Lesson

8

Grammar

The Simple Past Tense

Context
Flying

The Wright Brothers—Men with a Vision
Before You Read
1. Do you like to travel by airplane? Why or why not? 2. What are the names of some famous inventors?

CD 2, TR 01

Read the following textbook article. Pay special attention to simplepast-tense verbs.

Did You

Know?

The Wright brothers never married. Their only love was aviation.

Over 100 years ago, people only dreamed about flying. The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, were dreamers who changed the world. Wilbur Wright was born in 1867 and Orville was born in 1871. In 1878, they received a paper flying toy from their father. They played with kites and started to think Wilbur Wright, 1867–1912; about the possibility of flight. Orville Wright, 1871–1948 When they were older, they started a bicycle business. They used the bicycle shop to design their airplanes. They studied three aspects of flying: lift, control, and power. In 1899, they constructed their first flying machine—a kite made of wood, wire, and cloth. It had no pilot. Because of wind, it was difficult to control. They continued to study aerodynamics.1 Finally Wilbur designed a small machine with a gasoline engine. Wilbur tried to fly the machine, but it crashed. They fixed it and flew it for the first time on December 17, 1903, with Orville as the pilot. The airplane remained in the air for twelve seconds. It traveled a distance of 120 feet. This historic flight changed the world. However, only four newspapers in the U.S. reported this historic moment. The Wright brothers offered their invention to the U.S. government, but the government rejected2 their offer at first. The government didn’t believe that these men invented a flying machine. Finally, President Theodore Roosevelt investigated their claims and offered the inventors a contract to build airplanes for the U.S. Army. December 17, 2003, marked 100 years of flight. There was a six-day celebration at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, the location of the first flight. A crowd of 35,000 people gathered to see a replica3 of the first plane fly. The cost to re-create the plane was $1.2 million. However, it rained hard that day and the plane failed to get off the ground. You can now see the Wright brothers’ original airplane in the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
Aerodynamics is the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and its effect on things. Reject means not accept. 3 A replica is a copy of an original.
1 2

224 Lesson 8

8.1 The Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs
EXAMPLES EXPLANATION

The Wright brothers started a bicycle business. They dreamed about flying. They designed an airplane. The president offered them a contract.

To form the simple past tense of regular verbs, we add -ed to the base form. Base Form Past Form start started dream dreamed design designed offer offered The past form is the same for all persons. The verb after to does not use the past form. We often use ago in sentences about the past. Ago means before now.

The Wright brothers wanted to fly. They continued to study aerodynamics. The Wright brothers invented the airplane over 100 years ago. We celebrated the 100th anniversary of flight a few years ago.

EXERCISE

Read more about the Wright brothers. Underline the past tense verbs in the following sentences. lived in Dayton, Ohio. EXAMPLE The Wright brothers
1. Their father worked as a Christian minister. 2. The boys learned mechanical things quickly. 3. They loved bicycles. 4. They opened the Wright Cycle Company repair shop, where they

repaired bicycles.

5. They started to produce their own bicycle models. 6. The first airplane weighed over 600 pounds. 7. They succeeded in flying the first airplane in 1903. 8. Wilbur died nine years later, of typhoid.4 9. Orville lived to be 76 years old.

4

Typhoid is a serious infection causing a fever and often death.

The Simple Past Tense

225

change y to i and add -ed. double the final consonant and add -ed only if the last syllable is stressed. When the base form ends in a consonant + y. add -ed. (Accent marks show you where a word is stressed. follow 16. drop 14. start rain die live carry study stay enjoy stop hug show fix occúr permi´t ópen óffer started rained died lived carried studied stayed enjoyed stopped hugged showed fixed occurred permitted opened offered EXERCISE Write the past tense of these regular verbs. show 7. propél 226 Lesson 8 . admi 20. do not double the final consonant.2 Spelling of the Past Tense of Regular Verbs RULE BASE FORM PAST FORM Add -ed to most regular verbs. When the base form ends in e. drag 13. decide 4. want 5. When a two-syllable verb ends in a consonant-vowelconsonant. study 3. start 15. When the last syllable of a two-syllable verb is not stressed. prefér 17. When a one-syllable verb ends in a consonant-vowelconsonant. enjoy 12. look 8. Do not double a final w or x. When the base form ends in a vowel + y. carry 11. like 18.) clap clapped EXAMPLES learn learned ´sten listened loved love li 1. play 2.8. like 6. stop 9. Do not change the y. add -d only. double the final consonant and add -ed. mix ´t 19. háppen 10.

(decide) to offer them a contract. l. (play) (dream) (study) (start) (use) (try) with kites. their invention to the U. it. n. ŋ. Their first plane 8. They 3. (crash) . z. everything they could about flying. They 7. They 2. They 4. (stay) in the air for 12 seconds. a bicycle business. They (fix) 9. š.S. r/ and all vowel sounds. s. f.3 Pronunciation of -ed Past Forms PRONUNCIATION RULE EXAMPLES /t/ Pronounce /t/ after voiceless sounds: /p. ˇ j. the bicycle shop to design airplanes. government. d ¯. (continued) The Simple Past Tense 227 . v. EXAMPLE The Wright brothers (receive) 1. The government e / d/ e Pronounce / d/ after /d/ or /t/ sounds. c ˇ/ Pronounce /d/ after voiced sounds: /b. EXERCISE 4 Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verb in parentheses ( ). k. received a flying toy from their father. They 6. Use the correct spelling. g. jump—jumped cook—cooked cough—coughed rub—rubbed drag—dragged love—loved bathe—bathed use—used massage—massaged charge—charged wait—waited hate—hated want—wanted kiss—kissed wash—washed watch—watched name—named learn—learned bang—banged call—called care—cared free—freed add—added decide—decided /d/ EXERCISE 3 Go back to Exercise 2 and pronounce the base form and past form of each verb. ž. They (offer) 11. They 5. In 1903. about flying. to fly their first plane in 1899. m.8. their plane 10.

