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Cranfield University

Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP)

Philosophy of Higher Education

February 2013

The intended learning outcomes (ILOs) for this workshop are that participants should be able to: Articulate a critical and scholarly review of theories of higher education and its purposes Assess the relevance of these philosophies and mechanisms in the context of his/her own professional practice Demonstrate a commitment to scholarship, learning communities and continuing professional development On completion of this workshop, participants should be able to: Analyse and reflect critically on Higher Education policy and practice Explain some of the conceptual and theoretical frameworks that underpin policy and practice, such as social constructivism and the qualitative research agenda Recognise and describe some of the contemporary contextual policy elements which are influencing Higher Education Reflect on their position in both a personal career trajectory as well as in the wider context Before the Workshop Read at least Chapter 2 of Fry, Ketteridge and Marshall (2009) Try to read Chapter 1 of Brookfield (1995) Becoming a critically reflective teacher Briefly Review these 3 online sources. How do they differ, if at all? o Atherton, J. (2009) Learning and Teaching: Angles on learning, particularly after the schooling years [Online]. Available: o Kearsley (2010) Theory into Practice (TIP) database o Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2010). Available at: Read and be prepared to discuss this passage: Most academics - in the humanities and social sciences, particularly - come at their subject these days from a relativist perspective: knowledge is "in here"; there is no knowledge without the knower; knowledge is "constructed" in cultural contexts; knowledge is not "given" or "out there". There is no "absolute truth". This position is quite different from the classical approach: knowledge is "out there"; the "laws of nature" are independent from the mind of the investigator; there is "truth" to be discovered. This approach depends on the "independent, objective observer", who can stand aside from the observed phenomenon and form an unbiased view. This classical approach is the traditional position of many scientists, as well the commonsense view of how knowledge is produced, which (according to Scollon) is held by an international public discourse of commerce and government. (see Scollon 2003: 71)

0930 Introductions, Agenda & Objectives for the Day Course structure Modules Policy drivers and institutional pragmatics Coffee Break History of Ideas: hidden curriclua Institutions of society Purpose of Higher Education Academic identity Lunch Break Learning theory -isms and ologies Difference Criticality Competence Coffee Break Policy Levels of analysis Drivers Outcomes Pragmatics Wrap-up Was there ever a golden age?

1000 1045-1100 1100-1200

Card sort activity

Purpose of Higher Education

1200-1300 1300-1400

What is theory for you VAK self test

1400-1415 1415-1500

Learning Outcomes Debate


References and reading

Key Readings Atherton, J. (2009) Learning and Teaching: Angles on learning, particularly after the schooling years [Online]. Available: Barnett, R. (1997). Higher education: a critical business. Buckingham, UK/Bristol, PA: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: JosseyBass Publlishers. Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. & Marshall, S., 2009. Understanding Student Learning. In H. Fry, S. Kettridge, & S. Marshall, eds. A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice. Routledge, pp. 8-26. Kearsley, G., 2007. Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database. Available at: [Accessed November 25, 2010]. Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Learning Theories, Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2010). Available at: [Accessed November 25, 2010] Scollon, R. (2003). "The Dialogist in a Positivist World: Theory in the Social Sciences and the Humanities at the end of the Twentieth Century." Social Semiotics 13(1): 71-88

Additional readings and references from the Workshop Avis, J. (2006b). From reproduction to learning cultures: postcompulsory education in England. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27(3), 341-354. doi: Article. Biesta, G. (2006). What's the point of lifelong learning if lifelong learning has no point? On the democratic deficit of policies for lifelong learning. European Educational Research Journal, 5(3-4), 169-180. Retrieved from %27s+the+point+of+lifelong+learning......doc. Blackmore, P. (2009). Conceptions of development in higher education institutions. Studies in Higher Education, 34(6), 663-676. doi: DOI: 10.1080/03075070902785598. Boyd, D. (2009 6). The Not-So-Hidden Politics of Class Online. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Brookfield, S. D. (2003). A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, (97), 73. doi: Article. Brookfield, S. D. (2005). The power of critical theory for adult learning and teaching. Maidenhead: Open University Press, McGraw Hill Education. Brown, P., Lauder, H. & Ashton, D. (2008). Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy. European Educational Research Journal, 7(2), 131-156. Retrieved September 10, 2009, from _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ795744&ERICExtSearch_Search Type_0=no&accno=EJ795744. Clydesdale, T. (2009, January 23). Wake Up and Smell the New Epistemology. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(20), B7. Retrieved from Collier, A. (1994). Critical Realism: An Introduction to Roy Bhaskar's Philosophy. London: Verso. Cormier, D. (2010, January 27). Community as Curriculum vol 2. The Guild/Distributed Continuum. Daves Educational Blog. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Dewey, J. (1997). How we think (unabridged republication of the 1910 edition). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. Ditton, M. J. (2009). How social relationships influence academic health in the 'enterprise university': an insight into productivity of knowledge workers. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(2), 151-164. doi: Article. Disler, E.A., 2003. Words and Weapons The Power of Discourse. Air & Space Power Journal, 17(3), pp.99-106. Available at: [Accessed November 28, 2010]. Drapeau, M. & Wells, L. (2009). Social software and national security: an initial net assessment. Defense & Technology Papers. Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University. Retrieved August 15, 2009, from;

