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INDEX
1. Introduction to computer
Introduction to Computer Advantage of Computer

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2. Number System
Decimal Number System Hexadecimal Number System Binary Number System Octal Number System

3. History of computer
Calculating Machines Napiers Bones Slide Rule Pascal's Adding And Subtractory Machine Leibnizs Multiplication And Dividing Machine Modern Electronic Calculator

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4. Generation of computer

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5. Type of Computer

First Generation of computer Second Generation of Computer Third Generation of computer Fourth Generation of Computer Fifth Generation of Computer

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## 6. Input/ Output Device

Input Device Keyboard Mouse Scanner Trackball Joystick MICR OCR BCR Output Device PRINTER DMP Laser Printer

## Micro computer Mini Computer Mainframe Computer Super Computer

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7. Computer Organization
Function Unit Control Unit Storing Arithmetical Logic Unit

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## 8. Memory System in Computer

Primary Memory RAM ROM PROM

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EPROM EEPROM Secondary Memory Magnetic Tap HDD CD-ROM FDD

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9. Computer software
System Software Application Software What is Language What is Programming Machine Level Language Assembler High Level Language Compiler Interpreter

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## 10. Computer Networking Concept

Networking Concept LAN WAN MAN Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Mesh Topology

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## 11. Flow Chart

What Is Flow Chart ? Table Of Flowchart Symbols

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## 12. Internet concept

A Network Of Information Networks The World Wide Web Searching The Internet Search Engines Search Techniques Advanced Searching Field Searching Evaluating Information Found On The Internet Or World Wide Web Health Information On The Internet Managing Internet Resources

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
Let us begin with the word compute . It means to calculate. We all are familiar with calculations in our day to day life. We apply mathematical operations like addition, subtraction , multiplication , etc . and many other formulae for calculations . Simpler calculations take less time. But complex calculations take much longer time. Another factor is accuracy in calculations. So man explored with the idea to develop a machine which can perform this type of arithmetic calculation faster and with full accuracy. This gave birth to a device or machine called computer. The computer we see today is quite different from the one made in the beginning. The number of applications of a computer has increased, the speed and accuracy of calculation has increased. You must appreciate the impact of computers in our day to day life. Reservation of tickets in Air Lines and Railways, payment of telephone and electricity bills, deposits and withdrawals of money from banks, business data processing, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, etc. are some of the areas where computer has become extremely useful. However, there is one limitation of the computer. Human beings do calculations on their own. But computer is a dumb machine and it has to be given proper instructions to carry out its calculation. This is why we should know how a computer works.

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
Computer is a high electronic machine which is capable of performing the arithmetical and logical operation . A Computer is an electronic device which process raw data to give meaningful information.

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER
Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. These can be discussed under the headings of speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and memory

SPEED
As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. Suppose you are asked to calculate the average monthly income of one thousand persons in your neighborhood. For this you have to add income from all sources for all persons on a day to day basis and find out the average for each one of them. How long will it take for you to do this? One day, two days or one week? Do you know your small computer can finish this work in few seconds? The weather forecasting that you see every day on TV is the results of compilation and analysis of huge amount of data on temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. of various places on computers. It takes few minutes for the computer to process this huge amount of data and give the result. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nano-second (10-9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work.

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ACCURACY
Suppose some one calculates faster but commits a lot of errors in computing. Such result is useless. There is another aspect. Suppose you want to divide 15 by 7. You may work out up to 2 decimal places and say the dividend is 2.14. I may calculate up to 4 decimal places and say that the result is 2.1428. Some one else may go up to 9 decimal places and say the result is 2.142857143. Hence, in addition to speed, the computer should have accuracy or correctness in computing. The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data.

CAPACITY
The capacity of a Computer is very large. It can store a large amount of data.

DILIGENCE
A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.

VERSATILE
Computer can perform different type of job efficiently. They can work with different type of data and information such as graphics, visual, audio, video etc.

POWER OF REMEMBERING
Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.

No IQ
Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. NO FEELING It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.

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CHAPTER 2
NUMBER SYSTEMS
When humans are speaking to one another, they speak in a particular language. This language is made of words and letters. Although we type words and letters in the computer, the computer does not understand the words and letters. Rather, those words and letters are translated into numbers. Computers talk and understand in numbers. As a computer programmer or an IT professional, you need to understand the four most common number systems that are frequently used in computers. Those number systems are: Decimal Octal Hexadecimal Binary If you have an understanding of the number systems, you will understand the following topics in computer science: You will understand how to calculate network addresses You will understand how to read memory address locations in core dumps You will understand the color definitions in web and application programming You will understand many other concepts

## THE DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

The decimal number system is the system that is commonly known with people because it is most frequently used in arithmetic and in everyday life. The decimal number system is also known as the base-10 number system, because each position in the number represents an incremental number with a base of 10. For example, the first position (the furthest right) is represented as 100 . The second position (one from furthest right) is represented as 101 , and so forth. To determine what the actual number is in each position, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 10x, where x is the power representation. For example, if a number appears in the furthest right position, take the number in the furthest right position and multiply it by 100 . If there are multiple positions in the number (ex: 1374), add all the results together. Since the number system is represented in tens, there are only 10 numbers that can be a value in each position of the base-10 number. Each position can only contain a number between 0 and9. Lets take a look at an example of interpreting a base-10 number. An example number in the decimal system is 1374. We know this number as one thousand, three hundred and seventyfour. This is how to interpret the number

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The number 1374 is actually a representation of decimal positions. The first position atthe furthest right of the number represents 100 . The next position represents 101 . The next position represents 102 . As we move further left of the number, each power is incremented by 1. In order to determine what the number actually is in the position, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 10X , where x represents the power Add all the numbers together from each position to find out what the number is.

