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fractal

fractal geometry

In mathematics, the study of complex shapes with the property of self-similarity, known as fractals. Rather like holograms that store the entire image in each part of the image, any part of a fractal can be repeatedly magnified, with each magnification resembling all or part of the original fractal. This phenomenon can be seen in objects like snowflakes and tree bark. The term fractal was coined by Benoit B. Mandelbrot in 1975. This new system of geometry has had a significant impact on such diverse fields as physical chemistry, physiology, and fluid mechanics; fractals can describe irregularly shaped objects or spatially nonuniform phenomena that cannot be described by Euclidean geometry. Fractal simulations have been used to plot the distributions of galactic clusters and to generate lifelike images of complicated, irregular natural objects, including rugged terrains and foliage used in films. See also chaos theory.. McGraw-Hill Science & Technology Encyclopedia:

Fractals

Top Home > Library > Science > Sci-Tech Encyclopedia Geometrical objects that are self-similar under a change of scale, for example, magnification. The concept is helpful in many disciplines to allow order to be perceived in apparent disorder. For instance, in the case of a river and its tributaries, every tributary has its own tributaries so that it has the same structure organization as the entire river except that it covers a smaller area. The branching of trees and their roots as well as that of blood vessels, nerves, and bronchioles in the human body follows the same pattern. Other examples include a landscape with peaks and valleys of all sizes, a coastline with its multitude of inlets and peninsulas, the mass distribution within a galaxy, the distribution of galaxies in the universe, and the structure of vortices in a turbulent flow. The rise and fall of economic indices has a self-similar structure when plotted as a function of time. See also Galaxy, external; Turbulent flow; Universe. The triadic Koch curve, shown in the illustration, is a good example of how a fractal may be constructed. The procedure begins with a straight segment. This segment is divided into three equal parts, and the (single) central piece is replaced by two similar pieces (illus. a). The same procedure is now applied to each of the four new segments (illus. b), and this is repeated an

Koch curve. When the fractals are reconstructed. Stemming from "fractus. rivers. self-similar. natural fractal objects are usually self-similar under arbitrary magnification. fractals are especially suited to natural objects. TechEncyclopedia: fractals Top Home > Library > Technology > Computer Encyclopedia With regard to computer graphics." Download Computer Desktop Encyclopedia to your PC. Providing ratios of 100:1 or greater. because a magnification by 3 of any portion will look the same as the original curve. See also Amorphous solid. and repeating patterns-. fractals are a lossy compression method used for color images. Physicists have used the concept of fractals to study the properties of amorphous solids and rough interfaces and the dynamics of turbulence. and trees. Computer graphics. They are self-similar in a statistical sense. a suitable magnification of a part of one sample can be matched closely with some member of the ensemble. . It has also been found useful in physiology to analyze the heart rhythm and to model blood circulation.infinite number of times. mountains. and us. Mandelbrot determined that there are repeating patterns in the architecture of nature. the term fractals was coined by IBM Fellow and doctor of mathematics Benoit Mandelbrot. As Gregg Braden put it in his extraordinary book "Fractal Time. iPhone or Android. such as trees. (a) first and (b) second stages. Cardiovascular system. a close approximation of the original scene is reproduced." which is Latin for broken or fragmented. given a sufficiently large number of samples.fractals --to build energy and atoms into the familiar forms of everything from roots. and in ecology to understand population dynamics. Fractals came into natural sciences when it was recognized that natural objects are random versions of mathematical fractals. Unlike the Koch curve which must be magnified by an integral power of 3 to achieve self-similarity." which deals with patterns and predictions leading to the present era: "Nature uses a few simple. who expanded on ideas from earlier mathematicians and discovered similarities in chaotic and random events and shapes. The Secret of 2012 and a New World Age. that is. clouds and rivers. to rocks. Fractals turn an image into a set of data and an algorithm for expanding it back to the original. In computer graphics it has been shown that the vast amount of information contained in a natural scene can be compressed very effectively by identifying the basic set of fractals therein together with their rules of construction. The curve is self-similar.

