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1993 .

/ /

/ /

/ / #
;


/ /

/ 13 7-1337 . ./





/ 14 7-1422 . ./

/ 1426-146 . ./

/ 1599-1624 . ./

( Jesuites)
( )

/ 1624-1674 . /

1674-1699

. ./

16 17

/ 1777-1845 . /

-
/ /

/ /

/ /


/ /



( Classical Grammar)


`
1. S^Q Uw }<L eV /Pronouns/
1.1 v` k /Verb to be/
1.2 Y`} [} ` uUdK?
o
2. SM" /Demonstratives/
o LU /Conversation/
3. Y`} vw /Pronunciation/
4. vw /Reading Types/
5. vw UM
<<p
6. Y `e /Root verbs/
`v e /Tense, Nouns and Adjective formation/
Q f "H@
7. vx /Prepositions and Conjunctions/

e L T>` vx
k L T>` vx

K?KA }eTT> nL

' }' K'K


8. }<d e /Adverb/
9. K< /Negation Maker/
o `
10. u= /Possessive/ eV/Nouns/
1.1 u= }<L eV/Possessive Pronouns/
1.2 u= `` <e k ``
1.3 }ni }<L eU
1.4 #u$ uS^Q c=[v /Verb to have in pronoun/
1.5 vKu? }<L eU /Subjective pronouns/
1.6 }du= }<L eU /Objective Pronouns/
1.7 T>u< L
o `
11. u=` }wa /Direct and indirect Object/
12. pM /Adjective/
o `
13. "M k u= U G< >?
14. k
15. ` e <e k

16. x k
o
17. k

`v

Ue~ T

o
18. #u?$ K
o
19. L e'` v` /Dictionary/ la /Numerals/

1. S^Q Uw }<L eV /Pronoun/


S^Q TK #S]$ TK c=J u ss e` (1) T>J<
}<L eV (S^Q) K<::
1. ..

2. }

3.

4. < ~

c<

5. +

dD

6. Q

7. S<

} (Kp`w )

8.

} (Kp`w c?)

9. S<

= (K)

10. <

= (Kc?)

S^Q u[} `
k (kT k Past tense) ,Sc
1. ke<

6 Q ke

2. } ke

7 S< ke S<

3. + k

8 ke

4. < ~ kc

9 S< kc<

5. + k

1 k

c< S[h M #$J < SK Kw:: UdK? c wKA cu<


(# $ ) LM

= cu<(# $ ) MU eK=I Tup Kw TK

<::
1.1 v` k (Verb to be)
< ~, <'u`'i'I'G<
+,'u[
< S< ( S<~), <'u\ (K)
( T~),<'u\ (Kc?)
UdK?' < ~ p
+ ~ }eG< KU
} ~ u? <K< KU
T`U + SW[} Q
<KAe ?ae SUI^ < S<
cKAT@ ?Mdu? pd <
1.2 Y`} [} ` uUdK?
Qp?M u=

Qp?M u= < ~

u= ~ Qp?M

/KU/ u= Qp?M

#< ~$ KT>K<

K< < #$ <::

T>}K< S^Q f ` U/e}U`/


1.

G u`<

2. < ~

K uL

3.

N R`=

4. <

S K

5. +

W M
8

[ S
c US<
g ^
k uM
M %u Md UH^ ( T` SMe)
1. Q R` %u c<U Le
2. + ~

Sw`H

3. T`U K M u<^
4. } cT nK

=w@`

5. KS</T/ < S< R\ %u Sc=


SMe /M %u Md /
1. KA u? H@
2.

@ u?}`e+ H@< (,)

3.

`c< uQw[ }kS (%u<[,u%w[)

4. Te ?ae SUI^ < ::


5. T`U M a u}` (u`, `) ::
6. } `ee @M cu ::
7. } cv= KIU
e}"KI (O uY`} c <)
UdK?/N/ T`U S}cpK `ee/% T`U S}cpK `ee/
1. /S/} LK ^/ /
2. /R[/ %u w[@
3. /qS/ T`

T`U pS u?} Spe

4. /%[/ _ p < } u?} ` /}T]


5. /`SS/ T>"?M S }cpK UL
6. /}Y / n u =w@`
2. SM" /Demonstratives/
1. S^Q M< G<K< SM" K=J< LK<:: T> l

T>}K<

uUXK? k`uM'
}K T`U R[ %u w[ S^
< ~ R[ %u w K=ve
< ~ w c= R[ %u Teq
+ K uM %we}
9

< S< K< S\ `T@ SQ


< e c K =wN?` UL =
< M uM Iwe}
S<~ <K< uu< @K N
T~ e c K =wN?` UL =
L

w<

< ~

(that)

< S<( S<~)


< ( T~)

=I G<K< \p U u K= K ` SK K<::

2. + w c= R[ %u =\dK?U

=(those)

I c< =\ K?U H@

'

w c= R[ %u =\dK?U

'

+ w c= S

U w

x` '

w c= S

U w[

x` '

K< cw

c? w[ x` S

R\ %u w[ `u? '

L M pd

T~

'

=I c w[ `u? H@
=I M pd <

w<

'~ I (This)
' +

K<

=I(These)
=I

=I G<K< p`w ` SK K<::

3. < SUI[ p@ < ~

, c< p@ SUI` < ::

~ #
< K

%} S<c?

