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Quarter 3 Exam Biology Test 1-23/24 There are an estimated 100 200 million organisms Over 1 million animal-like organisms and Half a million plant-like organisms And organisms we havent even discovered yet To an organismal survey is a tall task Taxonomy- the classification/naming of organisms by their characteristics Taxonomy makes this amount of organisms more manageable Viruses Viruses express some characteristics of life, but not all Life-like characteristics: DNA/RNA Can reproduce Non-life-like Need a host to reproduce Cannot move by themselves Crystallize Viruses cannot be catergorized, so they are difficult to study They are very small (.01 to 1 micron) which also makes them difficult to study Anatomy Made of nucleic acid and proteins Capsid- the outside of the virus where most of the protein is Inside the capsid, there is nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) Some have an outer layer/envelope It has a polyhedral shape- many sides A bacteriophage shape with a polyhedral top Or a rod shape (like a pen barrel) Viral Infection Viruses have species and cell specificity Viruses can only infect certain species and certain cells Ex: cold virus

Humans Cells in respiratory system Ex: HIV Humans T-cells But there are exceptions (ex: rabies) Can infect different mammals Not specific Reasons for specificity 1. Adsorption Virus adsorbs/attaches to a specific receptor site The cell has a specific receptor site in the membrane Entry DNA/RNA genetic material enters Ex: bacteriophage infects bacteria Latches on and injects DNA by penetrating the membrane For animal cells- p Reproductive Cycle Lytic and lysogenic viruses Lytic: Adsorption Entry Replication Nucleic acid will destroy the host cells chromosome Takes over the host cells machinery Produces viral proteins and nucleic acids This is when you start to get sick When it is an RNA virus. After entry, it must use reverse transcriptase enzyme Goes from viral RNA to viral DNA Then it destroys host cells chromosome, etc. Assemble Viral proteins wrap around viral nucleic acid Make virons- a virus that has just been assembled and is in the host cell Host cell Lyses/Release Breaks open and released viruses

Ex: chicken pox, mumps, measles, smallpox, common cold, flu, polio Symptoms vary depending on the type of infected cell, but this is when you feel the worst Lysogenic Adsorb Entry Attachment The viral DNA will insert/attach into the host cells chromosome in an inactive form (this form of DNA is called a prophage) In humans, the prophage is called a provirus If RNA in the virus, reverse transcriptase is used Prophage- the viral DNA in the inactive form combined with the host cells DNA Replication of the host cell Cell does normal function Every time it reproduces, passes on a copy of viral DNA to the daughter cell This can go on for days to years At this point, there is nothing wrong with the host cell Dont know exactly why this happens Viral DNA destroys the host cells chromosome Takes over the host cells chromosome This is where symptoms appear Host cell is lyses Replication Activation Replication of Virus Assembly of Virons Release Ex of lysitic viruses: warts, herpes, cold sores, yellow fever, HIV Defenses of viruses: Vaccines Small weakened sample of the virus Build up immunity to it Skin and mucus membranes 1st line of defense White blood cells: do phagocytosis of the virus

Antibodies Chemically attack viruses Active immunity- antibodies produced by you; making your own defenses; these last a lifetime Passive immunity- temporary (ex: from nursing) Interferon What the cell secretes Warn the other cells that there is a virus A chemical substance that may also be able to help with cancer control Viruses can be used in genetic engineering / transduction Use a virus to transfer DNA from one cell to another Viroids- naked piece of RNA; associated with certain animal diseases Prions- only protein; animal diseases like mad cow Bacteria Monera kingdom Monera kingdom was recently broken into Eubacteria (domain bacteria) and Archaebacteria (Archae domain) kingdoms Taxonomic characteristics- notable characteristics that allow you to group and distinguish organisms from other groups MoneraSingle celled (primarily unicellular) Prokaryotic- no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Cell wall Differences that separate Monera to two kingdoms Chemical nature of cell wall Eubacteria have peptioglycan Archaebacteria have polysaccharides DNA Archaebacteria i. Have histones like human DNA ii. Have junk introns like us Eubacteria have neither Archaebacteria: More like us (common ancestor?)

Small group Methanogens- produce methane Thermophiles- love heat like in hot springs Halophiles- salt lovers; Dead Sea, Salt Lake Eubacteria Large group Blue/green algae Sianobacteria Gram staining Series of stains Categorize types of eubacteria Categorized as gram positive or gram negative Positive Keeps the violet stain (shows a deep purple colour)] These bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglychin in the cell wall Negative Do not keep the violet stain (show a pinkish colour) Have a thin layer of peptioglychin Medical importance Gram positive are more sensitive to antibodies Gram negative are more resistant At the doctor, they do gram staining to determine what antibodies to treat with Anatomy Bacteria are larger than viruses (one to five microns average) What we can see in lab: 3 shapes Bacilli- rod-shaped Spirilli- spiral Cocci- spheres With a Better Microscope: Cell wall (made of peptioglycan) Cell membrane (regulates what goes into and out of the cell) Cytoplasm (colloid) Ribosomes Only organelles in prokaryotes

Sites of protein synthesis Nucleoid region Area with genetic information No membrane, not defined Depending on the species, there may be other things Plasmid A few genes Used a vector in recombinant DNA Envelope Gelatinous In pathogenic/disease causing bacteria Flagellum For mobility Pilli To attack another cell To do conjugation- transfer a little DNA to another cell Metabolic Processes Nutrition a. Photoautotrophs i. Use sunlight as their energy source to make foo ii. Bacteria photosynthesis similar to plat photosynthesis iii. They release energy iv. Different: Only have chlorophyll a Have a unique accessory pigment, phycobilins (red-ish) v. Blue-green algae b. Chemoautotrophs i. Autotrophs ii. Dont need sunlight iii. Use energy from chemical reactions iv. Methanogens (some) use CO2 and H; some sulfur bacteria c. Chemoheterotrophs i. Get their food and organic compounds from elsewhere/ other organisms ii. Another name for heterotrophs we normally refer to, like us

iii. Majority of bacteria that feed on the dead iv. Saprophytes- major component of the earths decomposers; absorb their food from the dead v. Pathogens- feed on the living and harm the living; parasites (their ecological role); ex: salmonella vi. Non-pathogens- feed on the living and dont harm the living; ex: E. coli; M. luteus vii. Largest group d. Photoautotrophs i. Get their food from others ii. Need light to make ATP iii. Get carbon from organic compounds in other organisms iv. This is the smallest group Reproduction Asexual bionary fission i. Duplicate DNA ii. Cell splits in half iii. Identical daughter cells b. Conjugation i. Pilli bridge between 2 cells ii. Transfer genes from one cell to the other iii. Making new genetic combinations c. Endospores i. When environment conditions become adverse for bacteria ii. Some cytoplasm balls up and produces a thick internal wall that encloses DNA iii. When conditions improve, it opens and the bacteria use the DNA iv. Very resistant v. Autoclaving (found in hospitals, mostly) is pretty much the only way to destroy them d. Transduction i. Lysogenic virus can carry genetic info from the 1st host to the 2nd host

ii. e. Transformation i. be taken into a living cell ii. Ecological importance Most bacteria are good b. Symbiosis i. closely together ii. The host is harmed The parasite benefits Ex: salmonella, pathogens iii. Both species benefit E. coli and humans (Ex) iv.

