g Shafel § 2 8 end -t binyanim § 4 9 g Bisitun inscription. 27. 77be. 78bc (n. cp casus pendens § § 65a. adjecdve § 22b. 69e kinds of adverbials § 7 5 §3n agreement § 66e. 14. n. 56. 45h adverbial quantifiers § 67e. 76cm. 42g. 6 3 . 78cr centripetal L a m e d § 74p circumstantial clause § 77br. h. 1168). the § 40a.61i adverbials § 78co-cu adverbs § 2 2 /-a. §48e. n. 40a.360 INDEX INDEX OF SUBJECTS OF SUBJECTS adjective comparison § 48d different from noun § 18u Expanding a noun phrase §66 lexicalisation § 4 8 c morphosyntax § 4 8 substantivised § 4 8 b stcst. 38f. 82 comparative § 48d m . 76 disagreement in gender §76b in number § 76c instate § 7 6 d Ahikar proverbs § 53f. 79d asseverative § 87f assimilation of/n/ § 3 a of other consonants § 3b progressive § 3h sandhi § lOg /tV>/tt/ §3e /t/>/t/ §3f asyndesis § lOf. 78cr aphaeresis of/'/ § 3 k ap|cope ofN § 31 apodosis § 52c introduced by W a w § 84r apposition § 61c (iii). l^chbis. 62j. 5 9 f anaphoric § 41 a.sg. 46i. 73 Ayin-Ayin verbs § 36 Ayin-Waw/Yod verbs § 3 5 Babylonian § 70j. 70 Arabic § 24j. 4 9 functions of § 2 5 . 78ch analytic(al) § 4 0 h . 4 6 .7 morpheme § 22c /-m/ § 22 a(n. 122a Beth essentiae § 87a binyan § 2 5 . (3) Arsames archive § 4 0 h . 49a-d binyan G § 26 binyan D § 2 7 binyan H o r A § 2 8 . n. k.

1 8 f . 6d degemination of/n/ § 3 c . d by means of /r/ § 3c deixis. j . ch imperative morphology f verb uses § 57 imperfect tense f verb uses § 5 2 in apodosis § 52c in generic statements §52d in periphrasis § 52g volitive § 5 2 h impersonal § 39f. 78 energic § 241-m uses § 53g energic Nun § 38b-c epexegetic infinitive § 56f epistolary perfect § 51b existential § 22f extraposition § 39c. 78cc. enclitic § 10. 77ca. j . n. 122 defective spelling § 5e.) genus potior § 121. 1 2 d . 80a. 2 8 . 31. 79 enclisis. f pronouns infinitive morphology § 24p conjunctive pronoun added § 24p complement of verb § 56b expanding a noun § 56e final (of purpose) § 56c object marking § 74s position of its object §78cl . n. n. 61 contraction f vowels. 55g. 81 copula § 77 bj dativus commodi vel incommodi § 74q.APPENDICES 361 concord 1 agreement conditional sentence § 84 unreal condition § 84q conjunctions § 22d construct state of adjective § 48e. 79 factitive D § 49e Fekheriyan § 62 intr. 61i construct phrase § 59b. 80 inchoative § 4 9 g indefinite pron. 76ba gnomic perfect § 5 Id gutturals weakening of § 3k Hermopolis papyri § 2a. diphthongs contractural perfect § 5 1 b coordination § 39e iv. final (of purpose) § 52f gemination % assimilation gender (of noun) § 45 and agreement § 45c feminine of inanimate referemt § 45e. 90e dissimilation § 3i distributive § 46e. f gentilic § 18h l > § 18h(n. 76cl dual % noun emphatic § 4 6 f b . deictic § 41a demonstrative f pronouns digraph § 5k diphthongs § 8 / a y / > / e / § 8a /aw/ > / 6 / § 8b direct speech § 8 5 .