The concept of fractals has been used in the study of atmospheric and oceanic turbulence. Beginning in 1961. which is concerned with regular shapes and whole-number dimensions. and time series. In geography. e. Unlike conventional geometry. H.2 and conelike mountains with a fractal dimension between 2 and 3. he published a series of studies on fluctuations of the stock market.. Fractal geometry has been applied to such diverse fields as the stock market. J. particle forms. dimensionslinelike rivers with a fractal dimension of about 1. and computer graphics. By 1975 Mandelbrot had developed a theory of fractals that became a serious subject for mathematical study. Jurgens. Columbia Encyclopedia: fractal geometry Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Columbia Encyclopedia fractal geometry. B. Saupe. a property called self-similarity or self-symmetry. or statistical pseudo-fractal may be more precise.Oxford Dictionary of Geography: fractal Top Home > Library > Science > Geographical Dictionary In mathematics. Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (1990). Science Q&A: What are fractals? Top . and the sets studied are fuzzy. meteorology. geological features. such as ‗middle income‘ or ‗extreme climate‘. so that the terms prefractal. such as lines (one-dimensional) and cones (three-dimensional). twigs and tree branches. and D. or fractal. Falconer. K. branch of mathematics concerned with irregular patterns made of parts that are in some way similar to the whole.-O. Mandelbrot. a geometric form indefinitely recurring at every scale. The Fractal Geometry of Nature (1983). remote sensing. Peitgen. chemical industry. Fractal geometry developed from Benoit Mandelbrot's study of complexity and chaos (see chaos theory).g. fractal geometry deals with shapes found in nature that have non-integer. the distribution of galaxies in the universe. the turbulent motion of fluids. that is. this term has been used over a broad range of scales to include inexact repetition. defined by generalized terms. Bibliography See B. Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (1992). H. and on irregular shorelines on the English coast.

Investopedia Says: Fractal signals are most useful when used in conjunction with other technical indicators. 2. But various third parties have developed various plug-ins which make using fractals possible. Scientists also use fractals to better comprehend rainfall trends. Fractals are also used to create computer-generated art. Previous question: How is the rule of 70 used? Next question: How is percent of increase calculated? Investopedia Financial Dictionary: Fractal Top Home > Library > Business & Finance > Investment Dictionary A type of pattern used in technical analysis to predict a reversal in the current trend. Retracement Or Reversal: Know The Difference Take advantage of short-term price moves by pinpointing reversals. that is. Related Links: This reversal pattern can make sense of the seeming randomness of market movements and improve your trading. but that often have some degree of self-similarity.Home > Library > Science > Science Q&A A fractal is a set of points that is too irregular to be described by traditional geometric terms. A shift from an uptrend to a downtrend occurs when the highest bar is located in the middle of the pattern and two bars with successively lower highs are positioned around it. and the distribution of vegetation. such as Fibonacci retracement or various moving averages. they are made of parts that resemble the whole. A shift from a downtrend to an uptrend occurs when the lowest bar is located in the middle of the pattern and two bars with successively higher lows are positioned around it. A Trader's Guide To Using Fractals Learn to distinguish between a temporary price change and a long-term trend. Candlesticks And Oscillators For Successful Swing Trades . It should be noted that this is not a widely used indicator. so it may not be available for every type of charting application. A fractal pattern consists of five bars and is identified when the price meets the following characteristics: 1. patterns formed by clouds and waves. They are used in image processing to compress data and to depict apparently chaotic objects in nature such as mountains or coastlines.

or under a magnifying glass." Wikipedia on Answers.fractal: geometrical structure that has regular or uneven shape repeated over all scales of measurement and a dimension that is greater than the spatial dimension of the structure Rhymes: fractal Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Rhymes See words rhyming with "fractal. such that certain phenomena behave as if the structure’s dimensions are greater than they are in space General Technology . which looks roughly the same whether viewed from a satellite or an airplane. A standard example is a seacoast. and they are widely used to produce images in television and movies. see: Geometric Shapes and Mathematically Defined Forms .com: . on foot.‖ This is a term used by mathematicians to describe certain geometrical structures whose shape appears to be the same regardless of the level of magnification used to view them.fractal: geometrical structure having irregular or fragmented shape at all scales. Many natural shapes approximate fractals.Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: Science: fractal Top Home > Library > Science > Science Dictionary (FRAK-tuhl) Contraction of ―fractional dimension. Random House Word Menu: categories related to 'fractal' Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Word Menu Categories For a list of words related to fractal.

