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by Matthew Kapstein (Columbia University) From Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, Section 1 of 1, pages 275-289 THDL Digital Text License; Reproduced with permission from Snow Lion Publications.
[page 275] The Tibetan terms gdams ngag (Skt. upadeÅ›a) and man ngag (Skt. Ä mnÄ ya, but sometimes also upadeÅ›a) refer broadly to speech and writing that offer directives for practice, whether in the general conduct of life or in some specialized field such as medicine, astronomy, politics, yoga or meditation. In any of these areas, they may refer to "esoteric" instructions, i.e., advice not usually found in theoretical textbooks but derived from the hands-on experience of skilled practitioners, and thus intended primarily for those who are actually engaged in the practice of the discipline concerned. Man ngag seems often to connote a higher degree of esotericism than does gdams ngag, particularly where both terms are employed together contrastively, and despite their essential synonymity.  In this short essay I shall focus on the category of gdams ngag, "instruction," as understood in connection with meditational and yogic practice. In this context, gdams ngag refers essentially to the immediate, heartfelt instructions and admonitions of master to disciple concerning directly liberative insight and practice. gDams ngag in this sense is, in the final analysis, a product solely of the interrelationship between master and disciple; it is the non-repeatable discourse event in which the core of the Buddhist enlightenment comes to be manifestly disclosed. It is in this sense, for instance, that we find the term used in narrating a signal event in the life of the famed rNying ma pa master Mi pham Rin po che (1846-1912): [page 276] One time, Mipham went into Khyentse Rinpoche's presence. "How did you apply yourself to experiential cultivation when you stayed in retreat?" he was asked. "While pursuing my studies," Mipham answered, "I made conclusive investigations, and while performing the ritual service of the meditational deity in retreat I have taken care to see that I have reached the limits of the stage of creation." "Those are difficult. The great all-knowing Longcenpa said, 'Not doing anything, you must come to rest right where you are.' I have done just that. By so resting I have not seen anything with white flesh and a ruddy complexion that can be called the 'face of mind.' None the less, if I were to die now it would be all right. I do not even have a grain of trepidation." So saying, Khyentse Rinpoche laughed aloud. Mipham [later] said that he understood that to be the guru's instruction (gdams ngag). (Dudjom Rinpoche,1991:876-877) gDams ngag, then, is the articulation of the dynamic interaction between master and disciple; it expresses the essentially hermeneutical movement in which the disciple is reoriented in the depth
"  There is no single classification of the many traditions of gdams ngag that is universally employed by Tibetan Buddhist doxographical writers. Insofar as the Buddha's entire doctrine is held to be directed to that goal. 12: 645-646).  According to this." and the entire genre of khrid yig. most widely renowned are those concerned with the meditational teachings of rDzogs chen. "guidebooks." i. byang chub kyi sems). doctrinal and bibliographical literature." is derived ultimately from the teachings of the Indian mahÄ siddha VirÅ«pa. the union of compassion and insight that is characteristic of the MahÄ yÄ na. vol. "spiritual training/purification. the preeminence of certain particular traditions gave rise [page 277] to a characteristic scheme that we encounter repeatedly. which will be our concern here. The paradigmatic formulation of this classificatory scheme is generally attributed to 'Phreng bo gTer ston Shes rab 'od zer (PrajÃ±Ä raÅ›mi. or "Ancient Translation Tradition. eighth-century Indian Buddhist masters who visited Tibet. practical manuals explicating particular systems of meditation. 15171584). the term has been thematized in Tibetan Buddhist discourse to refer above all to those meditational and yogic instructions that most frequently form the basis for systematic salvific practice. Nevertheless.  (2) The bKa' gdams. corresponding in general to distinctions of lineage. It is in this context that gdams ngag has come to form the basis for an important set of distinctions among Tibetan Buddhist traditions. notably 'Brom ston rGyal ba'i 'byung gnas (1104-1163). may be thought to be the quintessential Tibetan "technologies of the self. throughout Tibetan historical. there are eight major gdams ngag traditions. The "eight great conveyances" as he enumerates them may be briefly explained as follows:  (1) The sNga 'gyur rnying ma. and from the great Tibetan translators who were their contemporaries. It is owing to its special role in maintaining the vitality of teachings derived from the bKa' gdams tradition that the dGa' ldan or dGe lugs order. while crosscutting distinctions of sect. however. DNgDz. emphasizing the . 12: 626-630).. the "Tradition of the Path with its Fruit. The bKa' gdams tradition specialized in gdams ngag relating to the cultivation of the enlightened attitude (bodhicitta. is often referred to as the New bKa' gdams school (bKa' gdams gsar ma). founded by rJe Tsong kha pa Blo bzang grags pa (1357-1419).  (3) Lam 'bras bu dang bcas pa. whose verses on this topic are widely cited by Tibetan authors ('Jam mgon. 'Jam mgon.  These systematic approaches to liberation through meditation and yoga. yoga and ritual. with small variations. the achievement of perfect enlightenment on behalf of oneself and all creatures. vol.e. From about the thirteenth century onwards. the Great Perfection.of his or her being to the goal of the teaching. DNgDz. One must include here also the innumerable writings on blo sbyong. especially Pa gor Bai ro tsa na. This tradition of esoteric practice." is traced to the activity of the Bengali master AtiÅ›a (982-1054) and his leading Tibetan disciples. all expressions of Buddhadharma may be in a certain sense termed gdams ngag (cf." derives its special gdams ngag primarily from the teachings of Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra. which are referred to as the "eight great conveyances that are lineages of attainment" (sgrub brgyud shing rta chen po brgyad). or "Tradition of [the Buddha's] Transmitted Precepts (bka') and Instructions (gdams). Of the tremendous body of special gdams ngag belonging to the rNying ma tradition. and was introduced into Tibet by 'Brog mi lo tsÄ ba ÅšÄ kya Ye shes (992-1072).
" originated respectively with the enigmatic Indian yogÄ« Pha Dam pa Sangs rgyas (d.) The first Karma pa hierarch.Hevajra Tantra. is numbered among the four "greats.  (5) The Shangs pa bKa' brgyud. which are similar to those of the Mar pa bKa' brgyud tradition. were widely influential. His tradition of gdams ngag stresses the Six Doctrines (chos drug) of yogic praticeâ€”inner heat. The Shangs pa teachings have aroused considerable interest among Buddhists in the West owing to the widespread activity of their leading contemporary proponent. became from early on a special concern of the Sa skya pa school.) Mar pa bKa' brgyud teachings have been widely transmitted among non-bKa' brgyud pa orders. ca. lucid dreaming.a. those of his foremost disciple. a position it retains at the present time.k. such as the Ngor pa and Tshar pa. 1079-1153) was very widespread. Dus gsum mkhyen pa (1110-1193). "Object of Cutting. and the teachings of the intermediate state (bar do)â€”as well as the culminating meditations of the Great Seal (mahÄ mudrÄ . for instance among the dGe lugs pa. phyag rgya chen po). whose disciple gTsang pa rGya ras (1161-1211) founded the 'Brug pa bKa' brgyud order. which in turn gave rise to several major suborders. the apparitional body." and gCod yul." while 'Bri gung skyob pa 'Jig rten gsum mgon (1143-1217) was prominent among the founders of the eight "lesser" orders. differing primarily in points of emphasis. NÄ ropa and MaitrÄ«pa as transmitted to Mar pa Chos kyi blo gros (1012-1097). they were transmitted within the Mar pa bKa' brgyud. 1117) and his remarkable Tibetan disciple. Jo nang and rNying ma orders. The proliferation of lineages adhering to the teachings of Mar pa. The special teachings of the Shangs [page 279] pa tradition. Mi la ras pa (1040-1123). a considerable portion of whose esoteric gdams ngag originated in the Mar pa bKa' brgyud tradition." is traced back to Khyung po rnal 'byor Tshul khrims mgon po of Shangs (d. The four "great" bKa' brgyud orders (bKa brgyud che bzhi) were founded by sGam po pa's immediate disciples. 1055-1143). said to have been the sister or wife of NÄ ropa. the transference of consciousness at death. and those of the latter's main students Ras chung rDo rje grags (10831161) and sGam po pa bSod nams rin chen (a. (The terms "great" and "lesser" refer solely to their relative proximity to sGam po pa. the translator of lHo brag. Though schools specializing in Pacification were very widespread from the twelfth to fourteenth . and imply neither quantitative nor qualitative judgment.  [page 278] (4) The Mar pa bKa' brgyud. Despite the almost complete absence of distinctive Shangs pa institutions. 1135). Among the eight is also counted Gling rje ras pa Padma rdo rje (1128-1188). and the many teaching lineages that arose among their followers almost all created their own distinctive formulations of the bKa' brgyud gdams ngag. the "Succession of the Transmitted Precepts of Shangs Valley. a master whose foremost teacher was the á¸ Ä kinÄ« Niguma. "Pacification. and so has been primarily associated with Sa skya and the several Sa skya pa suborders." has as its particular domain the teachings of the Indian masters Tilopa. the yoginÄ« Ma cig Lab kyi sgron ma (ca. Dwags po Lha rje. (The 'Brug pa later established itself as the state religion in Bhutan.  (6) The closely related teachings of Zhi byed. the late Kalu Rinpoche Rang byung kun khyab (1905-1989). dGe lugs. inner radiance. among whom Phag mo gru pa rDo rje rgyal po's (1110-1170) leading disciples founded eight "lesser" orders (chung brgyad). or "Succession of the Transmitted Precepts of Marpa.
during the nineteenth century. the "Yoga of Indestructible Reality. it will not be possible to attempt to survey here the extraordinary volume of materials that are illustrative of these many differing traditions. The latter fell into decline in the wake of the suppression of the Jo nang pa sect during the seventeenth century. however. the "Service and Attainment of the Three Indestructible Realities. such as the Blo sbyong brgya rtsa ("The Hundred [Teachings on] Spiritual Training and Purification"). the teaching all but disappeared in later times.centuries. and stemming [page 280] from the teaching of the divine VajrayoginÄ«.  (7) rDo rje'i rnal 'byor." represents an extremely rare tradition. It includes in its compass entire previous collections of gdams ngag materials. and preserves scores of instructional texts by some of the most famous Tibetan authors as well as by many who are less well-known. The Object of Cutting. compiled by 'Jam mgon kong sprul Blo gros mtha' yas (1813-1899). The former came to be favored in the dGe lugs pa school.  (8) rDo rje gsum gyi bsnyen sgrub. vols. as transmitted in Tibet initially by Gyi jo lo tsÄ ba Zla ba'i 'od zer during the early eleventh century. This takes particularly dramatic form in the traditions of the Object of Cutting. the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. particularly by the proponents of the so-called Eclectic Movement (Ris med). notably the 'Brug pa and Karma pa traditions. but was later revived in eastern Tibet.  During the nineteenth century this scheme of the "eight great conveyances" provided the basis for the great Tibetan anthology of gdams ngag. vol. DNgDz. including both texts immediately concerned with the details of practical instruction and systematic treatises that attempt to formulate the distinctive perspective of a particular gdams ngag tradition in its relation to Buddhist doctrine broadly speaking. Indeed. closely allied with the KÄ lacakra Tantra. H. one may well wonder at this remarkable . and the Jo nang khrid brgya dang brgyad ("The Hundred and Eight Guidebooks of the Jo nang pas"). Both of these systems of gdams ngag seek to bring about the realization of liberating insight as it is understood in the "Perfection of Wisdom" (PrajÃ±Ä pÄ ramitÄ ) sÅ«tras by means inspired by esoteric Buddhist practice. an eclectic compilation by Jo nang rje btsun Kun dga' grol mchog (1507-1566) that is in certain respects a precursor to "The Store of Instructions" itself (DNgDz. whose exquisite liturgies involve the adept's symbolic offering of his or her own body as food for all beings throughout the universe. representing the essential gdams ngag of the bKa' gdams traditions ('Jam mgon. Because all of the traditions mentioned above have generated abundant literature devoted to their own distinctive gdams ngag. permeated the entire Tibetan Buddhist tradition and is today preserved by all orders. Later traditions that were particularly influential include those of Zhwa lu and Jo nang. 2-3). as gathered by the Tibetan siddha O rgyan pa Rin chen dpal (1230-1309) during his travels in the northwestern quarters of the Indian subcontinent. The teaching was popularized by O rgyan pa's successors during the fourteenth century. and continues to be transmitted in that order today. O rgyan pa also figures prominently as a transmitter of several of the major bKa' brgyud lineages. the gDams ngag mdzod ("The Store of Instructions")." refers to the system of yoga associated with the KÄ lacakra Tantra. but subsequently seems to have lapsed into obscurity. 12). when several commentaries on it were composed. above all by H. one of the leaders of the Eclectic Movement.  "The Store of Instructions" provides encyclopedic and balanced treatment of all of the major Tibetan Buddhist gdams ngag traditions and several of the more important minor ones.
