Scramjets

By Emily Davis and Raechel Tan

Picture from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6448094/

August 6, 2005 Cluster 3: Introduction to Engineering Mechanics Professor Hafez

Overview
„ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „

What is a scramjet? Ramjets History and recent developments Ramjets vs. conventional jets Scramjets vs. ramjets Engine layout of a scramjet Fuel Launching and landing Advantages and disadvantages

meaning that it takes oxygen from the air instead of carrying oxygen in a tank. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramjet .What is a scramjet? „ „ „ Stands for “Supersonic Combustion Ramjet” Travels at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5) Has an air-breathing engine.

nor are they very fuel-efficient.org/wiki/Ramjet .wikipedia. At subsonic speeds ramjets and scramjets tend not to produce much thrust. Ramjets remove most moving parts of an engine by traveling at very high speeds to eliminate the need for fans to compress the air.Ramjets „ „ „ A scramjet is a variation of a ramjet. http://en.

wikipedia.History „ „ „ Research into practical supersonic flight started during WWII 1950s: U. and NASA began to develop scramjet engines 1986: NASA's National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program established to develop a vehicle with speed greater than Mach 15. Air Force.org/wiki/Scramjet . the ability to take off horizontally. Navy. and the ability to land http://en.S.

and 6. 17. 5.5.600 mph (almost Mach 10) „ Australia „ „ NASA’s Hyper-X Program „ „ „ http://en.5 (in a simulated environment). 2002: University of Queensland’s HyShot team successfully tested a scramjet Replaced NASP program in 1994 Mar.8. 1992: Russian scientists launched a scramjet in Kazakhstan (in a wind tunnel) 1994 – 1998: NASA and Russian Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) did 4 tests and reached Mach numbers of 5. 27. 2004: Successfully launched the X-43A Nov.org/wiki/Scramjet . Jul. 5. 30. 2004: 3rd X-43 flight set new speed record of 6.35.wikipedia.Scramjet Programs „ Russia „ „ Nov. 16.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramjet . Pratt & Whitney. http://en. and Rocketdyne are collaborating on the development.S. Air Force and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated on the Hypersonic Technology (HyTECH) scramjet engine NASA's Marshall Space Propulsion Center has created an Integrated Systems Test of an Air-Breathing Rocket (ISTAR) program. Aerojet.Recent Developments „ „ „ HyShot Project in 2002 was the first successful test of a scramjet in the atmosphere U.

ciam.CIAM’s IGLA hypersonic flying laboratory http://www.ru/eversion/research/VRD/HYPER/ .

on Jul.html .Second launch of HyShot.mech.au/hyper/level2/hyper_photographs.edu.uq. 30. 2002 http://www.

com/projects/x43/x439.html .CGI image of X-43 separating from booster http://www.aerospace-technology.

html . Ramjets use extremely high velocities to compress the air. (PV=nRT) http://www.org/tip/INPHFA/vol10/iss-4/p24.html Picture from http://www. which results in a rise in pressure. Conventional Jets „ „ Conventional jets need compressors to compress the air they take in.org/tip/INPHFA/vol10/iss-4/p24.aip.aip. Ramjets slow down the air before combustion.Ramjets vs.

Picture from http://www.org/space/systems/x43.htm .globalsecurity .

Scramjets vs. Scramjets slow down the air.htm .com/engines/ramjet. and then combusts it.aviation-history. Combustion takes place while the air is still moving hypersonically. Ramjets slow down the intake air to subsonic speeds to boost the pressure. Ramjets „ „ „ Both ramjets and scramjets travel hypersonically. http://www. but not to subsonic speeds.

aviation-history.htm .Ramjet Scramjet Pictures from http://www.com/engines/ramjet.

This results in an increase in pressure.html .org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p24. The sudden increase in pressure causes a shock wave.Shock Waves „ „ The incoming air slows down when it piles up against the other air.aip. http://www.

5 main engine components: „ internal inlet „ isolator „ combustor „ internal nozzle „ fuel supply subsystem 2 main vehicle components „ forebody http://www.Engine Layout „ „ „ The engine is located on the bottom of the scramjet body.html „ aftbody .org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p24.aip.

html .aip.Picture from http://www.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p24.

since it can absorb so much heat. „ „ 2 H2 + O2 Î 2 H2O The hydrogen fuel is used as a coolant prior to being combusted.wikipedia.Fuel „ Most scramjets run on hydrogen fuel.afrlhorizons.g. (e. http://en. HyTECH) „ „ Hydrocarbon fuel does not have as much energy as hydrogen fuel. But hydrocarbons are easier to handle than hydrogen.com/Briefs/Dec01/PR0102. „ Some scramjets burn hydrocarbons. When the hydrogen burns in oxygen.org/wiki/Scramjet http://www. the only byproduct is water.html . The absorption of heat also acts to preheat the fuel before combustion.

Launching/Landing „ „ „ Scramjets cannot function at speeds below Mach 5.html .00. scramjets are launched from a large airplane (such as a B-52).wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramjet http://www. with a rocket connected to it.765284. As of yet. This means that they cannot take off on their own. scramjets do not have any real landing capabilities. Tests of scramjets have them “splash down” in the ocean. The rocket accelerates the scramjet until it is fast enough to fly on its own.com/popsci/lgimg/0. Currently.21039. http://en.popsci.

com/popsci/lgimg/0.popsci.Picture by Garry Marshall.00.765284. from http://www.html .21039.

while a rocket only provides 600 seconds or less Higher speed could mean cheaper access to outer space in the future http://en.org/wiki/Scramjet . could provide between 1000 and 4000 seconds.wikipedia.Advantages „ „ „ „ Does not have to carry oxygen No rotating parts = easy to manufacture Has a higher specific impulse (change in momentum per unit of propellant) than a conventional engine.

html booms and high g-levels would be a „ .aip. sonic http://www.Disadvantages Gets very hot „ Heat due to shock waves „ High aerodynamic loads „ High.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p24. fluctuating pressure „ Erosion from airflow over the vehicle and through the engine „ Cannot launch on its own „ Cannot land on land „ Vehicle may not be reusable „ If made to carry passengers.

There are very few moving parts in the engine.Summary „ „ „ „ „ A scramjet is a hypersonic jet that has an air-breathing engine. Scramjets are still in “testing mode” -not yet suitable for commercial use. Most scramjets run on hydrogen fuel. and can only “splash down” in the ocean. They must get to hypersonic speeds with a rocket. .

our teacher fellow. our T. Beth Kuspa.A.Acknowledgements Thank you to Mike Paskowitz. and our R. .A. for helping us with this presentation! Also thank you to Professor Hafez. Tim McGuire.

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