each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole. and technical analysis. (Audio help) More spoken articles A fractal has been defined as "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts. however. which are defined as portraying exact self-similarity. Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of Fractal dated 2005-06-16. quasi self-similarity. a form of feedback based on recursion. Contents 1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Examples .Fractal Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia The Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal." A mathematical fractal is based on an equation that undergoes iteration. they are found in nature."[1] a property called self-similarity. which has led to their inclusion in artwork. or statistical self-similarity. Georg Cantor and Felix Hausdorff a century later in studying functions that were continuous but not differentiable. while mathematically rigorous treatment of fractals can be traced back to functions studied by Karl Weierstrass. the term fractal was coined by Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975 and was derived from the Latin frāctus meaning "broken" or "fractured. While fractals are a mathematical construct. seismology. They are useful in medicine. and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.[2] There are several examples of fractals. soil mechanics. Roots of the idea of fractals go back to the 17th century.

. fractals are often considered to be infinitely complex (in informal terms). for instance. it is regular enough to be described in Euclidean terms. lightning bolts. coastlines. It has a Hausdorff dimension which is greater than its topological dimension (although this requirement is not met by space-filling curves such as the Hilbert curve). not all selfsimilar objects are fractals—for example. It is too irregular to be easily described in traditional Euclidean geometric language. It is self-similar (at least approximately or stochastically). A fractal often has the following features:[3] It has a fine structure at arbitrarily small scales. mountain ranges. However. the real line (a straight Euclidean line) is formally selfsimilar but fails to have other fractal characteristics. Because they appear similar at all levels of magnification. and animal coloration patterns.[4] It has a simple and recursive definition. various vegetables (cauliflower and broccoli). snow flakes. Natural objects that are approximated by fractals to a degree include clouds. 4 Generation 5 Fractal-generating programs 6 Classification 7 In nature 8 In creative works 9 Applications 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Characteristics Frost crystals formed naturally on cold glass illustrate fractal process development in a purely physical system.

In 1904. which begins with an equilateral triangle and then replaces the middle third of every line segment with a pair of line segments that form an equilateral "bump" The mathematics behind fractals began to take shape in the 17th century when the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz considered recursive self-similarity (although he made the mistake of thinking that only the straight line was self-similar in this sense). It was not until 1872 that a function appeared whose graph would today be considered fractal.[6] which built on earlier work by Lewis Fry Richardson. one year later. such as when it is possible to zoom into a region of the fractal that does not exhibit any fractal properties. however. The idea of self-similar curves was taken further by Paul Pierre Lévy. Finally. Pierre Fatou and Gaston Julia. Benoît Mandelbrot started investigating self-similarity in papers such as How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension. History A Koch snowflake. Helge von Koch. these may include calculation or display artifacts which are not characteristics of true fractals. when Karl Weierstrass gave an example of a function with the non-intuitive property of being everywhere continuous but nowhere differentiable. Without the aid of modern computer graphics. Georg Cantor also gave examples of subsets of the real line with unusual properties—these Cantor sets are also now recognized as fractals. the Lévy C curve. In the 1960s. who. Images produced by such software are normally referred to as being fractals even if they do not have the above characteristics.Images of fractals can be created using fractal-generating software. Also. which is now called the Koch curve. dissatisfied with Weierstrass's abstract and analytic definition. gave a more geometric definition of a similar function. Felix Klein. in 1975 Mandelbrot coined the word "fractal" to .[5] Wacław Sierpiński constructed his triangle in 1915 and. Iterated functions in the complex plane were investigated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Henri Poincaré. his carpet. in his 1938 paper Plane or Space Curves and Surfaces Consisting of Parts Similar to the Whole described a new fractal curve. they lacked the means to visualize the beauty of many of the objects that they had discovered.