2nd host gets new genetic information Naked DNA or released from dead cell can Gives recipient cell new DNA

Relationship in which two species live Parasitism



One benefits It makes no difference to the other Ex: barnacle on a whale; bacteria on our skin Producers i. Make food and oxygen for other organisms directly or indirectly Decomposers i. Eat dead stuff ii. Break down dead organic material iii. Bacteria in soil Nitrogen Cycle i. Nitrogen fixers ii. De-nitrifying bacteria iii. The nitrogen cycle would not happen without bacteria iv. We use hydrogen for nucleic acids and proteins

v. a form useable to other organisms Economic Food industry i. ii. iii. Biomedical industry i. Biomedical remediation i. environmental pollutants ii. chemicals Genetic engineering i. ii. Defenses Work against viruses and bacteria: i. ii. iii. sample of virus/bacteria) iv. White blood cells that do phagocytosis Against bacteria: i. An outside source Frequently from fungi

Some bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into

Yogurt Cheese Sour crme Pathogens Some bacteria eat oil and other Use bacteria to break down certain

Bacteria that are expressing human genes Making HGH, insulin, and interferon

Skin Antibodies produced in white blood cells Vaccines (introduce small, weakened Phagocytes


Protista Kingdom Primarily unicellular Many are colonial: They group together and loosely act like a single organism Thalluses Unspecialized multicellular organisms


Ex: kelp, seaweed In kingdom protista, there are about 15 phyla 2 informal groups of phyla 9 of them are protozoan (zooplankton) Tiny, floating in the water Primarily heterotrophic Animal-like 6 are algae (phytoplankton) Plankton Primarily autotrophic Plant-like Protozoans We will look at 6 phyla Look at: Locomotion organelles What they use to move Main taxonomic characteristic to distinguish the phyla Examples Habitat (where you would find them) Ecological importance Notable things Most phyla have several names 1. Mastigophora/ Zoomastigophora/ Zoomastigina/ Zooflagellates Locomotion Use flagella Heterotrophic Ex: trypanosome- in the blood; trichonympha single cell with many flagella Habitat: in a host organism Ecology: What they do in the host depends on the ecological role Trichonympha Mutualism symbiosis Lives in termites and breaks down wood using enzymes Tryphanosoma In our blood stream


Causes African sleeping sickness A parasite, they benefit, we are harmed We get it by being bitten by tsetse flies In the fly, the tryphanosoma show commensalism- the protozoa benefits (carried to a host) and the fly doesnt care 2. Euglenophyta Locomotion- flagella Ex: euglena These do photosynthesis Habitat- primarily in fresh water Ecological role Producers Do photosynthesis Produce oxygen Notable: Positive photoaxisThey move toward the light Have an eyespot- detects light verses dark When there is no light, they can become heterotrophic Rhizopoda/ Sarcedina Locomotion Pseudopodia false feet Habitat- fresh water Ex: amoeba Ecological role Detrivores- take food in by phagocytosis, then digest it Note able: phototaxic- move away from light 4. Ciliophora/ Ciliata Locomotion- cilia Ex: paramecia, stentor Habitat- fresh and salt water Ecological role Predators- fast and big, and can catch smaller thing But they are the prey if they are not the biggest thing in the environment Notable


Avoidance reaction Discharge trichocysts- stinging threads that help them to catch prey or for defense Sometimes discharge these when they bump into something 5. Sporozoa Locomotion- dont have; depend on something else for transportation Ex: plasmodium that cause malaria Habitat- in a host Ecological role Parasite Plasmodium Get to us by Anopheles mosquito In the mosquito, commensalism Notable- almost all live in a group (see p. 503) 6. Myxomycota Locomotion- pseudopodia Ex: physarum Habitat- terrestrial; generally damp, secluded areas of forest floor Ecological role Decomposers Sacraphotic decomposers Notable Two stages of life Plasmodium- happy, moving, feeling Sporangium- when conditions become bad, it balls up and will asexually make tough spores


Biology test 2-3-12 Kingdom Protista Algae Phyla We will look at Common name Examples Body form unicellular, colonial, or thallus; sessile- stationary habitat ecological and/or economic importance notable 1. Bacillariophyta/ Chrysophyta common name: golden algae because of color ex: diatoms body form colonial and sessile or planktonic (free-floating) unicellular habitat: fresh water Diatoms Thin delicate wall rich in silicon (a material used in glass and toothpaste as a n abrasive) Habitat: salt water Notable Store food as oil Fish that eat a lot of diatoms taste oily


2. Dinoflagella/ Pyrrophyta Common name- fire algae Body form Unicellular Planktonic 2 flagella Habitat- mostly salt water Ecological importance Positive- producers Negative- cause red tides Water becomes red and washes onto shore In the red tide there are many dead organisms The algae secrete a toxin which is usually not a problem In a population boom, the toxin is concentrated enough to kill off organisms Fishing industry, tourism (doesnt look pretty) Notable- some species have bioluminescence 3. Chlorophyta Common name: green algae Brotococus Unicellular Powdery-green Habitat: terrestrial on trees, bricks, sidewalks Spirogyra Colonial Philamentous- cells line up one behind the other Fresh water Ulva Thallus- multicellular, unspecialized Sea lettuce In salt water Ecological Producers Economic Sea weed sushi wrap (positive) Negative Green algal bloom- kills fish, ugly


Algae on top shade the water and the algae below the surface dont get light, so they die The decomposers on the bottom use up all the oxygen as they decompose, so there is no oxygen for other organisms Alteration of generations Haploid gametophyte generation Produces gametes Undergoes sexual reproduction and produces Diploid sporophyte generation Asexual reproduction 4. Phaeophyta Brown algae, kelps, seaweeds Focus, sargassum, Thalusses Habitat: salt water, along cold, rocky coastlines Sargassum Sargasso sea- mid-north Atlantic- several major currents combine and it is very calm there Ecological Producers Provide a calm and safe habitat Economic Align- extract used to thicken ice cream, soups, gravy, lotion Used in sushi 5. Rhodophyta Red algae Body form: thallus (but not a s big as brown algae) Habitat: salt water Can grow at depths of 25-260 meters They absorb blue wave lengths that penetrate into deep waters; they have phychcobilins/ phycoerythrins pigment Ecological Producers- almost only producers at their depths Have calcium carbohydrate in cell wall that help in the structural soundness of coral reef when they attach to the corals Agar is an extract from them


Caragelain- extract that keeps things in suspension Also do alteration of generations Kingdom Fungi Taxonomic characteristics Eukaryotic Multicellular Reproduction Asexually by spores Sexually by positive and negative hyphae (not enough of a difference to be distinctly male/female) Not a regular pattern of alternation of generations as in algal thalluses or plants Asexual when conditions are favorable, sexual when unfavorable Nutrition Heterotrophic by absorption Most are saprophytic- decomposers Some are parasitic Cell walls are present surrounding their cell membranes- these are composed of cellulose and chitin Four phyla we are not responsible for (just know there are four) Do know the below examples Yeats Ascomycota Important in baking, wine, beer industries Unicellular Morels and Truffles Ascomycota Edible delights Pigs are trained to find truffles Truffles grow underground Very expensive Mushrooms and toadstools Basidiomycota Common fairy rings Some edible like the grocery store mushroom Amanita


Basidiomucota Angel of death Very poisonous Penicillium Deuteromycota Produces antibiotic penicillin Ringworm and Athletes foot Deuteromycota Parasitize people Mycorrhizae (loosely considered with the fungi) Usually basidiomycyte and roots of a flowering plant Mutualism- fungus gets food, plant gets minerals Lichens (loosely considered with the fungi) Ascomycota and algae or cyanobacteria Mutualism- fungus gets food, other gets water and a place to live Kingdom Plantae Phyla Bryophyta Most simplistic of all the Plantae phyla Mosses are here Taxonomic characteristics 1. Nonvascular plants Do not have vascular tissues No xylem- moves water No phloem- moves food/nutriments Use osmosis and diffusion This limits them, so they are small and are low growing 2. Lack true roots, stems, and leaves Structures have a superficial resemblance to true roots, stems, and leaves, but because there is no vascular tissue, they are false Stalk- supports, but does not conduct (looks like stem) Leaf-like structures- photosynthesis, but no vascular tissue Phizids (like roots)- anchor but no vascular tissue


3. Alteration of generations Gametophyte is the dominant generation It is larger and usually present Sporophyte is the more fleeting generation

Life Cycle Gametophyte (haploid)- sexual reproduction


Antheridia- produce sperm Archegonia- produce eggs Use a little water for sperm to get to the egg for fertilization Produces diploid zygote in the archegonia Grows and emerges as a mature diploid sporophyte The sporophyte reproduces asexually

It undergoes meiosis The cap (operculus) will break off and release the haploid spore When the spores hit the ground, they will grow into protonema The protonema will grow into the gametophyte The cycle continues Evolutionary advantage Haploid, asexual spores are resistant Sexual- genetic variation importance of bryophta evolutionarily 1st on land Problems Need water for sexual reproduction Lack vascular tissue, so must stay tiny Terrestrial, but havent made the perfect transition Ecologically


Producers Natural sponge- absorb a lot of water (good for the organisms around them) Can move on to bare rock and form soil as they die and grow that other plants can move into; pioneer species Economically Peat moss- gardening; retains moisture; flammable- can be used a s fuel source; becomes coal Phyla Tracheophyte/ Vascular plants All plants other than bryophytes Taxonomically 1. Vascular Have vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) No restriction on size 2. True stems, roots, and leaves These structures all contain vascular tissue Not only support, anchor, and photosynthesize, but also regulate 3. Dominant Sporophyte Generation Diploid Evolutionary advancement- more genetic variation Phyla Terophyta (seedless plants) Ferns Life cycle: alternation of generations