The hexadecimal number system is used as an intermediary system in computers, such as are presentation of memory addresses or a representation of colors. The hexadecimal number system is also known as the base-16 number system, because each position in the number represents an incremental number with a base of 16. For example, the first position (the furthest Bright) is represented as 160 The second position (one from furthest right) is represented as 161 ,and so forth. To determine what the actual number is in decimal representation, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 16x , where x

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7 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG is the power representation. For example, if a number appears in the furthest right position, take the number in the furthest right position and multiply it by 160 . If there are multiple positions in the number` (ex: 17AF), add all the results together Since the number system is represented in sixteen, there are only 10 numbers and 5 letters that can be a value in each position of the base-16 number. Below are the numbers that each position can hold:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Decimal Value
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lets take a look at an example of interpreting a base-16 number. An example number in the hexadecimal format is 17AF. This is how to interpret the number to a decimal format.

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The number 17AF is a hexadecimal number. The first position at the furthest right of the number represents 160 . The next position represents 161 . The next position represents162. As we move further left of the number, each power is incremented by 1 In order to determine what the number actually is in the position, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 16X , where x represents the power. Note that in the hexadecimal number system, letters A through F represent numbers 10 through 15, respectively. Add all the numbers together from each position to find out what the decimal number is.

## BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

The binary number system is the most basic number system that most machines (and electrical devices) use to communicate. The binary number system is also known as the base2 number system, because each position in the number represents an incremental number with a base of 2. For example, the first position (the furthest right) is represented as 20 The second position (one from furthest right) is represented as 21 , and so forth. To determine what the actual number is in each position, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 2x , where x is the power representation. For example, if a number appears in the furthest right position, take the number in the furthest right position and multiply it by 20 . If there are multiple positions in the number (ex: 10011), add all the results together

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Since the number system is represented in twos, there are only 2 numbers that can be a value in each position of the base-2 number. Each position can only contain a 0 or a1 Lets take a look at an example of interpreting a base-2 number. An example number in the decimal system is 100101. This is how to interpret the number in a decimal format:

The number 100101 is a binary number. The first position at the furthest right of the number represents 20 . The next position represents 21 . The next position represents 22 .As we move further left of the number, each power is incremented by 1 In order to determine what the number actually is in the position, take the number that appears in the position, and multiply it by 2 , where x represents the power. Note that in the binary number system, the only two numbers that can appear in each position is either 0 or 1 Add all the numbers together from each position to find out what the decimal number is.

## OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM

The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into

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groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010, which can be grouped into (00)1 001 010 so the octal representation is 112. In decimal systems each decimal place is a base of 10. For example:

## In octal numerals each place is a power with base 8. For example:

By performing the calculation above in the familiar decimal system we see why 112 in octal is equal to 64+8+2 = 74 in decimal.

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CHAPTER 3
HISTORY OF COMPUTER
History of computer could be traced back to the effort of man to count large numbers. This process of counting of large numbers generated various systems of numeration like Babylonian system of numeration, Greek system of numeration, Roman system of numeration and Indian system of numeration. Out of these the Indian system of numeration has been accepted universally. It is the basis of modern decimal system of numeration (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Later you will know how the computer solves all calculations based on decimal system. But you will be surprised to know that the computer does not understand the decimal system and uses binary system of numeration for processing. We will briefly discuss some of the path-breaking inventions in the field of computing devices.

CALCULATING MACHINES
It took over generations for early man to build mechanical devices for counting large numbers. The first calculating device called ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people. The word ABACUS means calculating board. It consisted of sticks in horizontal positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles.It has a number of horizontal bars each having ten beads. Horizontal bars represent units, tens, hundreds, etc.

NAPIERS BONES
English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A D. The device was known as Napiers bones.

SLIDE RULE
English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed the slide rule. This machine could perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was widely used in Europe in 16th century.

## PASCAL'S ADDING AND SUBTRACTORY MACHINE

You might have heard the name of Blaise Pascal. He developed a machine at the age of 19 that could add and subtract. The machine consisted of wheels, gears and cylinders.

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## LEIBNIZS MULTIPLICATION AND DIVIDING MACHINE

The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built around 1673 a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide.

## BABBAGES ANALYTICAL ENGINE

It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. It was called difference engine. Later he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine. You should know that Charles Babbage is called the father of computer.

## MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CALCULATOR

In the beginning of 19th century the mechanical calculator was developed to perform all sorts of mathematical calculations. Up to the 1960s it was widely used. Later the rotating part of mechanical calculator was replaced by electric motor. So it was called the electrical calculator.

## MODERN ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR

The electronic calculator used in 1960 s was run with electron tubes, which was quite bulky. Later it was replaced with transistors and as a result the size of calculators became too small. The modern electronic calculator can compute all kinds of mathematical computations and mathematical functions. It can also be used to store some data permanently. Some calculators have in-built programs to perform some complicated calculations.

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CHAPTER 4
GENERATION OF COMPUTER
You know that the evolution of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the form that we see today. The present day computer, however, has also undergone rapid change during the last fifty years. This period, during which the evolution of computer took place, can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers. Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of switching circuits used.

## FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTER:

Time - Period Technology Use Memory Capacity Language Important Computers 1951 to 1959

Vacuum Tube .
10,000 to 20,000 Character per second Machine code, low level language ENIAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC-1,

GENEARL REMARKS
Computer were very expensive. The operating speed was quite slow. Power consumption was very high. 150,000 watts of electricity 30x 50 feet long, weighed 30 tons Produce a large amount of heat. The programming capability was quite low. It required large space for installation.

## SECOND GENERATION OF COMPUTER

Time Period Technology used Memory capacity Speed up to language Important Computers 1959 to 1963 Transistor & diode 400,000 & 64000 character. 1 million instruction COBOL, FORTRAN IBM1620,IBM1401, CDC3600.

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GENERAL REMARKS
Computer are smaller in size and weight. Provide fast operation but coastally. They have no filament and require no heating. Manufacturing cost was also very low.

## THIRD GENERATION OF COMPUTER

Time Period Technology used Memory capacity Speed up to Language Code Important 1963 to 1975 IC ( Integrated circuit) 32000 to 4 million 10 million instructions per second. BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-75.