leading to the popular meaning of the term "fractal". These images captured the popular imagination. Objects in the phase space of a dynamical system can be fractals (see attractor). many of them were based on recursion.denote an object whose Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension is greater than its topological dimension. so it has a Hausdorff dimension equal to its topological dimension of 2—but what is truly surprising is that the boundary of the Mandelbrot set also has a Hausdorff dimension of 2 (while the topological dimension of 1). Sierpinski triangle and carpet. This set contains whole discs. An interesting example is the Mandelbrot set. Chaotic dynamical systems are sometimes associated with fractals. Generation The whole Mandelbrot set . a fractal related to the Mandelbrot set Examples A class of examples is given by the Cantor sets. dragon curve. non-deterministic). A closely related fractal is the Julia set. the trajectories of the Brownian motion in the plane have a Hausdorff dimension of 2. Additional examples of fractals include the Lyapunov fractal and the limit sets of Kleinian groups. a result proved by Mitsuhiro Shishikura in 1991. He illustrated this mathematical definition with striking computer-constructed visualizations. Objects in the parameter space for a family of systems may be fractal as well.[7] A Julia set. Menger sponge. Fractals can be deterministic (all the above) or stochastic (that is. and Koch curve. space-filling curve. For example.

Peano curve. Five common techniques for generating fractals are: Escape-time fractals – (also known as "orbits" fractals) These are defined by a formula or recurrence relation at each point in a space (such as the complex plane).Mandelbrot zoomed 6x Mandelbrot zoomed 100x Even 2000 times magnification of the Mandelbrot set uncovers fine detail resembling the full set. self avoiding walks. for example. fractal landscapes and the Brownian tree. L-systems . the Burning Ship fractal. Sierpinski gasket. The latter yields so-called mass. Harter-Heighway dragon curve. Examples of this type are the Mandelbrot set. Lévy flight. Strange attractors – Generated by iteration of a map or the solution of a system of initial-value differential equations that exhibit chaos. the Nova fractal and the Lyapunov fractal. Fractal-generating programs . Sierpinski carpet.or dendritic fractals. trajectories of the Brownian motion. Iterated function systems – These have a fixed geometric replacement rule.These are generated by string rewriting and are designed to model the branching patterns of plants. Random fractals – Generated by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. for example. The 2d vector fields that are generated by one or two iterations of escape-time formulae also give rise to a fractal form when points (or pixel data) are passed through this field repeatedly. diffusion-limited aggregation or reaction-limited aggregation clusters. Koch snowflake. percolation clusters. Menger sponge. Julia set. are some examples of such fractals. T-Square. Cantor set.

Most reasonable definitions of "fractal" trivially imply some form of statistical self-similarity.open source software for Microsoft Windows based systems Electric Sheep . For example.A cross platform open source realtime fractal zooming program Most of the above programs make two-dimensional fractals. as the satellites are approximations of the entire set.) Random fractals are examples of fractals which are statistically self-similar.freeware with available source code Sterling .A proprietary fractal generator for Microsoft Windows based systems XaoS . but not exact copies. called mandelbulbs.Freeware software for Microsoft Windows based systems SpangFract . The Mandelbrot set is quasi-self-similar. the fractal appears identical at different scales. which do contain copies of themselves at increasingly small scales. In nature . one cannot expect to find microscopic Britains (even distorted ones) by looking at a small section of the coast with a magnifying glass. Fractals defined by iterated function systems often display exact self-similarity.open source distributed computing software Fractint . the fractal has numerical or statistical measures which are preserved across scales. Quasi-self-similarity – This is a looser form of self-similarity. A specific type of three-dimensional fractal. There are three types of selfsimilarity found in fractals: Exact self-similarity – This is the strongest type of self-similarity. Statistical self-similarity – This is the weakest type of self-similarity. Some of the fractal generating programs include: Apophysis . was introduced in 2009. Quasi-self-similar fractals contain small copies of the entire fractal in distorted and degenerate forms. both free and commercial. Classification Fractals can also be classified according to their self-similarity. Possessing self-similarity is not the sole criterion for an object to be termed a fractal. (Fractal dimension itself is a numerical measure which is preserved across scales. since they have the same Hausdorff dimension as topological dimension. Examples of self-similar objects that are not fractals include the logarithmic spiral and straight lines. the fractal appears approximately (but not exactly) identical at different scales. Fractals defined by recurrence relations are usually quasi-self-similar. The coastline of Britain is another example.There are many fractal generating programs available. the Sierpinski triangle and Koch snowflake exhibit exact self-similarity.For Mac OS Ultra Fractal . such as a Quaternion. with a few creating threedimensional fractal objects. These do not qualify.