She was 34 years old. Orville Wright 14. Amelia Earhart. wanted to win the prize. 1897–1937 however. It was only for the brave and adventurous. He was born in 1902. one year before the Wright brothers’ historic flight.600 miles. Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart Before You Read 1. for many more years. At the beginning of the twentieth century. TR 02 Read the following textbook article. His plane was in the air for 33 hours. Do you recognize the people in the photos below? CD 2. Their invention (die) (live) (change) in 1912. a man offered a $25. When was the first time you traveled by airplane? 2. she was on a flight around the world when her plane disappeared somewhere in the Pacific Ocean. 5 Aviator means pilot. He was an American hero. Americans were in love with Earhart. There were thousands of people in New York to welcome him home. Two adventurers were Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart. No one really knows what happened to Earhart. Pay special attention to the past-tense forms of be. He was only 25 years old. 228 Lesson 8 .000 reward for the first person to fly from New York to Paris nonstop. Wilbur Wright 13. the world. Lindbergh was a pilot for the United States Mail Service at that time. In 1927. The distance of the flight was 3. 1902–1974 He became famous because he was the first person to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean. He Charles Lindbergh.12. Another famous American aviator5 was Amelia Earhart. flight was new. In 1937. It was not for everyone. Charles Lindbergh loved to fly. She was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean alone.

adventurous. Lindbergh 9. happy to read about flight. There interested in the story about Earhart and Lindbergh. The Wright brothers 2. You weren’t in class yesterday. The Simple Past Tense 229 . brave. a celebration of 100 years of flight in 2003. There the inventors of the airplane. I 7. brave. The contraction for was not is wasn’t. I He She ∂ was It singular subject Subject Were We You were Amelia and Charles They There There There There Was was Were were We You They plural subject ∂ were There + was + singular noun There + were + plural noun To make a negative statement. EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Subject I Charles He Amelia She The airplane It Was was Complement interested in the story. put not after was or were. thousands of people at the celebration. you surprised that a woman was a famous aviator? in Paris. Complement interested in the story. There 11. a pilot. We were not at the 2003 celebration. The first airplane 3. popular. thousands of people in New York to welcome the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. 5. aviators. Charles Lindbergh was not the first person to fly. 8. in the air for 12 seconds. in the air for 12 seconds. Singular Subject a celebration in 2003. were very famous.4 Past Tense of Be The verb be has two forms in the past: was and were. Lindbergh home. a pilot too. in class yesterday. We 10. I wasn’t here yesterday. EXAMPLE Lindbergh and Earhart 1. Earhart 6. EXERCISE 5 Fill in the blanks with was or were.8. Lindbergh and Earhart 4. Plural Subject thousands of people. The contraction for were not is weren’t. new in 1903.

There were thousands of people in New York to welcome Lindbergh. Then write a negative statement with the words in parentheses ( ). 1. (the Wright brothers’ first plane) 5. (Earhart) 6. Classification of the subject Description of the subject Location of the subject Place of origin of the subject With born With there With age EXERCISE 6 EXAMPLE Read each statement. (planes) 7. Lindbergh was brave. (the 2003 flight) 230 Lesson 8 . (the airplane) 2.8. (the Wright brothers) 8. Earhart was from Kansas. She was born in 1897. The train was common transportation in the early 1900s. The Wright brothers were inventors. Lindbergh’s last flight was successful. Lindbergh’s plane was in the air for many hours. Lindbergh was born in the twentieth century. The 1903 flight at Kitty Hawk was successful. (Earhart’s last flight) 4.5 Uses of Be EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Lindbergh was an aviator. There were a lot of trains 100 years ago. The Wright brothers were inventors. (Lindbergh) 3. Earhart was from Kansas. Lindbergh was in Paris. Lindbergh was 25 years old in 1927. (Earhart and Lindbergh) Earhart and Lindbergh weren’t inventors.

