National Summary

**
School and Teacher Demographics
Per pupil expenditures
(CCD, 2000-01)

$7,376

Number of Districts
(CCD, 2001-02)

14,644

Number Schools

of

Charter

2,322

(CCD, 2001-02)

Number of Public Schools
(CCD)

Elementary Middle High Combined Total Number of FTE Teachers
(CCD)

1993-94 50,759 14,255 14,251 2,294 81,559

2001-02 53,364 16,012 17,662 4,746 91,784

Elementary Middle High Combined Total
(SASS)

1993-94 1,186,330 473,029 638,884 64,235 2,362,478

2001-02 1,376,504 575,029 767,140 82,001 2,800,674

Percentage of teachers with a major in the main subject taught, grades 7-12 1994 78% 72 74 80 2000 70% 67 75 78

English Math Science Social Studies

Sources of Funding District Average
(CCD, 2000-01)

^^

Student Demographics
Public school enrollment
(CCD)

Pre-K K-8 9-12 Total (K-12) Race/ethnicity
(CCD)

1993-94 557,199 30,898,963 11,874,986 42,773,949

2001-02 701,753 33,169,955 13,765,914 46,935,869

1993-94 American Indian/Alaskan Natives Asian/Pacific Islander Black Hispanic White Other Students with disabilities
(OSEP)

2001-02 1% 4 17 18 59 2001-02 11% 2001-02 8%

1% 4 17 13 66 1993-94 10% 1993-94 7%

Students with limited English proficiency
(ED/NCBE)

Migratory students
(OME)

1993-94 1%

2000-01 3%

All schools by percent of students eligible to participate in the Free and Reduced-Price Lunch Program (CCD, 2001-02)

Statewide Accountability Information
(Collected from states, January 2002 for 2001-02 school year.)

Statewide Goal for Schools on State Assessment Forty-two states have established a goal. Expected School Improvement on Assessment Thirty-six states have set a target. Title I Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for Schools Seventeen states are using the same goal as the state.

Title I 2001-02

(ED Consolidated Report, 2001-02)

Number of schools Schools meeting AYP Goal Schools identified for Improvement Title I Allocation

Schoolwide Programs 24,685 51% 17,458 48% 4,435 72% $9,322,030,790

Targeted Assistance 23,853 49% 18,550 52% 1,720 28%

Total 48,538 100% 36,008 74% 6,147 13%

(Includes Basic, Concentration, and LEA grants, Capital Expenditures, Even Start, Migrant Education, and Neglected and Delinquent, ED, 2001-02)

NAEP State Results
Grade 4 Reading, 2003 Proficient level and 30% Grade 8 30%

above Basic level and above Math, 2003 Proficient level and above Basic level and above

62 33% 77

72 27% 66

**Totals include 50 states, plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico unless otherwise noted. Reading 3rd grade meets or exceeds Proficient ^^Intermediate is defined in the Common Core of Data. See Sources for more information.

Standards and Assessments
Core Content State Standards State Assessment*

Table 1: State Progress toward Development of Accountability System, 2001-02
Student Achieveme nt Levels Years of Consiste nt Data
— — — — 2 6 3 4 — — 3

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia

M, S, E, SSt M, E/LA, H M, S, LA, SSt M, S, LA, H/SSt M, S, E, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E, SSt M, S, E, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt (1999)

Alabama High School Graduation Exam California Achievement Test Arizona’s Instrument to Measure Standards Arkansas Benchmark Exam California Standards Tests Student Assessment Program CMT/CAPT Delaware Student Testing Program Stanford 9 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Georgia CriterionReferenced Competency Tests Georgia High School Graduation Tests

2 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 3

3 4 4 4 2 3 5 4 5 4 3 4

— — — 4 — 2 3 4 — 4 7 3

Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachuset ts

M, S, LA, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, R (Local Decision) M, S, LA, SSt (Kansas Assessment) M, S, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E, H/SSt

Hawaii Content and Performance Standards II ITBS and TAP Illinois Standards Achievement Test Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Iowa Test of Ed. Dev. Kansas Math/Reading Assessment Kentucky Core Content Test Louisiana Educational Assessment Program Maine Educational Assessment Md. School Performance Assessment Program Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