This occurred very prominently in certain of the schools of Tibetan Buddhismâ€”consider in this regard the massive philosophical elaboration of the Great Perfection (rDzogs chen) teachings of the rNying ma school. and relevance to a special historical setting. thus become the basis for renewed dogmatic system-building. such as the one given here. It is important to recall that gdams ngag traditions are not thought of ahistorically in Tibet: each such tradition has its unique origin. the goal is in any case the achievement of buddhahood here and now. helps to situate a given gdams ngag for the Tibetan reader or auditor. after all. The exploration of the many ramifications of such system-building. The equally terse [page 282] presentation of the teaching itself reflects what is in fact a series of rubrics. I give below. how is one to form a comprehensive vision of the totality of possible approaches to the path. intended to guide an expanded course of oral explanation. for Geshe-la has been a preeminent exponent of Madhyamaka thought throughout the nearly three decades that he has graced Buddhist Studies in the special setting of our own time and place. eclecticism and pluralism are to be welcomed for the therapeutic enrichment they provide. . some short translated excerpts from "The Hundred and Eight Guidebooks of the Jo nang pas. then why complicate matters by providing those who wish to follow the path with such a dizzying array of road maps? The traditional [page 281] view is that. that remains sufficiently critical to exclude false paths. the myriad gdams ngag of Tibetan Buddhism may thus be seen to constitute a spiritual pharmacopeia.  I have chosen this particular extract to honor Geshe Lhundrup Sopa. Thus. Those who have had the good fortune to study with him will no doubt supplement the topics briefly enumerated here with their own recollections of Geshe-la's learned expositions of related subject matter. the Buddha's teaching provides appropriate remedies for the many different afflictions of living beings.  or of the originally bKa' gdams pa Path Sequence (Lam rim) instructions among rJe Tsong kha pa and his successors." concerning the history and the actual teaching of the practical dimension of the approach to Madhyamaka thought known as dBu ma chen po ("The Great Middle Way").  The products of these and other similar doctrinal syntheses certainly represent some of the most creative developments in the field of Tibetan Buddhist thought. without at the same time undermining the positive values of pluralism? Kong sprul's eclectic and even unitarian approach to the difficulties that arise here finds its complement in the attempt to elaborate and defend favored systems of gdams ngag through doctrinal apologetics. lies beyond the scope of this small contribution. Phyag chen) precepts of the several bKa' brgyud orders. gDams ngag. to a certain degree at least. whether these be relatively catholic in outlook. by suggesting that. like a well-equipped pharmacy. history of transmission. in the manner of an appendix.proliferation of the Tibetan technologies of the self: if. The medical analogy. In order to provide the reader with a concrete example of the teaching of a particular tradition of gdams ngag.  or of the Great Seal (MahÄ mudrÄ . points to a complicated cluster of problems: briefly. or narrowly sectarian. however. to whom the present volume is dedicated. The strictly maintained correlation between history and doctrine reinforces the role played by these instructions as the practical technologies of the self. even a very terse historical note. for in a tradition's history we find the concrete exemplifications of the human ideals that are to be realized by one's submission to the course of training imposed by that same tradition's gdams ngag. essentially the pithy expressions of contemplative experience. however.
