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Relative Pronouns Defining Relative Clauses The information provided in a defining relative clause is crucial in understanding the meaning

g of the sentence. Example: The woman who lives in apartment No. 34 has been arrested. The document that I need has 'important' written at the top. Subject Object Possessive Time -When Whose Reason -Why Person Who, That Who/Whom/That Whose Place Where Thing That, Which That, Which Whose

NOTE: In defining relative clauses there are no commas. Non-defining Relative Clauses Non-defining relative clauses provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence. Example: Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner. NOTE: 1) Correct punctuation is essential in non-defining relative clauses: a comma is put before the relative pronoun and at the end of the clause 2) 'That' can never be used in non-defining clauses. The sentential relative clause Sentential relative clauses (which all begin with which), refer back to the entire sentence (and not just to the noun or noun phrase immediately preceding it). Example: He sold his car, which surprised his neighbours. (It was not his car that surprised his neighbours; it was the event represented by the clause He sold his car) NOTE: 1) A comma is put at the end of the clause, before the relative pronoun which. Using Relative Clauses A. Join the following sentences to make one sentence using a relative pronoun when necessary. 1. The man was sick. He looked very pale. 2. He was sitting in the emergency room. It was very crowded. He called a nurse. A nurse was nearby. The nurse called a doctor. He came quickly. The doctor asked him to lie down. She looked very worried. She gave the man an injection. It made him go to sleep. The Olympic snowboarding event was exciting. Many people watched it on TV. It was the first time snowboarding had been included in the Olympics. Snowboarding is a new sport. The competition was very exciting. A Canadian won it.

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. The winner, Ross Rebagliati, lives in Whistler, BC. Many young snowboarders admire him.
B. Join the following sentences to make one sentence using a relative pronoun when necessary. If the relative pronoun is unnecessary, put it in brackets. 1. The boy broke the window. It was very mean of him. _______________________________ 2. Thats the reason. She left because of it. _______________________________ 3. The film star gave a party. It cost $10,000. _______________________________ 4. Brazil is the largest country in South America. Its capital is Braslia. _______________________________ 5. That's the palace. The Queen lives in it. _______________________________ 6. You met a man at the party. He is a famous film star. _______________________________ Page 1 of 5

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17.


18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

29.
30. 31. 32.

33. 34. 35. 36. 37.


38. 39.

My uncle John is coming to dinner tonight. He is still single. _______________________________ This is Mrs.Smith. Her husband is a gardener. _______________________________ My friend came to the party. He's a policeman. _______________________________ London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. My uncle lives there. _______________________________ The University of Cambridge comprises many colleges. My son studied there. _______________________________ 13 is the day. She will arrive then. _______________________________ That is the man. His son is in the navy. _______________________________ What's the name of the lady? She was wearing the blue dress. _______________________________ I gave her a watch. It stopped working after two days. _______________________________ My car was very expensive. It's a Mercedes. _______________________________ You're reading a book. I wanted to read it. _______________________________ The Red Lion is a pub. We met in it for a drink. _______________________________ There's someone at the door. He wants to speak to George. _______________________________ Here are the letters. They arrived this morning. _______________________________ The shop sells computer hardware. Jane works there. _______________________________ That's the house. I was born in it. _______________________________ That's the dictionary. Bill gave it to me for Christmas. _______________________________ Where is the lady? She ordered fish. _______________________________ Those are the cars. They only take unleaded petrol. _______________________________ John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States. He was assassinated in Dallas in 1963. _______________________________ The children went to New York. They speak English. _______________________________ Do you know the children? They live in that house. _______________________________ Do you like the people. Sarah invited them to her party? _______________________________ The clothes come from C&A. They are good quality. _______________________________ This is Mr.Brown. His son is an engineer. _______________________________ My car has broken down. I bought it two years ago. _______________________________ I gave him an apple. He ate it immediately. _______________________________ George Orwell's real name was Eric Arthur Blair. He wrote the famous novel Animal Farm in 1945. _______________________________ My daughter is five years old. She is interested in classical music. _______________________________ Lisbon is the capital of Portugal. We once lived there. _______________________________ Expo 98 opened in 1998. It is now called Parque das Naes. _______________________________ The car was found last week. It has been stolen again. _______________________________ The boy is my son. He works in the post office. _______________________________ Page 2 of 5

