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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh

ph H Ni)

Application of Water Quality Index computation on Hong river water (Ha Noi city section)
Nguyen Duy Phu Hanoi University of science, VNU Faculty of Environmental Science Major: Environmental science; Code: 60 85 02 Supervisors: Ass. Prof. Trinh Thi Thanh Date of Presenting Thesis: 2011
Abstract. Trnh by tng quan v sng Hng v ch s cht lng nc (WQI). nh gi cc yu t c kh nng nh hng n cht lng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) v nh gi hin trng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) vo ma l v ma cn nm 2010. Xy dng s hin trng mi trng nc theo ch s WQI v nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn TP. H Ni): Tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) theo Quyt nh s 879/Q-TCMT; Phng php nh gi cht lng nc theo ch tiu tng hp; xut phng php tnh ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni); Xy dng s hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) theo ch s WQI; nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni). Keywords. Khoa hc mi trng; nhim mi trng; Ti nguyn nc; Ch s cht lng; Sng Hng

Content Ch s mi trng l cch s dng s liu tng hp hn so vi nh gi tng thng s hay s dng cc ch th. Rt nhiu cc quc gia trn th gii trin khai p dng cc m hnh ch s cht lng nc (WQI) vi nhiu mc ch khc nhau. T nhiu gi tr ca cc thng s khc nhau, bng cc cnh tnh ton ph hp, ta thu c mt ch s duy nht, gi tr ca ch s ny phn nh mt cch tng qut nht v cht lng nc.

Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 1 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN

Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

Nhm gp phn ngn chn cc nguy c khng hong v ngun nc cng nh tng bc khc phc, ci thin v bo v ngun nc mt trn a bn thnh ph H Ni, cn thit phi tin hnh nghin cu xy dng cng c qun l thng nht v tng hp ti nguyn nc sng Hng. Ch s cht lng nc (WQI) v phn vng cht lng nc l cng c gip nh gi mc nhim tng on sng phc v mc ch quy hoch s dng hp l ngun nc mt v xy dng nh hng kim sot nhim, bo v mi trng nc. T , xy dng cc bin php kim sot nhim mi trng nc tt hn, y l mt vn rt cn thit v cp bch. Do , lun vn p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni), c tin hnh vi ni dung nghin cu nh sau: 1. nh gi cc yu t c kh nng nh hng n cht lng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni). 2. nh gi hin trng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) vo ma l v ma cn nm 2010. 3. Xy dng s hin trng mi trng nc theo ch s WQI v nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn TP. H Ni). Tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) theo Quyt nh s 879/QTCMT; Phng php nh gi cht lng nc theo ch tiu tng hp; xut phng php tnh ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni); Xy dng s hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) theo ch s WQI; nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni).

CHNG 1- TNG QUAN TI LIU NGHIN CU


1.1. C IM CA SNG HNG on sng Hng chy qua H Ni di khong 150 km ko di t huyn Ba V ti huyn Ph Xuyn, c mc nc dao ng rt ln theo ma. Vo ma l, c bit t thng 7 n thng 9, mc nc sng dng cao, c th t 14 m. Vo ma cn, mc nc sng tng i thp, c th xung ch cn c 2 m v thng xut hin vo thng 3, thng 4. 1.2. TNG QUAN CHUNG V CH S CHT LNG NC (WQI) 1.2.1 Tng quan v ch s mi trng Ch s mi trng: l mt tp hp cc tham s hay ch th c tch hp hay nhn vi trng s. Cc ch s mc tch hp cao hn, ngha l chng c tnh ton t nhiu bin s hay d liu gii thch cho mt hin tng no . 1.2.2. Tng quan v ch s cht lng nc (WQI) Gii thiu chung v WQI Ch s cht lng nc (Water Quality Index- WQI) l mt ch s t hp c tnh ton t cc thng s cht lng nc xc nh thng qua mt cng thc
Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 2 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

ton hc. WQI dng m t nh lng v cht lng nc v c biu din qua mt thang im. Quy trnh xy dng WQI Hu ht cc m hnh ch s cht lng nc hin nay u c xy dng thng qua quy trnh 4 bc nh sau: Bc 1: la chn thng s Cc thng s nn c la chn theo 5 ch th sau: Hm lng Oxy; Ph dng; Cc kha cnh sc khe; c tnh vt l; Cht rn l lng. Bc 2: chuyn i cc thng s v cng mt thang o (tnh ton ch s ph) Bc 3: trng s Trng s c a ra khi ta cho rng cc thng s c tm quan trng khc nhau i vi cht lng nc. Bc 4: tnh ton ch s WQI cui cng Cc phng php thng c s dng tnh ton WQI cui cng t cc ch s ph: trung bnh cng, trung bnh nhn hoc gi tr ln nht 1.2.3. Kinh nghim xy dng WQI ca mt s quc gia trn th gii C rt nhiu quc gia a p dng WQI vo thc tin, cng nh c nhiu cc nh khoa hc nghin cu v cc m hnh WQI. Hoa K: WQI c xy dng cho mi bang, a s cc bang tip cn theo phng php ca Qu V sinh Quc gia M (National Sanitation Foundation-NSF) sau y gi tt l WQI-NSF. Canada: phng php do C quan Bo v mi trng Canada (The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment- CCME, 2001) xy dng. Chu u: cc quc gia chu u ch yu c xy dng pht trin t WQI NSF (ca Hoa K), tuy nhin mi Quc gia a phng la chn cc thng s v phng php tnh ch s ph ring. Cc quc gia Malaysia, n pht trin t WQI NSF, nhng mi quc gia c th xy dng nhiu loi WQI cho tng mc ch s dng. 1.2.4. Tnh hnh nghin cu v kt qu t c v xy dng WQI Vit Nam - M hnh WQI do PGS. TS. L Trnh p dng cho sng, knh rch ca thnh ph H Ch Minh - M hnh WQI do TS. Tn Tht Lng p dng ti sng ng Nai