cauliflower or broccoli.A fractal that models the surface of a mountain (animation) Approximate fractals are easily found in nature. Examples include clouds. Even coastlines may be loosely considered fractal in nature.[14] A fractal flame . Trees and ferns are fractal in nature and can be modeled on a computer by using a recursive algorithm. river networks. certain self similar fractal shapes were shown to have a property of "frequency invariance"—the same electromagnetic properties no matter what the frequency—from Maxwell's equations (see fractal antenna). The connection between fractals and leaves is currently being used to determine how much carbon is contained in trees. and systems of blood vessels and pulmonary vessels. scale range. craters.[13] In 1999.[10] lightning. This recursive nature is obvious in these examples—a branch from a tree or a frond from a fern is a miniature replica of the whole: not identical.[9] crystals.[8] snow flakes.[11] DNA and heartbeat[12] can be analyzed as fractals. fault lines. but similar in nature. mountain ranges. but finite. and ocean waves. These objects display self-similar structure over an extended.

Cyberneticist Ron Eglash has suggested that fractal-like structures are prevalent in African art and architecture.[17][18] In a 1996 interview with Michael Silverblatt. sculpture. David Foster Wallace admitted that the structure of the first draft of Infinite Jest he gave to his editor Michael Pietsch was inspired by fractals. and so on. . computer analysis has found fractal patterns in his work.[15] Decalcomania.A fractal is formed when pulling apart two glue-covered acrylic sheets. Circular houses appear in circles of circles. High voltage breakdown within a 4″ block of acrylic creates a fractal Lichtenberg figure In creative works Further information: Fractal art Fractal patterns have been found in the paintings of American artist Jackson Pollock. Such scaling patterns can also be found in African textiles.[16] It involves pressing paint between two surfaces and pulling them apart. While Pollock's paintings appear to be composed of chaotic dripping and splattering. and even cornrow hairstyles. can produce fractal-like patterns. a technique used by artists such as Max Ernst. rectangular houses in rectangles of rectangles.

random fractals have been used to describe/create many highly irregular real-world objects.specifically the Sierpinski triangle (aka Sierpinski gasket) but that the edited novel is "more like a lopsided Sierpinsky Gasket". Other applications of fractals include:[20] Classification of histopathology slides in medicine Fractal landscape or Coastline complexity Enzyme/enzymology (Michaelis-Menten kinetics) Generation of new music Signal and image compression Creation of digital photographic enlargements Seismology Fractal in soil mechanics Computer and video game design. especially computer graphics for organic environments and as part of procedural generation Fractography and fracture mechanics Fractal antennas – Small size antennas using fractal shapes Small angle scattering theory of fractally rough systems T-shirts and other fashion Generation of patterns for camouflage. such as MARPAT Digital sundial Technical analysis of price series (see Elliott wave principle) Fractals in networks See also Banach fixed point theorem Bifurcation theory Butterfly effect Complexity Constructal theory Cymatics Diamond-square algorithm Droste effect Feigenbaum function Fractal compression Fractal cosmology Fractal networks Fractint Fracton Golden ratio Graftal Greeble Lacunarity List of fractals by Hausdorff dimension Publications in fractal geometry Mandelbulb Multifractal system Newton fractal Percolation Power law Random walk Sacred geometry Self avoiding walk Self-reference Strange loop Turbulence .[19] Applications Main article: Fractal analysis As described above.

