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# 15.

## 093J Optimization Methods

Lecture 5: Duality Theory I

Outline
Motivation of duality General form of the dual Weak and strong duality Relations between primal and dual Economic Interpretation Complementary Slackness

Slide 1

2
2.1

Motivation
An idea from Lagrange
min c x s.t. Ax = b x0 Slide 2

## Consider the LOP, called the primal with optimal solution x

Relax the constraint g (p) = min c x + p (b Ax) s.t. x 0 g (p) c x + p (b Ax ) = c x Get the tightest lower bound, i.e., max g (p)

g (p) = min c x + p (b Ax) x 0 = p b + min (c p A)x x 0 Note that min (c p A)x = x0 Dual max g (p)

0, if c p A 0 , , otherwise.
max p b
s.t. p A c

## General form of the dual

Primal min s.t. c x a i x bi a i x bi a i x = bi xj 0 xj 0 xj > <0 i M1 i M2 i M3 j N1 j N2 j N3 Dual max s.t. p b pi 0 pi 0 pi > <0 p Aj cj p Aj cj p Aj = cj i M1 i M1 i M3 j N1 j N2 j N3

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3.1

Example
min s.t. x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 x1 + 3x2 =5 2x1 x2 + 3x3 6 x3 4 x1 0 x2 0 x3 free, Primal constraints min bi bi = bi 0 0 > <0 max s.t. 5p1 p1 p2 p3 p 1 3p1 + 6p2 + 4p3 free 0 0 + 2p2 1 p2 2 3p2 + p3 = 3.

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Slide 5

variables

dual variables

constraints

## Theorem: The dual of the dual is the primal.

3.2

A matrix view
min c x s.t. Ax = b x 0 min s.t. c x Ax b max p b s.t. p A c max s.t. p b p A = c p0

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Weak Duality
Slide 7

## Theorem: If x is primal feasible and p is dual feasible then p b c x Proof p b = p Ax c x 2

Corollary:
If x is primal feasible, p is dual feasible, and p b = c x, then x is optimal in
the primal and p is optimal in the dual.

Strong Duality
Slide 8

Theorem: If the LOP has optimal solution, then so does the dual, and optimal
costs are equal.
Proof:
min c x s.t. Ax = b x 0 Apply Simplex; optimal solution x, basis B . Optimality conditions: 1 c c A 0 BB Slide 9
1 Dene p = c p A c BB p dual feasible for max p b s.t. p A c 1 p b = c b = c BB B xB = c x

## x, p are primal and dual optimal

5.1

Intuition
a3 c a2 a1 p 2a 2 p 1a 1

Slide 10

x *

## Relations between primal and dual

Slide 11 Finite opt. * Unbounded Infeasible * *

## Finite opt. Unbounded Infeasible

Economic Interpretation
x optimal nondegenerate solution: B 1 b > 0 Suppose b changes to b + d for some small d How is the optimal cost aected? For small d feasibilty unaected Optimality conditions unaected New cost
1 c (b + d) = p (b + d) BB

Slide 12

## If resource i changes by di , cost changes by pi di : Marginal Price

8
8.1

Complementary slackness
Theorem
pi (a i x bi ) = 0 , xj (cj p Aj ) = 0, Slide 13

Let x primal feasible and p dual feasible. Then x, p optimal if and only if i j

8.2

Proof

Slide 14

## By the strong duality theorem, if x and p are optimal, then c x = p b

ui = vj = 0 for all i, j .
Conversely, if ui = vj = 0 for all i, j , then c x = p b,
x and p are optimal.

8.3

Example
min 13x1 s.t. 5x1 3x1 x1 + 10x2 + 6x3 + x2 + 3x3 = 8 + x2 = 3 , x2 , x3 0 max 8p1 + 3p2 s.t. 5p1 + 3p2 13
p1 + p2 10
3 p1 6

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Fall 2009