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HST 153A / The United States and Latin America

The University of Vermont / Department of History / Summer 2013 Instructor: Anore Horton Phone: (802) 777-7719 (cell) Email: T/W/R, 5:00-8:45 pm, Room TBD

Office Hours: Before class by appointment, location TBD; after class any night Other days by email or telephone The History of Relations Between the United States and Latin America
Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States. This statement, made by President of Mexico Porfirio Daz during the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, has often been used to sum up the complex and deeply unequal relationship between the U.S. and Latin America. Since the time of the wars for independence in the Western hemisphere, this relationship has been at once intimate, antagonistic, collaborative, and exploitative. This course examines the history of U.S.-Latin America relations through the present day, with a focus on learning and understanding key themes, ideologies, eras, and events. We focus mostly on the activities, ideologies, and blind spots of government actors. However, as you already know (if you have been following the recent activities of the U.S. government in regards to the Keystone Pipeline and the attack on the U.S. Consulate in Libya, for example) the policies of those who run governments are, and always have been, shaped by and reactive against a wide range of non-state actors, from corporate CEOs to migrant workers, to voters, to media networks. Nowhere has this complicated relationship between governments and non-state actors been more consequential for the lives of ordinary people than in the over 200year history of U.S. involvement in Latin America. As historians, we must separate ourselves from the U.S. and the U.S. government. At the same time, we must try to see events from the point of view of U.S. government actorsas well as from the points of view of actors from different Latin American governments, and of ordinary United Statesians and Latin Americans. Given the lack of attention paid to Latin America in most high school and college U.S. history courses (both an effect and a cause of the attitudes that have led to the problematic and disturbing actions of the U.S. government and United Statesians in Latin America), I assume no prior training in Latin American history. I have assumed a basic understanding of the history of the United States. This course emphasizes reading (mostly of short articles and documents), discussion, documentary films, and developing the skills and methods historians use to analyze the past using short writing and presentation assignments. Because of the large number of class hours crammed into just four weeks, we will focus in on three projectsafter a whirlwind tour of the history of US Latin American relations over the past 200 years. The first project explores the ways in which economic policy is used as foreign policy in Latin America. The second project explores key patterns in the U.S. role in Latin America by focusing on the history of U.S.-Cuban relations. The third project explores the politics and controversy surrounding Latin American immigration to the U.S. What are the two most important things for you to do to be successful in this course? Participate fully and put something at stake for yourself! Get curious, inspired, and appalled. Jump in! Engage! Read, write, and talk your brains out! You lucky people are in collegethis is what its for!

Learning Outcomes
By the completion of this course, you should have demonstrated the ability to: 1. Locate the countries of Latin America on a map. 2. Demonstrate at least a basic working understanding of the history of Classical Liberalism and Neoliberalism, and their economic, political, and social consequences in Latin America and the United States. 3. Name, describe, and provide examples of key themes and ideologies that run through the history of U.S.-Latin America relations. 4. Make use of some of the key concepts of historical analysisespecially causation, historical context, historical perspective, and point of viewto synthesize, analyze, and explain primary and secondary sources, key events, and key ideologies important in the history of U.S.-Latin American relations. 5. Cultivate your intellectual passion by putting something at stake for yourself within the intellectual terrain of the course and assignments, while acknowledging and valuing complexity, nuance, and conflict.

Required Text and Other Course Readings

Grace Livingstone, Americas Backyard: The United States and Latin America from the Monroe Doctrine to the War on Terror (New York: Zed Books, 2009) *Additional assigned readings for the course are listed in the Weekly Course Schedule, and can be accessed in the Readings section of our course Blackboard website.