It is precisely the emptiness that has reference to appearance itself. father and son [i. In the end you relax [that deliberate striving]. and.e. First you consciously strive somewhat [to recall and to concentrate upon the understanding of appearance and emptiness taught above]. whatever the manner of appearance. appearance is [determined to be] just this unimpeded and ever-varied arising.From the "History of the Hundred and Eight Guidebooks": Concerning the dBu ma chen po'i khrid ["The Guidance on the Great Middle Way"]: it was received by the bodhisattva Zla ba rgyal mtshan from the Newar Pe nya pa. Then. there is not even so much as the tip of a hair that is veridically established. (1) The inception of one-pointedness that remains unexcited with respect to [both] untarnished clarity of mind and circumstantial objects is called "tranquility" (Å›amatha. like the hand resting just where you place it. bliss and nonconceptuality arise. That which is distinguished as the special doctrine of Red mda' ba. because it is empty of veridicality in terms of the relative. not yet divided into PrÄ saá¹…gika and SvÄ tantrika. lhag mthong). you gradually . There are some who hold that this was the lineage of the dBu ma lta khrid ["The Guidance on the View of the Middle Way"] that came to the venerable Re mda' ba from mNga' ris. rather. It is. is the unblemished adherence to the PrÄ saá¹…gika tradition.  From the "Text of the Hundred and Eight Guidebooks": dBu ma chen po'i khrid yig ["The Guidebook of the Great Middle Way"]: Concerning "The Guidance on the Great Middle Way": One begins by going for refuge and cultivating the enlightened attitude [bodhicitta]. You experientially cultivate [this teaching] in these four ways. When hairline discriminations of being and nonbeing forcefully arise. (3) Complete absorption is untouched by the intellect that apprehends objectives. He taught it to rDzi lung pa 'Od zer grags pa. and he to Gro ston. self-presenting awareness's emptiness with respect to substantial essence at the very moment of appearance. in the simple disposition of reality. is apparition-like. of NÄ gÄ rjuna and Ä€ryadeva]. and so is the ancient tradition. is sky-like. but will remain at ease. one who belonged to the lineage of NÄ gÄ rjuna." i. nor is it the emptiness that is like the pot's emptiness of being a blanket. like that of a hare's horn.. It will come about that mind will not grow excited about that at all. Beginners should practice frequently in short sessions. And that. but that is uncertain. the three spiritual experiences of clarity. When cultivating this experientially. who propounded it widely. Your awareness becomes absorbed in simplicity.. NÄ gÄ rjuna and Ä€ryadeva]. that follows the texts of the glorious CandrakÄ«rti. like the circle of the sky that is free from apprehended referent. nor is it the emptiness of sheer nothingness.e. investigating the abiding nature of appearance and emptiness. you adopt the bodily disposition of the meditational posture. however. it is neither the emptiness that [page 283] follows after a pot has been shattered. When you have thus cultivated the meditation. because it is absolutely empty of essence. is called "insight" (vipaÅ›yanÄ . This is not the emptiness of [appearance's] cessation. however. nor the emptiness of the fabricated. and (4) your course of conduct involves the awareness of the qualities of dream and apparition in the aftermath [of meditative absorption]. in West Tibet. As for the understanding of emptiness. zhi gnas) while (2) its nonconceptual nature. In brief. This is [also] called the gZhung phyi mo'i dbu ma ["The Middle Way according to the Original Texts.