CHNG 2 - I TNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU


2.1. I TNG NGHIN CU 2.1.1. Cc thng s c la chn - Thng s vt l: nhit , c, tng cht rn l lng (TSS) - Thng s ha hc: pH, DO, COD, BOD5, N-NH4, P-PO4 - Thng s vi sinh: tng Coliform 2.1.2. V tr quan trc c a vo tnh ton Bng 2.1. V tr quan trc a vo tnh ton
Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 3 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) K hiu NM1 NM2 NM3 NM4 NM5 NM6 NM7 NM8 NM9 NM10 NM11 NM12 NM13 NM14 NM15 V tr Ta Kinh V c im ni quan trc

TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Thn C - X C - Ba 0536900 2353000 Nc trong, dng chy mnh V Hoc Chu - Chu Sn - Ba V Ph Thnh - Sn Ty Cm nh - Phc Th Vn H - Phc Th 0540900 2354901 Nc trong, dng chy mnh 0545900 2353001 Nc trong, dng chy mnh 0557500 2339202 Nc trong, dng chy mnh 0565700 2340301 Nc trong, dng chy mnh

Thn B Ni - H M - an 0572001 2339304 Nc trong, dng chy mnh Phng Gn im khai thc ct Lin Mc, Thng Ct - T Lim 0576451 2333736 nc trong, khng mi Gn khu trng chui v hoa mu. P.T Lin - Q.Ty H 0587573 2331186 Nc trong, khng mi Cu Vnh Tuy - Qun Hong Cu Vnh Tuy cng H Ni, 0591158 2322782 Mai nc trong, khng mi Thy Lnh - P. Lnh Nam - Q. Sau ca sng o Bc Hng Hi, 0594417 2320711 Hong Mai cch bn 250m, dng chy nh H lu mng thot nc ca Duyn H - Thanh Tr 0591634 2314926 trm bm Yn S. Cch trm bm Yn S 700m, dng chy nh Ti Ph M S - Hng Vn 0593908 2310320 Nc trong, dng chy nh Thng Tn Thng Nht - Thng Tn 0595443 2301888 Nc trong, dng chy nh Hng Thi - Ph Xuyn 0600901 2296056 Nc trong, dng chy nh Quang Lng - Ph Xuyn 0603942 2285522 Nc trong, dng chy va phi

2.2. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU 2.2.1. Thu thp, chn lc v phn tch cc ti liu c lin quan - Thu thp, tng quan cc ti liu Quc t v Vit Nam v phng php tnh ch s cht lng nc (WQI) trong nh gi cht lng nc mt. - Cc n, quy hoch pht trin kinh t - x hi cc qun/huyn ven sng Hng; quy hoch tng th pht trin kinh t - x hi thnh ph H Ni n nm 2020; - Cc tiu chun, quy chun k thut Quc gia v cht lng nc mt; tiu chun cp nc cho ti tiu thy li, nui trng thy sn. 2.2.2. Phng php ly mu, phn tch Trong khun kh chng trnh: Gim st cht lng mi trng ca sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni. Do Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Ti nguyn Mi trng S Ti nguyn v Mi trng H Ni thc hin, tc gi lun vn tham gia kho st, ly mu ti 15 im dc t Ba V xung n Ph Xuyn vo 2 t (thng 3 v thng 8/2010), o c thm cc thng s c, nhit phc v cho vic tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI).
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

2.2.3. Cc phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) Trong phm vi lun vn, tc gi la chn phng php tnh WQI theo Quyt nh s 879/Q-TCMT v phng php nh gi theo ch tiu tng hp, p dng thc t cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni), thy c nhng u im v hn ch ca phng php. T , xut ci tin phng php tnh WQI cho ph hp.

CHNG 3 - KT QU NGHIN CU V THO LUN


3.1. NH GI CC YU T C BN NH HNG N CHT LNG NC SNG HNG ON CHY QUA A BN THNH PH H NI 3.1.1. Nc thi sinh hot pht sinh t cc khu dn c 3.1.1.1. Hin trng pht sinh nc thi sinh hot t cc khu dn c Theo nghin cu ca JICA vo nm 1997 v nm 2000, lng nc cp trung bnh cho mi ngi (giai on 2005 2010) ti khu vc th l 160 lt/ngi/ngy v ti khu vc nng thn l 80 lt/ngi/ngy. Lng nc thi sinh hot pht sinh bng 80% lng nc cp. Cn c s dn ca 78 x/phng thuc 17 qun/huyn ven hai b sng Hng nm 2010, lu lng nc thi pht sinh hng ngy c tnh khong 73.436 m3/ngy. Ti lng cc cht nhim trong nc thi sinh hot ca cc khu dn c dc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni c c tnh nh trong bng 3.1 Bng 3.1. c tnh ti lng mt s cht nhim trong nc thi sinh hot ca cc khu dn c ven sng Hng Ti lng STT Cht nhim (tn/ngy) 1 BOD5 24,6 2 COD 43,3 3 Cht rn l lng 53,5 4 Du m 9,9 5 Tng nito 4,5 6 Amoni 1,8 7 Tng phospho 1,2 8 Tng Coliform 2,5.108 Ngun: c tnh da theo s liu v ti lng nhim trung bnh trong nc thi sinh hot do mt ngi thi ra trong mt ngy ca WHO (Geneva, 1993) 3.1.1.2. D bo lu lng v ti lng nhim do nc thi sinh hot Cn c tc tng dn s khu vc th ca thnh ph giai on 2015-2020 v tiu chun pht thi nc thi sinh hot c tnh theo tiu chun nc cp vi khi lng bng 80% lng nc cp. D bo giai on 2015-2020 lng nc cp cho sinh hot i vi khu vc thnh th 200 lt/ngi/ngy; khu vc nng thn 120 lt/ngi/ngy.
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