Michigan

M, S, E/LA, SSt

MEAP Essential Skills

3R, 4M and high school 4 4 5 4 2 4 2 4 3 — 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 5 4 4 5 3 4 5 3

Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada

M, S, LA, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt, Reading/Writing M, S, E/LA, SSt

Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment Mississippi Curriculum Test, Subject Area Test Missouri Assessment Program Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Multiple Assessment Tools Nevada CriterionReferenced Exam High School Proficiency Exam

5 — 5 2 — — — 7 4 — — 7 — 2 3 2 2 — — 4 2 — 7 — — 5

New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvani a Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia

M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA M, S, E, SSt M, E M, S, LA, SSt M, S, E M, E/LA M, E/LA M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E, SSt, M, S, E/LA, SSt SSt M, S, LA, H/SSt M, SSt

Ed. Improvement and Assessment Program New Jersey Proficiency Test New Mexico Achievement Assessment English Language Arts and Math, Regents North Carolina End of Grade/Course Test North Dakota State Assessment Ohio Proficiency Test Oklahoma Core Curriculum Test Oregon Statewide Assessment System Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Prueba Puertoriquena Competencias New Standards Reference Exams Palmetto Achievement Challenge Test Stanford Achievement Test, Version 9 Comprehensive Achiev. Program, Gateway Test Texas Assessment of Academic Skills Utah Criterion Reference Test New Standards Reference Exams Virginia Standards of Learning Test

Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Nation
(50 states plus

M, S, SSt, LA M, S, E, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M, S, E/LA, SSt M 51 states, E/LA 48 states

Washington Assessment of Student Learning Stanford Achievement Test, Version 9 Wisconsin Knowledge and Concept Examination Wyoming Comprehensive Assessment System

4 — 5 4 3 levels: 11 states, 4 levels: 28 states 5 levels: 9 states

2 — 4 — <4 years: 39 states >=4 years: 14 states

D.C. & P.R.)

S 46 states, SSt/H 46 states

KEY:

M S E/LA SSt H —

= = = = = =

Mathematics Science English or Language Arts Social Studies History Not applicable

*More information on assessments can be found in state profiles beginning on page 12. Core Content Standards Source: Key State Education Policies on K-12 Education 2002, CCSSO, 2003. Results from the 2002 CCSSO Policies and Practices Survey. As of spring 2002, Title I requirements for developing content standards for Reading or English Language Arts and Mathematics have been met by 49 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. State Assessment; Student Achievement Levels Source: State assessment results submitted in the Consolidated Report, Section B, 2001-02, and follow-up by CCSSO with the State Education Accountability Reports and Indicator Reports: Status of Reports across the States, 2003 Years of Consistent Data Source: State assessment results submitted in the Consolidated Report, Section B, 2001-02, and follow-up by CCSSO. Note: Years of consistent data indicates at least one subject and grade in the state provides a trend. See state profiles beginning on page 12 for more details.

Student Achievement by Category
State Elementa ry Grade Middle Grade High School Grade All Studen ts Title I Economical ly Disadvanta ged X X — X X X X X X X — X — X X X X X X — X — — X X X X — X X X — X X

Table 2: Availability of Student Achievement Results by Disaggregated Category,* 2001-02
Limite d English Profici ent X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — X X X X X X X X X X X Migrato ry Disabl ed Race/ Ethnici ty Gende r

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachuset ts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North

— 3 3 4 4 R:4/M:5 4 3 3-6 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 R:5/M:4 R:4/M:5 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 — 4 4

— 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7-8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 R:8/M:7 R:7/M:8 8 8 8 R:7/M:8 R:7/M:8 — 8 R:7/M:8 8 8 — 6 8 — 8 8

11 10 10 R:11/M: 9-12 10 10 10 10 9-11 10 11 10 10 11 10 11 R:11/M: 10 R:10/M: 11 10 11 — 10 11 — R:9-12 R:11/M: 10 11 11 11 10 11 — HS 9

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

— X X — X X X X X X X X X X X — X X — X X — — — — X — — — X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — X X X — X X — — X X X X — X X X — X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — X X — X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — X X — X X X

Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvani a Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Nation (50 states, D.C., P.R.) 4 4 5 3 5 3, 6, 9,11 4 4 4 3-8 4 R:4/M:3 4 3 4 — 4 4 49 8 7 8 8 7 — 8 8 47 8 8 8 10 — 11 — 10 11 10 — 10 — 10 11 44 8 6 8 8 8 12 — R:10 10 11 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 52 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 42 X X X — X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 44 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 51 X X X X X X — X X X X X X X X X X X 45 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 51 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 50 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 50

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Consolidated Performance Report, Section B, 2001-02, and State Student Assessment Programs Annual Survey 2002, CCSSO. *Note: X indicates the indicator is available; — indicates it is not R:#/M:# indicates results were disaggregated for # grade reading or mathematics only. Reading: R, Mathematics: M. Results published in this table may not represent data reported in the individual state profiles that follow. Differences are due to the fact that although states may have collected achievement data by subgroup, they did not necessarily report the disaggregated data to the U.S. Department of Education in their Consolidated Performance Report as this information was not required for the 2001-02 school year.

Summary of Student Performance 2001-02
State

Table 3: Summary by State of Students at Proficient Level or Higher, by State Definition
Elementary* Middle School* Readin Math Readin Math g g
— 75% —
b

State Term for Proficient*

Alabamaa Alaska Arizonab Arkansas Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idahob Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexicob New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Ricoc California

— 71% — — 37% 55% 80% 72% 26% 19% 66% 65% — 74% 70% 72% 67% 36% 50% 23% 29% 39% 65% 48% 72% 38% 69% 78% 50% 39% 68% — 67% 89% 57% 62% 63% 77% 53% 61%

— 82% — — 32% 65% 78% 72% 21% 17% 80% 54% — 68% 68% 69% 67% 56% 48% 43% 25% 64% 51% — 48% 32% 71% 60% — 28% 74% — 44% 85% 67% 56% 70% 64% 58% —

— 40% — — 20% 39% 77% 48% 11% 22% 65% 52% — 52% 66% 73% 56% 26% 41% 21% 37% 34% 53% — 45% 14% 68% 72% — 28% 58% — 47% 83% 42% 59% 64% 58% 52% — Level 3 Level III Proficient Proficient Satisfactory Meets Standard Proficient Proficient Proficient Meets Standard Proficient Proficient Proficient Proficient Meets Standard Proficient Level 4 Met Standard Proficient Proficient Meets Standards Pass Proficient Level 3 Proficient Basic Proficient Proficient Proficient Satisfactory/Met Standard Level III Proficient Proficient Proficient Proficient Meets Standard Proficient Proficient

— 36% 61% 69% 80% 26% 27% 77% 61% — 63% 66% 69% 63% 60% 57% 49% 32% 54% 57% 49% 84% 36% 73% 62% 51% 41% 79% — 61% 77% 74% 66% 63% 85% 57% 41%

Rhode Islandd South Carolina South Dakota Tennesseeb Texas Utah Vermonte Virginia Washington West Virginiaf Wisconsin Wyoming 71% 66% — 79% 44% 80% 52% — 69% 43% 70% 44% — 74% 38% 70% 30% — 44% 33% 34% 62% — 91% 80% 36% 64% — 94% 74% 27% 68% — 94% 78% 19% 33% — 93% 40%

Achieved Standard Proficient Proficient Proficient Proficient Near Mastery Achieved Standard Pass/Proficient Meets Standards Proficient Proficient

Key: — indicates the indicator is not available. See applicable footnote for reason. *Please see each state’s profile for the grade and definition of proficient represented in the table. a Due to a change in tests, Alabama’s elementary and middle school assessment results were not reported by proficiency levels in 2001-02. b State did not report elementary or middle school percent proficient in the all students category. c Puerto Rico combines scores for grades 3, 6, 9, 11 for Reading Language Arts and for Mathematics. d Rhode Island Achieved Standard: Grade 4 Reading: Analysis & Interpretation: 60%, Basic Understanding: 74%, Writing Effectiveness: 59%, Writing Conventions: 59%; Mathematical Concepts: 40%, Mathematical Problem Solving: 28%, Mathematical Skills: 66%; Grade 8 English Language Arts: Analysis & Interpretation: 26%, Basic Understanding: 50%, Writing Effectiveness: 55%, Writing Conventions: 45%; Mathematical Concepts: 23%, Mathematical Problem Solving: 27%, Mathematical Skills: 51%. e Vermont Achieved Standard: Grade 4 English & Language Arts: Reading Analysis & Interpretation: 67%, Reading Basic Understanding: 80%; Mathematical Concepts: 45%, Mathematical Problem Solving: 33%, Mathematical Skills: 71%; Grade 8 English & Language Arts: Reading Analysis & Interpretation: 41%, Reading Basic Understanding: 65%; Mathematical Concepts: 38%, Mathematical Problem Solving: 42%, Mathematical Skills: 69%. f West Virginia reported results in percentile ranks until the first administration of the WESTEST in 2003-04, as per their federal agreement.