Rhizome- horizontal underground stem Asexual reproduction Little round sorus appear Sporangia in the sorus In the sporangia, meiosis occurs to produce haploid spores They are released and grow into haploid gametophytes


Called a prothallus Lay on the ground, heart shaped Sex organs are underneath the prothallus Under the point- antheridium (sperm) Under the notch- archegonium (egg) Sperm get to the egg by water, but dont need as much as moss does Fertilization of a diploid zygote Importance Evolutionary- vascular tissue Ecologically- producers Economically- we like them in our gardens

Kingdom Plantae Seeded Vascular Plants Have seed coats (protection) Have an embryo (early developmental stage) Has food for the embryo Evolutionary advantage: protection; has food for the growing embryo Gymnosperms More primitive Ex: pine Gymno- L. naked; Spermae L. plant Make cones with naked seeds that lay on the scales of the cones Evergreens Long, skinny leaves Tiega- biome where they mainly grow Snow falls through and doesnt accumulate and break off the leaves/branches Phyla Coniferophyta (Conifers) Have cones Inside the cone, meiotic divisions create haploid spores, the first cells of the haploid gametophyte In the cone, they mature into the mature haploid gametophyte male generation, pollen grains


Pollen grains produce sperm The sperm is brought to the egg by wind Water is not needed for reproduction here- not restricted to moist and shady habitats Pollination The less than a year old cone receives the sperm There is another year until fertilization In the female cone, meiosis produce haploid spores that grow into the female gametophyte generation called an ovule Ovule is deep in the cone; produce eggs By the time the ovule is one year old, it is mature and the egg is ripe Meanwhile, the pollen grain has been producing a pollen tube that grows into the ovule and the sperm can finally unite with the egg This is fertilization The ovule is now considered a seed The diploid zygote will grow into an embryo The cone will open and release a winged naked seed The embryo is the seed will grow into a mature diploid sporophyte generation Evolutionary advancement- seed is protection and food Ecology- habitat for animals and producers EconomicallyDecoration Lumber Paper Pine products (rosin) Phylum Anthophyta Angiosperms Taxonomic characteristics Covered-seed plants Covered by a fruit Flowering plants Classes: monocotyledonae, and dicotyledonae Chart p. 570 Flower- highly modified leaves Functions


Sit of sexual and asexual reproduction Forms fruit Attract insects or other pollinators Protect reproductive parts Flower structure Whorls of appendages Sepalson the outside of the petals; protect the bud; Note- not all are green Petals Attract pollinators Protect reproductive parts Perfect flowers- have both male and female reproductive parts Stamen- male Anther- the top Filament- the stalk Asexual and the start of sexual reproduction Pistol Stigma- sticky top Style- long part Ovary- bulbous bottom Asexual and sexual reproduction here See LMR p. 74 Life Cycle Dominate generation is the diploid sporophyte Each anther has 4 chambers- meiosis occurs here, produces haploid spores Spores- one cell of gametophyte As they mature, every 2 of the chambers merge When the pollen grain is ripe, the anthers will split open and the pollen grains are exposed The pollen grains produce haploid sperm They get to the stigma by pollinators Evolutionary advancement- go by wind or pollinators; more ways to ensure pollination In the pistol (ovary) cells do meiosis and produce haploid spores (haploid gametophyte) These grow into mature female gametophyte ovule


The eggs produced will form and mature Meanwhile, pollen grains grow a pollen tube containing two sperm Fertilization One sperm and one egg makes on diploid sporophyte zygote Ovule is now considered a seed Other sperm and two polar nuclei unite and form and endosperm that is triploid This endosperm makes food for the embryo This fruit covers the seed Evolutionary advantage- the fruit is eaten by animals, and then the seed is distributed elsewhere Protects and gives food for the embryo Worksheet: Plant Structure, Hormones, and Tropisms -growth is restricted in cells called meristems located in the tips of shoots and roots (remember when we looked at onion root tips and all the cell division was at the very bottom?) *bodies of animals stop growing at maturity, unlike plants and their growth is not restricted to one type of cell dermal tissue: -protective layer -secretes the cuticle covering stems and leaves vascular tissue: -transports water, minerals and sugars -composed of xylem(water) and phloem(nutrients) tissues ground tissue: -support and storage -ground tissue in center of stems and roots is called pith -kind outside the vascular tissue is called cortex types of cells: -Parenchyma cells= unspecialized, do photosynthesis, storage, and respiration. Found in all tissue types, but mainly ground tissue -Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma= specialized for support Roots: -absorb water and dissolved nutrients


-anchor plants to the ground -store food, prop up plant, and take in O2 root systems: -prop root, aerial root, fibrous root, taproot root structure: -epidermis= its cells have tiny root hairs which absorb water by osmosis -cortex -vascular cylinder= has xylem and phloem -root cap= protects meristems -root meristem or region of cell division -region of elongation where cells grow -region of differentiation where cells become specialized Stems: -support plant -transport substances between roots and leaves stem structure: monocot stems= has epidermis surrounding ground tissue which contains scattered vascular bundles(xylem and phloem) herbaceous dicot= the vascular bundles form a circle around the pith(remember that the pith is the ground tissue located within the vascular tissue) woody dicot(trees!)= -lateral meristems do secondary growth, make it thicker -makes vascular cambium= makes new xylem and phloem -makes cork cambium= from cortex and produces cork, a protective covering -phloem, cortex, and cork form bark -xylem forms sapwood and older, dry xylem forms heartwood -growth rings are made by differential growth of larger spring xylem and smaller summer xylem Leaves: Structure: - top cuticle layer -then epidermis - palisade mesophyll layer -vein(contains xylem and phloem)


-middle spongy mesophyll layer -stomata(pores which allow gaseous exchange) -guard cells(regulate opening of stomata) Transport: Water: -water enters from soil to roots by osmosis -enters stem due to osmotic or root pressure -travels up xylem from stem to leaves due to capillary action and transpirational pull= as a molecule of water evaporates from stomata of leaf, this force pulls the water up through xylem due to the cohesion of the water molecules -water leaves plant through stomata in transpiration Sugars: -produced in mesophyll -translongation= transported by phloem to leaves, roots, stems etc Plant Responses: -phototropism- plants response to periods of light and darkness -controlled by pigment phytochrome -short-day plants= flower when days are short, spring and fall; light > dark -long-day plants= flower when days are long; dark < light -day-neutral plants= dont flwer in response to light -hormones= a substance that is produced in one part of an organism and affects another part of the same individual -plant hormones: -auxins= stimulate cell elongation, responsible for gravitropism & regulate cell division in meristems -cytokinins= stimulate cell division and the growth of lateral buds, and cause dormant seeds to sprout -gibberellins= produce dramatic increases in size, particularly in stems and fruit -ethylene= stimulate fruits to ripen -plants bend in a tropism when one part of the plant grows faster than another tropisms: -phototropism= response which makes plants grow towards a light source -thigmotropism= response of plants to touch or contact with any object -geotropism=response to gravity


-hydrotropism= response to water Kingdom Animalia Taxonomic characteristics Multicellular- cell specialization (advantage) Heterotrophic- got food from eating others Lack cell walls Eukaryotic- membrane bound organelles Vertebrates- have a backbone; 3% of animals Invertebrates- lack a backbone; majority Phyla Porifera Sponges Habitat- mainly salt water, sometimes fresh and braquish Taxonomic characteristics Bodies are covered by pores called ostia Asymmetrical- dont have any predictable symmetry As adults, sponges are sessile (stationary) Anatomy (structure, form, shape) External Ostia- allow water to enter Osculum- where water and waste leaves Water is always circulating in its body in one direction Internal Large hole/space (body cavity) surrounded by a wall (body wall) Animal-characteristic functions are in the wall Wall thin outer layer of cells- epidermis; used to protect mesoglea- gelatinous layer in the middle amoebocytes irregular shaped cells in the middle that crawl about in the mesoglea make skeleton-like material make eggs pick up food and oxygen and deliver it to other cells pick up the metabolic and carbon dioxide wastes and bring that to the body cavity


skeleton material spicules may be chemically rich in calcium (calcareous) or silicon (salacious) sponging- the material of the skeleton fibers; more sponging in some than others choanocytes have flagella- move the water in and out as the water and plankton are drawn in, the choanocytes capture and digest the food intracellular produce sperm Nutrition movement of choanocytes flagella draw in water and the plankton in the water choanocytes digest it then they pass the remaining food to the amoebocytes the amosbacytes pass it to other cells amoebocytes pick up the waste and dump it into the body cavity waste exits through the operculum Reproduction can do sexual and asexual reproduction sexual hermaphrodite- produce male and female reproductive parts sperm are released into the body cavity and released through the operculum the sperm is collected by the cell wall of another sponge a cell with a ripe egg releases a chemical that attracts the sperm fertilization- diploid zygote develops into a larva and swims intoa suitable spot by metamorphism, it becomes an adult sponge the immature larva of a sponge is mobile asexual budding- a part of it breaks off and grows on a substrate ecological importance is a habitat for other organisms is an indicator organism indicates clean water economic importance- cleaning aid, but people nowadays prefer man-made sponges