D bo lng nc thi sinh hot pht sinh ca cc khu dn c ven sng trn a bn thnh ph n nm 2015 l 112.882 m3/ngy, nm 2020 l 141.444 m3/ngy. Ti lng cc cht nhim c trong nc thi ca cc khu dn c ven sng trn a bn thnh ph d bo n nm 2015 v 2020 th hin qua bng 3.2 Bng 3.2. D bo ti lng mt s cht nhim trong nc thi sinh hot ca cc khu dn c ven sng Hng n nm 2020
STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cht nhim BOD5 COD Cht rn l lng Du m Tng nito Amoni Tng phospho Ti lng (tn/ngy) Nm 2015 Nm 2020 28,3 33,9 49,7 59,6 61,5 73,6 11,4 13,7 5,1 6,2 2,0 2,4 1,4 1,6

Ngun: c tnh da theo s liu v ti lng nhim trung bnh trong nc thi sinh hot do mt ngi thi ra trong mt ngy ca WHO (Geneva, 1993). 3.1.2. Nc thi t hot ng sn xut cng nghip Theo JICA (1997) lng nc thi cng nghip c c tnh l 40 3 m /ha/ngy, BOD5 tng ng khong 16 kg/ha/ngy. Cn c vo thc trng hot ng ca cc KCN v CCN dc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni, tng din tch cc KCN, CCN c lp y n nm 2010 l 377,2 ha, tng lng nc thi pht sinh l 15.088 m3/ng., ti lng BOD5 khong 6.035,2 kg/ng.. 3.1.3. Cc ngun gy nhim khc Sng Hng (on chy qua khu vc ni thnh TP. H Ni) ang v s phi tip nhn nc thi sinh hot v cng nghip t khu vc ni thnh thnh ph c bm ra t h Yn S. Sng Hng hin ang l tuyn giao thng thy quan trng ca khu vc ng bng sng Hng, ni lin cc tnh ven bin vi cc tnh Ty Bc. Hot ng lu thng ca tu thuyn trn sng Hng c d bo s tng ln trong tng lai. iu ny s lm gia tng nhim nc sng Hng do du m. Nc thi t hot ng sn xut nng nghip ca cc x/phng ven sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni. 3.2. NH GI CHT LNG NC SNG HNG ON CHY QUA A BN THNH PH H NI 3.2.1. Cht lng nc sng Hng vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) Nng oxy ha tan Nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) c hm lng DO dao ng trong khong 5,6 11,5 mg/l. Cc gi tr ny u cao hn quy chun cho php ct B1 s dng cho mc ch ti tiu thy li. nhim do cc cht hu c
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

Vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) nc sng Hng chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni c du hiu b nhim nh bi cc cht hu c. Trong : - Hm lng COD: dao ng trong khong t 17 - 35 mg/l, vt quy chun cho php t 1,1 1,2 ln. - Hm lng BOD5 ti tt c cc v tr quan trc dc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni dao ng trong khong t 5 13 mg/l, thp hn quy chun cho php i vi mc ch ti tiu thy li. Hm lng cht rn l lng Vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) nc sng Hng tng i trong, lng ph sa t thng ngun tng i t nn ti cc v tr quan trc hm lng cht rn l lng (TSS) dao ng trong khong 12 43,7 mg/l, nm trong quy chun cho php ct B1. nhim do cht dinh dng - Hm lng NH4+: dao ng trong khong 0,06 1,13 mg/l, vt quy chun cho php 2,26 ln ti v tr thn C C Ba V, vt 1,04 ln ti v tr Thy Lnh P. Lnh Nam Hong Mai. Cc v tr cn li u t quy chun cho php. - Hm lng PO43-: dao ng trong khong t 0,05 0,72 mg/l, 8/14 v tr vt quy chun cho php t 1,3 2,4 ln. Trong cao nht ti v tr phng T Lin Ty H (0,72 mg/l). nhim do vi sinh vt Hm lng Coliform ti cc v tr quan trc dc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni dao ng trong khong 70 110.000 MPN/100ml. Trong , 4 v tr t Thy Lnh Lnh Nam Hong Mai n v tr thuc x Thng Nht Thng Tn c hm lng Coliform vt quy chun t 1,24 14,7 ln, cao nht ti v tr thuc x Duyn H Thanh Tr (110.000 MPN/100 ml). 3.2.2. Cht lng nc sng Hng vo ma l (thng 8/2010) Nng oxy ha tan Vo ma l (thng 8/2010), nng oxy ha tan trong nc sng Hng dao ng trong khong 6,7 7,3 mg/l. Cc gi tr ny u cao hn gii hn ti thiu cho php theo QCVN 08:2008 ct B1 dng cho mc ch ti tiu thy li. nhim do cht hu c Nhn chung hm lng BOD5, COD trn sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni) mc tng i thp, BOD5 dao ng trong khong 3 13 mg/l, COD dao ng 12 24 mg/l. Cc gi tr ny u thp hn mc gii hn ti a cho php i vi mc ch cp cho ti tiu. Hm lng cht rn l lng Hm lng TSS ti 15 v tr quan trc dc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni tng i cao, dao ng t 37 mg/l n 113 mg/l, vt quy chun cho php t 1,06 n 2,26 ln. Ti v tr thn Hoc Chu Chu Sn Ba V (NM2) c hm lng TSS cao nht, vt 2,26 ln; ti v tr x Cm nh Phc Th (NM4) vt quy chun 2,16 ln. nhim do cht dinh dng
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

