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Computer network top qns I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII.

XIX. XX. XXI.

XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII.

Virtual meetings on Internet are called. LAN can be connected by devices called.. The bit pattern is the preamble of 802.3 frame format. Basic SONET frame is a block of . bytes. The amount of thermal noise is measured by .. Explain the Frequency Modulation. What is WAN and where it is used? how it is different from LAN and MAN. Explain single error detecting code with example. What is Flow control? Explain. Explain CSMA/CD Protocol. Describe Multitasking. Describe Service Primitives. Explain briefly PCM and its requirements. What is Concession Control describe i) Load shedding ii) Jitter Control. Under it. What is QoS? Token Bucket Algorithm is employed to prevent congestion. The capacity of the bucket is 250k byes Arriving rate of the token is 2MB/sec. if the maximum output rate is 25MB/sec, calculate the burst length in time. Describe principles considered in the design of network layer in the internet. Describe Address format used in Internet. [ With figure ] A Network on the Internet has a Subnet mask of 255.255.240.0. What is the maximum No. of hosts it can handle? What are basic difference between IPV4 and IPV6? Describe Address Resolution Protocol, use diagram if required. What is the difference between Interior gateway protocol and Exterior gateway protocol. What is the function of ATM adaptation layer. Illustrate the phenomenon of Silly Window Syndrome in TCP. What is delayed duplicate problem? Explain Unicast addresses, Multicast adresses, and broadcast address

Comment on Data Encryption Standard (DES) weakness and strength.

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric key block cipher which takes 64-bit plaintext and 56-bit key as an input and produces 64-bit cipher text.............
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If you are a victim of Denial of Service (Dos) then what you do? The function of a denial of service attack is to flood its target machine with too much traffic and prevents it from being accessible to any other requests or providing services..............
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Routing and Switching What are Brute Force Attacks? Brute forcing is a mechanism which is used by an attacker to break the encryption of data by applying a set of various key.............
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How do you use RSA for both authentication and secrecy? RSA is a public key encryption algorithm. The RSA algorithms are...........
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Can you differentiate among encoding, encryption and hashing? Encoding: Basically encoding is used to protect the integrity of data as it crosses through communication network to keep its original message.............
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If you have to generate a hash function then what characteristics are needed in a secure hash function? A secure hash function should have the following characteristics:................
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What is digital signature? Differentiate between Physical and Digital Signature A digital signature is an electronic analogue of a written signature; the digital signature can be used to provide assurance...........
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What is Authentication Header and how it provides the protection to IP header? Basically Authentication Header protects IP header and provides the complete authenticity to the IP packets.............
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Explain SSL Protocol. How does it protect internet users from various threats? The SSL protocol (Secure Socket Layer protocol) was originally developed by Netscape, to ensure security of data transported.............
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What is PIX firewall security? How does it differ from a firewall?

PIX (Private Internet Exchange)...........


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What are Malware? Explain different types of Malware Malware is a software program which is developed to destroy a computer system..............
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What are replay attacks? Give an example of replay attack Replay attacks are the network attacks in which an attacker spies the conversation between the sender and receiver..........
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If you have to encrypt as well as compress data during transmission then which would you do first and why? Data should be transmitted over any communication network in such a way that the data integrity and authenticity.............
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What is the goal of Information Security in an organization? Mainly there are three Information security goals in an organization: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability..............
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What is Symmetric-Key cryptography and Asymmetric-Key cryptography? Symmetric-Key Cryptography: Symmetric-key cryptography uses a single key for both encryption and decryption. Encryption and decryption algorithm are inverse of each other.............
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Explain the services provided by IP (Internet Protocol) - Addressing, Fragmentation, Packet timeouts and options Latest answer: Addressing: For the purpose of delivering datagram packets, IP needs to know about the address of the destination. By including the host addressing, this task is carried out by IP. As IP operates in an internet, its systems are designed to accept the addressing of devices which are unique.............
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Explain the classes of IP address


Latest answer: IP addresses are organized into classes. For convenience of humans, IP addresses are expressed in the decimal format. Every number in each class is represented as binary to computers..................
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Define Broadcast, Unicast and Multicast.


Latest answer: Unicast: A term used in communication to describe a piece of information to send from one point to another. There are only sender and receiver................
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What is Network Mask?


Latest answer: A network mask is used for determination of what subnet an IP address belongs to. An IP address has network address and the host address.................
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Define Subnetting.
Latest answer: A subnet describes a set of networked computers which have common IP address routing prefix..................
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What is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP)?


Latest answer: User datagram protocol allows computer applications to send messages as datagram packets from source to destination on an Internet Protocol,..................
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Explain TCP Windowing concept.


Latest answer: TCP Windowing is a concept that is used for avoiding congestion in the network traffic..................
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What is the Domain Name System (DNS)? What are the advantages of it?
Latest answer: A hierarchical naming system for computer systems, services or for that matter any resource participating in the internet...................
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What is the TTL (Time to Live)? Why is it required?