No. How long was the first flight? Where was the first flight? Why wasn’t Amelia successful? Why weren’t you there? Who was with Earhart when she disappeared? How many people were in the airplane? Yes/No Questions Was/were + subject . born in the U. A copilot. + subject + wasn’t/weren’t.Questions Wh. . + subject + was/were. they weren’t. at the celebration? Short Answer Yes. There Questions Was/were + there . safe? afraid of flying. . Wh. ? Compare affirmative statements and questions. Was the first flight successful? Yes. ? Subject Questions Who + was .6 Questions with Was/Were EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Was the first flight long? No. . + were . she was. Were there a lot of people at the 100-year celebration? Yes. inventors? with Amelia. . . When were was was were were Compare negative statements and questions. .word + was/were + subject . with Amelia? at the celebration. Wh. In 1897. . they were. ? Short answers Yes. . afraid? The Simple Past Tense 231 . it was. Wh. .Word Was/Were Was was Were Subject Amelia she she Charles and Amelia they Someone Who Many people How many people Was/Were was Complement born before 1903. . there was/were. there were.Word Why Why Wasn’t/Weren’t wasn’t weren’t Subject Air travel it The Wright brothers they Wasn’t/Weren’t wasn’t weren’t Complement safe 100 years ago.? born? famous. it wasn’t. Thousands. . there wasn’t/weren’t.S. Were the Wright brothers inventors? Yes. . .8. Was there a lot of rain that day? Yes. ? How many . ? Short Answers Yes. there was. . No. ? Negative Questions Why + wasn’t/weren’t + subject . No.

(airplanes) 6. How was the weather on the day you arrived? 232 Lesson 8 . Then write a yes/no question with the words in parentheses ( ). (Lindbergh) 4. 1. Were you happy or sad when you arrived? 5. Travel by plane is common now. What was your first impression of your new home? 6. (100 years ago) 5. he wasn’t.S. I was interested in the story about the aviators. The Wright brothers were inventors. Amelia Earhart was American. Thomas Edison was an inventor. (the Wright brothers) 3. You are in class today. 1. I wasn’t born in the U. Where were you born? 2. (you) 8. Were you happy or sad when you left your country? 3.EXERCISE 7 EXAMPLE Read each statement. Who was with you on your trip? 4. The airplane was an important invention. (you) EXERCISE 8 ABOUT YOU Interview a classmate who is from another country. (the telephone) 2. (yesterday) 7. Were you tired when you arrived? 7. Give a short answer. Who was at the airport to meet you? 8. There were telephones 100 years ago. (Lindbergh) Was Lindbergh an inventor? No.

Lindbergh was a famous aviator. was worried about you. (when/Earhart) A: B: 6. Earhart was 34 years old when she crossed the ocean. The Wright brothers were famous. (why) A: B: 7. 1. (who/the Wright brothers) A: B: 5. A: (4) alone? (continued) The Simple Past Tense 233 . D. TR 03 B: I (1 not) home. (how old/Lindbergh) A: B: 4.EXERCISE 9 EXAMPLE Read each statement. (why) A: B: 2. (what nationality/Earhart) A: B: 3. ? A: Where B: In Washington. A: I tried to call you last weekend.question with the words in parentheses ( ). Lindbergh was born in 1902. (why) A: B: EXERCISE 10 Fill in the blanks with the correct past-tense form of be. Lindbergh was very famous. Add any other necessary words.C. (why) A: Why was Lindbergh famous? B: He was one of the first aviators. I (3) (2) out of town. Lindbergh was a hero. Lindbergh was American. Answer the question. The flight at Kitty Hawk in 2003 wasn’t successful. Then write a wh. I (example) CD 2.

An irregular verb does not use the -ed ending. A: Really? Why (7) expensive? (8) B: The flight from here to Washington National Air and Space Museum cheap. (9) They very helpful. I felt happy when I arrived. But my favorite place was the Air and Space Museum. 234 Lesson 8 Many verbs are irregular in the past tense. by plane. (18) Can you believe it? There only 66 years between the first flight in 1903 and the trip to the moon in 1969! A: That’s amazing! 8. We don’t think about flying as anything special anymore. And we stayed with some friends in their apartment. .7 Simple Past Tense of Irregular Verbs—An Overview EXAMPLES EXPLANATION I came to the U. It very crowded. I was with my brother.B: No. A: How long B: It (16) (15) (13) (14 not) your flight to Washington? only 2 hours and 15 minutes from here. My flight took six hours. But just a little over 100 years ago.S. flight (17) just a dream of two brothers. expensive? B: No. But it (12) wonderful to see the Wright brothers’ airplane and the airplane that Lindbergh used when he crossed the Atlantic. Our trip wasn’t expensive at all. A: (10) a lot of people at the museum? (11) B: Yes. there were. They showed us a lot of beautiful places in Washington. Also it interesting to see the spacecraft of the astronauts. I A: (5) (6) . We bored for one minute in that museum.

When Goddard died in 1945. Are you interested in astronauts and rockets? CD 2. No one made fun of him after he was successful. He later became a physics professor at a university. but Goddard was happy about his achievement. When he was a child. a reporter wrote that Goddard had less knowledge about science than a high school student.000 feet in the air. Did You Know? The first woman in space was a Russian. Goddard wanted to prove that The New York Times was wrong. but they didn’t fly. Robert Goddard was born in 1882. he built a ten-foot rocket. Goddard wrote an article about Robert Goddard with early rocket travel. TR 04 Read the following textbook article. In 1926. put it into an open car. in 1963. In his free time. Scientists continued to build bigger and better rockets. Then it fell into the field. he became interested in firecrackers and thought about the possibility of space travel. he built rockets and took them to a field.” 6 Regret means to be sorry for. It traveled at 60 miles per hour Apollo 11 on the moon. He put the rocket in a field and lit the fuse. In 1920. 1926 would be possible to go to the moon. when the American rocket Apollo 11 took the first men to the moon. When The New York Times saw his article. In 1969. the other professors laughed at him. Valentina Tereshkova. Suddenly the rocket went Astronaut Buzz Aldrin of into the sky. and drove to his aunt’s nearby farm. Pay special attention to past-tense verbs. Did you ever see the first moon landing in 1969? 2. 1969 (mph) to an altitude of 41 feet. The New York Times wrote: “The Times regrets6 the error. The Simple Past Tense 235 . He believed that one day it rocket. Over the years. The flight lasted 2½ seconds. his rockets grew to 18 feet and flew to 9. his work did not stop. When he went back to his university after his failed attempts.Robert Goddard Before You Read 1.