6f <'> § 5f. 76ce declension § 18a dual § 18b. 6b-c. 52e. k.det. n.b . 77bf. t status constructus % suffixes ^ § 1 9 D ^ nisbeh 1 §19E 1 §19F p § 19Fa 1 § 19G SYNTAX expanded b y — adjective § 66 attributive participle § 71 cardinal numeral § . n. b^-.§ 18j gender-form mismatch § 18v (morpho)syntax of gender 1 gender irregular nouns § 18y loan-words 19K number § 4 7 patterns § 19 plural § 18b pluralis tantum § 47e. 76cf prefixes § 19H Q § 191 n § 19J R3 = / w / o r / y / § 18r state % state st. i. 46p matres lectionis § 4.) ingressive § 49g interjections § 22e. 5 <y> § 5 a . 6f digraph <?> § 5k multivalence § 5f vowel length § 6g metathesis § 3r multiple subject § 39e viii.362 INDEX OF SUBJECTS subject not indicated §56d subject of nominal clause §56i infix IXJ § 3r(n. 79 Lamed-Alef verbs § 34 merging with Lamed-Yod verbs §34 Lamed-Yod verbs § 3 7 two sub-patterns of G §37b jussive § 37d legalese § 39e (ii). g < w > § 5c-d. cp. r nomen rectum clausal § 61h nominal clause § 77 bipartite § 77b existential § 77bi identificatory § 77c one-member § 77bg tripartite § 77c noun collective § 47f. 4 7 b f sg. 89cc loan-words § 19L. 78ch. n-. 60a. marker v/7\ § 18f. 76cg. 86 interrogatives § 16 jussive f verb uses § 53 with prohibitive "^t^ §53c loss of jussive force § 53f Kafvertatis § 46fb. 6a. 83f nisbeh § 18b end. 76cg negation § 83 categorical 78cd. g <h> § 5e. h.

122a. n. 81d Persian § 40a. 67 conjunctive pronoun § 58 demonstrative pronoun §65 disjunctive possessive pronoun § 59 infinitive § 56e bn § 6 9 noun in tiie status constructus § 61 noun phrase in apposition § 70 periphrastic + noun phrase § 62 preposition Lamed of ownership or affiliation § 60 prepositoinal phrase §68 relative clause § 64 numerals § 21 cardinal § 21a fractions § 21g hundreds § 21d multiplicatives § 21h ordinal §21a(n. 1 also f verb performative perfect § 51b periphrastic § 52g. 71 = historic present § 55d periphasis with wn § 55g predicate complement § 55f substantivised § 55c passive voice morphology § 30 uses § 54 agent marking § 54d of majesty § 80b passive ptc. 78. S Y N T A X officialese § 2a optative perfect § 51e imperfect introduced by n 53b OTL recitativum § 53b. f tens § 2 1 b "11"-"19" §21c thousands § 21e Nun energicum § 38b-c object § 39d object % verb. n. 158 Pael % binyan D participle morphology § 24o uses § 55 actual present § 55a-aa as constituent of nominal clause § 77bo-bq attributive § 55b. + b § 54c partial passive transformation § 76cb. ci. 70j. 46h. 49. 66b.)-b. n. 78c. 62c.APPENDICES 363 62f. 62. n. n. 80b Peal f binyan G Pe-Alef verbs § 3 2 Pe-Nun verbs § 33 perfect tense uses § 51 contractural § 51b epistolary § 51b gnomic § 5 I d optative § 51e performative § 51b verbs of mental attitude §51c in conditional sentences § 84b-d. 103 Pe-Yod verbs § 3 1 phonology .