GENERAL REMARKS
Computer are smaller in size and faster in speed. Requires less power. Reduced computing casts, improved software support and software development method and tools.

## FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER

Time Period Technology used 1975 to today Microprocessor using very large scale Integration(VLSI)

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16 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG Memory capacity 512000 to 32 million instruction per second. Language All high level language. Important Computer CDC cycler 170, IBMPC, PC-XT, PC-AT, AT-380

GENERAL REMARKS
More powerful and versatile computer much faster, much smaller, less expensive, minicomputer and micro computer, come in the market.

## FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER

The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel processing. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. It is still in a developmental stage.

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CHAPTER 5
TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Now let us discuss the varieties of computers that we see today. Although they belong to the fifth generation they can be divided into different categories depending upon the size, efficiency, memory and number of users. Broadly they can be divided it to the following categories. 1. Microcomputer: Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. Its CPU is a microprocessor. The first microcomputers were built of 8-bit microprocessor chips. The most common application of personal computers (PC) is in this category. The PC supports a number of input and output devices. An improvement of 8-bit chip is 16-bit and 32-bit chips. Examples of microcomputer are IBM PC, PC-AT . 2. Mini Computer: This is designed to support more than one user at a time. It possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed. The mini computer is used in multi-user system in which various users can work at the same time. This type of computer is generally used for processing large volume of data in an organisation. They are also used as servers in Local Area Networks (LAN). 3. Mainframes: These types of computers are generally 32-bit microprocessors. They operate at very high speed, have very large storage capacity and can handle the work load of many users. They are generally used in centralised databases. They are also used as controlling nodes in Wide Area Networks (WAN). Example of mainframes are DEC, ICL and IBM 3000 series. 4. Supercomputer: They are the fastest and most expensive machines. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. They have also multiprocessing technique. One of the ways in which supercomputers are built is by interconnecting hundreds of microprocessors. Supercomputers are mainly being used for whether forecasting, biomedical research, remote sensing, aircraft design and other areas of science and technology. Examples of supercomputers are CRAY YMP, CRAY2, NEC SX-3, CRAY XMP and PARAM from India.

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CHAPTER 6
INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES
A computer is only useful when it is able to communicate with the external environment. When you work with the computer you feed your data and instructions through some devices to the computer. These devices are called Input devices. Similarly computer after processing, gives output through other devices called output devices. For a particular application one form of device is more desirable compared to others. We will discuss various types of I/O devices that are used for different types of applications. They are also known as peripheral devices because they surround the CPU and make a communication between computer and the outer world.

INPUT DEVICES
Input devices are necessary to convert our information or data in to a form which can be understood by the computer. A good input device should provide timely, accurate and useful data to the main memory of the computer for processing followings are the most useful input devices. 1. KEYBOARD: - This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The layout of keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the type QWERTY. It also contains some extra command keys and function keys. It contains a total of 101 to 104 keys.. You have to press correct combination of keys to input data. The computer can recognise the electrical signals corresponding to the correct key combination and processing is done accordingly. This key can be classified into following group. Numbering Key (0 to 9), Alphabetical Key (A to Z), Function Key ( F1 to F12) Special Character key, Arrow Key

FUNCTION KEY
It is used like a shortcut.

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## SPECIAL CHARACTER KEY ESC KEY

It is used to cancel the current action.

## CAPS LOCK KEY

It is used to write in capital letter. TAB KEY It is used to jumped to cursor. SHIFT KEY It is the computer working smaller letter this key is used to Capital letter but if the caps lock key is on. It is used in type is lower case. It is also used for type the upper case. CTRL AND ALT KEY This is supporting key.

SPACE BAR
It is used to give space in two world. ENTER KEY It is the must key of the keyboard. If you create a document. DELETE KEY It is used erase character from left to right.

BACK SPACE
It is used erase character from right to left.

INSERT KEY
It is used to overwriting on wrong character.

HOME KEY
It is jumped to cursor to the beginning of the line.

PAGE UP
It is used send cursor of page up.

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PAGE DOWN It is used send cursor to page down. PAUSE KEY This key is used to stop the running program for sometime. PRINT SCREEN It is used to copy the screen. MOUSE Mouse is an input device that is used with your personal computer. It rolls on a small ball and has two or three buttons on the top. When you roll the mouse across a flat surface the screen censors the mouse in the direction of mouse movement. The cursor moves very fast with mouse giving you more freedom to work in any direction. It is easier and faster to move through a mouse.

SCANNER
The keyboard can input only text through keys provided in it. If we want to input a picture the keyboard cannot do that. Scanner is an optical device that can input any graphical matter and display it back. The common optical scanner devices are Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR), Optical Mark Reader (OMR) and Optical Character Reader (OCR).

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TRACK BALL
A track ball is a pointing device and contains a ball which can rotate in any direction. The user spins the ball in different direction to move the cursor on the monitor.

LIGHT PEN A light pen is pointing device. It is used to select a displayed menu option on the monitor . It is a photosensitive pen like device.

JOYSTICK
A joystick is a pointing device. It is used to move the cursor position on a monitor screen.

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Bar Code Readers are special device used to read bar Coded Data. Bar Code Reader are used for just identification of item. which consits of a series of small link know as bar . the actual coding of the bars in the width of the bar, not the high, such as book postal package etc.

## MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR)

This is widely used by banks to process large volumes of cheques and drafts. Cheques are put inside the MICR. As they enter the reading unit the cheques pass through the magnetic field which causes the read head to recognise the character of the cheques.

OPTICAL MARK READER (OMR): This technique is used when students have appeared in objective type tests and they had to mark their answer by darkening a square or circular space by pencil. These answer sheets are directly fed to a computer for grading where OMR is used.

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## OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR)

This technique unites the direct reading of any printed character. Suppose you have a set of hand written characters on a piece of paper. You put it inside the scanner of the computer. This pattern is compared with a site of patterns stored inside the computer. Whichever pattern is matched is called a character read. Patterns that cannot be identified are rejected. OCRs are expensive though better the MICR.