8 List of Irregular Past Tense Verbs7 VERBS WITH NO CHANGE FINAL d CHANGES TO t bet—bet cost—cost cut—cut fit—fit hit—hit hurt—hurt let—let put—put quit—quit shut—shut bend—bent build—built lend—lent send—sent spend—spent VERBS WITH A VOWEL CHANGE feel—felt keep—kept leave—left break—broke choose—chose freeze—froze dig—dug hang—hung blow—blew draw—drew fly—flew sell—sold shake—shook take—took tear—tore become—became come—came give—gave forgive—forgave forget—forgot shoot—shot MISCELLANEOUS CHANGES lose—lost mean—meant8 sleep—slept steal—stole speak—spoke wake—woke spin—spun win—won grow—grew know—knew throw—threw tell—told mistake—mistook wear—wore eat—ate lie—lay get—got bring—brought buy—bought catch—caught begin—began drink—drank ring—rang drive—drove ride—rode bleed—bled feed—fed lead—led find—found lay—laid say—said10 bite—bit light—lit fall—fell run—ran sit—sat stand—stood understand—understood fight—fought teach—taught think—thought sing—sang sink—sank swim—swam shine—shone write—wrote meet—met read—read9 wind—wound pay—paid hide—hid hold—held see—saw be—was/were do—did go—went have—had hear—heard make—made For an alphabetical list of irregular verbs. 9 The past form of read is pronounced like the color red. There is a change in the vowel sound. 10 Said rhymes with bed. 7 8 236 Lesson 8 .8. Meant rhymes with sent. see Appendix D.

that space travel was impossible. Germany used the first rockets in World War II in 1944. (continued) The Simple Past Tense 237 . The Russians launched their first satellite. EXERCISE 12 Fill in the blanks with the past tense of one of the words from the box below. They 2. 2. to his to 3. The United States put the first men on the moon in 1969. a Russian. 5. Yuri Gagarin. interested in flying after seeing a flying toy. gave them a flying toy. Sputnik 1. Goddard never 6. a professor of physics. People interested in rockets when he was a child. 7. A spacecraft on Mars transmitted color photos to Earth in 2004. an American. became the first person in space in 1961. 3. went into space in 1961. his first rocket in a car and for 2½ seconds and then it the first moon landing.EXERCISE 11 Read the following facts about the history of rockets. EXAMPLE Goddard published a paper on rockets in 1920. Goddard aunt’s farm. Goddard built and flew rockets from 1926 to 1939. the ground. fly write think put became drive become be see fall EXAMPLE Goddard 1. 4. in 1958. He 2. The rocket 5. The New York Times EXERCISE 13 Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verb in parentheses ( ). 8. Explorer 1. Write R for a regular verb. about their mistake 49 years later. R 1. EXAMPLE The Wright brothers’ father (give) 1. 6. Underline the verbs. in 1957. The Americans sent up their first satellite. They (have) (become) (read) a dream of flying. Write I for an irregular verb. many books on flight. They 3. 4. Alan Shepard.

They (make) (fly) problems with wind. Goddard built rockets. Only a few people the first flight. They 8.4. (see) 9. N. The Americans didn’t put a woman in space until 1983. Earhart didn’t return from her last flight. They 5. President Theodore Roosevelt about their airplane. The Russians put a woman in space in 1963.9 Negative Forms of Past Tense Verbs Compare affirmative (A) and negative (N) statements with past-tense verbs. A. Lindbergh returned from his last flight. 8. the first airplane. some changes to the airplane. (have) 6. Thousands of people (go) to North Carolina for the 100th anniversary of flight. Goddard didn’t fly in his rocket. A. At first they 7. 12. For the negative past tense. for the first time in 1903. The Wright brothers flew in their airplane. N. 238 Lesson 8 . The airplane was an important invention because it people from different places closer together. EXAMPLES EXPLANATION A. Compare: returned—didn’t return flew—didn’t fly built—didn’t build put—didn’t put Remember: Put and a few other past-tense verbs are the same as the base form. They (sell) (build) bicycles. (bring) 11. N. (hear) 10. we use didn’t + the base form for ALL verbs. He didn’t build airplanes. regular and irregular. N. A.