nn-.Ipl § 12h ] > . used as dem.364 INDEX OF SUBJECTS assimilation | /'/>/y/ §3o /b/>/p/ §3g Iml > Inl § 3 s VyV > V ' V § 3p consonantal cluster § 3t contraction % vowels diphthongs \ dissimilation ^ gutturals % V aphaeresis § 3k apocope § 31 n s D i n §3j 1 and T § 2a V and p § 2d §2e metathesis % PS /d/ § 2a PS /d/ § 2d PS Igl § 2f PS /h/ and /h/ § 2g P S / § / a n d / s 7 § 2b PS l\J § 2c PS III § 2e sandhi \ spirantisation % . ]in. m 2ms § 12d -D 2fs § 12e n-. n. ]n-. 77bh. 4 2 b protasis § 52d .61f.3 m p § 12k 3fp § 121 expanding a noun phrase §58 pronoun: demonstrative § 14. t^n.§ 4 I d substantival § 41f pronoun: disjunctive ™2fs §llb in.62g disj.41. 6 3 . possessive § 13 morphosyntax § 4 0 expanding a noun phrase §59 pronoun: indefinite § 17. 86e prolepsis.2fp § 12j • n . ( X ) . 87 prochtic § 2 0 b with final Yod § 20c compound § 20d-e presentatives § 22f. stress shift § 3k(n.) syncope^ vowels % §2b pluralis tantum § 47e prefixed conjugation \ imperfect tense preposition § 20. 74r pronouns: conjunctive Isg § 12c. t:n3m § l l f morphosyntax § 39e pronoun: disj. 3 9 c K^n 3fs § 11c ]n3t!!. (ii). cin-. nsnsK Ipl § 1 Id nm 2mp § 1 l e im. 42.41.3ms § 12f n-..58a pronoun: relative § 15 pronoun: resumptive § 39e vi. proleptic § 61c (i). ^n 3s § 5 j . ] l > 2mpl § 12i P. IT § 4 1 c expanding a noun phrase §65 forms with "'D. pron. §14f m t v s . 4 4 pronoun: personal § 39 pronoun: reflexive § 39h.3fs § 12g 1^3.

84q. § 4 2 b asyndetic § 42g.cst. 3j state of noun § 4 6 absolute § 46a-ga.5 2 Also \ perfect. 149 semi-vowels contraction § 6e. n. 37b. 29. h Shafel § 2 8 end solecism § 39g spirantisation § 2a.APPENDICES 365 reflexive f -t binyan relative pronoun % pronoun relative clause § 4 2 antecedent in st. imperfect verb § 23-38 MORPHOLOGYperfect § 24a-g 2ms § 2 4 b Is § 24c 2 m p § 24d 2fp § 2 4 e Ipl § 2 4 f 3fp § 24g imperfect § 24h2/3fp § 24j jussive § 24k energic § 241-m imperative § 24n binyanim § 25 participle § 24o with suffixal object pronouns § 38 imperfect with energic Nun § 3 8 b two forms for "him" § 38f (1). (3) iDn'them' § 3 8 f ( 5 ) . n.n of/h/§3q Syriac § 24b. 6 3 . 78cm-cn cn. ion 'them' § 74h infinitive § 56b. 64b independent. 73c noun phrase or pronoun §74 object ellipsis § 74o . h generalising § 52d sandhi § 10. 181. 49g tense § 5 0 . § 46f. nonrestrictive § 42c. fa subject s. 67d of construct phrase § 46q determined § 46i-p generic § 46fb predicative adj. (6) MORPHOSYNTAX— object ^ tense \ SYNTAX— expanded by (§ 72)accusative of limitation or specification § 74u adverbials § 75 asyndetic verb phrase §73 c e n t r i p e t a l § 74p conjunctive pronoun §74e double objects § 74g. 74r -t binyan § 3r. antecedentless § 42d introducing a locative phrase § 68c-d restrictive vs. complement § 74t elision of § 77bg suffixed conjugation \ perfect tense suppletion § 18x syncope of/'/ § 3 m . 55g.