OUTPUT DEVICES
VISUAL DISPLAY UNIT
The most popular input/output device is the Visual Display Unit (VDU). It is also called the monitor. A Keyboard is used to input data and Monitor is used to display the input data and to receive massages from the computer. A monitor has its own box which is separated from the main computer system and is connected to the computer by cable. In some systems it is compact with the system unit. It can be color or monochrome.

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TERMINALS
It is a very popular interactive input-output unit. It can be divided into two types: hard copy terminals and soft copy terminals. A hard copy terminal provides a printout on paper whereas soft copy terminals provide visual copy on monitor. A terminal when connected to a CPU sends instructions directly to the computer. Terminals are also classified as dumb terminals or intelligent terminals depending upon the work situation.

PRINTER
It is an important output device which can be used to get a printed copy of the processed text or result on paper. There are different types of printers that are designed for different types of applications. Depending on their speed and approach of printing, printers are classified as impact and non-impact printers. Impact printers use the familiar typewriter approach of hammering a typeface against the paper and inked ribbon. Dotmatrix printers are of this type. Non-impact printers do not hit or impact a ribbon to print. They use electro-static chemicals and ink-jet technologies. Laser printers and Ink-jet printers are of this type. This type of printers can produce color printing and elaborate graphics.

Dot-Matrix printers
Dot-matrix printer are characters printers that print one characters at a time they form characters and all kinds of images as patterns of data. A DMP has a print need that moves horizontally (left to right and right to left) across the paper print need contains an array of pins that can be activated independent of each other to extend and strike against and liked ribbon to form patterns of dots on the paper.

INKJET PRINTERS

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25 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG Ink jet printers are character printers that form character and all kind of images by spraying small drops of ink on the paper. Each droplet is charged when it passes through a value . Then it passes through horizontal and vertical deflecting plates . These plates deflect the ink drops to direct them to desired spots on the paper the speed of inkjet printers lies in the range of 40-300 characters per second .

LASER PRINTERS
Laser Printer are page printers that print the page at a time. This printer use laser or other light source to produce an image on a photosensitive drum. The computer control the laser beam to turn it on and off. An Image is produced following the rooster scan principle. The laser exposed areas attract toner thereafter the drum transfer the toner to the paper the paper than moves to a fusing station where the toner is permanent fused on the paper with the heat or pressure. After this the drum is ready for processing the next pages. Laser Printers are faster in printing speed than other printer. The range of 4 to 12 page for minute.

PLATTERS
This is special output device it is used to engineering design application like architecture plan of a building of mechanical component of an aircraft or a perfectly proportioned graphic output on large sheet.

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LINE PRINTERS
A Line Printer prints one line of text at a time. Its Printing speed lies in the range of 3003000 line per minute. It is used for larger volume printing jobs. It may be used minicomputer and main frame computer.

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CHAPTER 7
COMPUTER ORGANISATION
In the previous lesson we discussed about the evolution of computer. In this lesson we will provide you with an overview of the basic design of a computer. You will know how different parts of a computer are organized and how various operations are performed between different parts to do a specific task. As you know from the previous lesson the internal architecture of computer may differ from system to system, but the basic organization remains the same for all computer systems.

## BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS

A computer as performs basically five major operations or functions irrespective of their size and make. These are 1) it accepts data or instructions by way of input, 2) it stores data, 3) it can process data as required by the user, 4) it gives results in the form of output, and 5) it controls all operations inside a computer. We discuss below each of these operations.

1. INPUT
This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data. Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing.

## Fig. 2.1 Basic computer Operations

2. STORAGE
The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing.

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28 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG This storage unit or the primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. It provides space for storing data and instructions. The storage unit performs the following major functions: All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing. Intermediate results of processing are also stored here.

3.PROCESSING
The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit.

4.OUTPUT
This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form. Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing. 5.CONTROL The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed. Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations in side the computer.

FUNCTIONAL UNITS
In order to carry out the operations mentioned in the previous section the computer allocates the task between its various functional units. The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation. They are 1) arithmetic logical unit, 2) control unit, and 3) central processing unit.

## 1 ARITHMETIC LOGICAL UNIT (ALU)

After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored.

## 2 CONTROL UNIT (CU)

The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computers peripheral PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

29 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG equipment as they perform the input and output. Therefore it is the manager of all operations mentioned in the previous section.

## 3 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations. PERSONAL COMPUTER CONFIGURATION Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work. These are 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM) 3. Data bus 4. Ports 5. Motherboard 6. Hard disk 7. Output Devices 8. Input Devices All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work.

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CHAPTER 8
MEMORY SYSTEM IN A COMPUTER

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## CAPACITY OF PRIMARY MEMORY

You know that each cell of memory contains one character or 1 byte of data. So the capacity is defined in terms of byte or words. 1 or 1 4 bit 8 bit 1824 bytes 1024 K.B 1024 MB 1024 GB = = = = = = = 1 bit 1 Nibble 1 bytes 1 k.b (Kilo Byte) 1 MB (Mega Byte) 1 GB ( Giga Byte) 1 TB (Tera Byte)

## 1. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) because it is possible to randomly select and use any location of the memory directly store and retrieve data. It takes same time to any address of the memory as the first address. It is also called read/write memory. The storage of data and instructions inside the primary storage is temporary. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. The memories, which loose their content on failure of power supply, are known as volatile memories .So now we can say that RAM is volatile memory.

## 2. READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)

There is another memory in computer, which is called Read Only Memory (ROM). Again it is the ICs inside the PC that form the ROM. The storage of program and data in the ROM is permanent. The ROM stores some standard processing programs supplied by the manufacturers to operate the personal computer. The ROM can only be read by the CPU but it cannot be changed. The basic input/output program is stored in the ROM that examines and initializes various equipment attached to the PC when the switch is made ON. The memories, which do not loose their content on failure of power supply, are known as non-volatile memories. ROM is non-volatile memory.