The newspaper about the possibility of rocket travel. They to see it at first. In 1957. He wanted to build rockets. 7. In 1920. The government 5. 6. He airplanes. A rocket went to the moon in 1969. 2. a pilot. 3. The Simple Past Tense 239 . He the moon. 9. 1.S. 14. It in the air for a long time. Russians on the moon. didn’t believe EXAMPLE Goddard believed in space flight. The Americans the first man in space. to build 8. They cars. A rocket to the moon during Goddard’s lifetime. 13. The Wright brothers dreamed about flying. the first rocket. his rockets . Goddard saw his rockets fly. 10. Goddard thought his ideas were important. The first rocket stayed in the air for 2½ seconds. rockets go to 12. Other people in space flight at that time. They sold bicycles. the Russians put the first man in space. government. the first Americans walked on the moon. Before that time. 11. In 1926 his rocket flew. a newspaper wrote that he was foolish.EXERCISE 14 Fill in the blanks with the negative form of the underlined words. The Wright brothers built the first airplane. Their 1903 airplane had a pilot. Their first airplane 4. In 1969. His colleagues his ideas were important. They about rockets. The Wright brothers wanted to show their airplane to the U.

I 7. I 12.EXERCISE 15 If you came to the U. 2. OR I didn’t study English before I came to the U. 240 Lesson 8 . afraid about my future. I 10.S. an English dictionary. I my money for dollars before I came to the U. a clear idea about life in the U. I (get) (apply) (study) (sell) (say) (buy) (have) (be) (go) (understand) (know) a passport. my furniture.S. I studied with a EXAMPLES I ABOUT YOU (study) private teacher for three months. a lot about American life. Add some specific information to tell more about each item. from another country. for a visa.S. fill in the blanks with the affirmative or negative form of the verb in parentheses to tell about the time before you came to the U. I 9. I 4.S. English. I 5. English well. I 11.S. I 3. I 6.S. studied English before I came to the U. to another country first. I 8. (exchange) 1. goodbye to my friends. I didn’t have (study) enough time.

I lived with my cousins for two months. do laundry 5. use a phone card 7. Add some specific information to tell more about each item. read a newspaper The Simple Past Tense 241 . register for English classes 3. Add some specific information to tell more about each item. OR I didn’t find an apartment right away. I didn’t have time. find a job 2. buy a car 5.EXERCISE 16 EXAMPLE If you come from another city or country. write a letter 3. buy groceries 6. rent a DVD 11. use the Internet 2. send e-mail 12. tell if these things happened or didn’t happen after you moved to this city. 1. ABOUT YOU find an apartment I found an apartment two weeks after I arrived in this city. get a driver’s license EXERCISE 17 EXAMPLE Tell if you did or didn’t do these things in the past week. visit a museum 8. buy clothes 10. ABOUT YOU go to the movies I went to the movies last weekend with my brother. OR I didn’t go to the movies this week. 1. buy a magazine 8. see a relative 9. go to the bank 7. rent an apartment 4. go to the library 4. We saw a great movie. look for a job 10. get a Social Security card 6. work hard 9.

TR 05 Read the following conversation. Pay special attention to past-tense questions. 242 Lesson 8 . Chesley Sullenberger. pilot of Flight 1549 11 A flock of birds is a group of birds that fly together.Hero Pilot Before You Read 1. Do you think that plane travel is safe? 2. Do you know of any heroes? CD 2.

use: Yes. Where How Language Notes: 1. at an airport? power. To form a yes/no question. he didn’t. EXAMPLE Did you read about the pilot? Yes. + subject pronoun + didn’t. back? back to the airport? Why EXERCISE 18 Read the questions and answer with a short answer. Did any of the passengers die? 4. Did the plane go into the river? 5. Did the pilot return to the airport? 2. Wh. To form a short answer. it did. Wh. Birds flew into the engine. I did.question. 1. + subject pronoun + did.word + did + subject + base form + complement Compare negative statements and questions. use: Did + subject + base form + complement 2. use: Wh.10 Questions with Past-Tense Verbs Compare affirmative statements and questions. an engine? an engine? Short Answer No.word Didn’t Didn’t didn’t Subject The pilot he he Verb didn’t go go go Complement to the airport. 3. Yes. On the Hudson River. Was the pilot brave? The Simple Past Tense 243 . Did he make the right decision? 3.Word Did Did did Did did Subject The pilot he he The plane the plane it Verb landed land land? lost lose lose Complement the plane. No. To form a wh.8.

Lindbergh worked for the U. he did. (Goddard) (no) 3.S.S. (Goddard) (yes) Did Goddard have a dream? Yes. Earhart disappeared. Did you think about your future? 9. (his brother) (no) 2. Did you own a car? 7. Lindbergh crossed the ocean. Were you happy? EXERCISE 20 EXAMPLE Read each statement.? 5. Did you live with your parents? 4. (Earhart) (yes) 5. The Wright brothers built an airplane.EXERCISE 19 ABOUT YOU Use these questions to ask another student about the time when he or she lived in his or her native country. Did you live in a big city? 3. (Lindbergh) (yes) 4. Did you finish high school? 6. Did you have a job? 8. Did you know a lot about the U. (Lindbergh) (no) 8. Mail Service. (Earhart) (no) 244 Lesson 8 . Wilbur Wright died in 1912. 1. Lindbergh was born in the twentieth century. Lindbergh became famous. The Wright brothers had a dream. Did you study English in your country? 2. Earhart loved to fly. 1. (Earhart) (no) 6. Write a short answer. (Earhart) (yes) 7. Write a yes/no question about the words in parentheses ( ).