§74d verbs of intellectual perception or communication § 741-m verbs of physical movement § 74i verbal clause § 78. 43 n ^n^t^ § 88a.366 INDEX OF SUBJECTS object marker other than b § 74f pronoun object § 78bb Also 1 word-order. 7 elision § 9 vowel letters § 5 Waw of apodosis § 84r of accompaniment § 39d iv word-order nominal clause § 77 bipartite § 77b tripartite § 77c verbal clause § 78 object fronting § 78ccc-cg object of infinitive § 78cl Aramaic words i« § 8 9 a pn« §66b. also \ word-order vocative § 86 vowels § 4 contraction § 6e lengdi § 6g. 77bj.81d subject or predicate of §77bk i'7n § 8 6 e •n. 143 bv prohibitive § 83b Tt>v § 4 7 d • « particle § 90c mv § 4 4 g . §55g. n. i m § l l f . 44f. 8 6 e in introducing a gloss § 77bc identifying function of §77c enclitic § 77ca mn periphrastically with ptc.76d mv § 17. verbal clause government or rection ambiguity oib % 74j cognate object § 74m direct § 74b indirect § 74c infinitive § 74s object complement §74k object-marking prep. 164 (nota objecti) § 74d.67g. 77bi. n. 4 7 f *nmv § 2b ^v § 9 0 a nnv § 9 0 b ™ §86e ^nt^verb §371 n 87a 133 § 8 7 c p 87b -133 § 4 4 i -bn \ -bl noi § 14g «rT § 7 7 b h . mvb. ''mv. 3 8 f ( 5 H 6 ) . "mvb § 22f. h mv. 39d ]n § 8 4 . n.

vbn § 2 2 c vninn § 3p. n. n. § 3a Dvnn § 17. 4 3 .) bnp 'to complain' § 74d vw § 76ci WtiJ'tohate' § 74e cbw 'peace' § 76ck bpv § 2 c Bibhcal Aramaic [See also Dn and Ezr in Index of passages] nm § 18j. 33 ^pnv §2d nv § 8 8 d vbv § 8 7 d vmv pl. n. n. lOd. Jewish Aramaic. m n 'one' § 46c. n. eskah §73a.APPENDICES 367 -1 § 89c. 79 (emphadc). n. n. vrB § 18y fc!5in § 11. n. 87e-f nn.) p':?overb § 3 3 . 83c-f Db § 9 0 e np ':5verb § 3b. 44a-e §3o ejE3 § 39h. including T a r g u m i c and Q u m r a n Aramaic bbn § 9 . 88e -':"T § 13 C3I § 14g i n . n. . 'ida:' § 3k. n. 143 D § 46fb.-' § 18w. ]nnn § 3a nbvn § 20c.o r Pael § 2 5 . § 9 nny^ § 3c nns* 'governor' § 18n(n. n. n. 7 3 a m § 52f o §90d bn § 6 9 vbn § 2 2 c . m 88c bnn § 3 q . nnv § 8a. ca-ce m § 74d. n. vyirB § 6b.76cg • 0 'to support' § 74e noiD 'horse' § 18r(n. n. v:nn § 6b. 143 clause § 88 preceded by interrogadve § 42e. n r j V § 18n. 67b mnv §2a n'3TS' § 2a m §86 by § 7 3 a m § 74d. 6 9 d K ':'^'to restrain' § 74e p § 78cr mn* 'governor' § 18n(n. n. vnnn § 2 2 a . n n o f cvnn nbn § 44j p prep. § 10b centripetal § 74p dadvus c o m m o d i vel incommodi § 74q navb § 8 5 b nb = vb § 31. n.) vonn § 3 c b prep.6 <3|ra. « ^ n § 11. n . n . •^rin § 2 d Classical Syriac ^akhda:' § 22a. n. 58a W §47c.