Phyla Cnideria/Coelen Ex: coral, sea anemones, jellyfish, hydras, and Portuguese man-of-war Habitat= fresh, brackish, and salt water Tax characs: -have stinging cells, cnidocytes -cnidocytes contain the stinger, the nematocyst -used for protection and hunting b/c can paralyze or kill prey -GVC= gastro vascular cavity *space within body where they can do extracellular digestion -can eat bigger things now, multicellular organisms, even whole fish -have radial symmetry= have symmetry around a central axis, makes them more attuned to the environment -have two true tissues -ectoderm= protection and are sensory -endoderm= line GVC, release digestive enzymes, and finish up digesting intracellularly -mesoglea in between the two -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------so this is where are notes ended, not sure whats going to be on the test with the rest of this, so I did a short summary of reproduction, etc. in cnidarians from the textbook Cnidarians have two lifestages, polyps and medusas Ex: of polyp life stage, sea anemone Ex: of medusa life stage, jellyfish Reproduction: most reproduction in cnidarians includes external fertilization Jellyfish: similar to reproductive cycle in most cnidarians -adult medusas reproduce sexually by releasing gametes(n) into the water -fertilization occurs in open water(external fertilization), producing many diploid zygotes(2n) -each zygote develops into a ciliated larva. The swimming larvae eventually attaches to a hard surface and develops into a polyp - the polyp buds(asexual) to release young medusas(2n)


in some species budding occurs on a polyp when a swelling occurs on the side of an existing polyp, or the polyp just splits into two -this then forms a new polyp Portuguese man-of-war is a colony of polyps. -hydras lack a medusa stage, reproduce by budding or sexually by reproducing eggs and sperm in the body wall digestion: -pull creature through mouth into gastrovascular cavity= digestive chamber with one opening -extracellular digestion occurs -partially digested food is then absorbed by the gastroderm where digestion is completed intracellularly -anything that cannot be digested is passed out as waste through the same opening Worms Several phyla Generalized into worms by/because of shape Have in common Have 3 true tissue layer Ectoderm Outside Protection Sensory Endoderm Secretes digestive enzymes Finishes digestion intracellular Mesoderm Between the endo and ecto-derms Evolutionary advancement: capability to develop true organs and organ systems Bilateral symmetry If you divide them longitudinally, the right and left are mirror images When they have this, they probably have Cephalization- an accumulation of sensory structures/organs at the head of the organism


Evolutionary advancement of cephalization: allows organisms to be much faster and much more attuned to where they are going/coming from; better predators, less often prey Most organisms exhibit this Phyla Platyhelminthes Planarians (flatworms) auricles- used for smell Pharynx- feeding pouch Learn class, example, habitat, taxonomic characteristics (shape, digestive cavity, body cavity- place in the body other than where digestion occurs) economic and ecologic Class Turbellaria Ex: planaria Habitat- mostly fresh, but some salt water Taxonomic characteristics Shape- flat, dorsal-ventral Digestion- gastro vascular cavity (GVC); can digest larger organism, but only one opening Body cavity- none; acoelomates- no body cavity; colem- a body cavity; acoelomates are primitive- no protection for internal organs Class Trematocta Ex: flukes Habitat- in hosts Taxonomic characteristics Shape- flat, dorsal-ventral Digestion- GVC Body cavity- acoelomate Class Cestoda Es: tapeworms Habitat- in hosts Taxonomic characteristics Shape- flat, dorsal-ventral Digestion- no digestive cavity because they take digestive food from the host Body cavity- acoelomate Ecologically Endo-parasites attached to the inner lining of the intestines of the host


Have hooks/sucker to attach to lining and get food Will release eggs that are released with the host feces In 3rd world countries, where feces is used as fertilizer, tapeworms are easily spread Economically- agriculture and medical (human and pet) Phylum Nematoda(Roundworms) No classes we have to learn J Ex: dog heartworm, human hookworm Habitat: in/on a host; no all are on host- some in fresh water and moist terrestrial environments Shape: round (hence name, roundworms) Digestive cavity Two openings- mouth to take in food and an anus to let food out Complete digestive tract- openings at each end; one-way movement Evolutionary advancement- much more efficient Body cavity Pseudocoelom- a false body cavity False: between mesoderm and endoderm; lacks mesentaries (membrane sheets) Evolutionary advancement: fluid filled, provides protection Ecologic (dog heartworm) Endo-parasite in the heart Dog gets it by being bitten by a mosquito with the immature stage worm Goes through blood stream to the heart Heartworms build up in the heart The animal will die Now there are treatments and prevention Economic: veterinary/medical Phyla Annelida Shape: round and segmented Digestion Complete with specialized organs Evolutionary advancement: helps digestion, more efficient Body cavity True coelom: with in the mesoderm; have mesentaries- membranes that hold the organs in place


Fluid filled , has the place to develop more organs and organ systems Class Oligochaeta Ex: earth worm Habitat: terrestrial and fresh water Class Hirudinea ex: leech habitat: on a host leech ecologically ecto-parasites secretes an anesthetic to numb host secretes anticoagulant that prevents blood clotting and make the hosts blood flow economically doctors used to extract blood and bad humors, but patients got worse now, they use leeches to reduce swelling after surgery and to get rid of bad bruises; especially in reattachment surgery- anticoagulant keeps blood flowing Class Polychaeta ex: sandworms and bloodworms habitat: salt water

Phylum Mollusca ex: snails, slugs, squids, octopus, clams, chambered nautilus, chitin habitat: fresh water, salt water, terrestrial taxonomic characteristics soft body divided into foot, visceral mass, mantle


radula (in all pelecypods); know structure and function trochophore larva (in all cephalopods) bilateral symmetry, but not always cephalization 3 true tissue layers and true coelom; applies to all animals from here on Class Pelecypoda Ex: clams, oysters, mussels 2 shells Type of shell: Type of foot: hatchet foot Economic: food, pearls Ecologic: filter feeder, indicator organisms Class Gastropoda Ex: pond, snails, slugs No shell Type of foot: stomach foot; torsion- the digestive system folds over, the stomach is at the head/foot and the anus is above the head Economic : food, conch/shell in tourist shops, jewelry, driveway Ecological: decomposers Class Cephalopoda Ex: octopus, squid, chambered nautilis Shell: Type of foot: heat foot- the feet=tentacles Economic: food, shells Ecologic: highly efficient carnivorous predators Octopi have eyes; octopi and squid can release ink to escape; vary fast; large brain; suckers on tentacles Phylum Arthropoda Largest animal phyla Taxonomic characteristics Jointed appendages for a variety of functions Chitinous exoskeleton- nitrogen containing polysaccharide compound Disadvantage- molting because the exoskeleton does not grow; very heavy, limits size Advantage- protection; prevents from drying out; structure/ support; point of attachment for muscles like our skeleton