S. (a safe landing) (yes) 13. Sully made an emergency landing. (the passengers) (yes) EXERCISE 21 EXAMPLE Fill in the blanks with the correct words. How old 8. ? ? (continued) The Simple Past Tense 245 . Earhart was born in Kansas. How much money 7. Lindbergh won money for his flight. He crossed the ocean to win the prize money. Where 9. Birds flew into one engine. Where 5. People didn’t believe the Wright brothers at first. Why 3. She disappeared in the Pacific Ocean.000. 4. Where 2. ? ? the first flight in 1903? Many newspapers didn’t report it because no one believed it. Where when he crossed the ocean? Lindbergh was 25 years old when he crossed the ocean. Why ? ? ? 6. He won $25. 1. (both engines) (no) 14. Lindbergh worked for the U. The Wright brothers dreamed about flight. (Goddard) (yes) 12. The first plane crashed because of the wind. (Goddard) (no) 11. Why ? The Wright brothers built their plane in their bicycle shop. Mail Service. What kind of engine did the first airplane have? The first airplane had a gasoline engine. Sully was safe. (the Wright brothers) (no) 10.9.

) The Wright brothers were born in the nineteenth century. ? ? ? 14. (When/Lindbergh) 2. Their father gave them a toy. (What kind of shop) 4. (When) 246 Lesson 8 . Why EXERCISE 22 EXAMPLE Read each statement. They designed airplanes. He saved 150 lives. The Wright brothers were born in the nineteenth century. How many 15. They flew their first plane in North Carolina. Why 13. Then write a question with the words in parentheses ( ). ? ? 11. (The answers are at the bottom of page 247. Why the first moon landing? Goddard didn’t see the first moon landing because he died in 1945. (Where) Where were they born? They were born in Ohio. He didn’t return to the airport because he didn’t have time. 1. When 12. Sully was a hero because he saved lives. They had a shop.10. Answer with a complete sentence. (What kind of toy) 3. Why Nobody knows why Earhart didn’t return. The first man walked on the moon in 1969. (Where) 5.

(Where) ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 22: (1) 1902. 6. government didn’t want to see the airplane at first.   The first plane stayed in the air for a few seconds. (6) 12 seconds. (What/Goddard) 9.  The president thanked him. (10) they didn’t believe him (they thought he was a fool). (When) 13. (13) at the inauguration The Simple Past Tense  247 . (9) to see if it would fly. (8) the rocket.  Goddard took his rocket to his aunt’s farm.  The U.  The Wright brothers invented the airplane. (3) a bicycle shop.  Sully received an invitation from the president. (2) a flying toy. (4) in their bicycle shop. (How many seconds) 7. (Why) 11.  People laughed at Goddard. (12) in January 2009. (7) they didn’t believe it. (Why) 10.  Sully landed his plane. (Where) 12. (11) on the Hudson River in New York City. (5) in 1903. (Why) 8.S.

ABOUT YOU I did my homework. (where) A: I did my homework. 12. 248 Lesson 8 . I enjoyed school. I graduated from high school. 8. I got married. 3. (why) I brought my clothes to the U. 6. I got an allowance. ABOUT YOU I attended public school. 11. I studied English. B: When did you get married? A: I got married six years ago. (when) I studied biology.S. 9. 12 I participated in a sport. (when) I bought an English dictionary. usually once a week. (when) A: I got married. 9. I got good grades in school. I played soccer. Another student will ask a question with the words in parentheses ( ).12 I took music lessons. 12. 7. An allowance is money children get from their parents. I lived with my grandparents. 4. A: I didn’t attend public school. (when) I came to the U. (when) I chose this college/school. 5. 6. (when) I needed to learn English. Another student will ask a question about your statement.S. I had a bike. Then read aloud one statement that you checked. I lived on a farm. 8. I thought about my future.EXERCISE 23 EXAMPLES Check ( ) all statements that are true for you. 11. 1. 10. I had a pet. 2. (where) I left my country. (why) I found my apartment. 3. B: Where did you do your homework? A: I did my homework in the library. (where) I started to study English. 10. 1. (when) I got a driver’s license. 2. 4. (what else) I rented an apartment. B: Why didn’t you attend public school? A: My parents wanted to give me a religious education. Answer the question. 5. Make an affirmative or negative statement about one of these items. (when) EXERCISE 24 EXAMPLE Check ( ) which of these things you did when you were a child. 7.

Who won money for flying across the Atlantic Ocean? (Earhart / Lindbergh / Goddard) 6. not the base form. (The answers are at the bottom of the page. (5) Lindbergh. Who sent up the first rocket? (the Wright brothers / Goddard / Lindbergh) 4. (2) an American. the passengers? to Sully’s plane. Sully? A president invited Which president invited When we ask a question about the subject. we use the past-tense form.8. Roosevelt. Which country sent the first rocket into space? (the U.11 Questions About the Subject EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Subject Someone Who Something What Verb saved saved happened happened Complement the passengers. (3) Goddard. (4) Earhart. Roosevelt / Lincoln / Wilson) 7. / China / Russia) 2. (6) T. (7) The New York Times. Which president showed interest in the Wright brothers’ airplane? (T. Compare: Where did the pilot land the airplane? Who landed the airplane? When did the accident happen? What happened? EXERCISE 25 EXAMPLE Choose the correct words to answer these questions about the subject. How many people died in Sully’s emergency landing? (150 / 10 / no one) ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 25: (1) Russia.) Who invented the airplane? (the Wright brothers / Goddard / Lindbergh) 1. Who disappeared in 1937? (Earhart / Goddard / Lindbergh) 5. Which newspaper said that Goddard was a fool? (Chicago Tribune / The Washington Post / The New York Times) 8. We don’t use did in the question. Who walked on the moon in 1969? (an American / a Russian / a Canadian) 3.S. (8) no one The Simple Past Tense 249 . to Sully’s plane? Sully.

