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Q1. What is a Database. Q2. What is DBMS? Q3. Describe briefly a database system environment. Q4. What is OLAP?

Q4(a) Write the difference between OLTP and OLAP. Q5. What is GIS? Q6. What are the advantages of DBMS? Q7. What are the functions of DBMS? Q8. Distinguish between database approach and traditional file processing. Q9. State difference between data processing and data management. Q10. What do you mean by data independence? Q10(a). Give the difference between logical data independence and physical data independence. Q11. What are the significances of using database approaches that can benefit most organisations? Q12. What are the types of file organisation? Q13. What are the disadvantages of Database approaches? Q14. What are the disadvantages of the file oriented approach? Q15. Explain three schema architecture in DBMS. Q15(a). State the difference between Logical database design and Conceptual database design. Q16. What are the objective of three level architecture? Q17. What is data model and what are the components of data model? Q17(a). Describe Types of Data models in DBMS. Q18. What is the role of a database administrator? Q19. What is database model and explain the models? Q19(a). Write the different categories of DBMS based on the data model, number of users and number of sites. Q20. What are the different kinds of DBMS users? Q21. Explain the components of data model. Q22. What are the components of an E-R model? Explain them briefly. Q22(a). What are symbols of ER diagram? Q23. What do you mean by Specialisation, Generalization and aggregation. Q24. Describe the differences between Generalisation and Specialisation. Q25. What are different types of entities. Q26. Differentiate between strong and weak entities. Q27. Define Database schema. Q28. What are the types of database languages? Q29. What are the types of data manipulation language? Q30. Distinguish between end user and system developer. Q30(a). What are the three types of actions involved in database? Q31. What do you mean by data dictionary in DBMS and what are the functions of data dictionary? Q32. What is database schema and database state? Q33. What is a Data Warehouse? Q34. Describe the rules of making relations in RDBMS. Q35. What are different kinds of attributes? Q36. What do you mean by domain in RDBMS. Q36(a). What are the cardinality ratios for a binary relationship? Give suitable example each. Q37. What is Entity type and entity set in DBMS?

Q38. Define Key attribute of an entity type? Q39. What do you mean by super-key in DBMS. Q40. What is primary key in DBMS? Q40(a). Define foreign key. Q40(b). Define partial key. Q41. What do you mean by candidate-key in DBMS. Q41(a). What do you mean by constraints in DBMS? Q41(b) What are the types of participation constraints? Give example. Q42. When does database dependency occur in DBMS? Q43. What is trivial functional dependency? Q43(a). What do you mean by relationship cardinality. Q44. What is normalization and why done? Q44(a). What are the disadvantages of Normalisation. Q45. What are the normalization steps in DBMS? Q45(a). Compare BCNF and 3NF. Q46. Define Functional Dependencies (FD), Partial dependency, Transitive Dependencies (TD) and Multi-Valued Dependencies (MVD). Q46(a). Write the well-known inference rules for functional dependencies. What are Armstrongs inference rules? Q47. Describe different keys of RDBMS. Q48. Explain Boyce-Codd Normal Form. Q50. What is Data Denormalization? Q51. What is Bit Mapped Index? Q52. Compare between network model and relational model? Q53. What does Clustered Index mean? Q54. Explain integrity rules of DBMS. Q55. Q56. Q57. Q58. Q59. Q60. What do you mean by relational algebra in DBMS? What do you mean by Cross Product operation of two relations? What do you mean by Union operation in RDBMS. What do you mean by join operations in RDBMS. What do you mean by tuple relational calculus? Compare tuple relational calculus and relational algebra.

Q61. What is domain relational calculus? Q62. When and where AND and OR operators of SQL are used? Q63. What is the use of keyword ORDER BY in SQL? Q64. Explain INSERT keyword in DBMS. Q65. What do you mean by embedded SQL. Q66. What are the advantages of PL/SQL Q66(a). What is Exception Handling in PL/SQL? Q67. What is a Stored Procedure? Q68. What are Cursors? Q69. Explain SQL trigger command? Q70. What is B-Tree? Q71. Explain B+ tree. Q72. What is the difference between B tree and B+ tree in RDBMS? Q73. What do you mean by database transaction. Q74. Explain the properties of database transaction.

Q75. What are the states of database transaction? Q76. What do you mean by database concurrency and locking? Q76(a). Discuss why concurrency control and recovery are needed by giving examples. Q76(b). What are the methods of concurrency control. Q77. What do you mean by transaction log Q78. What is two phase locking? Q79. What is lock and explain different types of lock. Q80. What is transaction failure and what are different types of transaction failure? Q81. What is distributed database? Q81(a). What is the difference between distributed database and client server database? Q81(b). What is the difference between distributed file system and distributed database system? Q81(c). What is the difference between Distributed database and Centralised database system? Q82. What is the advantages and disadvantages of Distributed Database System? Q83. What do you mean by deadlocking in RDBMS. Q83(a). What are the causes of Deadlock? Q84. How can deadlocking be prevented? Q85. What are the types of relationship? Q86. What do you mean by relationship cardinality.