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3. PROM There is another type of primary memory in computer, which is called Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). You know that it is not possible to modify or erase programs stored in ROM, but it is possible for you to store your program in PROM chip. Once the programmes are written it cannot be changed and remain intact even if power is switched off. Therefore programs or instructions written in PROM or ROM cannot be erased or changed.

4. EPROM
This stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, which over come the problem of PROM & ROM. EPROM chip can be programmed time and again by erasing the information stored earlier in it. Information stored in EPROM exposing the chip for some time ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed using a special programming facility. When the EPROM is in use information can only be read.

5. CACHE MEMORY:
The speed of CPU is extremely high compared to the access time of main memory. Therefore the performance of CPU decreases due to the slow speed of main memory. To decrease the mismatch in operating speed, a small memory chip is attached between CPU and Main memory whose access time is very close to the processing speed of CPU. It is called CACHE memory. CACHE memories are accessed much faster than conventional RAM. It is used to store programs or data currently being executed or temporary data frequently used by the CPU. So each memory makes main memory to be faster and larger than it really is. It is also very expensive to have bigger size of cache memory and its size is normally kept small.

6. REGISTERS:
The CPU processes data and instructions with high speed, there is also movement of data between various units of computer. It is necessary to transfer the processed data with high speed. So the computer uses a number of special memory units called registers. They are not part of the main memory but they store data or information temporarily and pass it on as directed by the control unit.

SECONDARY STORAGE
You are now clear that the operating speed of primary memory or main memory should be as fast as possible to cope up with the CPU speed. These high-speed storage devices are very expensive and hence the cost per bit of storage is also very high. Again the storage capacity of the main memory is also very limited. Often it is necessary to store hundreds of millions of bytes of data for the CPU to process. Therefore additional memory is required in all the computer systems. This memory is called auxiliary memory or secondary storage. In this type of memory the cost per bit of storage is low. However, the operating speed is slower than that of the primary storage. Huge volume of data are stored here on permanent basis and transferred to the primary storage as and when required. Most widely used secondary storage devices are magnetic tapes and magnetic disk.

1. MAGNETIC TAPE:
Magnetic tapes are used for large computers like mainframe computers where large volume of data is stored for a longer time. In PC also you can use tapes in the form of PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

33 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG cassettes. The cost of storing data in tapes is inexpensive. Tapes consist of magnetic materials that store data permanently. It can be 12.5 mm to 25 mm wide plastic film-type and 500 meter to 1200 meter long which is coated with magnetic material. The deck is connected to the central processor and information is fed into or read from the tape through the processor. It similar to cassette tape recorder.

. Compact: A 10-inch diameter reel of tape is 2400 feet long and is able to hold 800, 1600 or 6250 characters in each inch of its length. The maximum capacity of such tape is 180 million characters. Thus data are stored much more compactly on tape. Economical: The cost of storing characters is very less as compared to other storage devices. Fast: Copying of data is easier and fast. Long term Storage and Re-usability: Magnetic tapes can be used for long term storage and a tape can be used repeatedly with out loss of data.

. . . .

Magnetic Disk:
You might have seen the gramophone record, which is circular like a disk and coated with magnetic material. Magnetic disks used in computer are made on the same principle. It rotates with very high speed inside the computer drive. Data is stored on both the surface of the disk. Magnetic disks are most popular for direct access storage device. Each disk consists of a number of invisible concentric circles called tracks. Information is recorded on tracks of a disk surface in the form of tiny magnetic spots. The presence of a magnetic spot represents one bit and its absence represents zero bit. The information stored in a disk can be read many times without affecting the stored data. So the reading operation is non-destructive. But if you want to write a new data, then the existing data is erased from the disk and new data is recorded.

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. .

FLOPPY DISK
It is similar to magnetic disk discussed above. They are 5.25 inch or 3.5 inch in diameter. They come in single or double density and recorded on one or both surface of the diskette. The capacity of a 5.25-inch floppy is 1.2 mega bytes whereas for 3.5 inch floppy it is 1.44 mega bytes. It is cheaper than any other storage devices and is portable. The floppy is a low cost device particularly suitable for personal computer system.

OPTICAL DISK: With every new application and software there is greater demand for memory capacity. It is the necessity to store large volume of data that has led to the development of optical disk storage medium. Optical disks can be divided into the following categories:

## 1. COMPACT DISK/ READ ONLY MEMORY (CD-ROM):

CD-ROM disks are made of reflective metals. CD-ROM is written during the process of manufacturing by high power laser beam. Here the storage density is very high, storage cost is very low and access time is relatively fast. Each disk is approximately 4 1/2 inches in diameter and can hold over 600 MB of data. As the CD-ROM can be read only we cannot write or make changes into the data contained in it.

## 2.WRITE ONCE, READ MANY (WORM)

The inconvenience that we can not write any thing in to a CD-ROM is avoided in WORM. A WORM allows the user to write data permanently on to the disk. Once the data is written it can never be erased without physically damaging the disk. Here data can be recorded from PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

35 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG keyboard, video scanner, OCR equipment and other devices. The advantage of WORM is that it can store vast amount of data amounting to gigabytes (109 bytes). Any document in a WORM can be accessed very fast, say less than 30 seconds. 1. ERASABLE OPTICAL DISK: These are optical disks where data can be written, erased and re-written. This also applies a laser beam to write and re-write the data. These disks may be used as alternatives to traditional disks. Erasable optical disks are based on a technology known as magnetic optical (MO). To write a data bit on to the erasable optical disk the MO drive's laser beam heats a tiny, precisely defined point on the disk's surface and magnetises it.

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CHAPTER 9
WHAT IS SOFTWARE?
As you know computer cannot do anything without instructions from the user. In order to do any specific job you have to give a sequence of instructions to the computer. This set of instructions is called a computer program. Software refers to the set of computer programs, procedures that describe the programs, how they are to be used. We can say that it is the collection of programs, which increase the capabilities of the hardware. Software guides the computer at every step where to start and stop during a particular job. The process of software development is called programming. You should keep in mind that software and hardware are complementary to each other. Both have to work together to produce meaningful result. Another important point you should know that producing software is difficult and expensive.