40. The hotel was fabulous. We stayed there. _______________________________ 41. The raincoat belongs to Mr. Smith. It was found in the hotel room. _______________________________ 42. He sent the letter. He wrote it yesterday. _______________________________ 43. That is the woman. She has just been promoted. _______________________________ 44. The park is enormous. We usually go there for a stroll. _______________________________ 45. That is the man. His house has been broken into. _______________________________ 46. I met the woman. Her daughter is my student. _______________________________ 47. The book is still in print. It was hailed as a masterpiece. _______________________________ 48. I dislike the people. They talk too much.

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KEY A. Join the following sentences to make one sentence using a relative pronoun when necessary. 1. The man who looked very pale was sick. 2. He was sitting in the emergency room which was very crowded. 3. He called a nurse who was nearby. 4. The nurse called a doctor who came quickly. 5. The doctor, who looked very worried, asked him to lie down. 6. She gave the man an injection, which made him go to sleep. 7. The Olympic snowboarding event, which many people watched it on TV, was exciting. 8. It was the first time snowboarding, which is a new sport, had been included in the Olympics. Snowboarding 9. The competition, which a Canadian won, was very exciting. 10. The winner, Ross Rebagliati, who(m) many young snowboarders admire, lives in Whistler, BC. B. Join the following sentences to make one sentence using a relative pronoun when necessary. The boy broke the window, which was very mean of him. 2. Thats the reason why she left. 3. The film star gave a party which cost $10,000. 4. Brazil, whose capital is Braslia, is the largest country in South America. 5. That's the palace where the Queen lives. 6. You met a man who is a famous film star at the party. 7. My uncle John, who is still single, is coming to dinner tonight. 8. This is Mrs.Smith whose husband is a gardener. 9. My friend, who is a policeman, came to the party. 10. London, where my uncle lives, is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. 11. The University of Cambridge, where my son studied, comprises many colleges. 12. 13 is the day when she will arrive. 13. That is the man whose son is in the navy. 14. What's the name of the lady who was wearing the blue dress? 15. I gave her a watch which stopped working after two days. 16. My car, which is a Mercedes, was very expensive. 17. You're reading a book which I wanted to read. 18. The Red Lion is the pub where we met for a drink. 19. There's someone who wants to speak to George at the door. 20. Here are the letters which arrived this morning. 21. The shop where Jane works sells computer hardware. 22. That's the house where I was born. 23. That's the dictionary which Bill gave me for Christmas. 24. Where is the lady who ordered fish. 25. Those are the cars which only take unleaded petrol. 26. John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated in Dallas in 1963, was the 35th president of the United States. 27. The children, who speak English, went to New York. 28. Do you know the children who live in that house. 29. Do you like the people (who/m)Sarah invited them to her party? 30. The clothes, which are good quality, come from C&A. 31. This is Mr. Brown whose son is an engineer. 32. My car, which I bought two years ago, has broken down. 33. I gave him an apple which he ate immediately. 34. George Orwell's real name, who wrote the famous novel Animal Farm in 1945, was Eric Arthur Blair. 35. My daughter, who is interested in classical music, is five years old. 36. Lisbon, where we once lived, is the capital of Portugal. 37. Expo 98, which is now called Parque das Naes, opened in 1998. 38. The car which has been stolen again was found last week. 39. The boy who works in the post office is my son. 40. The hotel where we stayed was fabulous. 41. The raincoat which was found in the hotel room belongs to Mr. Smith. 42. He sent the letter which he wrote yesterday. 43. That is the woman who has just been promoted. Page 4 of 5

44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

The park where we usually go there for a stroll is enormous. That is the man whose house has been broken into. I met the woman whose daughter is my student. The book which was hailed as a masterpiece is still in print. I dislike the people who talk too much.

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