Ltd. The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension. however. Peng and H. pp. Springer. "Fractals . pp. p. Mikhael Gromov. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Retrieved 2010-10-17. Mandelbrot 17. Goldberger. 13. 7. Progress in wavelet analysis and applications: proceedings of the International Conference "Wavelets and Applications. Retrieved 2010-10-17. ISBN 9781402757969. V.B. Springer. Kenneth (2003). B. ISBN 0-7167-1186-9. Inc. E. Stanley (1995). ^ Didier Sornette (2004). ISBN 9783540407546. Russ (1994). Volume 1..au. 44– 46.unsw. 1. fractals. "Self-similarity and the geometric requirements for frequency independence in Antennae". p. Retrieved 2011-02-05. p. p.. The topological dimension and Hausdorff dimension of the image of the Hilbert map in R2 are both 2. ISBN 9789810237929. ISBN 0500276935. Pickover (2009).''". p. 1992. 16. selforganization. xxv. ^ Clifford A. 2." Nova. ^ Alessandra Carbone. ISBN 0-470-84862-6. 3. ^ John C. 10. ^ Briggs. 148. Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz (2000). PBS. 6. 8. chapter 3 in A. Critical phenomena in natural sciences: chaos. Havlin Eds.. ^ Hohlfeld R. Buldyrev. 78. 25. (1982). Fractals:The Patterns of Chaos. . Springer. Retrieved 2011-02-05.Geometry Between Dimensions". 310. ISBN 9780750304009. Fractals in Science. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press 1999. S. doi:10. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-05. ^ Michael Batty (1985-04-04). Atlantica Séguier Frontières. Retrieved 2011-02-05. that the topological dimension of the graph of the Hilbert map (a set in R3) is 1. Fractals 7 (1): 79–84. France . CRC Press. Bunde and S. so it does not preserve topological dimension. Freeman and Company." Toulouse. Note. Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications. A. C. John Wiley & Sons. 12. Addison (1997). Adam P. L. 250 Milestones in the History of Mathematics. ISBN 9780306447020. ISBN 9782863321300. Havlin. 128–140. ''Fractal Expressionism : Can Science Be Used To Further Our Understanding Of Art?''". ^ Paul S.1142/S0218348X99000098.June 1992. New Scientist (Holborn Publishing Group) 105 (1450): 31. ''African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Fractal surfaces. WPMB-Maryland. ^ Mandelbrot. ^ A Panorama of Fractals and Their Uses by Michael Frame and Benoît B. ^ "Hunting the Hidden Dimension. and disorder : concepts and tools. ^ "Ron Eglash. ^ "Richard Taylor.References Notes 1. ^ The Hilbert curve map is not a homeomorhpism. Phys. World Scientific.H. vision and dynamics. 5. John (1992). K. 0500276935. ^ S. W. Pattern formation in biology. Cohen N (1999). 9. 14. Fractals and chaos: an illustrated course.. Micolich and David Jonas. 15.edu. London : Thames and Hudson. ^ Yves Meyer and Sylvie Roques (1993). ^ Falconer. Sterling Publishing Company. Rpi. 4. 11.edu.