SOFTWARE TYPES
Computer software is normally classified into two broad categories. Application Software System software

APPLICATION SOFTWARE:
Application Software is a set of programs to carry out operations for a specific application. For example, payroll is an application software for an organization to produce pay slips as an output. Application software is useful for word processing, billing system, accounting, producing statistical report, analysis of numerous data in research, weather forecasting, etc. In later modules you will learn about MS WORD, Lotus 1-2-3 and dBASE III Plus. All these are application software. Another example of application software is programming language. Among the programming languages COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is more suitable for business application whereas FORTRAN (Formula Translation) is useful for scientific application. We will discuss about languages in next section.

SYSTEM SOFTWARE:
You know that an instruction is a set of programs that has to be fed to the computer for operation of computer system as a whole. When you switch on the computer the programs written in ROM is executed which activates different units of your computer and makes it ready for you to work on it. This set of program can be called system software. Therefore system software may be defined as a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of computer system. System software are general programs designed for performing tasks such as controlling all operations required to move data into and out of the computer. It communicates with printers, card reader, disk, tapes etc. monitor the use of various hardware like memory, CPU etc. Also system software are essential for the development of applications software. System Software allows application packages to be run on the computer with less time and effort. Remember that it is not possible to run application software without system software.

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37 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG Development of system software is a complex task and it requires extensive knowledge of computer technology. Due to its complexity it is not developed in house. Computer manufactures build and supply this system software with the computer system. DOS, UNIX and WINDOWS are some of the widely used system software. Out of these UNIX is a multi-user operating system whereas DOS and WINDOWS are PC-based. We will discuss in detail about DOS and WINDOWS in the next module. So without system software it is impossible to operate your computer. relation between hardware, software and you as a user of computer system.

WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
You are aware with the term language. It is a system of communication between you and me. Some of the basic natural languages that we are familiar with are English, Hindi, Oriya etc. These are the languages used to communicate among various categories of persons. But how you will communicate with your computer. Your computer will not understand any of these natural languages for transfer of data and instruction. So there are programming languages specially developed so that you could pass your data and instructions to the computer to do specific job. You must have heard names like FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL etc. These are programming languages. So instructions or programs are written in a particular language based on the type of job. As an example, for scientific application FORTRAN and C languages are used. On the other hand COBOL is used for business applications.

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
There are two major types of programming languages. These are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language.

## LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES

The term low level means closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware and its configuration. It is not an easy language for you to learn because of its difficult to understand. It is efficient for the computer but very inefficient for programmers. It is considered to the first generation language. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language.

MACHINE LANGUAGE
Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. It does not needs any translator program. We also call it machine code and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0s (zero). When this sequence of codes is fed to the computer, it recognizes the codes and converts it in to electrical signals needed to run it. For example, a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101

The only advantage is that program of machine language run very fast because no translation program is required for the CPU.

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1. It is very difficult to program in machine language. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program. 2. The programmer has to remember a lot of codes to write a program which results in program errors. 3. It is difficult to debug the program.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
It is the first step to improve the programming structure. You should know that computer can handle numbers and letter. Therefore some combination of letters can be used to substitute for number of machine codes. The set of symbols and letters forms the Assembly Language and a translator program is required to translate the Assembly Language to machine language. This translator program is called `Assembler'. It is considered to be a second-generation language.

1. The symbolic programming of Assembly Language is easier to understand and saves a lot of time and effort of the programmer. 2. It is easier to correct errors and modify program instructions. 3. Assembly Language has the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. Because this is one-to-one translator between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program.

1. One of the major disadvantages is that assembly language is machine dependent. A program written for one computer might not run in other computers with different hardware configuration.

## HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES

You know that assembly language and machine level language require deep knowledge of computer hardware where as in higher language you have to know only the instructions in English words and logic of the problem irrespective of the type of computer you are using. Higher level languages are simple languages that use English and mathematical symbols like +, -, %, / etc. for its program construction. You should know that any higher level language has to be converted to machine language for the computer to understand. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. For example COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented language where there is very little processing and huge output. There are mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) where very large processing is required. Thus a problem oriented language designed in such a way that its instruction may be written more like the language of the problem. For example, businessmen use business term and scientists use scientific terms in their respective languages.

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## ADVANTAGES OF HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES

Higher level languages have a major advantage over machine and assembly languages that higher level languages are easy to learn and use. It is because that they are similar to the languages used by us in our day to day life.

COMPILER
It is a program translator that translates the instruction of a higher level language to machine language. It is called compiler because it compiles machine language instructions for every program instructions of higher level language. Thus compiler is a program translator like assembler but more sophisticated. It scans the entire program first and then translates it into machine code. The programs written by the programmer in higher level language is called source program. After this program is converted to machine languages by the compiler it is called object program. Higher Level Language --> (Compile) ---> Program --> Machine Language Program COMPILE A compiler can translate only those source programs, which have been written, in that language for which the compiler is meant for. For example FORTRAN compiler will not compile source code written in COBOL language. Object program generated by compiler is machine dependent. It means programs compiled for one type of machine will not run in another type. Therefore every type of machine must have its personal compiler for a particular language. Machine independence is achieved by using one higher level language in different machines.

INTERPRETER
An interpreter is another type of program translator used for translating higher level language into machine language. It takes one statement of higher level languages, translate it into machine language and immediately execute it. Translation and execution are carried out for each statement. It differs from compiler, which translate the entire source program into machine code and does involve in its execution. The advantage of interpreter compared to compiler is its fast response to changes in source program. It eliminates the need for a separate compilation after changes to each program. Interpreters are easy to write and do not require large memory in computer. The disadvantage of interpreter is that it is time consuming method because each time a statement in a program is executed then it is first translated. Thus compiled machine language program runs much faster than an interpreted program. In this lesson we discussed about two types of software, namely, system software and application software. System software controls the hardware part of the computer. It is designed for performing tasks such as controlling all operations required to move data into and out of the computer. It communicates with printer, card reader, disk, tapes, etc. and monitors the use of various components like memory, CPU, etc. DOS, UNIX and WINDOWS are three important system softwares. Application software is a set of programs written for specific purpose. Examples of application softwares are MS WORD, Lotus 1-2-3, COBOL, BASIC and FORTRAN. We have discussed about levels of computer language. 1. Both compiler and interpreter are program translators used for translating higher level language into machine language. While compiler scans the entire program first and then translates it into machine code, an Interpreter translates the program line by line. 2. FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) are some of the high level languages. PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

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CHAPTER 10
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NETWORKS
COMPUTER NETWORKS
Computer network connects two or more autonomous computers. The computers can be geographically located anywhere.

