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Motors

Application of Induction Motors with Variable Frequency Drives


Ney E. T. Merheb June 1999

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Motors

Introduction
l It is becoming very popular the utilization of squirrel cage induction motors with variable frequency drives (VFDs) in the industry. l The advance of power electronics technology and the cost of the VFDs are making this utilization possible. l The many advantages of this type of application are:
Speed variation. Heavy load inertia starting. High starting torque requirements. Low starting current requirements. High efficiency at low speed. High power factor.

l The induction motor with VFDs replaces with advantage today the DC motors, and wound rotor motors.
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Motors

The Specification
l The utilization of VFDs may affect the design, performance and reliability of induction motors. Some effects are positive like the less fatigue to the mechanical components and rotating elements due to soft speed variation. l The life of the motors can be influenced positively when adequately applied. l There are some important factor to be considered when specifying motors with VFDs application:
The Common Mode Voltage Harmonics Switching Frequencies and Stationary Waves Speed Range Starting Aspects
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Motors

The Speed Torque Curve


n
s

120 f e p P (Hp) 5250 x P(Hp) = nm

2 fm

The synchronous speed of the motor varies linearly with the electrical

frequency and inversely with the number of poles.


For a given Torque the Shaft Power varies linearly with the speed (n).
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Motors

The Voltage over Frequency Curve (V/Hz)


d v (t) = N dt

VM N

cos t

The Maximum torque of the motor varies with the square of the flux

(or V/Hz relation).


On the constant voltage region the maximum torque decreases with

he square of the V/Hz relation.

Motors

The Induction Motor Speed Torque Curve


240 220 200 Maximum Torque

Torque N.m

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Starting Torque Full Load Torque

Speed rpm

Motors

Defining the Motor - The Operating Points


l The motor design is based on the load speed torque curve. l Check the operating points. l Motor voltage should be limited to its nominal volts. l Maximum current occurs at base speed. (VFD sizing and selection). l Scalar type inverters allows the adjustment of the V/Hz curve. l Use of voltage boosting at low speed to increase the starting torque. l The use of vector control VFDs allows the control of the torque 7 in all speed range automatically (requires tachometers)

Motors

Some Examples
l Constant Torque applications
l Steel mills machines, Paper machines (winder, tension reels, mill stands) l Cement mills, rubber mills, mixers, crushers l Conveyors l Cranes and elevators cars

l Variable Torque applications:


l Centrifugal pumps l Centrifugal fans l Compressors
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Motors

Some Examples

Motors
1.2 Motor Maximum Current 1.0 Load Torque Curve 0.8 Motor Voltage in p.u. Torque in p.u. Base Speed Constant Voltage Region
reduced DC motor field voltage region

0.6
z /H s lt Vo

ne Li

Co nst an t

Hp Lin e

0.4

t an t s on C

Motor Voltage

0.2

Top Speed

0.1 0.2 0.3 VFD Lower Frequency Limit

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Motor speed in p.u. of synchronous speed 10

Motors
1.50 1.25

Motor Voltage in p.u.

1.0

Torque in p.u.

Motor Torque 0.75

Base Speed

0.5

ine L z /H s t l Vo t n sta n Co
Load Torque

0.25

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Motor Speed in p.u.

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Motors
2.0 1.66

Motor Voltage in p.u.

1.33

Torque in p.u.

Load Torque
1.0

Base Speed
0.66
z lts/H o V t stan Con

Volts Boost

0.33

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Motor Speed in p.u.

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Motors
750 HP Motor - 6 Poles - 540 rpm base speed - 575 V
8750 Max. Motor Current at 345 V 7292 Constant Torque region 5833 540 rpm Constant Volts = 575 V

Torque in lb-ft

4375
t an t s on C

z /H s lt Vo

ne Li

75 0 HP HP reg Con ion sta nt

2917

Volts

1458

Top Speed

180 9

360 18

540 27

720 36

900 45

1080 54

1260 63

1440 72

1620 81

1800 90

Speed in rpm Frequency in Hz 13

Motors
500 HP Motor - 6 P 1440 rpm 2300 V
2734

2278

Torque in lb-ft

1823

2300 V 72 Hz Motor Torque

1367
z s/H t l o tV n ta ns o C

911

Load Torque
455

288 14.4

576 28.8

864 43.2

1152 57.6

1440 72

Speed in rpm Frequency in Hz


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Motors
5KAF 400HP 1200 368 575 0.9567 1.15

KAF 6811 SKF 6319 GREASE

TEAO

575 40 0.85 1.0

SKF 6319 GREASE

F 80 CONTINUOUS IGBT-PWM 1000 120 1200 1200 1200 1800

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Motors

The Overload
l Normally the overload is specified at base speed. l The overload occur in short period of time (60 seconds). l Standard overload requirements is in the range of 150 to 200%. It depends on the application. l The motor must have sufficient maximum torque to hold the overload conditions. l The motor will give the maximum current at the base speed. It is based on this current that the VFD must be selected. 16

Motors

The Motor Heating


l The VFD normally produces harmonics that can cause additional overheating to the motor. The engineer will have to consider them when designing the motor. l Some VFD manufactures guarantee that their VFD do not produces harmful harmonics to the motor. l In constant torque application it is necessary to provide additional ventilation to the motor to provide cooling at low speeds. A motor-blower can be used or external forced ventilation.
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Motors

The Motor Heating


l Variable torque applications like centrifugal fans and pumps it is not required to use additional ventilation as the power is reduced by the cubic of the speed. l The harmonics can also induce additional heat to the rotor cage so, the across the line torque can be affected (double cage should be avoided). l Frequencies too high should be avoided due to increase of motor losses (higher than 100 Hz). The number of poles should be selected accordingly.
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Motors