Molting- periodic shedding of exoskeleton; secretes an enzyme that dis-attaches and makes a new soft exoskeleton, bursts from old shell; sucks in water or air while the new shell dries, then releases the air/water and have room to grow; soft shell stage: no protection, we take advantage of this and eat soft-shell crabs Class Arachnida Ex: spiders, scorpions, ticks, horseshoe crab (latter also class Merostomata) Body region- cephalothorax, abdomen Appendages- 8 walking chelicerae ( fangs used to bite; some have poison) and pedipalps (sensory, manipulating things, chewing) Excretory organs- malpigian tubes-excretory organ, dump waste liquid nitrogenous waste into the digestive system with the solid waste Respiratory organs- trachea- ; book lungs- folded membranes that look like paper of a book, blood can run through them for gaseous exchange Economic: medical and agricultural industries Ecological: predators of insects Notable: silk spinning; silk glands produce a fluid that passes out posterior through spinnerettes and pull fluid silk Class Crustacea Ex: crabs, shrimp, crayfish, barnacles, doodle bugs Body region: cephalothorax, abdomen Appendages: 1 pair/ segment Excretory organs: green glands- dump nitrogenous waste through a pore in the head Respiratory organs: gills- in cephalothorax for gaseous exchange in water Economic: food and shipping industries (barnacles slow a ship down, costs $ to get them off) Ecological: predators, prey, detrivores Notable: know lab regarding internal and external anatomy, names and functions of organs and organ systems Class Chilopoda Ex: centipedes Body region: long, segmented, flattened Appendages: 1 pair/segment for walking Excretory Organs: malpigian tubules Respiratory organs: trachea Economic: medical industry (can bite) Ecological: predator


Notable: poisonous claws at anterior end Class Diplopoda Ex: millipedes Body Region: long, segmented, rounded Appendages: 2 pairs/ segmented for walking Excretory organs: malpigian tubules Respiratory organs: trachea Economic: none Ecologic: detrivores Class Insecta Ex: bees, ants, grasshoppers, butterflies, caterpillars Body Region: head, thorax, abdomen Appendages: 6 walking, maybe 1 or 2 pairs of wings Excretory organs: malpigian tubules Respiratory organs: trachea Notable: Metamotphosis- the series of molts and changes that transform the immature form into the adult Advantages- immatures dont compete with adults; controlled by hormone Endoskeleton causes molting; then juvenile hormone increase prevents metamorphosis into the next stage, decrease stimulates it 3 types of metamorphosis Complete- egg, larva (look and act nothing like the adults), pupa (the stage in which an insect changes from larva to adult), adult, ex: lady bug, butterfly Incomplete : egg, nymph (lack functional sexual organs and other adult organs like wings), adult, ex: chinch bug Ametabolous- egg, small adult, adult, (actually is a lack of metamorphosis) Economic: medical, agricultural, silk and food industries Ecologic: predators, prey, pollinators Phylum Echinodermata Ex: starfish, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers Habitat: all marine biomes Taxonomic characteristics Spiny skin- calcareous spines project through skin Calcareous endoskeleton- internal skeleton produced by mesoderm, similar to ours


Radial symmetry- appears to a be a regression o more primitive body forms, but is thought to be a secondary adaptation to sedentary way of life they now exhibit; this idea is supported by the fact that the larvae are bilateral in symmetry Water vascular system- for locomotion, food getting, and circulation; know operation from handout Food getting: starfish feeding- attack the clam and line up their mouth with the opening; constantly suck on the shell until the clam gets tired and opens the shells enough for the starfish to insert its stomach and digestive enzymes, then eat Behavior: defensive behavior of sea cucumber- shoot evisceration threads out of anus to alarm predator, not toxic; brittle star- snaps of appendages when grabbed by one, escapes, and regenerates the arm Ecologic importance- starfish eat coral polyps, and destroy the base of the coral reef Economic bad for tourism when reefs are destroyed Phylum Chordata Ex: a few invertebrates like tunicates, sea squirts and lancets, and all the vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) Taxonomic characteristics Notochord- an axial supportive structure along the dorsal surface Nerve cord- a cord for nerve signal transmission, dorsal to notochord Gills slits- openings in neck region for respiration and feeding in lower chordates, respiration in fish, and in higher chordates they become other structures in the throat region Tail- for balance or locomotion NOTE: there are a few invertebrate chordates Sub-Phylum Vertebrata The vertebrates, in which a dorsal vertebral column of cartilage or bone replaces the notochord and encloses the nerve cord Class Agnatha (jawless fishes) LAMPREYS AND HAGFISSHES Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Class Amphibian (amphibians) Class Reptilia (reptiles)


Class Aves (birds) Class Mammalia (mammals) Anatomy and Physiology Cell- basic unit of structure and function Muscle Nerve (neuron) Phagocytes In the bodies, these are arranged into functional tissue- a group of cells working together for a common function; 4 categories Epithelial tissue Function: protection Outer layer of skin Protects inside and outside Covering heart, lungs Inside blood vessels Connective tissue Most widespread in our body Function- links, joints, attaches (a little protection) The living cells are actually scattered by a non-living material called the matrix Can divide tissue into types depending on the matrix Dense connective tissue i. Matrix is solid or semi-solid ii. Bone, cartilage Loose connective tissue i. Matrix is fibrous or semi-fluid ii. Ligaments (holds bone together at joints); tendons (muscles to bones); fat Liquid connective tissue i. Liquid matrix ii. Whole blood; lymph (juice in between cells and tissues) Muscle tissue Enables movement Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle Skeletal


i. ii. Smooth i. ii. has smooth muscle in the walls Cardiac: in the heart only Nervous tissue Sends signals Brain, in skin, nerve chord, nerves

Moves the bones Biceps, gluteus Maximus (bottom), Lining intestine In any internal organ other than the heart

Organ- group of tissues working together for a function Ex: heart cardiac muscles, connective, nervous, epithelial Brain: all tissues but muscle Organ system- organs working together for a function

Skeletal System Function- protection, support, point of attachment for muscles, site of blood cell production, stores calcium and phosphorous Components: bones, ligaments, cartilage Bones Avg. 206 bones (diagrams p. 922 and bones in skull from handout) Skull protects brain, provides facial structure Ribs 12 pairs avg. Protects lungs, heart Floating ribs: attached to spine on dorsal, not on ventral False ribs: attached to last true rib on ventral 6 true ribs: attached to spine and sternum Thoratic: torso vertebrae Sacrial: lower back vertebrae Servicle: neck vertebrae Appendicular skeleton Appendages


P. 922 Pelvis protects organs (reproductive and kidneys); supports axial organs Bones are held together by ligament of loose connective tissue The joint is the place where the bones are held together immoveable joint- bone to bone in immoveable joints: i.e. skull, pelvis moveable joints skull and neck; radius in your elbow pivot point: left-right motion ball and socket joint: great deal of motion; femur and pelvis, shoulder hinge joint: 180 range of motion; knee, elbow gliding, sliding joint: glide and relation to eathother; back vertebrae double jointed- larger range in motion at joints; longer or more pliable ligaments cartilage dense connective tissue semisolid matrix cushion between the joints; in between vertebrae- disks every bones started as cartilage ossification- the cartilage is replaced by bone as the fetus develops; happens about 4 months into development soft spot on top of the head: room for brain growth, more pliable for birth finished ossification around mid-20s never fully ossified: ears, nose good that never ossified; cartilage is more difficult to break- more pliable Bone Structure periostium- a thin membrane that surrounds the entire bone; point of attachment for muscles; supplies bone-forming cells to repair a break spongy bone- absorbs shock; cushioning growth plate within the spongy bone; only place where your bone actively grows compact bone- dense; tightly packed; protection and support; strongest part of the bone; hollow, which makes it stronger bone marrow (2 kinds yellow and red yellow- area of fat storage red makes blood cells; red, white cells and platelets haversion canal contains a nerve and blood vessels that take care of bone cells in the system


Skeletal System Disorders Arthritis General name for about 100 disorders Pain and inflammation in the joints Osteoarthritis i. Occurs with age ii. Due to wear and tear, the cartilaginous pads wear down and results in pain and swelling iii. Over the counter pain meds; if really bad, surgery with prosthetic pads


Rheumatoid arthritis i. ii. itself iii. invaders and begins to attack it iv. joints v. Not many medicines Osteoporosis Literally deterioration of the bone tissue (cells die and decompose) Bones because brittle and easily break Most common in post-menauposal women, but can happen to others Prevention: regular moderate exercise, diet rich in dairy products, hormone replacement therapy Fracture Break in the bone Simple and compound fracture hairline Hairline crack in the bone Simple broken and bones are apart Compound fracture surrounding tissue damage Periostium does the repair Once healed, the bones are stronger than before Pain, swelling, almost inability to move some Body thinks connective tissue is foreign Can attack as a child An auto-immune disease body attacks