- Hm lng NH4+: Nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni vo thng 8/2010 c du hiu b nhim NH4+, dao ng t 0,32 1,15 mg/l, vt quy chun cho php i vi ct B1 s dng cho ti tiu thy li t 1,08 2,3 ln - Hm lng PO43-: dao ng t 0,04 0,35 mg/l, phn ln cc v tr dc sng Hng u nm trong quy chun cho php. Tr v tr ti x Cm nh Phc Th (NM4), Thng Ct T Lim (NM7) v ti v tr cu Vnh Tuy Hong Mai (NM9) c hm lng vt quy chun t 1,1 1,2 ln. nhim do vi sinh Hm lng Coliform tng s ti cc v tr dc sng Hng vo thng 8/2010 tng i thp, nm trong quy chun cho php i vi nc mt dng cho mc ch ti tiu thy li. 3.2.3. So snh cht lng nc sng Hng gia ma l v ma cn nm 2010 Nng xy ha tan Nng oxy ha tan trong nc sng Hng dc t Ba V xung n Ph Xuyn vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) cao hn so vi ma l (thng 8/2010), tr v tr ti Thy Lnh Lnh Nam Hong Mai. Hm lng cc cht hu c Hm lng cc cht hu c (BOD5, COD) trong nc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) cao hn so vi ma l (thng 8/2010), tr v tr ti Thng Ct T Lim (NM1). Hm lng cc cht dinh dng - Hm lng NH4+: vo ma l (thng 8/2010) dao ng trong khong 0,32 1,15 mg/l, cao hn so vi vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) (0,06 1,13 mg/l), tr v tr ti Duyn H Thanh Tr. Nh vy, c th thy c ngun nc thi do sinh hot ca cc khu dn c hai bn b sng lm nh hng n cht lng nc sng Hng. - Hm lng PO43-: vo thng 3/2010 (0,05 0,72 mg/l) c xu hng cao hn so vi thng 8/ 2010 (0,04 0,35 mg/l). Hm lng cht rn l lng Ti tt c cc v tr quan trc dc sng Hng t Ba V xung n Ph Xuyn c hm lng cht rn l lng (TSS) vo ma l (thng 8/2010) u cao hn so vi ma cn (thng 3/2010). Hm lng Coliform Hm lng Coliform vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) c xu hng cao hn so vi vo ma ma (thng 8/2010) t v tr Thy Lnh Lnh Nam Hong Mai (NM10) n v tr Thng Nht Thng Tn (NM13). 3.3. XY DNG S HIN TRNG MI TRNG NC THEO CH S WQI V NH GI KH NNG S DNG NGUN NC SNG HNG TRN A BN THNH PH H NI 3.3.1. Tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) 3.3.1.1.Tnh theo Quyt nh s 879/ Q-TCMT a- Tnh ton WQI thng s cht lng nc sng Hng
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

Bng 3.3. Kt qu tnh ton WQI thng s cht lng nc sng Hng vo ma l (thng 8/2010)
K hiu mu KQPT NM1 WQI ph KQPT NM2 WQI ph KQPT NM3 WQI ph KQPT NM4 WQI ph KQPT NM5 WQI ph KQPT NM6 WQI ph KQPT NM7 WQI ph KQPT NM8 WQI ph KQPT NM9 WQI ph KQPT NM10 WQI ph KQPT NM11 WQI ph KQPT NM12 WQI ph KQPT NM13 WQI ph KQPT NM14 WQI ph KQPT NM15 WQI ph pH 7,9 100 7,6 100 7,7 100 7,6 100 7,5 100 7,7 100 7,8 100 7,7 100 7,7 100 7,5 100 7,6 100 7,6 100 7,5 100 7,8 100 7,8 100 DO 6,8 100 6,8 100 6,9 100 6,9 100 6,7 97,5 6,7 99,8 7,1 100 7,2 100 7 100 7,2 100 7,3 100 7 100 7,1 100 7,2 100 6,8 100 BOD5 7 72,2 6 75,0 5 87,5 5 87,5 4 100 3 100 13 55,6 7 72,2 6 75 5 87,5 5 87,5 7 72,2 7 72,2 7 72,2 7 72,2 COD 17 71,7 15 75,0 14 80,0 13 85 18 70 12 90 24 60 17 71,7 17 71,7 13 85 12 90 19 68,3 16 73,3 15 75 17 71,7 Ch tiu c 30,75 49,5 84,30 13,6 63,62 29,0 82,86 14,7 47,52 39,1 53,78 35,1 35,08 46,8 67,20 26,8 39,84 43,9 27,83 55,4 62,92 29,4 51,48 36,6 48,80 38,3 40,52 43,4 44,47 41 TSS 41 61,3 113 1,0 87 31,5 108 1 68 41 74 38 48 52,5 84 33 53 48,5 37 66,3 91 29,5 68 41 61 44,5 54 48 61 44,5 NH4+ 0,97 26,5 1,15 24,1 1,07 24,6 0,94 28 0,64 43 0,74 38 0,42 56,7 0,54 48 0,64 43 0,57 46,5 0,32 65 0,9 30 0,85 32,5 0,71 39,5 0,84 33 PO430,25 62,5 0,12 95,0 0,17 82,5 0,35 43,8 0,13 92,5 0,11 97,5 0,32 47,5 0,24 65 0,33 46,3 0,09 100 0,12 95 0,15 87,5 0,22 70 0,04 100 0,16 85 Coliform 480 100 1.500 100 930 100 750 100 930 100 1.500 100 2.400 100 2400 100 2.800 97 480 100 2.400 100 4.600 79 2.400 100 1.500 100 2.400 100 WQI 72 38 61 38 69 68 68 60 67 80 64 60 66 71 68

b- Tnh ton WQI Bng 3.4. Kt qu tnh ton ch s WQI v mc nh gi cht lng nc sng Hng vo ma l (thng 8/2010)
STT 1 2 3 4 5 K hiu mu NM1 NM2 NM3 NM4 NM5 WQI 72 38 61 38 69 Mc nh gi CLN S dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc mc ch tng ng khc S dng cho giao thng thy v cc mc ch tng ng khc S dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc mc ch tng ng khc S dng cho giao thng thy v cc mc ch tng ng khc S dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc Mu Vng Da cam Vng Da cam Vng

Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 9 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN

Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)
STT 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 K hiu mu NM6 NM7 NM8 NM9 NM10 NM11 NM12 NM13 NM14 NM15 WQI 68 68 60 67 80 64 60 66 71 68 S dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc mc ch tng ng khc Vng S dng cho mc ch cp nc sinh hot nhng cn cc bin php x l ph hp Xanh l cy Mc nh gi CLN mc ch tng ng khc Mu

3.3.1.2. Phng php nh gi cht lng mi trng nc sng Hng da trn ch tiu tng hp Cc bc tnh Ptb: Bc 1: La chn cc ch tiu Ci c trng cho mi trng nc sng Hng: pH, DO, BOD5, COD, c, TSS, NH4+, PO43-, Coliform. Bc 2: Tnh t s Ci/Cio Trong : - Ci: nng ca cc ch tiu theo kt qu quan trc - Cio: nng tng ng ca cc ch tiu theo QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT Quy chun k thut Quc gia v cht lng nc mt. Ring c khng c trong quy chun nn c th p dng theo nghin cu ca Pesce & Wunderlin (2000): A1 5 NTU; A2 - 20 NTU; B1 - 30 NTU; B2 - 70 NTU [26]. Bc 3: Tnh ch s Ptb Ch s Ptb l gi tr trung bnh ca cc t s Ci/Cio ca tng ch tiu tnh trn. Ptb c tnh theo cng thc:

Da vo gi tr Ptb ti tt c cc v tr quan trc (15 v tr i din), c th nh gi c cht lng mi trng nc sng Hng dc t Ba V xung n Ph Xuyn phc v cho cc mc ch s dng khc nhau. Cc ch s Ptb ng vi cc v tr quan trc i din c biu din di dng biu hnh ct vi mc so snh l 1: + Vi Ptb 1 - khng b nhim + Vi Ptb > 1 - nhim. Kt qu tnh ton Ptb cho tng mc ch s dng tng ng vi cc mc gi tr gii hn trong QCVN 08: 2008/ BTNMT, th hin qua bng 3.5
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

Bng 3.5. Kt qu tnh Ptb ti cc v tr quan trc cht lng nc sng Hng vo ma l (thng 8/2010)
STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 K hiu mu NM1 NM2 NM3 NM4 NM5 NM6 NM7 NM8 NM9 NM10 NM11 NM12 NM13 NM14 NM15 Ct A1 2,9 4,5 3,8 4,4 2,9 3,0 2,8 3,5 2,9 2,1 3,0 3,5 3,3 2,7 3,1 Gi tr Ptb Ct A2 Ct B1 1,5 0,8 2,0 1,2 1,8 1,0 2,0 1,2 1,4 0,8 1,4 0,8 1,4 0,8 1,6 1,0 1,4 0,9 1,0 0,6 1,4 0,8 1,7 1,0 1,6 0,9 1,3 0,7 1,5 0,9 Ct B2 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,5

3.3.1.3. So snh gia 2 phng php Kt qu tnh ton theo 2 phng php l tng i ph hp vi nhau. Tuy nhin, mi phng php u c nhng u im v hn ch ring: Phng php nh gi cht lng mi trng nc theo ch tiu tng hp - u im: + nh gi tng hp tt c cc ch tiu nhim mi trng nc mt c trong QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT. + Tnh ton n gin, d hiu. - Hn ch: + Phng php ch nh gi i vi tng mc ch s dng tng ng vi cc mc gi tr gii hn cho php trong QCVN 08: 2008 ct A1, A2, B1, B2. + Khng nh gi c cht lng nc tng qut ca mt con sng (hay on sng), kh so snh cht lng tng vng ca mt con sng, so snh CLN sng ny vi sng khc, CLN thi gian ny vi thi gian khc (theo thng, ma), CLN hin ti so vi tng lai. + nh gi theo ch tiu tng hp, ch c cc nh khoa hc hoc cc nh chuyn mn mi hiu c v nh vy, kh thng tin v CLN cho cng ng v cc c quan qun l Nh nc, cc nh lnh o ra cc quyt nh ph hp v bo v v khai thc ngun nc Phng php nh gi cht lng mi trng nc theo ch s WQI - u im: + Ch s WQI c kh nng c trng cho tc ng tng hp ca nng nhiu thnh phn ha l sinh trong ngun nc. + n gin, d hiu, c tnh khi qut cao c th c s dng cho mc ch nh gi din bin cht lng nc theo khng gian v thi gian, l ngun thng tin
Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 11 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

