Techkriti 2013 Cosmology Presentation

Rahul, Saurabh, Rama Prasad, Pranjul 16 March, 2013

1 Overview of Presentation
1. What is cosmology? Human is a curious creature, he wants to understand and make sense of the things that are around him, DIFFERENT FROM ASTRONOMY IN THE SENSE THAT ITS DEALS WITH THE MEASUREMENT OF THE STARS IN THE SKY THEIR MOVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF TIME, BUT COSMOLOGY ITSELF DEALS WITH THEIR VERY EXISTENCE a) Etymology: (Cosmo + Logos) study of cosmos, the universe we are in its existence time evolution etc. b) History of development i. Geocentric approach: maintained by ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle, later given as a working model by Ptolemy in the form of epicycles, but because of some observations like retrograde motion of planets like mars etc. a more simple model was sought ii. Heliocentric approach: it has been said that that Copercinus was the first person to start this paradigm but history shows that this ideas was prevailing before him too c) Galileo Galili: Observations and not dialects must be the basis of science, he observed the moons of Jupiter – Ganimide, Europa etc. orbitting Jupiter but not Earth, so according to him it “proves” the Heliocentric model. 2. Modern viewpoint: Cosmological principle was put forward, so that GTR equations 1 8πG Rµν − gµν R = 4 Tµν 2 c (1.1)

could be solved[1], which is the assumption that universe when the length scales like megaparsecs are considered is a) Isotropic: it looks the same in all directions b) Homogeneous: it looks the same at every place If it was only isotropy then the “center” of the universe would have made sense, but because of homegeneity considered there can be no center of the universe. In case of isotropy there could have been only one center, but because of homogeneity this can’t be possible. So accoriding to modern theories universe doesn’t have a center at all. 3. An observation can be made that all motion is relative due to which one can’t tell for example the ‘real’ path of the ball dropped from a train for an observer in the train it would be a straight line


Both things the siddantas and the Puranas are an integral part for studying the cosmology.a ´ ¯ mathematicians like Aryabhat . time and matter and by following a different sort of appraoch to describe and thinking about reality. Brahmagupta etc. but have little information about their origin and the cause of their motion 3. Vedic cosmology presents the description of the universe in which not everything isn’t describable but only that part is present which is comprehensible by a human 8.D. 6. to unite them together one must go to a higher dimensional level of mathematical abstraction 9. to reject them means that we are claiming that siddhantas are products of Greek genius from whom Indian priests borrowed the stuff. They have the enormous information related to distances. Its not the case that the observations of the train’s observer are more real than the one on the platform for example. One probles deals with that of the relation between the sizes of Bh¯ u-Man . The apparent contradictions between the empirical findings and the Vedic model can be reconciled by developing a proper understanding of space.V¯ ¯stra. one of their important division is siddh¯ b) Jyotis sa antas which include the work of Indian . sizes etc. Some of the topics covered in Surya Siddhanta are as follows: a) computation of mean and true positions of the planets in the sky b) determination of the latitude and the longitudes 1 This term needs some explanation. almost half of his book is concerned with the information related to Hindu astronomy and cosmology 2.but for an observer outside it would be a parabola. 7. How to decide what is a good theory or model1 . “realism” must be explained!! 2 . but both of them given the initial conditions will lead to the same conclusions as to what point the ball will hit the ground. ala and that of the Earth 5. May be the universe is beyond our 3-D world and is itself of higher dimensions. these are the “criterions”[2] 4.d . 10. Mahmud a muslim king emplyed Alberuni who completed a book on Hindus in A. because the siddhantas are a part of Puranic literature. Quantum theory says about the wave and particle aspects of matter both of which can’t be reconciled together in classical physics. Because of his incomprehensibility of the scriptures he criticize them claimin the superiority of his own Muslim tradition 4. 1000. as such as Matsya. Arya and Siddhanta siromani were the names of the works by Aryabhata and Bhaskaracarya 11. nothing can’t be left. Vedic model also has these capabilities (somewhat)!! Before that here are some of the salient features of the model 2 Summary Study Introduction 1. Sources of Indian astronomy: mainly concerned with the calculation of planets at any desired time a) Pur¯ an ayu or Bh¯ agavat .a.