n. n. n. DTO § 18r. kettama:^ § 6b. . lam § 90e. esru § 18r. kuttina:^ § 6b. sa:'' § 18v. n. n. nahra:' § 18w. n. yammin § 6a. Arabic 'u^u:r § 3c. ete:qu § 3f. tlaila:^ 9. n. n. ii^/M § 2c tisH § 18r. kandu § 3c ki: adi §88d. kytwn^ § 6b. sin-ahhe:-eri:ba § 2b § 18v. n.368 INDEX OF SUBJECTS z'^ora:^ § 6d. c. 65 Hebrew pto § 3c pto-ii § 3 c n ^ p n n § 3g •nspii § 3g § 8b. n. n. kina:tu § 18w ^w^^tf § 3c mala § lOe. saggp § 6 7 e . n. 150 ?ela:lo:t § 9. am § 4 0 . n. gugalu § 6g. natasa § 2b. 165 igirtu § 18j. n. n. n . KOD § 3 c n«D § I8v. n. § 7 7 b j . n. n. ekurru § 6b. min § 42d. 105 sebu § 18r. n. n. 187 Akkadian ana § 74d. n. n. n. n. n. sa:ruta:' § 18r. mna:ta:^ § 18n.^. n. 83 be:lfa:bti § 61c. n. 1 ^3^<i« § 6d. n. n. n.n. n. n. n. naliljet § 2 5 . n. '^d/<3:w<33. liaqla:^ § 18v. n. n.n. § 2 0 c . manhalu § 3d. pi:ha:tu § 18n. imn § 2 2 a . n. 23 nadasa § 2b. n. C^P: 4ila' §2d § 18j. n. ma:rya:^ § 3o. pta:ya:' § 18r. §6a. 150 yami:n § 6a. n. n. n. 77 maqlu:tu § 18r. n. ^uvra:' § 6b. sa'ta:' § 18v. hreita:^ § 18j. bi:n § 3k. liqa:' §18b. ^a:bitu § 6g sintu § 46o. n. n. n. n. 150 Classical Ethiopic yama:n § 6a. n. (xix). n. qallil § 67e. arad ekalli § 6d. n. g. n. n. n. 23 yaman § 6a.

n . § 6g. Hittite hanza Luvian hant(a) Persian nifriti § 3j § 3j § 18j. KLXL^ OTL § 18y. n. n. n. bhtm Greek 61)91)9 § 7 8 c p . 165 § 53b. btm. . 19K TTLva^ § uvyx^i^ § 4 9 g . n. n. XLTojy § 6b.APPENDICES Ugaritic bwtm. n. wg § 88c. n.

5:8 A6. 11:5.5:18.Hinz 18) Hinz 23 Hinz 22-3 pressers route guarantor A6.9:14.13:4 *upaiti£P£:il7.03.2:5.6.) herald A4.5:6.8niB:24 03.13:1.5:7 A6. necessary A6.10:12 A6.1:5. ptc.370 TABLES OF LOAN-WORDS OLD PERSIAN Aramaic Old Persian OP source Hinz 18 Translation penalty Source B2.ll:10.10:18.12:27 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 *avadaisa*upakrta*upasta*upaCara*azda*azdakara- Hinz 51 Hinz 243-44 TAD C 244 statement reckoning upasta-(Iand) needs (?) known (pass.2:5. 3.7:5 A6.3:8 *aCamaHinz 21 material A4. 1 •abigarana- 2 3 4 *abi§avaka*advan*adranga- Shaked(but cf.6.9:5 B3.7:11. C3.7 Hinz 243 Hinz 52 Hinz 52 nm *azata Hinz 52 free B3.4:23 *atrva8ana*bagaHinz 49 Hinz 53 brazier domain/ property A4.6:8 «^3n .9:7.22 A4. 11:12.1:69 fi50A5 1981:6 *aspmaHinz 46 in full A6. 13.2:3. 5.6:4 *ayaumani§.4:2.Sims-Williams remiss C2.9.10:15.2:9 Shaked *rdpa Hinz 204 ardab (= 3 seah) B4. 3.8:31.7.21:4.9 A6.