Latest answer: TTL is a value in data packet of Internet Protocol. It communicates to the network router whether or not the packet should be in the network for too long or discarded.................
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Explain the use of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)


Latest answer: Internet Control Message Protocol is one of the important protocols in the Internet Protocol suite. It is mainly used in operating system of networked computers..................
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What is the use of IGMP protocol? Latest answer: Internet Group Management Protocol: - It allows internet hosts to participate in multicasting. The IGMP messages are used to learn which hosts is part of which multicast groups..............
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What are Ping and Tracert?

Latest answer: Ping and tracert are the commands used to send information to some remote computers to receive some information. Information is sent and received by packets..............
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Explain RSVP. How does it work? Latest answer: Resource Reservation protocol is used to reserve resources across a network. It is used for requesting a specific Quality of Service (QoS) from the network...............
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Explain the concept of DHCP. Latest answer: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used assigning IP addresses to computers in a network. The IP addresses are assigned dynamically...............
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What are the differences between a domain and a workgroup? Latest answer: In a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. On the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other.............
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Explain how NAT works. Latest answer: Network Address Translation translates and IP address used in a network to another IP address known within another network. A NAT table is maintained for global to local and local to mapping of IPs................
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What is PPP protocol? Explain PPP packet format. Latest answer: Point to Point protocol helps communication between 2 computers over a serial cable, phone line or other fiber optic lines. E.g. Connection between an Internet Service Provider and a host................
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What is IP Spoofing and how can it be prevented? Latest answer: IP spoofing is a mechanism used by attackers to gain unauthorized access to a system. Here, the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host...............
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Explain IP datagram, Fragmentation and MTU. Latest answer: IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily..............
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What is an application gateway? Latest answer: An application gateway is an application program that runs on a firewall between two networks. An application gateway is used for establishing connection between client program and destination service..................
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Explain Circuit Level Gateway. Latest answer: A circuit level gateway is used to find if a session in TCP handshaking is legitimate or not. It can be considered as a layer between application layer and transport layer..................
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What is 'Gateway Of Last Resort'? A Gateway of Last Resort or Default gateway is a route used by the router when no other known route exists to transmit the IP packet. Known routes are present in the routing table.................
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What are switches? Explain the concepts of Layer-3 switches. Latest answer: It is a device that connects multiple network segments. A switch analyzes the MAC address and then determines where to send the data..............
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What is Router? Explain components of Routers. Latest answer: The way switches connect multiple computers, a router connects multiple networks. Routers comprise of data consisting of large tables of networks and addresses..................
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Overview of OSI layer. Latest answer: OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection The OSI reference model gives an overview of the layered communications and computer network protocol design...................
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Explain different layers in the OSI model. Latest answer: Application Layer: Closest to the end user, Interact directly with the software application. Presentation Layer: Translates application to network format, and vice versa, Works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept, Formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network.........................
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Explain the concept and capabilities of Unicast IP Addresses. Latest answer: It is an IP address that uniquely identifies a host in a network. The datagram with a unicast IP address is received and processed by only a single host.
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What is IP Multicasting? Latest answer: It is an IP address that identifies a particular group of hosts in network. This group of hosts is called a multicast group..............
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Explain the classes of IP addresses. Why do we need them?

Latest answer: Class A: Range: from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. Leftmost bit: 0. First 8 bits: netid. Remaining 24 bits: hostid..............
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What is Subneting? Explain the advantages of using Subneting. Latest answer: Subneting is dividing a network into several subnets. This is usually done for the following purposes:..................
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What is Superneting? Explain the concept of custom Subneting. Latest answer: Supernetting or Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) : It is a way to aggregate multiple Internet addresses of the same class..............
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What is VLSM, Variable length subnet masking? Latest answer: VLSM is a means of allocating IP addressing resources to subnets according to their individual need rather than some general network-wide rule................
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What is Data Fragmentaion? Explain how Data Fragmentaion works. Latest answer: Fragmentation occurs when storage space is used inefficiently due to which storage capacity and performance is reduced................
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Explain the concepts and capabilities of IP Datagram. Latest answer: Data transmitted over an internet using IP is carried in messages called IP datagrams. Like all network protocol messages, IP uses a specific format for its datagrams...................
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What is MAC address? Media Access Control address is an identifier for assigned to most network adapters or Network Interface Cards by the manufacturer for the purpose of identification...............
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What is a gateway Define DNS and how it works. What you know about the DHCP What is ATM What is Frame Relay Define ISDN Define Protocols What you know about the network topologies Define a router and switch and how they works.

Define Ethernet What is a network topology What is a firewall Why a PING command is used How to secure a computer network How to deal with viruses How to block hacking attacks How VOIP works What is a MAC address What is an IP address How many types are of network cables? Whats the difference between hub and switch Whats the difference between the workgroup and domain? What is RIP What is TCP/IP Define seven layers of the OSI model. Define OSPF Define Wi-Max What is Wi-Fi Define ports. What is internet filtering What is Pix firewall? What is WAN? How router works? What is peer-to-peer and client/server communication model.