ph hp cho cng ng, cho nhng nh qun l khng phi chuyn gia v mi trng nc. - Hn ch: + Mt ch s ph th hin cht lng nc xu nhng c th ch s cui cng li th hin cht lng nc tt. + Phng php tnh ch s WQI c nh cc thng s tnh ton nn khi mt thng s c th b xung vo vic nh gi cht lng mi trng nc nhng li khng c tnh ton vo WQI. + Cn phi thit lp v hot ng mng li quan trc mi trng nc vi nhiu im thu mu, tn sut quan trc tng i dy. + i vi sng Hng ni chung v on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni ni ring, c lng ph sa rt ln c bit l vo ma l nn hm lng TSS v c cng rt cao. Do , khi tnh ton ch WQI s khng phn nh chnh xc c mc nhim nc sng. + Nc sng Hng c s dng cho nhiu mc ch khc nhau nh cp nc sinh hot, ti tiu thy li, nui trng thy sn, giao thng vn ti nn mi thng s nhim s c mc quan trng khc nhau i vi tng mc ch s dng, chng hn: c v tng Coliform rt quan trng cho mc ch tip xc trc tip (tm, bi li), nhng li khng quan trng cho mc ch cp nc nng nghip; nhit , mn, NH4+ khng quan trng lm vi nc bi tm nhng li rt quan trng vi nui trng thy sn V vy, tc gi lun vn nghin cu, xut ci tin phng php tnh WQI theo Quyt nh s 879/Q-TCMT cho ph hp vi sng Hng. 3.3.2. xut phng php tnh ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni Nh trnh by trn, a phn cc phng php tnh WQI trn th gii hin nay u c pht trin t phng php tnh WQI ca Qu v sinh Quc gia Hoa K (NSF-WQI). Do vy, trong lun vn ny, tc gi s p dng kt hp phng php tnh WQI theo Quyt nh s 879/Q-TCMT v phng php tnh WQI ca Qu v sinh Quc gia Hoa K (NSF-WQI) c bin i cho ph hp vi sng Hng (vit tt l SH-WQI). Cc thng s la chn Cc thng s v cht lng nc mt c la chn trong SH-WQI cng tng t nh phng php tnh WQI theo Quyt nh s 879/Q-TCMT Xc nh trng lng ng gp ca cc thng s (trng s w i) Phn trng lng ng gp (wi) ca 9 thng s trong SH-WQI c la chn theo cng thc tnh ca NSF-WQI nh trong bng 3.6. Bng 3.6. Trng lng ng gp ca cc thng s
STT 1 2 3 4 Thng s DO Tng Coliform pH BOD5 Trng lng ng gp (wi) 0,17 0,15 0,12 0,10

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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)
STT 5 6 7 8 9 Tng Thng s COD NH4+ PO43TSS c Trng lng ng gp (wi) 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,08 0,08 1,0

Xc nh ch s ph qi Ch s ph qi trong SH-WQI c xc nh bng WQI cho cc thng s theo phng php tnh WQI theo Quyt nh 879/Q-TCMT. Cng thc tnh WQI Tc gi lun vn s s dng c 2 dng cng thc tnh dng tch v dng tng ca NSF-WQI tnh ton SH-WQI. - Cng thc dng tng: SH-WQI/WA = - Cng thc dng tch: SH-WQI/WM =

wi.qi
i 1

qi
i 1

wi

Kt qu phn loi Bng 3.7. Phn loi cht lng nc theo gi tr ca SH-WQI
Loi I II III IV V Mu Xanh nc bin Xanh l cy Vng Da cam Gi tr WQI 91-100 71-90 51-70 26-50 0-25 nh gi cht lng Rt tt Tt Trung bnh nhim Rt nhim Mc ch s dng S dng tt cho mc ch cp nc sinh hot S dng cho mc ch cp nc sinh hot nhng cn cc bin php x l ph hp S dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc mc ch tng ng khc S dng cho giao thng thy v cc mc ch tng ng khc Nc b nhim nng, cn cc bin php x l trong tng lai

3.3.3. Kt qu tnh ton WQI cho sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni Bng 3.8. Gi tr WQI ti cc im quan trc cht lng nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni (thng 3/2010)
TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 V tr quan trc NM1 NM2 NM3 NM4 NM5 NM6 NM7 Theo SH-WQI/WA dng tng Gi tr Phn loi 83 II 82 II 85 II 76 II 82 II 80 II 83 II Theo SH-WQI/WM dng tch Gi tr Phn loi 77 II 78 II 83 II 71 II 79 II 77 II 78 II

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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)
Theo SH-WQI/WA dng tng Gi tr Phn loi 84 II 77 II 72 II 64 III 58 III 54 III 67 III 71 II Theo SH-WQI/WM dng tch Gi tr Phn loi 79 II 75 II 68 III 37 IV 34 IV 33 IV 65 III 67 III

TT 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

V tr quan trc NM8 NM9 NM10 NM11 NM12 NM13 NM14 NM15

Ngun: tnh ton ca tc gi Lun vn, 2011 Bng 3.9. Gi tr WQI ti cc im quan trc cht lng nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni (thng 8/2010)
TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 V tr quan trc NM1 NM2 NM3 NM4 NM5 NM6 NM7 NM8 NM9 NM10 NM11 NM12 NM13 NM14 NM15 Theo SH-WQI/WA dng tng Gi tr 76 72 76 70 81 82 74 74 75 86 82 73 75 80 77 Phn loi II II II III II II II II II II II II II II II Theo SH-WQI/WM dng tch Gi tr 71 48 68 47 76 76 70 69 70 83 77 68 70 76 72 Phn loi II IV III IV II II III III III II II III III II II