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. (A. Sheridan, Tran.). London: Allen Lane, Penguin. Freeman, R. (2007). Epistemological Bricolage: How Practitioners Make Sense of Learning. Administration & Society, 39(4), 476-496. doi: 10.1177/0095399707301857. Freire, P. (1974). Education: the practice of freedom. Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative. Fuller, A., Hodkinson, H., Hodkinson, P. & Unwin, L. (2005). Learning as peripheral participation in communities of practice: a reassessment of key concepts in workplace learning. British Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 49-68. doi: Article. Galison, P. (2007). Using Linguistic Anthropology to See How Scientific Disciplines Talk | Berkman Center. Berkman Centre for Internet and Society, Harvard University. Retrieved June 28, 2009, from Galison, P. De-localized Production of Scientific Knowledge. (2007, October 7). Retrieved

from Garrison, J. (2001). An Introduction to Dewey's Theory of Functional "Trans-Action": An Alternative Paradigm for Activity Theory. Mind, Culture & Activity, 8(4), 275-296. doi: Article. Graham, S. (n.d.). Rethinking the digital divide: the software-sorted society. Department of Geography : Projects - Durham University. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Gunn, V. (2003). Transforming Subject Boundaries: The Interface between Higher Education Teaching and Learning Theories and Subject-Specific Knowledge. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 2(3), 265-280. doi: 10.1177/14740222030023004. Hammersley, M. (2005). What can the literature on communities of practice tell us about educational research? Reflections on some recent proposals. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 28(1), 5-21. doi: Article. Hanisch, C. (2006). The personal is political. Writings by Carol Hanisch, Retrieved February 7, 2010, from Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2001). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. UltiBase. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from HESA - Higher Education Statistics Agency - Development of the Joint Academic Coding System (JACS) Version 3. (n.d.). . Retrieved August 21, 2009, from Johns, S., Shalak, M., Luoma, M. & Fore, D. (2000). Knowledge Warrior for the 21st Century. Catalysts for Cultural Change. Strategy research project, Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College. Retrieved January 17, 2010, from collection=t3&id=ADA380132. Maskell, D. & Robinson, I. (2001). The new idea of a university. Londn: Haven Books. Middendorf, J. & Pace, D. (2004). Decoding the disciplines: A model for helping students learn disciplinary ways of thinking. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, (98), 112. doi: Article. Morey, A. I. (2000). Changing Higher Education Curricula for a Global and Multicultural World. Higher Education in Europe, 25(1), 25-39. doi: 10.1080/03797720050002170. Neumann, R., Becher, T. & Parry, S. (2002). Teaching and Learning in their Disciplinary Contexts: a conceptual analysis. Studies in Higher Education, 27(4), 405-417. doi: Article. Noble, D. (1998). Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education. First Monday, 3(1). Retrieved from Pickles, T. & Greenaway, R. (n.d.). Experiential learning articles + critiques of David Kolb's theory. The Active Reviewing Guide (Reproduced from LearningWire, a free digest from TrainingZone). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from Schommer-Aikins, M. & Easter, M. (2006). Ways of Knowing and Epistemological Beliefs: Combined effect on academic performance. Educational Psychology, 26(3), 411-423. doi: Article. Umpleby, S. A., Mekhonoshin, K. & Vladimirov, Z. (2009). A Global University for a Global Village. Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies, 9(3), 446-461. doi: Article. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Woodin, T. (2007). Chuck out the teacher: radical pedagogy in the community. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(1), 89-104. doi: Article. Yandell, J. & Turvey, A. (2007). Standards or communities of practice? Competing models of workplace learning and development. British Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 533-550. doi: Article. iek, S. (2009). First as tragedy, then as farce. London: Verso. Zembylas, M. & Vrasidas, C. (2005). Globalization, information and communication technologies, and the prospect of a 'global village': promises of inclusion or electronic colonization? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(1), 65-83. Retrieved from ://000225282100004.