Graded Assignments
Additional information about each assignment and how it is graded will be provided in class, and in separate assignment sheets that will be posted on the course Blackboard site. Project 1Foreign Policy is Economic Policy: For our first project, we will use historical documents and a variety of secondary sources to consider the relationship between economic ideology and U.S.-Latin American relations since the early 1800s. While exploring this complex issue, you will have opportunities to practice using key concepts in historical analysis to interpret different kinds of historical sources in two short reflection/analysis papers and some in-class exercises. Project 2Cuba as a Case Study for U.S. Intervention: For this project, we will explore the patterns of U.S. overt, covert, and non-governmental direct intervention in Latin American countries during the twentieth century, using the history of U.S.-Cuban relations as a case study. For Project 2, you will choose some aspect of U.S. involvement in Cuba to research, in preparation for teaching your colleagues in an in-class presentation. We will then consider what common themes emerge from your findings about the forms and purposes of U.S. government intervention in Latin American countries. Project 3The Immigration Crisis: The recent Arizona law authorizing law enforcement officers to demand proof of citizenship status from anyone suspected of a crime has generated national attention. We will use what has been happening in Arizona, and the current debates surrounding the role of Latinos in the 2012 elections and immigration reform as a starting point from which to explore the history of migration between Mexico and the U.S. For Project 3 you will draft a memo to President Obama as a member of his Immigration Reform Advisory Team, offering your recommendations in light of the historical context and causes of the current immigration crisis in the U.S. In class, you will share your findings and recommendations with your colleagues on the Advisory Team, and explore the ramifications of the different approaches you advocate. Map Quiz: If you do not know where the various countries of Latin America are located, in relationship to each other and to the United States, it will be difficult for you to understand why U.S.-Latin American relations developed the way they did over time. Therefore, you will take a simple in-class map quiz in week 2.

Graded Task Map Quiz Project 1 (2pp document analysis = 10%; 3pp NAFTA analysis paper = 20%) Project 2 (Presentation notes = 15%, presentation = 15%) Project 3 (4-page memo = 25%, roundtable = 10%) Letter Grade Equivalents for the Course Point Scale: 480-441 = A 360-321 = B 240-201 = C 440-401 = A320-281 = B200-161 = C400-361 = B+ 280-241 = C+ 160-121 = D+ (There are a total of 480 points possible in this course.) Point Value 24 96 144 168 % of Course Grade 5% 20% 30% 35%

120-81 = D 80-41 = D40-1 = F

**NOTE: To receive a passing grade (D- or above) in the course, at least three (3) graded assignments MUST BE COMPLETED**

Structures That Have The Course Work

Attendance I expect you to attend all classes, and to come fully prepared to engage with the assigned material. We only have 12 classes, and each one covers a lot of material. Please be on time to class, and please dont leave class early. Whether or not you are on time and present matters, and inevitably impacts others. If you have an emergency, please call or text me as soon as possible. If you know at the beginning of the course that you will have to miss a class, please let me know so we can plan ahead. Do your reading, and always bring the assigned readings for that day to class! Print them (if necessary) Read them until you understand them, or at least until you can articulate your questions Mark them up Take notes on themand bring them. Class Participation Attendance is merely a prerequisite for engagement. I do not grade your class participation, but this does not mean it doesnt matter. Your active engagement with your classmates and with every aspect of the course is required to successfully complete your graded assignments, and to avoid expiring from self-induced boredom. Expect to be called on at any time. The following actions, taken collectively, constitute class participation, and will guarantee your success in the course: Listening actively to in-class lectures, films, and discussions. Active listening includes taking notes. Contributing thoughts, points, and questions derived from the readings and supported by evidence. Working to create an open environment where everyone feels respected, heard, and free to explore new ideas; to question our own and others assumptions; and to offer constructive criticism of one anothers thinking. Cultivating a sense of curiosity about the course materials, and personal ownership of your own work. Being responsible for your own learning. If you are confused about a reading, a point I make in class, or an assignment, take action to get yourself clear by asking questions in class, meeting me, or calling me. Challenging yourself to take your critical thinking, critical reading, and public speaking skillsand your knowledge and understandingto the next level throughout the semester.

Office Hours and Communication I am happy to discuss your work and/or the course readings and lectures with you before or after class, and/or during our class breaks. Since I do not have an office, another option is meet for an early dinner in the Davis Center before class. Because I have a full-time job outside of UVM, it will be difficult for me to meet with you in person at other times. However, I am available for phone conversations on other evenings and weekends if we schedule them in advance. I will use an email list to communicate any changes in the class schedule, and will also use email to contact you individually. Email is also the best way to contact me, and I will respond to your emails daily Sunday through Thursday. I do not have a campus phone number, but feel free to use my cell phone number, listed on the first page of this syllabus, between the hours of 8am and 8pm. I will return phone messages promptly. Policy Regarding Late Assignments No late assignments or exams will be accepted.