Muscular System Function: movement (conspicuous and inconspicuous heart and stomach) Skeletal muscle Move skeleton Striated (voluntary) muscle Biceps, triceps (see additional muscles and bones handout) Striped appearance Smooth muscle Movement in any organs (except heart) because of this in the wall Thick in the stomach to allow for mechanical digestion involuntary muscle Not striped Cardiac muscle Movement of heart Between smooth and skeletal in terms of striped appearance Contraction/ Relaxation Contain 2unique proteins: Actin and Myosin Actin can actual move Myosin enables this movement Sarcomere a functional part of a muscle cell


Nerve impulse signal to move sent to the sarcomeres Impulse causes calcium ions to come out of the cell membrane and bond to the actin, causing them to change shape ATP will bind to myosin and cause it to change shape and bind to actin ATPs are used to pull the actins across the myosin

Now that the actins have moved, everything attached as moved This is called the sliding Filament Theory In relaxation nerve impulse leaves, and ATP is let go of impulse; ATP grabs calcium off of mysogin and send it back to cell membrane Muscles forget to return all the way to relaxed position, thats why we stretch to pull them back Whole Skeleton Muscle Action Muscles operate in pairs (smooth and cardiac do not) Origin fixed or immovable point of attachment Insertion opposite end; moveable point of attachment tapers into a tendon and attaches to the next bone in line Belly between origin and insertion In the pair, one is the flexor when it contracts, it bends the joint Extensor when it contracts, it straightens the joint back out Muscular Disorders


Tendonitis An inflammation of the tendon becomes swollen and sore Cause is usually due to overuse Rest, pain meds Sprain More severe Due to over extension of a joint to the point of muscle damage, tendon damage The sprained joint doesnt heal stronger, it will always be weaker than before Physical therapy to strengthen muscles around the joint to not be too dependent on tendon Strain Due to overextension, but not to a point of tearing or extreme damage Not as severe as sprain Need to give body a rest Pulled muscles are mainly strains, sometimes sprains

Integumentary System Components Skin


Derivatives: sweat, and oil glands, hair, nails Functions Protection Regulates temperature Removes waste Sense organ Vitamin D Epidermis (p. 934) Keratin outermost layer; dead epithelial cells; keeps water in your body, waterproofing Epithelial cells living cells in the epidermis; active protection (mitosis for healing); synthesize vitamin D (need sun exposure to do this) Melanocytes below epithelial; secrete melanin skin pigment that protects from UV rays Papilla irregular ridge between epidermis and dermis; produces skin irregularities (fingerprints, taste buds) Oil glands/ sebaceous glands produce sebum oil that maintains moisture and keeps skin pliable Hair follicle dead epithelial cells are modified to make hair; some cells go into the follicle where this occurs Nail follicle produces nail; modified dead epithelial cells with an added thick layer of keratin; nails function to protect Dermis Nerves and sensory receptors pick up on stimulation of temperature, pressure, and pain, the receptors turn that into a nerve impulse and send that via nerve to brain Capillaries tiniest of blood vessels; site of diffusion; oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of blood and to epithelial cells; not needed things diffuse into capillaries Muscle when it contracts, the hair stands up and gives goose bumps; smooth muscle Storage area space in between cells in the dermis; store nutrients; keeps a reserve of things that may be needed Sweat glands connected to a pore that opens in the epidermis; cools body evaporates and takes heat with it; gets rid of excess water, salts, and nitrogenous waste (euria) and waste products Disorders Eczema oil/sebaceous glands dont work as well; excess keratin that flakes away Psoriasis hereditary; excessively dry that it flakes off constantly Skin cancer Uncontrolled cell growth and division


Both forms of skin cancer are treatable Tanning increases chances because they are overworked Carcinoma epithelial cells Melanoma melanocytes; tends to metastice break off and spread to other cells (worse than carcinoma) Digestive System Functions Break food we eat down to molecules small enough to be absorbed by cells and then used for energy production, growth, or repair Gets rid of solid waste Components Mouth cavity Mechanical digestion - teeth and tongue to break food into smaller and smaller pieces Incisors cut food Canines tearing food Pre-molars/cuspids grinding/crushing Molars crushing/ grinding Chemical salivary amylase to break down carbohydrates; break down to monosaccharide Salivary glands produce saliva (a mixture of water, mucus, and salivary amylase) Boless mushy slimy ball of food Pharynx starts at ulva runs to epiglolus (another flap of skin) Passage way for food and air Common passage way for 2 things, food and air When used for food passage, the epiglottis closes of trachea/airway so food goes to esophagus Choking food goes from pharynx to airway Esophagus Passageways for boless from pharynx to stomach Peristalsis muscular contractions that move the food like toothpaste in a tube; smooth muscle (involuntary) Stomach Cardiac stinvinctor Chemical, mechanical, and storage Mechanical smooth muscle swishes and lining ridges break down


Chemical pepsin breaks down proteins Stomach secretes inactive pepsin and hydrochloric acid to activate Secretes mucus to protect it from acid Ulcer too much acid or too little mucus; causes a wound in the lining of the stomach; caused by stress, and a bacteria Chime food after stomach Small intestine Thinner approx. 3 cm diameter; 6-7 meters (18-21 ft.) in length 3 regions Chemical digestion vast majority (90%) of chemical digestion Absorption of nutrient molecules Chemical uses enzymes the accessory organs secrete Lipase (lipids); sucrase; lacrase; maltose (sugars) Liver Secretes bile breaks large fat globules into small fats (emulsifying) Cleans blood of foreign potentially harmful toxins; drug users and drinkers usually suffer from syrosis of the liver Will convert extra glucose and store them as glycogen Gall bladder (dorsal of liver) Stores bile produced by liver and passed to small intestine Releases bile by a duct or tubule into small intestine Gall stones builds up to solid crystals Pancreas (behind stomach) Secretes digestive enzymes and hormones Secretes trypsin and chymotrypsin (proteins); amylase (carbs); pancreatic lipase (lipids) Secretes sodium bicarbonate a base that anti-acid to get rid of acidity of chyme and protect small intestine lining Villi Fingerlike projections in small intestine lining Increase surface area (greatly) for secreting enzymes and molecule absorption In villi, there are capillaries where monosaccharaides and amino acids are small enough to diffuse into Lymph vessels lipids (3 fatty acids and a glycerol) are too big for capillaries, so they go to lymph vessel; they then go from small intestine up your dorsal just under your collar bone where lymph and sub-clavian veins meet and fatty acids and glycerol go into circulatory system


Large intestine Large diameter (6 cm), short (1-1.5 m) No digestion in large intestine Reabsorbs water, also maybe vitamins and minerals that were earlier missed Solid waste is left (feces) and removed Has bacteria e. coli Appendix At the beginning of the large intestine Vestigial organ; small and functionless May have been used to break down cellulose Animals now have organs with a similar function Appendicitis bacterial infection where appendix becomes swollen and could burst and infect other organs

Nutritious Diet 6 ingredients Carbohydrates Breads, sugars, pasta, cereal, fruits, and vegetables Primary source of energy (metabolized into ATP) Fruit and vegetable are a source of fiber that aids digestion 4 calories per gram


65% of your DCI (daily calories intake) should come from carbohydrates; should be primarily complex carbohydrates (fruits, veg., grains); not sugars, they are simple Simple are easy to metabolize, so they give only a short spurt of energy Complex give you a long term steady supply Lipids Fats, oils, whole milks, nuts Secondary source of energy; manufacture some hormones, phospholipids for cell membrane; under skin for insulation and protection 9 calories per gram, but harder to get 23% DCI (doesnt take a lot of lipid to do this) Unsaturated are better and should have more than saturated (unsaturated are usually liquid at room temp.) UN sat. fat doesnt build up plaque deposits in blood vessels like saturated do Proteins Low-fat milk/cheese/dairy, lean red meat, skinless poultry, dry-roasted nuts, beans, seafood Tertiary source of energy Most abundant organic compound- eating yourself Growth, repair, hormones, enzymes 4 cal per gram 12% DCI; once adult size done growing , so dont need as much Complete proteins have all 8 essential amino acids (ones you must get in your diet in a meal bc you dont make them) Incomplete contain some but not all essential amino acids Vitamins Organic molecules that help regulate body processes, often working with enzymes Most must be obtained by food The body can produce vitamin D Vitamin C and B are water soluble, so they must be in the foods you eat each day People take vitamin supplements Minerals Inorganic nutrients that the body needs, usually in small amounts Calcium, iron, magnesium Calcium is a major component of bones and teeth; iron to make hemoglobin; calcium and potassium for normal nerve function