New York: Springer-Verlag. ^ "David Foster Wallace . Retrieved 2010-10-17. Gouyet. Corte Madera. Fractals and Disordered Systems. Princeton NJ. Havlin (1996). cloth. San Francisco Chronicle. Peter Van Roy. D. Pickover. ISBN 0-691-02445-6 paperback. Mandelbrot The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Jean-François.fr. Chaos and Time-Series Analysis.. Julien Clinton (2003). Retrieved 2010-10-17. 1998. Addison Wesley. Havlin (2000). Techniques in Fractal Geometry. Hans Lauwerier. ISBN 0-387-96608-0 Clifford A.com. S. 1991. Heins-Otto Peitgen. 2009. Oxford University Press. Out-of-print. Springer. 1996. A. 1993. ISBN 9780-387-94153-0. Heinz-Otto. and Hawley Rising. and Dietmar Saupe.18. New York: Springer-Verlag. 19." ISBN 1-904555-05-5 (The book comes with a related DVD of the Arthur C. Springer. Fractals in Science. Bunde. ed. Translated by Sophia Gill-Hoffstadt. . Havlin (1995). and Eric Kampman Exploring Fractals on the Macintosh. Further reading Barnsley.. Elsevier. Ben-Avraham and S. and Dietmar Saupe. A. Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science. Kenneth. Kcrw. New York: W.A 10 Year Compilation of Advanced Research. ISBN 0-471-92287-0 Jürgens. ISBN 0-387-97903-4 Benoît B. The Science of Fractal Images. Freeman and Co. eds. "This book has been written for a wide audience. Princeton University Press. February 23. Bryn. Hartmut. ISBN 0-19-850839-5 and ISBN 978-0-19-850839-7. The Power and the Sense of Fractals. ISBN 0-444-50002-2 Jesse Jones. "The Colours of Infinity: The Beauty. Fractals for the Macintosh. ISBN 2-225-85130-1. Diffusion and Reactions in Fractals and Disordered Systems."Physics and Fractal Structures" (in (French)).. Michael F. Boston: Academic Press Professional. Available in PDF version at. ^ Nelson. ISBN 0-12-079061-0 Falconer. Chaos and Fractals: A Computer Graphical Journey . Bernt Wahl. small scale.Bookworm on KCRW". Cambridge University Press. 1996. ISBN 1-878739-46-8. Michael Larsen. Mandelbrot). 1982. Retrieved 2007-10-21. Jfgouyet. 1988. S. CA. Physics and Fractal Structures (Foreword by B. H. Masson. 1993. Bunde. Sophisticated Mathematics Behind African Village Designs Fractal patterns use repetition on large. Fractals Everywhere. 1995. Clarke documentary introduction to the fractal concept and the Mandelbrot set. 1997.. 1992. ^ "Applications". ISBN 0-201-62630-6 Nigel Lesmoir-Gordon. Fractals: Endlessly Repeated Geometrical Figures. 20. ISBN 0-69108551-X. and New York: Springer-Verlag. John Wiley and Sons." Includes sample BASIC programs in an appendix. Waite Group Press. ISBN 0-7167-1186-9 Peitgen. Wednesday. Sprott.

It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer) Donate to Wikimedia Translations: Fractal Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Translations Dansk (Danish) n.) Fraktal adj. the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Bar-Ilan University Hunting the Hidden Dimension. .υράκταλ. 2011 This entry is from Wikipedia.) adj. .ακανόνιστος Italiano (Italian) frattale Português (Portuguese) n. PBS NOVA. betreffende een fractal Français (French) n. .fractal . Phys) fractal adj.fraktal adj. . .(Math.) fraktal Ελληνική (Greek) n.(Math.(Math.fractal (m) (Mat. . first aired August 24.fraktal Nederlands (Dutch) fractal (zich herhalende kromme/vorm). . Phys) fractal Deutsch (German) n. .External links Fractals at the Open Directory Project Scaling and Fractals presented by Shlomo Havlin. . . επαναλαμβανόμενο ακανόνιστο σχήμα adj.(Math.

Русский (Russian) фрактал. . .של פראקטל If you are unable to view some languages clearly. To select your translation preferences click here. 不规则碎片形的 中文（繁體）(Chinese (Traditional)) n. .차원 분열 도형의 日本語 (Japanese) n.fraktal 中文（简体）(Chinese (Simplified)) 不规则碎片形.) adj. click here.) פרקטל (בגיאומטריה. . . Best of the Web: . .relacionado con fracción Svenska (Swedish) n. дробная размерность Español (Spanish) n. צורה שלמה או צורה הנדסית שלכל חלקיה. . . . .不規則碎片形的 한국어 (Korean) n.fraktal (mat. .次元分裂図形 ( ال عرب يوArabic) (يو ال ص فات ن فس جزء ل كل م نح ني أً ىند سي ش كل )اال سم األشكا ب يذه ي ت ع لق ما ) ص فو( ال ك لي ل ل ش كل األح صائ ( עבריתHebrew) n.צורה זהת חלקים יש אותו מאפיין סטטיסטי כמו לשלם adj.不規則碎片形 adj.curva o figura geométrica cuyas fracciones se asemejan al todo adj.차원 분열 도형 adj.

Help us answer these: Are raindrops fractals? How were fractals created? What are fractal usesd for? Post a question .wolfram.fractal Top Some good "fractal" pages on the web: Math mathworld. Where can you find a Fractal? Read answer..com Related topics: fracton (physics) crossover length (mathematics) scaling symmetry (mathematics) Related answers: What is an antonym for fractals? Read answer... What are fractal lines? Read answer..to the WikiAnswers community: .any question ...

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fractal and soliton

fractal and soliton

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