*Exception to this policy: A documented medical or family emergency (in which case I reserve the right to provide an alternative assignment). Course Blackboard Site This course has a Blackboard site, from which you can download assigned readings, assignment sheets, and other course materials. You will not use Blackboard to turn in or complete your coursework. Plagiarism, Collusion, and Cheating All formal and informal work in this course must satisfy the standards of academic integrity. These standards, and the consequences of violating them, are fully described in the Universitys Academic Integrity Policy. The standards that are most relevant to this class are those relating to plagiarism and collusion, and are briefly described as follows:

All ideas, arguments, and phrases, submitted without attribution to other sources, must be the creative product of the student. Thus, all text passages taken from the works of other authors (including primary documents, instructors lectures, and fellow students written responses or in-class comments) must be properly attributed and cited in your written work. The same applies to paraphrased text, opinions, data, examples, illustrations, and all other creative work. Violations of this standard constitute plagiarism. Students may only collaborate within the limits prescribed by their instructors. Students may not complete any portion of an assignment or exam for another student. Students may not claim as their own work any portion of an assignment or exam that was completed by another student, even with that other students knowledge and consent. Students may not seek or accept information provided about an exam (or portions of an exam) from another student without the authorization of the instructor. Violations of this standard constitute collusion.

As per University policy, the penalty for plagiarism or collusion is failure of the assignment. Continued violations will lead to failure of the course, among other possible sanctions, and will be handled by the Center for Student Standards and Ethics. You are required to practice the conventions of acknowledgment and citation in your writing and speaking. The rules of academic citation are complicated. Please ask me if you ever have questions about how to document or attribute a source, phrase, or idea. Accommodations for Students with Learning and/or Physical Disabilities I am committed to creating a learning environment that supports all students, and have deliberately designed the course and assignments to be universally accessible, so that all students can accomplish the Learning Outcomes for this course. Please come to speak with me about accommodations matters as soon as possible following the first day of class. Our conversation will be respectful and confidential. UVM provides a process for disclosing learning differences, and students must complete this process before faculty can provide personalized accommodations. Students who wish accommodations for a disability must contact the ACCESS Office.

HST 153 Daily Class Schedule

*NOTE: I reserve the right to make changes to the class schedule! *NOTE: ALWAYS bring to class every reading assigned for that day, and your reading notes! A Typical Class:
We will always have at least one break during class. Since we go through the typical dinner hour, please feel free to bring food and drink. Each class period will include a mix of lecture, reading, discussion, and viewing slides, images, and/or films. We will occasionally spend some of our class time in the Library working on the projects.

Overview of the History of U.S. Latin American Relations Tuesday, July 16 Welcome & introduction to the course and each other What is Latin America? How are we affected by U.S.-Latin American relations? An absurdly inadequate overview of the history of U.S.-Latin American relations The role of racism in U.S. foreign policy How to think like a historian Reading assigned for todays class (all in Blackboard First Day): The Syllabus and the Weekly Class Schedule Livingstone, chapters 1 & 2 (more if you can!) Steven Greenhouse, In Indiana City, an Economic Centerpiece Closes and Heads for Mexico Dana Frank, Honduras: Which Side Are We On? The Nation 294:24 (June 11, 2012) James Bargent, Chiquita Republic, In These Times (January 2013) Key Concepts in Historical Analysis Map Quiz Preparation Materials Project 1: Economic Policy is Foreign Policy / Foreign Policy is Economic Policy Wednesday, July 17: From Classical Liberalism to NeoliberalismEcon 101 for U.S.-Latin American relations What is the Left and what is the Right? Learning how to read for this course Documentary: Argentina: Hope in Hard Times (excerpt) Reading assigned for todays class: Livingstone, chapter 10 Naomi Klein, Blank is Beautiful, The Shock Doctrine Theodore Roosevelt, The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904 Reading Critically (Blackboard Assignments) Primary Document Analysis Assignment Sheet (Blackboard Assignments)