" while the latter distinguishes between gdams ngag pa. of course.  This was compiled from the guide[book] of the bodhisattva Zla [ba] rgyal [mtshan]. "By sect. and it is said that in this way you will come to meet the face of that abiding nature that is unpolluted by the taints of the conceptual elaborations of the eight limitations. for instance. 12. "the esoteric precept tradition. "the class of esoteric precepts. 1980: 139. 1988." I have attempted to provide some clarification in Kapstein.  Consider. or a profound method. vol."  On the distinction between "sect" and "lineage. its unique character is embodied outwardly in the form of an independent hierarchy and administration. the broad range of Western spiritual disciplines that are discussed will be found to be highly suggestive. the arrangement of the major sections of Roerich. Though this is not the place to explore the rich possibilities for comparative interpretation that are opened up by Foucault's analysis of the technologies for the care of the self in the West." For examples of the use of man ngag to indicate a particularly esoteric instruction. et al.. . 2: 1343. borrowed from Foucault. compare also: Jo nang rJe btsun Kun dga' grol mchog. "the essence of a method. in comparison with Kong sprul's approach. that is. in 'Jam mgon. it is completely free [grol] From the range of unreflective and foolish meditations."  This phrase is. independent properties and a recognizable membership of some sort. gdams ngag is defined as man ngag gam phan pa'i ngag. "man ngag. et al. readers of the present volume who are interested in such comparison may wish to consult Martin. or beneficial speech. While East-West comparisons are not examined in this work.  [page 284] Notes  In Zhang (1985). For different but overlapping approaches to the lineages and sects of Tibetan Buddhism.  The heart of all [kun] doctrines is the Great Middle Way: To delight [dga'] the wise. note the special conventions of the rNying ma and bKa' gdams traditions." while on p. vol. and Thu'u bkwan. in contrast to gdams ngag." and man ngag pa. 2056 man ngag is defined as thabs kyi snying po'am thabs zab mo. I mean a religious order that is distinguished from others by virtue of its institutional independence. It is the great path of supreme [mchog] freedom from limitations. A lineage on the other hand is a continuous succession of spiritual teachers who have transmitted a given body of knowledge over a period of generations but who need not be affiliated with a common sect. "the instructional tradition. the first of which refers to its most esoteric teachings as forming the man ngag gi sde.develop your skill. 1976. 1984.. DNgDz. Jo nang khrid brgya'i skor.
and Wisdom Publications (Boston). vol. 3: 394-407: Kapstein. Snow Lion (Ithaca). 1977. vol. Interested readers are advised to consult the catalogues of the publishers that have been most active in this area: Dharma Publishing (Emeryville. . 1976. vol. 1976. 1976. 1980. ShK. ShK. 1973. vol. Inaba.  See also Roerich. Khenpo Rinpoche Konchog Gyaltsen. 3: 429-457. 1980.  See Roerich. 1962. Ma cig. provides a popular introduction to the gCod tradition and its founder. 1983. Useful introductions to the KÄ lacakra traditions include: Sopa. Among many works on the Mar pa bKa' brgyud traditions now available in English. 9. 3: 457-461. 1: 520-526. 1950. 1978.. 1981. vol. 1: 538-548. 1988.  Roerich. useful anthology of gdams ngag in English may wish to consult Stephen Batchelor. 3: 305-332. vol. 1982. 1: 516-520. 1: 526-533. 1. 2 document much of the Western language work on the rNying ma tradition. 1979. DNgDz. vol. vol. vol. DNgDz. 1. see also: Chang. and The Dalai Lama and Hopkins. vol. DNgDz. ch. ShK.  Roerich. 1985. Karma Thinlay. A somewhat dated but still interesting collection is Evans-Wentz. Gyatso. ShK. vols. Kapstein. 