## LAN, MAN & WAN

Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network) Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network) APPLICATIONS OF NETWORKS Resource Sharing Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers) Software (application software) Information Sharing

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41 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG Easy accessibility from anywhere (files, databases) Search Capability (WWW) Communication Email Message broadcast Remote computing Distributed processing (GRID Computing)

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions.

BUS TOPOLOGY
Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable.

## STAR & TREE TOPOLOGY

The star topology is the most commonly used architecture in Ethernet LANs. PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

42 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG When installed, the star topology resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel. Larger networks use the extended star topology also called tree topology. When used with network devices that filter frames or packets, like bridges, switches, and routers, this topology significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets only to the wires of the destination host.

RING TOPOLOGY
A frame travels around the ring, stopping at each node. If a node wants to transmit data, it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame. The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node, which takes the data out of the frame. Single ring All the devices on the network share a single cable Dual ring The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions.

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CHAPTER 11
FLOW CHART
The following is a basic overview, with descriptions and meanings, of the most common flowchart symbols - also commonly called flow chart shapes, process flow diagram symbols or business process map symbols, depending upon what type of flow diagram you're creating. The table below lists the flowchart symbol drawing, the name of the flowchart symbol in Microsoft Office, and a short description of where and how the flowchart symbol is used.

TABLE OF FLOWCHART SYMBOLS Symbol Symbol (alias) Process Name Symbol Description Show a Process or action step. This is the most common symbol in both process flowcharts and business process maps. A Predefined Process symbol is a marker for another process step or series of process flow steps that are formally defined elsewhere. This shape commonly depicts sub-processes (or subroutines in programming flowcharts). If the sub-process is considered "known" but not actually defined in a process procedure, work instruction, or some other process flowchart or documentation, then it is best not to use this symbol since it implies a formally defined process. As the shape name suggests, this flowchart symbol is used when the process flow step is an alternate to the normal process step. Flow lines into an alternate process flow step are typically dashed. The Delay flowchart symbol depicts any waiting period that is part of a process. Delay shapes are common in process mapping. As the names states, any process step that is a Preparation process flow step, such as a setup operation. Manual Operations flowchart shapes show which process steps are not automated. In data processing flowcharts, this data flow shape indicates a looping operation along with a loop limit symbol (which is not supported by Microsoft Office, but a Manual Operation symbol rotated 180 will do the trick.)

## Predefined Process (Subroutine)

Alternate Process

Delay

Preparation

Manual Operation

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44 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION Flow Line (Arrow, Connector) Terminator (Terminal Point, Oval) Decision WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG Flow line connectors show the direction that the process flows Terminators show the start and stop points in a process. When used as a Start symbol, terminators depict a trigger action that sets the process flow into motion. Indicates a question or branch in the process flow. Typically, a Decision flowchart shape is used when there are 2 options (Yes/No, No/No-Go, etc.) Flowchart: In flowcharts, this symbol is typically small and is used as a Connector to show a jump from one point in the process flow to another. Connectors are usually labeled with capital letters (A, B, AA) to show matching jump points. They are handy for avoiding flow lines that cross other shapes and flow lines. They are also handy for jumping to and from a sub-processes defined in a separate area than the main flowchart. Process Mapping: In process maps, this symbol is full sized and shows an Inspection point in the process flow. [Just to confuse things further, some people will use a circle to indicate an operation and a square to indicate an inspection. That's why it's important to include a symbol key in the flowchart.] The Data flowchart shape indicates inputs to and outputs from a process. As such, the shape is more often referred to as an I/O shape than a Data shape.

Connector (Inspection)

Data (I/O)

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CHAPTER 12
INTERNET CONCEPTS
A NETWORK OF INFORMATION NETWORKS
The Internet is a world wide system of interconnected computer networks. The computers and computer networks exchange information using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to communicate with each other. The computers are connected via the telecommun ications networks, and the Internet can be used for e-mailing, transferring files and accessing information on the World Wide Web. Examples of information networks connected by the Internet include those of libraries, hospitals, research centres, government departments and universities. It is possible to connect to local organisations as well as those on national and international networks. For example the WHO Library is an international organization with an internet address http://www.who.int/library

DEVELOPMENT
The Internet was initially developed to allow computers to share scientific and military information and was known as ARPANET in the late 1960s. Further development was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the 1980s to develop internet communications to link several university computing departments. In 1989 Tim Berners-Lee and others working at CERN proposed a new communications protocol for information transfer. This technology was based on a hypertext system and lead to the development of the World Wide Web in the 1990s.

## THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The World Wide Web is a system of internet servers that use HTTP (Hypertext Transfer protocol) to transfer documents formatted in HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language). These are viewed by using software for web browsers such as Netscape and Internet Explorer. Hypertext enables a document to be connected to other documents on the web through hyperlinks. It is possible to move from one document to another by using hyperlinked text found within web pages.The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the global address of documents and other resources on the web e.g. http://www.who.int. The first part of the address indicates which protocol to use e.g. http. The second part of the address identifies the domain name or the internet address where the information is located. The address bar is the toolbar displayed at the top of the screen when you open the internet browser.

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EXERCISE 1
Connect to the Internet and open your internet browser. Type http://www.who.int/library/ into the address box in the toolbar at the top of the screen. Click on GO or hit the Return key. The home page of the WHO Library should open. Now type http://www.who.int into the address box. Click on GO or hit the Return key WHO website will open.