The Insulation System


l The VFDs in general produces voltage spikes that will affect the insulation of windings if they are not prepared for it. l The NEMA MG1 - Part 31 Std. , requires that the low voltage motor winding must be capable to withstand up to 1600 peak Volts with a rise time of 0.1 s. l Requirements for medium voltage motors is still not normalized but GE follows IEEE 522. l The high speed switching VFDs as the (IGCT ou IGBT) normally produces high frequency dV/dt that may fatigue the winding insulation. The Multi-Level PWM system or filters will prevent high induced voltage to the winding. l The insulation system should be adequate to this voltage. l Example: Nominal Voltage 4160 V, Insulation System Voltage 5000 V. l Cabling length can affect the terminal voltage (RC Filters).
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Motors

The Insulation System

Typical Low Voltage Winding


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Motors

The Insulation System

The Waveforms and Harmonics


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Motors

The Insulation System

The Voltage Spikes


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Motors

The Mechanical System


l The operation with VFDs will require the examination of the critical features of the motor, as such: Critical speeds Maximum operation speed Bearing lubrication Ventilation and cooling Insulation of the bearings against current circulation Shaft grounding brushes
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Motors

The Mechanical System


l Mechanical protection and cooling arrangements most utilized in VFDs applications (specially constant torque): l DPBV (Drip Proof Blower Ventilated) IP23 - IC06 l DPSV (Drip Proof Separately Ventilated) IP23 - IC06 l TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) IP54 - IC411 l TEAO ( Totally Enclosed Air Over) IP54 - IC416 l WPII - with blower IPW24 - IC06 l TEWAC - with blower IP54 - IC86W l TEFV (Totally Enclosed Forced Ventilated) IP54 - IC37
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Motors

The Mechanical System

TEAO ( Totally Enclosed Air Over) IP54 - IC416

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Motors

The Mechanical System

DPBV (Drip Proof Blower Ventilated) IP23 - IC06


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Motors

The Mechanical System

DPSV (Drip Proof Separately Ventilated) IP23 - IC06

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Motors

The Accessories
l The most common accessories on motors for VFDs operation are: 2 Tachometers ( specially for vector control drives) to be used when speed control is critical. 2 Winding temperature sensors as such RTDs or Thermistor for temperature monitoring. 2 Shaft grounding brushes (depending on VFDs type)

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Motors

The Accessories

A TEFC Motor with Digital Tachometer


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Motors

Specifying the Motor


l In the next page we summarize all the main information to be sent to the motor supplier when specifying a induction motor in use with a VFD application. This data will help the motor design or application engineer to correctly select the motor for the application.

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Motors
KAF INDUCTION MOTOR BASIC SPECIFICATION Shaft Power (in HP, or KW) ___________________ Enclosure _______ ; Insulation F; Ambient Temperature ____ C Temperature rise _____ no Fator de Servio _____ RPM base _____________ RPM max (top speed)_____________ RPM minimum in operation________ Application (Driven Machine) ______________________ Torque below base speed: Variable Torque _____ Constant Torque ______ Volts __________ Starting across the line capability: Yes or No _____ VFD Type: _____ PWM ______ IGBT or IGCT ______ GTO _____ CSI Name of VFD Manufacturer (if available) _______________________ Overload at base speed: _____ 150% current (standard) _____ 200% current Service Factor with the VFD __________ (1.0 standard or 1.15) Bearings: Anti-friction _______ Sleeve ______ Manufacturer standard _________ Tachometer: Yes_____ No _______ Model _____________ Provision for __________ Thermal Sensor on windings : RTD Pt 100 ohms____ Cu 10 ohms _____ Thermistor ___________ Other accessories _________________________ GE - GEVISA S.A.

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Motors

The GEIS- GEVISA Experience


GEIS participate on all markets which the motors with VFD is present GE-GEVISA as a world wide supplier for the GEIS system has manufactured more than 700 units of low voltage and medium voltage motors for many different VFD applications. Experience with all applications and configurations with many different drives types and manufactures. The regular medium and high voltage (2300 to 13800 V) insulation system is adequate for all systems. There is no need for modifications for use with VFDs. The low voltage windings are special to meet the requirements of NEMA MG1 - 31 for use with VFDs. GE-GEVISA has an Application Engineering team all prepared to give the assistance to customer to help with the specification and selection of the most adequate motor for the application.

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Motors

Some KAF motors furnished


CUSTOMER
JEN AN STEEL JEN AN STEEL JEN AN STEEL USIMINAS USIMINAS AK STEEL AK STEEL NUCOR NUCOR NSM NSM CYPRESS CREEK HOOGOVENS HOOGOVENS HOOGOVENS CHAPARRAL STEEL CHAPARRAL STEEL CHAPARRAL STEEL CHAPARRAL STEEL CHAPARRAL STEEL

COUNTRY TYPE
TAIWAN TAIWAN TAIWAN BRAZIL BRAZIL USA USA USA USA THAILAND THAILAND USA HOLAND HOLAND HOLAND USA USA USA USA USA KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF KAF TSAF TSAF TSAF TSAF TSAF

HP
800 804 1207 603 480 1178 800 1125 950 1350 500 1250 1126 80 635 1500 1200 3352 3352 7375

VOLTS POLES ENCLOSURE


575 575 575 460 460 440 440 575 575 575 575 4160 3300 400 400 3300 3300 3300 3300 3300 6 6 6 12 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 8 12 24 6 4 8 26 12 20 TEAO TEAO TEAO WPII WPII TEFV TEFV WPII WPII TEFV TEFV TEFV TEFV WPII WPII TEFV TEWAC TEWAC TEWAC TEWAC

TSAF = Synchronous Motor KAF = Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

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