1982.  Refer to Roerich.  See also Roerich. 1963. See also: Aziz. in vol. 1987. 1976. Brief surveys of some of the major traditions will be found in Tucci. 3: 407-429. 1: 548-552. Guenther. NÄ landÄ Translation Committee. 1950. Book II. Lhalungpa. vol. 1981. ShK. vol. ShK. 1985. DNgDz. Book VIII. 1963. Book X. vol. New York). 1976: 696-702. 1982. 1986. Dudjom Rinpoche. DNgDz. et al. 1928. 1976. see also Tucci. 1976. 1: 552-554. Eimer. thorough accounts of [page 285] rNying ma history and doctrine from a traditional perspective. 5-7. Book V. 1984. Stein. 1976. Book IX.  Roerich.  See also Roerich. Mullin. 1980. Shambhala (Boston). Book IV. 1971. Those seeking a single. DNgDz. 10. Book IX. 1963. and have often been published privately or by small presses in popular editions for the use of English-speaking Buddhists. vols. Hanson. ShK. vol. 1972. Rangjung Yeshe Publications (Hong Kong/Kathmandu). 1980. 1991. On the life and travels of the siddha O rgyan pa. Allione. 2. Sherburne. On the Zhwa lu and Jo nang pa traditions. 3: 321-394. vol. 3: 276-296. 1940. 1970. California). Douglas and White. vol. provides. The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives (Dharamsala). It should be noted that a great many representative gdams ngag texts have been translated into English in recent years. vol. DNgDz. 2-3. see especially Ruegg. vol. vol. 1985. 1: 508-516. 1977. ShK. Evans-Wentz. 1976. 1991. Chattopadhyaya. 1: 533-538. DNgDz. DNgDz. vol. Station Hill Press (Barrytown. 1985. Davidson. I have made no attempt in the notes that follow to treat this literature comprehensively.  The finest introduction to the Eclectic Movement and its leaders remains Smith. and also editions of original rNying ma texts. 1966. vol. 3: 296-305. 1985. and the bibliographies in vol. 4. 9.
The syncretic tendencies of bKa' brgyud scholasticism are further discussed in Kapstein. Dorje and Kapstein.  Cf. This is best exemplified in the work of Kun mkhyen Klong chen rab 'byams pa Dri med 'od zer (1308-1363). Red mda' ba (1349-1412) was a noted [page 286] scholar of the Sa skya pa sect. 1971. plates 389390. 1985. vol. who was among the foremost teachers of rJe Tsong kha pa. Jackson's article on bsTan rim literature in the present volume.  Being. 1. self and nonself. 1975-76. annihilation. 1991: 575-596. Thondup Rinpoche. in which sGam po pa was ordained. vol. vol. and Dwags po bKra shis rnam rgyal.  Jo nang rje btsun Kun dga' grol mchog. in DNgDz. book 2. translated in Lhalungpa. ."19  Jo nang rJe btsun Kun dga' grol mchog. 12. in DNgDz. is best known among Tibetans for his contributions to the development of the traditions pertaining to the worship and meditation of the bodhisattva AvalokiteÅ›vara. Note that the general framework for the first mentioned is in fact derived from the lam rim traditions of the bKa' gdams tradition. 1985. on whom see especially Dudjom Rinpoche. Zab khrid brgya dang brgyad kyi yi ge. Translators' Introduction to Dudjom Rinpoche.  Refer to D. arising. translated in Guenther. from whose teaching this tradition is derived. Khrid brgya'i brgyud pa'i lo rgyus. which he has encoded in the closing verses of each of the 108 instructional texts of the Jo nang khrid brgya in this fashion. cessation. plates 320-321. permanence. 12.  Scholastic systematization within the bKa' brgyud schools is well-exemplified by sGam po pa.  The syllables given in Tibetan together form the author's name. 1991. nonbeing. 1989. Guenther. Zla ba rgyal mtshan. and whose insistence on the authority of the PrÄ saá¹…gika school of Madhyamaka interpretation was sometimes regarded as standing in complete opposition to those traditions that claimed adherence to the Great Middle Way.
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