## NAVIGATING WEB PAGES

Most web pages contain links to further information or other web pages. Often these links are highlighted in a different colour and may be underlined. Links can also be displayed as pictures or graphics. You will notice that as you move the mouse cursor over a link the cursor changes to a hand shape. If you select the link by clicking on it you will be taken to a new web page. You can navigate backwards and forwards to web pages that you have visited by using the Back and Forward arrows on the toolbar. There may also be navigation buttons or links running across the top and down the left-hand side of the web page you have visited. The house icon on the shortcut toolbar will take you back to the default home page of the browser. PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

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EXERCISE 2
Connect to the Internet and open your internet browser. Now type http://www.who.int into the address box. Click on GO or hit the Return key WHO website will open. Click on the link to Research tools in the left- hand navigation bar. Click on one of the hyperlinks on the research tools page. A new page opens. Use the Back button on the browser toolbar to get back to WHO home page.

## SEARCHING THE INTERNET

The Internet contains a vast amount of information covering a wide variety of topics. It hosts library catalogues, articles, news items, reports, multimedia, reference information, company information and personal opinions. The information is created from many different sources including academic institutions, government agencies, professional organisations, commercial information and individuals. Some of the information found on the Internet may be organised in directories where the information has been designated to a particular category or file in a structured way. For example this may be in a general directory such as those on http://www.yahoo.com or it may be in a directory which covers a specific subject such as health.

SEARCH ENGINES
A search engine is a useful tool for locating information on the web. The search engine program identifies and visits web pages on the World Wide Web. It gathers information and automatically indexes the site. Any words found on the web pages visited by the search engine are stored in the search engine database. When you search the web for a topic the key words are matched to the information found on the web pages visited by the search engine. Examples of individual search engines can be found at http://www.google.com or http://sp.ask.com . Meta search engines use their own program and interface to search numerous search engine databases simultaneously. They can give you a broad idea of which search engines hold information on your subject. Examples of meta search engines can be found at http://www.metacrawler.com or http://www.dogpile.com There is also a part of the web which is not easily seen and indexed by search engines - this is the invisible or deep web. It may consist of databases and information from institutions such as universities and research organisations.

SEARCH TECHNIQUES
It is possible to search World Wide Web using simple search interfaces or to use more advanced features. Each search engine may have slightly different features so it is always a good idea to check which are appropriate to the one you are using. It is possible to use full Boolean searching using the AND, OR , NOT operators. The AND operator can be used to combine two concepts, to find items containing all your search terms, or to narrow the search down and make it more specific e.g. malaria AND parasite. The OR operator can be used to keep the search broad and find information containing one or other of your terms e.g. malaria OR parasite. If you only want to find items containing one term and not the other term use NOT to exclude these items e.g. parasite NOT malaria.

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The following advanced techniques may be used: Truncation- a symbol such as * or \$ is inserted to find all alternative endings of a word e.g. child* finds child, children, childhood etc. This can broaden the search. Proximity searching- it may be possible to use NEXT or NEAR or parentheses e.g. (malaria parasite) to increase the specificity of your search. Case sensitivity- some search engines are case sensitive and will only find items spelled exactly as you type them e.g. if you use uppercase any items in lower case spelling may be ignored.

FIELD SEARCHING
It is possible to search in specific fields such as looking for a title, date or URL in some search engines.

## EVALUATING INFORMATION FOUND ON THE INTERNET OR WORLD WIDE WEB

Whilst it is possible to retrieve useful information from searching the Internet it is also important to remember that anyone can write information and publish web pages. All information should be evaluated using criteria such as: Accuracy Authority Currency Coverage Objectivity A useful link to evaluating health information can be found http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/evaluatinghealthinformation.html

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## HEALTH INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET

There are numerous health information resources available on the Internet. There are health directories such as http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Medicine/ and searchable databases such as OMNI available at http://omni.ac.uk/ . Many governments make health information databases available as do international organisations such as WHO.

EXERCISE 3
Connect to the Internet and open your internet browser. Now type http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hinfo.html into the address box. Click on GO or hit the Return key The National Library of Medicine database on the health information website will open. There is a search box in the right hand corner. You can search the site using this.

EXERCISE 4
Connect to the Internet and open your internet browser. Now type http://highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl into the address box. Click on GO or hit the Return key The Highwire Press website with free journals will open. WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

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49 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.ORG You can access journals from the list. There are other journals freely available on the Internet.Try typing in http://www.freemedicaljournals.com . This site lists journals sites that make content freely available . Journals are listed by A-Z, speciality and anguage. If you go to http://www.biomedcentral.com you will access the BioMed Central website. BioMed Central is an open access publisher; published articles are freely available on the Internet as the author pays BioMed to publish them. The articles may be scrutinised to evaluate the information published. PubMed Central is a free archive of articles deposited in the PubMed repository and can be found at http://www.pubmedcentral.com . The Internet also hosts many publisher sites for which you have to subscribe or pay a fee in order to access published information. These include electronic journals, reference collections, databases and electronic text books.

## MANAGING INTERNET RESOURCES

If you find internet sites which are interesting and useful you can use the bookmark feature on the browser tool bar in Netscape or add them to your favorites in Internet Explorer. You can click on the tool bar button and you will be given an option to save the website hyperlink. You can give the website a name and this will be retained in a list for when you next visit the site. To revisit the site you then click on the favorite or bookmark and you will be taken directly to the site.

EXERCISE 5
Connect to the Internet and open your internet browser. Now type http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hinfo.html into the address box. Click on GO or hit the Return key The National Library of Medicine database on the health information website will open. Now click on Bookmark or Favorites and you will be prompted to name it and add it to your list. Do this. Close down the browser, then reopen it. Click on bookmark or favorites and select the link: The National Library of Medicine should open.

## FIND OUT MORE!

You have now reached the end of this workbook and should be ready to progress to the other modules.

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