Ngun: tnh ton ca tc gi Lun vn, 2011 T kt qu tnh ton trong bng 3.8, bng 3.9 c th rt ra cc kt lun nh sau: - Gi tr WQI tnh theo cng thc dng tng (SH-WQI/WA) lun cao hn so vi trng hp tnh bng cng thc dng tch (SH-WQI/WM). iu ny dn ti trong nhiu trng hp vic phn loi cht lng nc sng theo gi tr WQI trong cng thc dng tng lun mc tt hn so vi trng hp s dng kt qu tnh WQI theo cng thc dng tch. - Kt qu tnh ton theo cng thc tnh SH-WQI dng tch phn nh nhy tt hn, cng nh phn nh cht lng nc st vi thc t hn so vi trng hp s dng kt qu theo cng thc dng tng. Do , tc gi lun vn xut s dng phng php tnh WQI dng tch (SH-WQI/WM) v cc kt qu tnh gi tr WQI theo cng thc dng tch nh
Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc Mi trng 14 Khoa Mi trng HKHTN HQGHN Nguyn Duy Ph

p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

gi cht lng nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni. Kt qu ca phng php tnh theo cng thc dng tch cng s c s dng tin hnh xy dng bn hin trng mi trng nc sng Hng vo 2 ma. 3.3.4. Xy dng s hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni theo ch s WQI 3.3.4.1. Phng php xy dng s hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng da vo ch s WQI Trn c s phn loi cht lng nc theo ch s WQI, tc gi lun vn tin hnh xy dng s hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni, tc l ti mi v tr quan trc s th hin kt qu tnh ton theo ch s WQI ln s di dng biu hnh ct theo thang mu nh quy nh (theo thang im ca m hnh NSF-WQI): - WQI = 91-100: xanh nc bin - s dng tt cho mc ch cp nc sinh hot; - WQI = 71-90: xanh l cy - s dng cho mc ch cp nc sinh hot nhng cn cc bin php x l ph hp; - WQI = 51-70: vng - s dng cho mc ch ti tiu v cc mc ch tng ng khc; - WQI = 26-50: da cam - s dng cho giao thng thy v cc mc ch tng ng khc; - WQI = 0-25: - nc b nhim nng, cn cc bin php x l trong tng lai. 3.3.4.2. S hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng theo ch s WQI

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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

Hnh 3.21. S hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) theo ch s WQI

Hnh 3.22. S hin trng cht lng nc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni vo ma l (thng 8/2010) theo ch s WQI 3.3.5. nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni 3.3.5.1. nh gi v kh nng cp nc cho sinh hot ca sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni Theo kt qu tnh ch s cht lng nc WQI, cng nh qua s liu phn tch v nh gi trong mc 3.2 ca lun vn c th kt lun nc sng Hng c th s dng cp nc cho sinh hot nhng cn cc bin php x l ph hp ti cc khu vc: t thng lu n gn cu Vnh Tuy huyn Thanh Tr vo ma cn, cn vo ma l ch c mt s khu vc (Vn H Phc Th n thn Bi Ni H M - an Phng; cu Vnh Tuy Hong Mai n Duyn H Thanh Tr; Hng Thi Ph Xuyn n Quang Lng Ph Xuyn). 3.3.5.2. nh gi v kh nng cp nc cho nng nghip ca sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni Cn c vo mc nh gi cht lng nc theo ch s WQI v theo TCVN 6773-2000 [3] c th nh gi c kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni cho mc ch thy li nh sau: - Vo ma cn: cht lng nc c xp vo loi II v III (tr on sng t Duyn H Thanh Tr n Thng Nht Thng Tn), ph hp cho vic cp nc ti tiu.

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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

- Vo ma l: cht lng nc sng Hng ch yu c xp vo loi II v III (tr on sng khu vc Chu Sn Ba V v khu vc Cm nh Phc Th), ph hp cho vic cp nc ti tiu. Cc kt qu phn tch cht lng nc cc on sng ny cng cho thy cc ch s v ha l v sinh hc u tha mn cc quy nh trong TCVN 6773 2000. 3.3.5.3. nh gi v kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni cho nui trng thy sn Ngun nc sng Hng chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni l thy vc nc ngt. Do , ngun nc ny ch ph hp cho nui trng thy sn nc ngt vi cc loi c c trng nh tri, chp, trm, r phi Qua tnh ton theo ch s WQI vo ma cn (thng 3/2010) v ma l (thng 8/2010) c xp ch yu vo nhm II v III (trung bnh v tt) nn rt ph hp cho nui trng, nh bt hoc cp nc cho nui trng thy sn nc ngt. KT LUN, KIN NGH 1. KT LUN T cc kt qu nghin cu, lun vn rt ra cc kt lun nh sau: 1. Cht lng nc sng ti 15 v tr quan trc vo 2 t trong nm 2010 (thng 3 v thng 8) nhn chung tng i tt, ch xy ra nhim cc b ti mt s v tr bi cc ch tiu nh Coliform, NH4+, PO43-. 2. Kt qu tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) theo Quyt nh s 879/ Q-TCMT p dng cho sng Hng cn c nhng hn ch nh: vo ma l lng ph sa tng i ln nn hm lng TSS v c cng rt cao, khi ch s WQI s khng phn nh c mc nhim nc sng; nc sng Hng c s dng cho nhiu mc ch khc nhau nn mi thng s nhim s c mc quan trng khc nhau. 3. Da vo phn loi ngun nc theo gi tr WQI, lun vn phn loi c cc khu vc theo cc mc II, III v IV. 2. KIN NGH 1. Cc kt qu nghin cu trong lun vn ny mi ch dng li vic tnh ton ch s WQI cho 2 t (ma cn v ma l) trong nm 2010. Do vy, tc gi lun vn kin ngh tng tn sut quan trc trong nm (thng/ln) c y cc s liu cho vic phn vng v nh gi kh nng s dng ngun nc sng Hng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni. 2. Cn o c, phn tch lin tc cht lng nc theo chiu di ca sng nh gi ng din bin cht lng nc sng t thng ngun xung h ngun v l c s xy dng c bn phn vng cht lng nc sng Hng theo ch s WQI. 3. Ngoi ra, tc gi lun vn cng kin ngh cn nghin cu ci tin cng thc tnh WQI theo Quyt nh s 879/ Q-TCMT p dng ph hp hn i vi tng mc ch s dng nc ring.