The body does not metabolize minerals, but looses them in sweat, urine, and other waste products Found in living tissues of plants and other animals

Anatomy and Physiology Cont. Circulatory System Functions Brings oxygen to all thaw cells of the body Delivering oxygen and needed nutrients Picks up waste (CO2, excess water, salts, nitrogenous wastes) Regulates body temperature Helps fight infection Components: heart, veins, arteries, capillaries, lymphatic system, blood Blood Most abundant around 6 liters in an average person Whole blood Liquid connective tissue (liquid matrix) Contains true blood cells scattered in blood plasma (the non-living matrix) Cells are 45% of the whole blood; plasma is 55% Red blood cells erythrocytes White blood cells leukocytes Platelets thrombocytes Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells RBCs) 98% of blood cells Red, biconcave disk (disk-shaped with a concavity on both sides) Do not have nuclei; cannot reproduce or do mitosis; only live about four months; produced in red bone marrow Function bring oxygen to the cells of the body Hemoglobin iron containing protein that binds to oxygen; gives the red color; why blood tastes metallic Leukocytes (WBCs) .5% of blood cells Actually colorless


Amorphous in shape Have nucleus, can reproduce; but only live about 3 days, and sometimes you need a lot, so red bone marrow helps in production Fight infection an invader gets in and is attacked by WBCs by phagocytosis; some WBCs produce chemicals called antibodies that fight infection Thrombocytes (Platelets) 1.5% of blood cells Looks like a fragment of a red blood cell in terms of size and shape; colorless Usually lack nuclei; live about 7 days, so back up reproduction in red bone marrow Involved in clotting process if you have an injury, it will attract platelets that will gather and kick on a series of biochemical reactions; the end result are proteins called fibrin; as fibrin accumulate and build up like a fish net, it traps blood cells, producing the clot to seal off the leak; the clot will dry up and become the scab; this is complicated to prevent unnecessary clotting; if it does clot unnecessarily, heart attack or stroke (heart attack is a clot near the heart; stroke is a clot in the brain) Blood Plasma Made of water, to help blood cells flow Nutrients are dissolved in it Clear/colorless Heart p. 945 In the center of the chest cavity Contains cardiac muscle, all four tissue types Pumps blood through the body Starts beating before you are born and continues every minute of your life A four-chambered heart Process (a good diagram on p. 945) Right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood; send it to the right ventricle; then passes through the Tricuspid valve one-way valve from right atrium to right ventricle to pulmonary arteries Pulmonary arteries go left and right to the lungs In the lungs, the blood is oxygenated Blood then goes to pulmonary veins Through mitral valve Left ventricle Then to the aorta takes the blood out into the body, delivering oxygen Pacemaker (diagrams are helpful to relate to where this happen)


the sino-atrio node/ S.A. node is just inside the right atrium What stimulates both atria to contract Fraction of a second later, the impulses from the S.A. node reach the atrial-ventricular node (further down the right atrium; stimulates ventricles to contract) Artificial pacemakers are battery powered and can be implanted Heartbeat measured by number of beats per minute (BPM) pulse indirect measure of BPM every time your heart beats, the surge of blood makes you arteries dilate 70 is average Blood pressure Measure of the force with which the blood moves Systolic pressure/ diastolic pressure Systolic maximum blood pressure; when your heart has just contracted and pushed blood out Diastolic heart is filling back up with blood; minimum pressure Sphygmomanometer device used to measure blood pressure Average: 120/80 Blood Vessels Arteries, veins, capillaries (function, structure) Arteries Function take blood away from the heart and bring it to other parts of the body Structure thicker walled because there is more muscle to have more pressure and force to send blood out Veins Function brings blood back to the heart Structure have valves so the blood doesnt back up due to gravity; decreased pressure doors prevent back up; oval shaped with thinner walls because there is less pressure Capillaries Function site of diffusion; where good things blood carries goes to the cells, and blood collects bad things (nitrogenous wastes, CO2) Structure thin-walled (only one cell thick); the red blood cells move single-filed They always leak a little plasma (once it is leaked, it is called tissue fluid) Review: diffusion is from high to low concentration; passive transport; no energy used Lymphatic System


A secondary open transport system thats associated with your closed circulatory system Lymph vessels, lymph nodes (swellings), thymus (drapes over the heart), spleen Lymph vessels Are open-ended (like straus) There is no lymph heart Function to suck up things that have escaped from the circulatory system (i.e. tissue fluid) and white blood cells when they go out to fight infection) Once it sucks that up, it is called lymph NOTE: plasma, tissue fluid, lymph Lymph nodes Squeezes lymph to the lymph nodes Filter out bacteria; filters get large and swollen when fighting disease and collect more junk Then the lymph is brought to the sub-clavian veins and lymph vessels; by the time it gets here, it is filtered and clean Without this, the circulatory system would be polluted and dry out with too much leakage thymus cleanses a little; modifies white blood cells to create t-cells important to immune response Spleen destroys dying and dead blood cells and bacteria (remember bacteria are also destroyed in the liver) we used to think tonsils were vestigial and so when they got swollen, they were removed often Circulatory Disorders Atherosclerosis (I think for our class only) heart attack when the heart stops function due to i. a blockage in the coronary arteries (these are arteries that come directly off the aorta to provide for the tissues in the heart) ii. a problem with the nervous system; a stroke (blockage in the brain) in the region of the brain that controls heart beat To control, do CPR, defibulators (Clear!) The Bodys Defenses


there are three lines of defense the first and second are nonspecific they fight everything the third is specific it defends against particular pathogenic bacteria and viruses First Line skin stops things from getting in; physical barrier oil (sebum) and sweat are slightly acidic and invaders can be damaged by them and their low pH Permanent openings (ears, eyes, nose, mouth, etc.) have mucus in many that traps things that are not supposed to enter, but some get through anyway Second line Inflammatory response Fights off an invader or speed the healing of an injury The invaded/ injured cells secrete histamine a chemical that will kick on a series of events Dilation of the blood vessels in the area Increased blood flow to the area Increases white blood cells to the area In the process, temperature is increased and the area looks red and swollen Macrophages White blood cells Phagocytize invaders Interferon A chemical secreted by cells invaded by viruses to warn other cells of the presence of a virus This is nonspecific because it works with many viruses Medicine against certain forms of cancer Can isolate the gene and is used in genetic engineering to produce mass amounts in a lab Third Line Immune Response Foreign antigen Antigen any cell-surface protein Foreign antigen not normally in your body Antibodies proteins secreted by white blood cells; fight foreign antigens T-cells white blood cells that have matured in the thymus


B-cells white blood cells that mature in the bone marrow 2) Specific B-cells recognize this antigen; when specific T-cells They see it, they start multiplying body cells (cytotoxic, Helper and suppressor) Attack by secreting specific Circulating antibody Cyto toxic Attac k 6) infected cells; detect the infected And multiply

1) Foreign Antigen gains entry to the body antigen can Ex: mumps virus infect the body in when you get 3) Antibody coats, clumps, or lyses the foreign antigen; symptoms As this happens, it attracts

5) some of the successfully The 5-10 days; sick/exhibit

Macrophages 4) Macrophages engulf and destroy foreign antigens; 7) Cytotoxic T-cells lyse the Problem this series of events takes 5-10 days attract

infected cells and


Macr ophage 8) engulf/destroy infected body Cells 10) Helper T-cells secrete interleukin II; creates more and more Specific B-cells and T-cells Helper T-cells 9) Signals helper T-cells

11) 12)

All well; a lot more B and T-cells than we need 12) Suppressor T-cells destroy most of the B- and T-cells; the few that Are left are memory cells they remember the disease and produce B- and Ts to fight is; the person is now immune

This process gives you active immunity by going through the disease or getting the vaccine to produce memory cells; lasts all life Passive immunity get antibodies from mother; once the child stops nursing, the immunity starts to fade away Immune System Disorders No Immunity Get the cold and flu over and over again Because of mutations of the viruses like the cold and flu viruses (viruses mutate readily)the memory cells do not recognize them The suppressor Ts may destroy all cells including the memory cells, or not leave enough memory cells Autoimmune


