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In the previous three lessons, we discussed the Fourier Series, which is for periodic signals. This lesson will cover the Fourier Transform which can be used to analyze aperiodic signals. (Later on, we'll see how we can also use it for periodic signals.) The Fourier Transform is another method for representing signals and systems in the frequency domain

On

the ω-axis, distance between two consecutive aks is now ω0=2π/T, the fundamental frequency.

Bridge Between Fourier Series and Transform • Consider the periodic signal x(t) below: x(t) -T -T1 0 T1 t T • We know that the Fourier coefficients for x(t) will be: 2T1 . the signal x(t) becomes aperiodic and takes the form: x(t) t -2ω0 -ω0 0 ω0 2ω0 ω • On the ω-axis. So. • At the other side. the fundamental frequency. the fundamental frequency ω0Æ0. T ak = sin( kω 0T1 ) kπ k =0 k ≠0 Bridge Between Fourier Series and Transform (cont’d) • Now. -T1 0 T1 • This means the Fourier Transform can represent an aperiodic signal on the frequency-domain. . the distance between the two consecutive aks becomes zero. as TÆ∝. what is called as Fourier Transform. and the sketch of ak becomes continuous. sketch ak on the ω-axis: ak 2T1/T Bridge Between Fourier Series and Transform (cont’d) • As the period TÆ∝. distance between two consecutive aks is now ω0=2π/T.

• We can say that xp(t) is the limiting case of x(t) as T approaches to infinity. this sum will approach to an integral because there will a continuum of Fourier terms in the Fourier series. xp(t). k = −∞ ∑ T X ( jω 1 0 )e jkω 0t Bridge to Fourier Transform (cont’d) • Since 2π/T= ω0: x p (t ) = 1 2π k = −∞ ∑ X ( jω ∞ 0 )e jkω 0tω 0 • As TÆ∞. Now. consider “periodic” version of x(t). x(t ) = lim x p (t ) T →∞ ak = 1 X ( jω 0 ) T −∞ ∫ x(t )e − j ωt dt • Since xp(t) is periodic. the Fourier Transform of x(t): X ( jω ) = x (t ) = 1 2π ∞ ∞ • And.T/2): ak = 1 x(t )e − jkω 0t dt ∫ T −∞ X ( jω ) = ∞ ∞ • Define an envelope function: • So.e. substitute that in the Fourier series representation of xp(t): ∞ x p (t ) = where ω0=2π/T. • Finally. where x(t) is repeated over a period T. Bridge to Fourier Transform (cont’d) • Since x(t)=0 outside of the interval (-T/2. we can write Fourier series representation for it: ∞ T /2 x p (t ) = k = −∞ ∑a e k jkω 0 t 1 ak = x p (t )e − jkω 0t dt T −T∫/ 2 • Now. the Inverse Fourier Transform of x(t): −∞ −∞ ∫ x(t )e − j ωt dt dω ∫ X ( jω ) e jω t . i.Bridge to Fourier Transform • Periodic Signals ÅÆ Fourier Series • Aperiodic Signals ÅÆ Fourier Transform • Consider an aperiodic signal x(t).

Also. those discontinuities must be finite. the signal must have finite number of maxima and minima (or variations) – Over a finite interval of time. convergence conditions apply for Fourier Transform: – The signal must be absolutely integrable ∞ −∞ ∫ x(t ) dt < ∞ – Over a finite interval of time. .Convergence of Fourier Transform • Similar to Fourier Series. the signal must have finite number of discontinuities.

by either summing the terms of the Fourier Series or by Inverse Fourier Transform .Inverse Fourier Transform: It is always possible to move back from the frequency-domain to time-domain.

.Properties of the Fourier Transform • The point of this lesson is that knowledge of the properties of the Fourier Transform can save you a lot of work. We will cover some of the important Fourier Transform properties here Linearity • Because the Fourier Transform is linear. we can write: • F[a x1(t) + bx2(t)] = aX1(ω) + bX2(ω) Time Scaling where X1(ω) is the Fourier Transform of x1(t) and X2(ω) is the Fourier Transform of x2(t).

Mathematically. The Duality Property tells us that if x(t) has a Fourier Transform X(ω). X(t). we can write: . then if we form a new function of time that has the functional form of the transform.Time Shifting Duality In general. the Duality property is very useful because it can enable to solve Fourier Transforms that would be difficult to compute directly (such as taking the Fourier Transform of a sinc function). it will have a Fourier Transform x(ω) that has the functional form of the original time function (but is a function of frequency).

• Example 1 Using the Fourier Transform integral equation. directly find the Fourier Transform of • x(t) = e-at u(t). this will be much more convenient than directly performing the convolution. find the Fourier Transform of The Convolution Property • It tells us that convolution in time corresponds to multiplication in the frequency domain. Therefore. we can avoid doing convolution by taking Fourier Transforms! In many cases. .e. i. a> 0 Notice that the second term in the last line is simply the Fourier Transform integral of the function X(t). Example 2 Using the results of Example 1 and the Duality Property.

. We've just shown that the Fourier Transform of the convolution of two functions is simply the product of the Fourier Transforms of the functions. time-invariant systems. This means that for linear. This is a very powerful result. where the input/output relationship is described by a convolution.The Convolution Property The convolution property states that: Let us show that. Multiplication of Signals • It states that the Fourier Transform of the product of two signals in time is the convolution of the two Fourier Transforms. To start. let Then we can take the Fourier Transform of y(t) and plug in the convolution integral for y(t) (notice how we've marked the integrals with dt and dτ to keep track of them): Therefore. you can avoid convolution by using Fourier Transforms.

