Ethics can be defined as the reflective process by which individuals, social groups and social institutions evaluate their actions from the perspective of moral principles and values. For example in the Queen v. Dudley and Stephens case, in order to escape death from hunger, kills the innocent boy for the purpose of eating his flesh, is guilty of murder, although at the time of the act he is in such circumstances that he believes and has reasonable. However, this is unethical because every human has dignity to live a life no matter in any hard circumstances. Social Responsibility is an ethical ideology or theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual or organization has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystem. There are many ideas and theories I learnt from this subject which have its own moral values. One of the greatest ethical ideal that impressed me is “utilitarianism”. The utilitarianism theory focuses on selecting the best act that offers the best consequences of an individual. Utilitarian‟s does not examine the differences in a chosen act that is based on moral issues. They instead focus on the specific individual who is performing the act. Utilitarianism will focus on morality only if the action is considered an ideal act but if the action is not a preferred act, then morality does not play a role. Likewise, in utilitarianism ethics is not viewed when making a decision because all decisions are based on the best result for an individual. Besides that, utilitarianism ethics emphasize that action should be morally beneficial to a group. This course of ethics is often known as “the greatest good for the greatest number” or simply put, “the greater good” . In other words, the consequence of any ethical action should be beneficial for all by mass appeal.

Bentham proposed an equation which gave huge impact on utilitarianism which is “Happiness = Pleasure – Pain”. The second theme is the utilitarian rationale for the use of such embryos. An act is „right‟ if it delivers more pleasure than pain and „wrong‟ if it brings about more pain than pleasure. circumstance. Bentham said that. That is why the theory is also described as consequentialist. There are two major themes that lead to the debate. pain and the privation of pleasure. Many object to the destruction of embryos to obtain human embryonic stem (hES) cells. he refers to pleasure and the absence of pain. by unhappiness. According to Bentham's theory. First is the sanctity of human life. Nature has placed us under the governance of two sovereign masters.” When Bentham talks about happiness. pain and pleasure . If one assumes that frozen embryos are going to be . “The principle of utility aims to promote happiness which is the supreme ethical value . the Rightness of an action entirely depends on the value of its consequences.”. If we assume the personhood of the embryo. Ulilitarianism may also apply in the medical field. A neglected element in the current debate is that of moral complicity. This kind of issue arises because of embryonic cell usage in the research. but realizes that if he was to leave that his team would be left for the wolves. wrong when they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. therefore putting the good of the team before their own good. since“they are going to be destroyed anyway. There are many utilitarian arguments that seeks to justify such complicity on stem cell research.Utilitarianism impressed me because it is defined as putting the good of other people before you. because they love the game and knows that the team needs them. and that killing an embryonic human being is a moral evil. A good example of this would be a footballer that has been playing for his university team and has an offer to go and play for a team that is much better. A person that believes in the utilitarianism theory would stay and play for the team money aside. since they believe that embryos are human persons. and means for the act share complicity with that evil.” Actions are right in proportion when they tend to promote happiness. Utilitarianism theory suggests that an action is morally right when that an action produces more total utility for the group than any other alternative. then those who provide reason. and thus have basic human rights.

then it is morally preferable and ethical. in order to know if something is morally preferable for a utilitarian. Immanual Kant always stated that murder is always a murder even tough we are in a very hard situation. 1995). because embryos are in fact human persons” (Dennis 2008). That‟s the reason why people are opposing the stem cell research. after he was released he showed Utilitarianism leadership through soldiering ahead to fight for apartheid and became the first black Democratic president in South Africa under the ANC. isn‟t it better if some good can come from it? The utilitarian argument seems to make some sense. we must ask to ourself whether this will give us benefits or more negative impact? If the answer is more benefits. By killing an embryo is still considered murder and unethical. my discussion. Nelson Mandela as a lawyer. even in business. and eugenics or baby designing. utilitarianism may apply for political background. and deserves a thoughtful response.discarded anyway. politics. we can see how utilitarianism is actually holding a very strong position in different fields such as medicine. they stand with their argument saying that “the act of destroying embryos is a moral evil. After many debates. From my above discussion. why not utilize them for research? Even if one is distressed by the destruction of an embryo. he had the morals to continue fighting against apartheid (Denenberg. Nelson Mandela had strong ethical values through having a heart and soul of leadership by consistently advising his followers to adopt a peaceful course of action and to avoid all violence. . Apart from the medical field. There are few successful leaders which hold utilitarianism as their key of success such as Nelson Mandela. Utilitarianism doesn‟t discriminate or encourage egoism. Many potential issues may arise apart from stem cell such as genetically modified organism. voluntarily represented many detainees under the ANC whilst he was volunteer-in-chief for the ANC. To conclude. It is wrong to harm others to benefit yourself because everyone counts.

1995. Beckwith F.Nilai University. “Kant‟s Moral Philosophy.htm 8. 2007. Accessed February 5. 3. The Right to Patent a Human Being: Fact. Baker. Cunningham PC. The Formula of the Universal Law of Nature. 5. August 2008. Robert. Complicity and Stem Cell Research : Countering the Utilitarianism Argument. 2. Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. Retrieved from http://ethicalrealism. Grand Rapids: William B. NSW. JW Gray. Vol 24. 17 May 2011.wordpress. In: Kilner J.cbhd. Eerdmans. The Heart and Soul of Leadership.html.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.) Last updated 2008. Johnson. 2008 4. Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek. DS3009 Ethics and Social Responsibility Lecture notes Rahman Ab. Fiction. Australian Institute of Management.com/what-is-stemcell-research. Aaron Costerisan.org/resources/aps/cunningham_02-0603. From Personhood to Bodily Autonomy: The Shifting Legal Focus in the Abortion Debate. L (2002). 9. The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity. Wise Geek : Stem Cell research. 6. Jan 2013. Dennis M. Page 157. . or Future Possibility? Retrieved from http://www. Cameron N.Sulivan. Schiedermayer D (Eds). Roseville.References 1. Ethical Realism : Moral Theories (Normative Theories of Ethics).com/2010/08/20/ethical-theories/ 7. 2003. Bioethics and the Future of Medicine. The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action by Rachels. (Section 5.