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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

References Ting Vit 1. Bo co tng hp (2011), Quy hoch tng th pht trin kinh t - x hi thnh ph H Ni n nm 2020, nh hng n nm 2030, S K hoch v u t thnh ph H Ni. 2. B Ti nguyn v Mi trng (2008), Quy chun K thut Quc gia v cht lng nc mt, H Ni. 3. B Ti nguyn v Mi trng (2000), Tiu chun cht lng nc dng cho thy li, H Ni. 4. C quan hp tc quc t Nht Bn (JICA) (2000), Nghin cu ci thin mi trng thnh ph H Ni, Cng ha x hi ch ngha Vit Nam, D tho bo co cui cng (bo co chnh), Quyn 2: Quy hoch tng th mi trng: Phng php lun quy hoch, H Ni. 5. Cc thng k Thnh ph H Ni (2010), Nin gim thng k nm 2010, H Ni. 6. Phm Ngc H (2004), C s khoa hc v phng php lun xy dng bn hin trng mi trng, Tuyn tp cng trnh khoa hc ca Hi ngh khoa hc ngnh khoa hc, cng ngh v mi trng, i hc Khoa hc T nhin, i hc Quc gia H Ni. 7. Nguyn Vn Hp, Thy Chu T, Nguyn Hu Nam (2004), nh gi cht lng nc sng Hng da vo ch s cht lng nc (WQI), Tp ch Phn tch Ha, L v Sinh hc, 23-32. 8. Nguyn Vn Hp v nnk (2003), Nghin cu nh gi cht lng nc sng Hng v h m ph Vit Php, Bo co chuyn khoa hc, D n m ph Vit Php, Hu. 9. Tn Tht Lng v ctv (2009), Xy dng c s d liu GIS kt hp vi m hnh ton v ch s cht lng nc phc v cng tc qun l v kim sot cht lng nc h lu h thng sng ng Nai, S Khoa hc v Cng ngh TP. H Ch Minh. 10. Tn Tht Lng v ctv (2008), Nghin cu ch s cht lng nc nh gi v phn vng cht lng nc sng Hu, ti nghin cu khoa hc cp c s. 11. S Khoa hc v Cng ngh TP H Ch Minh (2004), Nghin cu hon thin cc ch tiu sinh hc nh gi cht lng v phn vng, phn loi mi trng nc cc thy vc TP H Ch Minh, TP. H Ch Minh. 12. L Trnh, nnk (2008), Nghin cu phn vng cht lng nc theo cc ch s cht lng nc (WQI) v nh gi kh nng s dng cc ngun nc sng, knh rch vng TP. H Ch Minh, TP. H Ch Minh. 13. y ban KH-CN TP H Ch Minh (1991), Bo co ti nghin cu xy dng tp bn mi trng thnh ph H Ch Minh, TP. H Ch Minh. 14. UBND TP H Ni T chc JICA Nht Bn (12/1997), Quy hoch tng th thot nc H Ni, H Ni.
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p dng phng php tnh ton ch s cht lng nc (WQI) cho sng Hng (on chy qua a bn thnh ph H Ni)

15. UBND Thnh ph H Ni JICA (2000), Nghin cu ci thin mi trng thnh ph H Ni, H Ni. Ting Anh 16. Alikhan A, Tobin A.et al. (2005), Application of CCME Procedures for Deriving Site Specific Water Quality Guidelines for the CCME WQI, Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, vol. 40, No. 4, Page 448-456. 17. Bhargava D.S (1983), Use of WQI for River Classificaton and Zoning of the Gange River, Environment Pollution (Serie B), No. 6, Page 51 67. 18. Canada Council of Ministry of the Environment (2001), Canadian Water Quality Guidelines the Protection of Aquatic Life CCME WQI 1.0, Technical Report. 19. Couillard D. (1985), Analysis of WQI, Journal of Environmental Management, Canada. 20. Department of Environment, New Foundlands (1994), WQI Applied to the Exploits River Watershed, Canada. 21. Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Environmental Protection Division (2001), The British Columbia Water Quality Index, Canada. 22. House M.A (1987), The Development of WQIs for Operation Management, Water Science and Technology, No. 19, Page 145-154. 23. King Country (2007), Water Quality Index for Streams and River, United States of America (http://green.kingcounty.gov). 24. NSF Consumer Information (2004), Water Quality Index, United States of America(http://quickplace.altarum.org/QuickPlace/gleams/PageLibrary8525 6D7300519182.nsf/h_Index/4C862BD57AE8528385256F30005A59B8/). 25. P.A. Economopolous (1993), Rapid Assessment for Water, Solid, Air and Land Pollution Sources, WHO, Geneva. 26. Pesce, S. F. and Wunderlin, D. A. (2000), Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Crdoba city (Argentina) on Suqua river, Water research, 34 (11), 2915-2926. 27. Pham Minh Hanh (2009), Development of Water Quality Indices for Surface Water Quality Evaluation in Vietnam, Thesis for Ph.D.s Degree. 28. The Bay Institute Ecological Scorecard (2003), San Francisco Bay WQI, United States of America. 29. Wilkes University, Center for Environmental Quality Environmental Engineerring and Earth Sciences (2007), Calculating NSF Water Quality Index, United States of America (http://www.waterresearch.net/waterqualindex/index.htm). Website 30. www.rrbo.org.vn 31. www.monre.gov.vn 32. www.nea.gov.vn
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