828 solar days2 per divya-yuga • Ascending node of the moon is the point of intersection of the line and motion of the moon when it moves from southern to northern hemisphere • Surya Siddhanta says that Rahu lies in the direction of moon’s ascending node Opinion of Western Scholars • The siddhantas do not acknowledge any foreign influence due to which Western scholars accuse them of chauvinism • We may claim that genuine traditions of astronmy exited both in India and eastern mediterranean and that the charge of unacknowledged cultural borrowing are unwarranted Vedic Calender and Astrology • Siddhantas contain the procedures of calculating the sterrial positions but if it is true that the Vedas are quite older than them and if the Siddhantas have been derived from them then Vedas must also have this sort of information The Starting Date of Kali-Yuga • At the start of the Kali-Yuga the seven planets were all aligned with the star ζ piscium. Jupiter..000 years and is same as the time the earth takes to revolve around the sun according to the geocentric model • According to Surya Siddhanta ther eare 1. • Where as some refer to this date as 3101 BCE. mercury. moon. Solar System According to Surya Siddhanta • This helps one to calculate the positions of sun.320.c) prediction of partial and full solar and lunar eclipsed d) prediction of conjunction of stars and other planets e) calculation of rising and setting times of planets and stars f) calcualtion of moon’s phases etc. mars.577.917. • For observing the heavens Indians also had some elaborate machinary for example in Banaras we had a structure about which two Englishmen claimed to be 200 years old in 1772 2 solar day is the time from sun rise to sunrise 3 . Venus and Saturn given their positions at any particular time • In the surya siddhanta the information is given in terms of divya-yuga which is equal to 4... this is called as Revati and is used as zero point in measuring celestial longitudes. at that time Rahu’s position was 180◦ from this star • According to this the Kali Yuga started on 18 Feb 3102 BCE..

000 yojanas 2.000. Extending our physical world view • The sloka 3.34 is a potential candidate of great scientific research work • The sum of atomic numbers of Cu and Sn leads to the atomic number of Au The Position of Krsna • Descartes and Newton held the position that space is 3D something absolute in which all the materil events take place • Notion of higher dimensional space may be used to bridge the gaps between modern thinking and Vedic literature • Because God has access to many points simultaneously therefore the space in which He resides must be of higher dimension such that this kind of simultaneous access is possible • There is a hierarchy of dimensional levels with in the universe and beings on one particular level can operate with in a larger continuum than beings on lower levels • Does that mean that whatever is not visible to us lies in some hidden dimension.000 miles • Surya Siddhanta (SS) 12.712. that on the cosmic scale • Detailed sketches of the structure of the Bhu-Mandala and that of inner most dvipa the Jambudvipa. Time and Matter The thesis of this chapter is that the realm of modern physics is too limited to accomodate many phenomenon that occur with in this universe. Vedic Cosmography • Material cosmos are an unlimited ocean situated with in a small part of the unlimited spiritual world • Bhu Mandala or the eartly planetary system is a flat disc with a diameter of 4 × 109 miles • Bhagavatam describes the topography of earth’s surface by depicting the mountains.864.080. as some of the dimensions of the string theory are hidden? 2.000 yojanas to be the diameter of the universe which is same as 4. 4 .90 says that circumference of the universe in which sun’s rays spread is 18.Distances and Sizes of the Planets • The procedure for calculating the sizes of the planets was encoded in a verse of the seventh chapter of the surya siddhanta • Method similar to that of Eratosthenes was used by Indian astronomers to calculate the radius of the Earth • They’ve also measured the sizes of different planets but there is quite devaition from the modern measured values The Size of the Universe • Srimad Bhagavatam says 500.1 Vedic Physics the Nature of Space.000. rivers etc.

68-69 5 . Coles.3 Origins Magazine • Scientists’ attempt to udnerstand the origin of the universe in physical terms is based on three assumptions – all phenomenon can be completely explained in terms of the natural laws expressed in the language of mathematics – physical laws apply everywhere and at all times – fundamental natural laws are “simple” • The dreaded singularity can’t be explained 3 Some of the “obvious” questions 1. How were the measurements done? Many a times it has been seen that they are measuring the circumference. L. Bantam Books Publications pp. how can you measure this thing directly. Stephen Hawking. Mlodinow. Is it possible that they had taken precession of earth into account for their pancangas. Lucchin. pp. John Wiley & Sons. cosmology etc? 2. and why would you even do so? 4 Way of Reasoning the stuff • Indologists claimed that Vedic literature is a total fraud by say invoking the Aryan Invasion theory References [1] Cosmology. 3 [2] The Grand Design.2. What does switching in the interpretation of the cycles 1 and 2 imply in case of table 3 and table 4 of the book 3. What is the classification of Vedic literature that deals with astronomy. 4.

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