17 Benveniste 302 paint Hinz 116 was garrisoned A4. 6. crime A4.5:3 Berger 43 Shaked (orally) peace D17.5:9+ Hinz 115-6 coating.5:4.13:3-4.ll:4 »3n3n n'3]n *hangy9ain3n *handauria- n3n3n run *handizanan *handarza- «m3n 39 *hanpana- . p ' Q W ] T Q 0 1 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 3 (=V-13) *gnpa*duS-van*duSkrtan m *druvatat*da§nai33«in *hadaabigvan'Dion *ham-aunite*hmarakara3i3nDQn *hamakaryagrab333n *hanbaga Hinz 121 accountant A6. B2.5:7.1:l informer A4. instruction protection A6. 313) I Shaked (orally) ill-willed B8.13:5 increment Bogoljubov 73in agreement A4. C3. vamish.10:9.1:5 Hinz 84 grant A6. 207.2:5.12:2 ~ ~ ~ ~ temple D17. 8:13. 7:5 .10:2. A6.10:5 holding Shaked Hinz 115 partner in realtyB5. joint B8.4:7 ^ Aram.4-6.7:6.5:9 ("hearer") treasure Hinz 102 A6.8. 10:9 evil domestic staff A6.4:l-6 Hinz 109 accrued A6.2:4+ Segal 16.7:5.A6. Hinz 107 12:2. 6-7 Hinz 107 men of every kind in sufficient (number) Hinz 108 (but 1/3 ardab B4. pledge.28:40+ Hinz 116 partner in chattel B5. 14:3 B3.APPENDICES 19 20 21 22 23 24 24a •badikarHinz 64 •brazmadana.10:1-2.4:2 Hinz 90. 15:8-10 staff of crafts.5:9.10:2-3.A6.Hinz 67 •gauSakaHinz 105 *ganza(•XTQ) no3 *gasta(pati^ma) *gfdaartisan A6.7:4 Hinz 115 Hinz 117 order.2:4+ Hinz 103 harsh (word).

21 barley-house revolt. B2.15:8 damages kind.10:2-3. Hinz 226 whitener (?) A6.EPE 243. unrest diminishment. 7 staff of crafts.1:75 A6.Hinz 227 chastisement.1:7+ B3.8IIIB:1 *frataraopenly C2. 8.Hinz 96-97 foreman A6.9:2-3 seventh (part o the world/kingdom) 03. C2.A6.2:17.8:3.11:7 *friya-patiEPE 248 main beloved. 5.Hinz 150 C T T D Berger 57 *magu•tiaupati Berger 58 Hinz 174 mm 59 60 61 62 Shaked Or 412 litigation(?) B2. decrease a weight Magian shipmaster A4. C3. Chief A4.l5after-gift B3. 7-8 p v *yau-danaShaked mv *yawzaHinz 275 *kasunaeva.Hinz 176 rescript A6. A6.5:5 A6.1:3 *spitakan cf. 11:1 A6.2:8. 6-7 men of every kind in sufficient (number) plenipotentiary A6. 7:5. 1 2 : l l chief of the beloved *framnakaia. 8.1:67 *fratarakaHinz 98 governor.10:3.28:107-8 a vessel of every kind A6.2:2.2:9. manner A6.372 40 TABLE OF LOAN-WORDS «nsnrsn *haftaxvapatai Hinz 110 41 42 42a p-SO T" *vispazana *vispazana- Geiger 80b Berger 54 Berger 54 ]tSD1 *xvar§bara*zyaniV *zana*zamyakaHinz Hinz Hinz Hinz 140 279 276 278 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 guardian of the B3.9:5 *niStavana. n.2:4.9:4 to-ims *fratakaHinz 98 the foremost A5.5:24.1:3 arsenic A6. B 3 .9:8. 22 *srauSyata.2:7 n T E 3 3 *nipart- .5:2. 10:2 B3. 4 A6. 8:5.3:6-7 punishment msDos •pasda dati.5:4.11:2.

5:4 Grelot no.t dp Glossar 329 Glossar 338 U6V447.21:2. 5