Then ask the person who answered “I did” a related question.? 8. Who made an international phone call last night? 7. to Guatemala? our home. ? 250 Lesson 8 . Someone will volunteer an answer. ABOUT YOU EXAMPLE A: Who went to the bank last week? B: I did. Who drank coffee this morning? 3. we A: What (4 be) (5 move) (6 lose) (7 happen) ten years old. Who came to the U. A: I was born (example: born) in Mexico.S. 1. Who watched TV this morning? 5. I (2 be) (3 move) (1 come) to the U. Who bought a newspaper today? EXERCISE 27 Fill in the blanks in this conversation between two students about their past. But my family born? to Guatemala when I A: Why B: In 1998. Who brought a dictionary to class today? 2. ten years ago. Who wrote a composition last night? 4. Who studied English before coming to the U.S. Where B: In El Salvador.S. A: Why did you go to the bank? B: I went there to buy a money order. alone? 6.EXERCISE 26 Read one of the who questions below.

Luckily. The Simple Past Tense  251 . A:  Me too. They (14 wait) (16 save) to the U. Then I (26 start) (27 choose) (25 get) a grant and to go to City College.S.S. (9 destroy) (10 go) my family was fine. (11 stay) A:  How long in Guatemala? (12 come) B:  I stayed there for about three years. (13 come) A:  What about your family? B:  No. Then I a job and them here later. (18 not/come) (19 start) A:  My parents with me either. with you? (15 find) (17 bring) until I my money. I (20 arrive) (21 support) . City College? A:  Why B:  I chose it because it has a good ESL program. but the earthquake our home and much of our town. you while you were in school? (22) B:  Who A:  My brother B:  I . We to live with cousins in Guatemala. But my older to go to school as soon as I brother did.B:  A major earthquake (8 hit) my town. to school right away because I (23 not/go) (24 have) to work. Then I to the U.

He wasn’t in Russia. they didn’t. When were they in France? Why weren’t they in Paris? How many people were in France? IRREGULAR VERB ( BUY ) AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTION SHORT ANSWER WH. he wasn’t. Did she work in the morning? Yes. They didn’t buy a motorcycle. Were He was in Poland. Were they in Paris? No. What kind of car did they buy? Why didn’t they buy an American car? How many people bought an American car? SUBJECT QUESTION 252 Lesson 8 . Where did she work? Why didn’t she work on Sunday? Who worked on Sunday? They bought a car. Where was he? Why wasn’t he in Russia? Who was in Russia? 2. Was he in Hungary? No. she did. She didn’t work on Sunday. Did they buy an American car? No.Summary of Lesson 8 The Simple Past Tense 1.QUESTION NEGATIVE QUESTION She worked on Saturday. Was AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTION SHORT ANSWER WH. They weren’t in England. There was a problem. Be Was Were I He She It ∂ was in Paris. We You They ∂ were in Paris. they weren’t.QUESTION NEGATIVE QUESTION SUBJECT QUESTION There were many problems. Other Verbs REGULAR VERB ( WORK ) They were in France.

Editing Advice 1. Review the spelling rules for adding -ed. come Did your father came to the U. studied I studyed for the last test. saw 7. Use the correct word order in a question. Use be with born.S. Don’t confuse was and were. dropped 3. Check your list of verbs for irregular verbs. were was Where was you yesterday? The Simple Past Tense 253 . Where did your grandfather born? Where was your grandfather died? 6. was born Her grandmother borned in Russia. My grandfather had 88 years old when he died. and use correct spelling. 2. He droped his pencil. Use the base form after did or didn’t. Use the base form.S. your mother go Where did go your mother? What bought your sister? did your sister buy 5.? 4. (Don’t add -ed to born. Use be with age. brought did I bringed my photos to the U. after to. I seen the accident yesterday.) Don’t use be with died. was She was died in the U. buy I wanted to bought a new car. 8.S. know She didn’t knew the answer. not the past form.

(5) B: When he went into space? (6) A: In 1961. But he wasn’t the first living thing in space. he was Russian. Find the mistakes and correct them. He was died in 1968. Don’t use was before happened. Don’t use did in a question about the subject. (3) B: He was an American? (4) A: No. (11) B: When did he born? (12) 254 Lesson 8 . B: Who’s that? A: He was the first person in space. What was happened to the airplane? Editing Quiz Some of the shaded words and phrases have mistakes. If the shaded words are correct. C had A: Last week we have an interesting homework assignment. And later there were chimpanzees and (10) even turtles in space. We had to (example) (example) wrote about a famous person. B: Did he went alone? (7) A: Yes. write C.9. There was fruit flies (8) (9) and dogs in space before him. took Who did take my pencil? 10. (1) B: Who you wrote about? (2) A: I wrote about Yuri Gagarin. B: Is Gagarin still alive? A: No.