.Proof Example 2 Find the Fourier Transform of x(t) = sinc2(t) (Hint: use the Multiplication Property). Therefore.

and absolutely integrable on R. or sine wave) corresponds to a frequency shift in the frequency domain.Example 1 Find the inverse Fourier Transform of Here is a plot of this function: This tells us that modulation (such as multiplication in time by a complex exponential. Then We know ejωt↔2πδ(ω-ω0) ω=0 e F { f ( n ) ( t )} = ( iw ) n F ( w ) In particular F { f ' ( t )} = iwF ( w ) and F { f '' ( t )} = − w 2 F ( w ) . Use duality and the fact that the transform of δ(t) is 1 Differentiation in time Transform of derivatives Suppose that f(n) is piecewise continuous. DC Level Example Find the Fourier Transform of the constant 1. cosine wave.

there is an easier way of determining Fourier transforms of periodic signals So we will generalize the Fourier Transform to include impulses in the frequency domain. Luckily. We can use either the Duality or Modulation Properties to show that: We can check this by taking Inverse Fourier Transform (and using the sifting property) Now let's consider a general periodic signal x(t) that we can represent as a Fourier Series: Since we know that: by linearity of the Fourier Transform. For many periodic signals. the integral for Fourier transform may not work.but we can not directly calculate this integral because it does not converge. we get that: . We can use either the Duality or Modulation Properties to show that. So we will generalize the Fourier Transform to include impulses in the frequency domain.

Pulsed Cosine Example Find the Fourier Transform of cos(ω0t) = .

in A/D conversion. Sampling a continuous time signal is used. such as would be done in digitizing music for storage on a CD. digitizing a movie for storage on a DVD. we will discuss sampling of continuous time signals. . for example.Fourier Transforms of Sampled Signals In this lesson. or taking a digital picture.

x(t) is the continuous time signal we wish to sample. p(t) is an infinite train of continuous time impulse functions. . Then As you just saw. We will model sampling as multiplying a signal by p(t Let xs(t) = x(t)p(t) be the sampled signal. spaced Ts seconds apart.To start. we define the continuous time impulse train as: Now.

x(t) have a Fourier Transform X(ω). by the Multiplication Property. we will derive the Sampling Theorem . To start. and xs(t) have a Fourier Transform Xs(ω). To do this. Because the infinite impulse train is periodic. because xs(t) = x(t)p(t). Then. we will examine our signals in the frequency domain.Now. Now let's find the Fourier Transform of p(t). Let's find the Fourier Series coefficients Ck for the periodic impulse train p(t): Therefore . let p(t) have a Fourier Transform P(ω). we will use the Fourier Transform of periodic signals: where Ck are the Fourier Series coefficients of the periodic signal.

we choose a sampling rate a bit higher than twice the highest frequency since filters are not ideal.Now. We can recover x(t) from its sampled version xs (t) by using a low pass filter to recover the center island: After low pass filtering As you can see from the figure if ω0 . scaled versions of X(ω). This is known as "aliasing. we can derive our Sampling Theorem. we will go back and determine Xs(ω). to avoid aliasing. we would get overlap of the replicates of X(ω) in frequency. We saw that: Therefore. (Usually. to finish our derivation of the Sampling Theorem.ωc > ωc or ω0 > 2ωc." Therefore.ωc < ωc. we can recover x(t) from its samples. (Dogs would need a higher quality CD since they hear higher frequencies than humans. we require ω0 . If we avoid aliasing.1 kHz. spaced every ω0 apart in frequency: From this development and observing the above figure.) We hear music up to 20 kHz and CD sampling rate is 44.) . This is one of the most important results. or we get replicated.

e. • ωs is referred as Nyquist Frequency. the smallest possible sampling frequency in order to recover the original analog signal from its samples. . i. also called as aliasing or under-sampling.Sampling Theorem Conditions Sampling Theorem: A continuous-time signal x(t) can be uniquely reconstructed from its samples xs(t) with two conditions: – x(t) must be band-limited with a maximum frequency ωM – Sampling frequency ωs of xs(t) must be greater than 2ωM.e. i. ωs<2ωM ? • The original signal x(t) cannot be recovered from xs(t) since there will be unwanted overlaps in Xs(ω). Aliasing (Under-sampling) • What happens when sampling frequency is less than Nyquist Frequency. • This will cause the recovered signal xr(t) to be different than x(t). i. ωs>2 ωM.e. • The second condition is also known as Nyquist Criterion.

.

c as shown: you are given three different pulse trains with periods Draw the sampled spectrum in each case.Example 1 Given a signal x(t) with Fourier Transform with cutoff frequency &omega. Which case(s) experiences aliasing? Example 2 The inverse Fourier Transform of the signal in the previous example is Draw the sampled signals using the sampling trains of the previous example .

Applications of the Fourier Transform: Ideal Filters .

Draw the frequency response of a low pass filter that passes the low frequency component of the signal and blocks the high frequency component of the signal. for example.Example 1 Given two functions x1(t) = cos(500πt) and x2(t) = cos(1000πt). . form a new signal x3(t) = x1(t) x2(t). by radio (or television) to assign different parts of the frequency spectrum to different radio (or television) stations. • Sinusoidal Amplitude Modulation • Modulation is multiplying a signal in time by complex exponentials (such as sine waves and cosine waves) to shift the signal to a desired frequency band. Remember that the Modulation Theorem told us that: • We will use the Modulation Theorem in an example of AM radio. This is done.

This corresponds to convolving with a sinc function in time. you filter z(t) with a low-pass filter by multiplying by a rect function in frequency. amplitude modulation • Let x(t) be a music signal with Fourier Transform X(ω). suppressed carrier.Example 2 AM radio .Double-sideband. To modulate this signal. . we'll form and transmit Your radio demodulates the signal by multiplying the received signal y(t) by another cosine wave to form a third signal z(t): To recover the original music signal x(t) from the demodulated signal z(t).

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