The body starts to attack and destroy itself Ex: rheumatoid arthritis attacks cartilaginous pads at joints We dont really understand why this happens Allergies The body mistakes something as a foreign invader that most people dont You get a severe inflammatory response Allergies like pollen or dust that causes sneezing are less severe allergies Asthma a severe allergy Anaphylactic extremely severe, life-threatening allergic reaction; air-ways swell; insert epinephrine (aka adrenaline) to slow it down, then seek medical attention Allergies frequently disappear with age AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficient Syndrome) Cause HIV (Human Immunal deficiency Virus); RNA virus Mechanism HIV attacks the helper T-cells Result the body cannot attack foreign invaders; the body shuts down; interleukin II is not produced to fight the invader; the person will die of opportunistic infections There is no cure Timeline i. Day 1: HIV gains entry to the body through unprotected sex, blood to blood contact, infected needles ii. 6 month later: it can become HIV; this is a dangerous time because the person does not know he/she has it, so is not careful and can easily spread it; it takes 6 months for the antibodies to become visible and detectable iii. Eliza test cheap, quick test that frequently gives false positives iv. Western-blot test more accurate v. 10 years: doing treatment, taking care of your body, and can live an a-symptomatic life; then lose control and are symptomatic; now have AIDS vi. 12 years: 2 years after symptoms, premature death Respiratory System Gets oxygen delivered to cells; releasing carbon dioxide from cells; so your cells can produce ATP


3 phrases: external respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration 1. External Respiration a. Gaseous exchange between air around body and blood in body; trying to get oxygen and release CO2 b. Diaphragm smooth dome-shaped muscle at the base of your chest cavity i. When it contracts, it pulls down and decreases air pressure and pulls air in ii. When it relaxes, it pulls up, increasing air pressure, pushing air out c. Air enters through the mouth or nose will moisten and warm the air; nose cleans/filters air with hairs; both have mucus d. Pharynx food to esophagus, air to trachea e. Trachea i. Upper part larynx; covered by a cartilaginous plate; your voice box ii. Vocal cords ligaments attached to muscles to sides of the larynx behind the cartilaginous plate; as muscle contracts and relaxes, primarily responsible for range in vocalization iii. Lower part cleaning air with cilia and mucus f. Bronchi tubes that enter into lungs; move and clean the air with mucus and ciliated cells g. Bronchioles clean with cilia and mucus h. Alveoli at the end of the bronchioles branches; clusters of alveoli at the end of each bronchiole i. Diffusion happens here ii. Each cluster is surrounded by capillaries iii. Review: diffusion from high to low concentration iv. Blood just came from heart and is CO2 rich, so gaseous exchange happens i. Diaphragm relaxes, air travels back up and you exhale j. Lungs are primarily alveoli filled with air 2. Internal Respiration a. Also gaseous exchange between blood in the body to cells in the body (oxygen to cells and CO2 to the blood)


b. Hemoglobin iron containing protein that binds to oxygen and allows red blood cells to transport the oxygen c. When RBCs get to the cells, oxygen moves by diffusion (passive transport) and RBCs pick up the carbon dioxide d. Blood and brain measure oxygen pressure, so hemoglobin knows when to release oxygen 3. Cellular Respiration

Control of Respiration The medulla oblongata part of your brain stem that controls respiration Monitors [CO2] (concentration) As the levels increase, you increase respiration rate to make [CO2] go down; then you decrease respiration rate Hiccup a spasm of the diaphragm Excretory System Gets rid of liquid metabolic waste (frequently nitrogenous) from every metabolic reaction that goes on in cells; removes excess water and nitrogen-containing waste from protein Components Kidneys Lower/mid portion of abdominal pressed up against dorsal surfaces; not a lot of protection Cleanse from the blood the liquid metabolic waste products


Produce waste product urine Waste goes from kidney to ureters passageways to urinary bladder Urinary bladder flimsy, expandable organ; stores urine Then to urethra brings waste out of the body In the Kidney Nephrons basic functional unit of the kidney; about one million in each kidney; remove liquid, metabolic, nitrogenous waste Filtration, selective reabsorption, and secretion process Filtration When dirty blood plasma is forced out of glomerulus capillary and puts it into the Bowmans capsule Left in the capillary are red blood cells Selective reabsorption Happen between proximal tubule and peritubular capillary Nephron selects good/needed thing from the dirty plasma to be moved back into the capillary (like H2O, nutrients, gases, salts, vitamins needed, etc.) Complicated active transport to get this back to the capillary Secretion Also occurs between the proximal tubule and peritubular capillary Any large proteins left in the capillary and that are not needed are actively transported into the proximal tubule Frequently the break down proteins of drugs (how drugs can be detected in urine) Distal tubule now has excess products such as urine Kidney failure when you have less than the equivalent of one kidney function; have to use a dialysis machine for up to hours every day; a person can only live a few years like this Nervous System Sends signals about stimuli so that the nervous system can figure out a response Neuron basic unit of structure and function (p. 897) Stimulus a change in the external or internal environment Picked up by sense organ receptors Transductors can change one form of energy into another; change stimuli into nerve impulses


Eye: change light; ears: sound waves; tongue: chemicals; skin: temperature, pressure, pain; nose: chemicals in air Response appropriate reaction to stimuli Dendrites send signals to the cell body Axons receives signal from cell body Synapse space between neurons Sensory neurons carry nerve impulse down a chain of sensory neurons to brain and/or spinal cord that controls the response Reflex automatic, predictable movement; frequently protective; part of somatic nervous system; controlled in nerve cord Motor neurons cause muscle movement Effector muscle or gland that can do the appropriate response Neurons can be as long as your entire leg Peripheral Nervous system - dendrites and axons that pick up stimuli and transmit signals throughout the body Somatic nervous system conscious movements of the skeletal muscles/ reflexes; the cell bodies of these neurons are located in the spinal cord Reflex arc includes a sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector ex: dendrites pick up stimuli from feet, and bring it to the cell body in the nerve cord, where the axons transmit the signal through the cell body to the dendrites of the next interneuron that acts like a bridge to the dendrites of the next neuron, which attaches to a muscle to make your leg move not all arcs have interneurons Autonomic nervous system involuntary movements; heart rate, blood flow, sweat, digestion, etc. Central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord; most cell bodies of neurons are located in the central nervous system Brain for thoughtful decisions Cerebrum voluntary or conscious activities of the body Cerebellum back of the skull; balances muscle action to move gracefully Brain stem regulate information between brain and the rest of the body; controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing Thalamus receives messages from sensory receptors and relays message to cerebrum for further processing Hypothalamus recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger; coordination of nervous and endocrine systems


Spinal cord Link between brain and the rest of the body Some kinds of reflexes are processed directly in the spinal cord As the neurons are long, the long axons and dendrites that pick up different stimuli or attach to different muscles group together in a bundle called a nerve Ecology interactions between organisms and their non-living environment and with other organisms ecologists study how organisms can be affected by population and environmental changes biosphere organization where we find all life as we know it it extends to about 8 kilometers into the atmosphere and 10-11 kilometers down the closer to the surface, the more life Area like the skin on an apple compared to the size of the entire planet Biome group of ecosystems with a characteristic climate and plant/animal life; biggest example of an ecosystem, but you can also sub-divide biomes into smaller ecosystems Ecosystem all organisms in an area and nonliving environment Biotic factors living Abiotic factors non-biotic; air, water, soil, temperature Self-sustaining Community all living things Population one type of organism/ species Individual has own habitat (environment in which it lives: gets food, water, shelter, etc.); has niche (what it does for the environment/ for a living) Biotic Factors trophic levels feeding levels (producers, primary consumers.) producers make food by photosynthesis photosynthetic use light energy chemosynthetic make food but not with sunlight primary consumers (herbivores) eat plants; deer, rats secondary consumers (carnivores) eat animals/ primary consumers; smakes tertiary consumers (omnivores) top carnivores; wolves, us scavengers eat scraps; vultures, heina; eat the leftovers of the dead and dying decomposers eat dead material and waste products sacrophytic digest outside of bodies and absorb nutrients; bacteria and fungi


detritivores ingest and digest/ actively eat; snails and worms and such in compost food chain one organism feeding on another food web better to be part of because there are other food options if there is a population decrease of one food source; a network of interactions Energy in a Community depicted by an ecological pyramid fewer primary consumers than producers energy loss dont eat ALL producers producers provide energy for themselves, and only transfer 10% energy fewer secondary consumers because energy loss dont eat ALL use some energy for themselves fewer tertiary because loss of heat energy use energy at each level limited consumption (dont eat ALL) least abundant and more difficult to support