Thursday, July 18 The economic goals of U.S. foreign policy The role of the U.S. government in supporting U.S. business in Latin America Writing Workshop: primary document analysis paper Primary Document Analysis Paper draft due in class Reading assigned for todays class: William McKinley, Message to Congress, 1898 Andrew Carnegie, Distant Possessions, The Parting of Ways, 1898 U.S. Department of State, cable and memos regarding U.S. capital and Chilean labor, 1946 Ral Prebisch, The Economic Development of Latin America (excerpt), 1950 G. A. Costanzo, U.S. Foreign Investment in Brazil, (1976) NAFTA Analysis Assignment Sheet (Blackboard Assignments) Tuesday, July 23 Documentary: Maquilapolis The concept and consequences of NAFTA Writing Workshop: NAFTA analysis paper Primary Document Analysis Paper Revision due in class NAFTA Analysis Paper draft due in class Readings assigned for todays class: Lori Saldaa, Tijuanas Toxic Waters, David Bacon, Displaced People: NAFTAs Most Important Product, NACLA Report on the Americas (Sept/Oct 2008) Otero&Pechlaner, Is Biotechnology the Answer? The Evidence from NAFTA, NACLA Report on the Americas (May/June 2009)

Project 2 Cuba as a Case Study for U.S. Intervention Wednesday, July 24 An overview of the history of U.S.-Cuban relations Tourism as foreign policy The Cuban Revolution The embargo Map Quiz in class Reading assigned for todays class: John Quincy Adams, thoughts on Cubas relationship to the U.S., 1823 Jos Mart, Our America, 1891 Merrill, Cuba chapters from Negotiating Paradise: U.S. Tourism and Empire in TwentiethCentury Latin America Fidel Castro, excerpts, History Will Absolve Me, 1953 trial defense, 1953 & The Problem of Cuba and Its Revolutionary Policy, U.N. General Assembly, 1960 The Project 2 Assignment Sheet (Blackboard Assignments)

Thursday, July 25 Putting U.S.-Cuban relations in the context of the Cold War Documentary excerpt: The Trials of Henry Kissinger NAFTA Policy Analysis revision due in class Readings assigned for todays class: Livingstone, chapters 3-6 John C. Dreier, The Guatemalan Problem Before the OAS Council, 1954 Luis Cardoza y Aragn, Interview, The Revolution of 44-54, 1954 J. William Fulbright, excerpt on Dominican intervention from The Arrogance of Power, 1966 Ernesto Che Guevara, Message to the Tricontinental 1966 Latin American Reports on Torture (1960s-1970s) Karen Robert, The Falcon Remembered Tuesday, July 30 Cuban refugees & U.S. foreign policy Cuban refugees & the city of Miami Life in Cuba & U.S. government policy toward Cuba today Presentation Workshopbring your draft presentation notes to class! Reading assigned for todays class: Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick, City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami (excerpts) Mara Cristina Garca, Havana USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959-1994 (excerpts) John Jeremiah Sullivan, A Prison, A Paradise: Cuba on the Brink, but of What? New York Times Magazine (September 23, 2012) Wednesday, July 31 U.S.-Cuban Relations Presentations After the Cold Warthe War on Drugs and the War on Terror Documentary excerpts: The Panama Deception Project 2 presentation notes due in class Readings assigned for todays class: Livingstone, chapters 7-9

Project 3 The Immigration Crisis in Historical Perspective Thursday, August 1 Documentary: Crossing Arizona Reading assigned for todays class: Beau Hodai, Corporate Con Game: How the Private Prison Industry Helped Shape Arizonas Anti-Immigrant Law Randal C. Archibold, In Border Violence, Perception is Greater than Crime Statistics, New York Times (6/20/2010) The Project 3 Assignment Sheet (Blackboard Assignments)

Tuesday, August 6 The history of migration between Latin America and the U.S. Readings assigned for todays class: Don M. Coerver and Linda B. Hall, The Latino Diaspora in the United States Gilbert Paul Carrasco, Latinos in the United States: Invitation and Exile Wednesday, August 7 The role of racism in U.S. immigration policy and in the lives of U.S. Latinos/as Writing Workshop on the policy memo Draft Immigration Policy Memo due in class Readings assigned for todays class: Livingstone, chapter 11 Nolan L. Cabrera, et. al., The Fight for Mexican American Studies in Tucson, NACLA Report on the Americas (Nov/Dec 2011) Thursday, August 8 In-class presentations of policy memos and Advisory Team discussion Reflecting on what weve learned about the history & future of U.S.-Latin American relations Evaluating the course Immigration Policy Memo due in class Reading assigned for todays class: Hugo Chavez, Speech at the 2005 World Social Forum