Lindbergh worked for the U. hit 6. drink 12. The Simple Past Tense 255 . That was happened in 1969. sell 20. it is. sit 5. Mail Service. stand PART 2 EXAMPLE Fill in the blanks with the negative form of the underlined verb. see 3. build 13. A: Yes. (23) Lesson 8 Test/Review PART 1 EXAMPLES Write the past tense of each verb. (19) (20) A: That was Neil Armstrong. Mail Service. (22) B: That’s so sad. live 1. They named a town in Russia after him. carry 19. read lived feel felt 11.S. (17) (18) B: Who did walk on the moon first? I forgetted his name. take 8. He had only 34 years old when he died. 1. He never see (13) (14) (15) (16) the moon landing. stop 14. Earhart didn’t work for the U. find 9. There were trains in 1900. think 17. There any airplanes. buy 16. one year before he died. B: How did Gagarin died? (21) A: He were in a plane crash.A: He born in 1934. make 7. say 10. eat 2. get 4.S. leave 15. run 18.

The Wright brothers invented the airplane. a plane crash. Charles Lindbergh was an aviator. Sully lost one engine. (Goddard) (no) 3. Lindbergh was an aviator. Lindbergh was born in the U.S. Goddard wrote about rockets. both engines. They a plane in 1899. 5. 3. Lindbergh came back from his flight. PART 3 EXAMPLE Read each statement. They the telephone. Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic Ocean. He in the twentieth century.2. she did. He a president. Goddard was born in the nineteenth century. Wilbur Wright became famous. He an airplane. 1. Lindbergh crossed the ocean. Earhart 7. (Wilbur Wright) (no) 256 Lesson 8 . The Russians sent a man into space. Lindbergh went to Paris. Goddard built a rocket. (Earhart) (yes) 4. Write a yes/no question about the words in parentheses ( ). (Goddard) (yes) 5. (Orville Wright) (yes) 2. 8. He in to Paris. (the Wright brothers) (no) 6. (the Americans) (yes) 7. He 10. 9. Write a short answer. Earhart back from her last flight. 4. (Earhart) (yes) Did Earhart cross the ocean? Yes. Goddard died in 1945. Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever. 6. The Wright brothers flew a plane in 1903.

(when/Lindbergh) 2. The Wright brothers became famous for their first airplane. (Russia) (no) 9.question about the words in parentheses ( ). Sully landed the airplane in the river. Someone made an emergency landing. Sully lost an engine. Earhart wanted to fly around the world. (who) The Simple Past Tense 257 . (why/Lindbergh) Why did Lindbergh become famous? 1. Wilbur Wright died in 1912. Many people saw Lindbergh in Paris.8. An answer is not necessary.S. (why) 5. People laughed at Goddard’s ideas in 1920. (when/Earhart) 3. Lindbergh got money for his flight. A president examined Goddard’s ideas. (how many people) 6. (how) 10. Goddard’s colleagues didn’t believe his ideas. Earhart was born in 1897. (which president) 9. The U. (why) 7. (when/Orville Wright) 8. (safely) (yes) PART 4 EXAMPLE Write a wh. Lindbergh crossed the ocean in 1927. (how much) 4. (in 1969) (no) 10. put men on the moon in 1969.

. Before I came to the U..S. When I was a child. Before I came to the U. Ask about his or her first experiences in the U. When I was a child.S.? 2 Find a partner from another country to interview.S. Before I came to the U. interview a student who recently immigrated to the U. Why did you leave Ethiopia? 3 Finish these statements five different ways.S. and the conditions of his or her life after he or she arrived.S. EXAMPLE A: B: A: B: A: When did you leave your country? I left Ethiopia five years ago. Did you have any sentences in common? EXAMPLE When I was a child.. When I was a child. Write your conversation. Where did you live when you arrived? Who picked you up from the airport? Who helped you in the first few weeks? What was your first impression of the U. First I went to Sudan.S. my parents sent me to camp every summer. Did you come directly to the U. When I was a child.S.S. Then find a partner and compare your sentences to your partner’s sentences. 258 Lesson 8 . b.. When I was a child. When I was a child. Before I came to the U. I didn’t like to do my homework.S. Ask questions about the circumstances that brought him or her to the U.? No. Use Exercise 26 as your model. When I was a child..” a.S. Before I came to the U. my nickname was “Curly.Expansion Classroom Activities EXAMPLES 1 In a small group or with the entire class.

At that time. EXAMPLE Abraham Lincoln I really admire Abraham Lincoln. coworker. Tell what this person did. For more practice using grammar in context. or someone you read about. teacher.S. please visit our Web site. friend.S. there were slaves in the U. He wanted every person to be free. . . You can write about a family member. The Simple Past Tense 259 . 2 Write a paragraph about a famous person that you admire. He was the 16th president of the U. Lincoln wanted to end slavery . Tell why you admire this person.Talk About It 1 Do you think space exploration is important? Why or why not? 2 Do you think there is life on another planet? 3 Would you want to take a trip to the moon or to another planet? Why or why not? Write About It 1 Write about your personal hero.