Student Achievement Trends
Table 4: Sample Student Achievement Trends, 19962002
Elementary Reading/Language Arts, Middle Grades Mathematics, Percentage of All Students at or Above Proficient by State Definition

State

Grad e
4

Test

Subject

State Term for Proficient*
Proficient

1 996

1 997

1 998

1 999

2 000

2 001
33%

2 002
36%

California

Colorado

4

California Standards Tests Colo. Student Assmt. Program Connecticut Mastery Test Del. Student Testing Program CriterionReferenced Comp. Test Illinois Standards Achievement Test Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Kansas Math/Reading Assmt. Kentucky Core Content Test Maine Educational Assessment School Performance Assmt. Program Comprehensi ve Assessment System Mich. Educational Assmt. Program Minn. Comprehensi ve Assessment Missouri Assessment Program Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Ed. Improvement & Assmt. Program New Jersey Proficiency Test N.C. End of

English/Langua ge Arts Reading

Proficient

57%

57%

34%

60%

63%

61%

Connecticut

8 4 8 3

Mathematics Reading Mathematics Reading

Proficient

– – – –

– – – –

– – – –

– – – –

33% 71% 77% 77%

37% 71% 76% 75%

39% 69% 77% 80%

Delaware

Meets Standard

Georgia

8 4

Mathematics Reading

Met Standard

– –

– –

– –

36% –

41% 65%

43% 74%

48% 77%

Illinois

8 3

Mathematics Reading

Meets Standards

– –

– –

– –

– 61%

54% 62%

58% 62%

65% 63%

Iowa

8 4 8 5

Mathematics Reading Mathematics Reading

Proficient

– – – –

– – – –

– – – –

43% – – –

47% – – 62%

50% 68% 74% 63%

52% 69% 73% 63%

Kansas

Level 3

Kentucky

7 4

Mathematics Reading

Proficient

– –

– –

– –

– 32%

53% 57%

57% 58%

56% 60%

8 Maine 4

Mathematics Reading Proficient

– –

– –

– –

33% 47%

25% 45%

27% 51%

26% 49%

8 Maryland 3

Mathematics Reading Proficient

– 35%

– 37%

– 42%

19% 41%

21% 40%

20% 37%

21% 32%

Massachuset ts

8 4

Mathematics English Language Arts

Proficient

43% –

46% –

47% –

49% –

53% 20%

49% 51%

37% 54%

Michigan

8 4

Mathematics Reading

Satisfactory

– –

– 49%

– 59%

– 59%

34% 58%

34% 60%

34% 57%

Minnesota

3

Reading

Level III

35%

40%

45%

49%

49%

Missouri

3

Communication Arts Mathematics Reading Mathematics English Language Arts

Proficient

29%

32%

32%

36%

Montana

8 4 8

Proficient

– – –

– – – 30%

13% – – 24%

11% – – 27%

14% – – 38%

14% 79% 69% 38%

14% 73% 68% 41%

New Hampshire

3

Proficient

29%

New Jersey

6 4

Mathematics Language Arts Literacy Mathematics Reading

Proficient

12% –

11% –

14% –

15% 57%

27% 55%

26% 79%

28% 79%

North

8 4

Level III

– 69%

– 68%

– 71%

62% 71%

60% 72%

62% 74%

58% 77%

*Please see each state’s profile for the definition of proficient represented in the table. Source: Consolidated Performance Reports, 1995-96 through 2001-02, Section B, Submitted by states to the U.S. Department of Education, with edits by states.

Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, 1836