M S<c?

+ e"K T`U
M< cw

= < S<

= c =< <::

M~
M M S

UU

= M U S<::

M
L

w<

<'~ (K<), (That)

M '

< ' + ,

=I V

M< ' M~ ,
M ,

= (Those)
=

}^ l` \p ` SK K<::

SMS
U (e}U` e}U)
10

1. <

. R[

2. < ~

u. ke=

3. +

[. S

4.

. u\

M~

5. +

G. c=

6.

K<

K.

7.

N. uwS<

8. ~

S. kc

9. ~

W. N`

1.

11.

M<

12.

S<~

13.

T>}K< }`<U `(}`<U) %u Md


1. M q
2.

= ?Mdu? T`U <

3. @M }T] <
4. I SN =e <
5.

=I `ee M <

cLU
%`

%<

=wN?` vQ

( ` T@)

( =wN?` Se)

UI`

W < ~

(UI`

< ~
<)

(\ <)

T < ~ US< }S<

U `

(S < }G< [dG<)

(_ `)

uvQ ` < ~ =[w<

%u >X u?} `e+

(uTK< LG<I H@I <)

( u?}`e)

c uvQ %u u?} U w/ < ~ R`<

v` < <I

( @e uTK " u` H@<)

(@

v`I <I G<)

eU < SH[ U

u [ T`U
11

(eT

= _ T e}T[)

(eK [ T`U)

u U

KA~ ewN

(eKU)

( Ue Kc< G<)

<K< cw u?' U'u<'%<' < S<


(G<K<U u?}cxI I <)

J K<M

( g= KG<L)

uM W Uc? @cU ^w
(uM SM"U Ui

3. Y`} vw ( Pronounciation)
Y`} vw U < ::
1. Td

5. Tuw

2. SM

6. KTuw

3. Tup

7. S

4. TLL

`c<U -

8. Sl` <

1. Td : I Y`} vw nK< S[h M de SJ }K J


nK< u} U T>` U T>uw TK < :: K=IU <
G<K<U e u} U
UdK?

}uu< } < T>vK< ::

u[ , }kS
Nu ,
}[ , e <c
< ~ , <'u`' c<& < }[ ::
e R^ , c? N?
a , Y^<
Uq , Uk<

2. SM (}) I Y`} vw S[h< de J Td TK


< ::
UdK?

T`U ' T>"?M'=c<e `ee'u?} S'pe Spe


}[

3. Tup : I Y`} vw nK< <e T>wp M a nK< wq


=uw T>` < ::
UdK?

k , S

12

cwN , SW
} a , e c<
[

, }SK}

4. TLL : I Y`} vw unK< <e T>wp M d` vu<U


LM c=uw < ::
UdK?: k}K , K
u[, }kS ([)
U ,
w[, [ (W^)
[, [ (uT`< wnM)
5. Tuw : I Y`} vw G<K U = uL J< nL

J< c=uu< u U c=S< < ::


UdK?

u?}`e+

, `e+ u?

u?}Spe ,

TS u?

UI`} HT ,HT UI`


K S<c?
W^} w`?M
? YLc?
<c? T`U
<S Md
M =c<e
}Q nM
? u?}`e+
6. KTuw : I Y`} vw G<K U = uL J< nL
^d< K< c=uu< U L LTi c=J < ::
UdK?

pe UL vLM

= p UL vMU ::

M T`U
S M-M S
<KAe N`

13

7. S : S TK nK< <e K M

=G< dL u<e

m T>uw < :: =I L Te}M Kw K< uO >?


Y`~ wq M ::
UdK?: (wan)}wKA

= (wayyin) }wKA uwU ::

M- =I L }<K
w` - =I L V w }<K:: YK=I w` vKG<K kKU
< ::
?Md
`<e

=I L V K::
< }<K::

=I L w<< >? T>< kKV c=J< S KS<


vu<

`T@< KM::

8. Sl` : I Y`} vw u nM <e T>< L KUU


S Tuw TK <::
UdK?: < ~ T>K< nM G<K<U L uvK<

dc eKJ w

U KU::

+ 'SL 'T`U 'TM ' I 'TMU' Ne ' ` (a)


` (<`) '?Me 'wN?` (G`)

S<~' ewN' N`' SQ (

I q^K)
=I Y` vx u}T] K?KAU K<::
KUdK? m c

G. m - UK< Y`} vw nK< S[h M "w


Ue dw J Td

dMe ^w

nK< c=uw S[h< M uS

=p

T>` Y`} vw <::


UdK?

%u?G<

c< =I nM S[h M G< "w c=J m <:: `

M
k }g

K< Tp eMM::KUdK? < ~ T>K< v`

= m KU::

=G<U f uU J uNL c=S<

m < TK MU::

14

KUdK? R\, N? U O\, N= wMU }


K Me

UdK?

c=

w c=

S+

SH]

= m KU::

c=J<

pU
UdK?

cK= K pe =I L cK= T>K< nM m KU

K^w UdK?


/ /


/ / /

5.




-- --

( )

( )

( )

( )
/

( )

( / )

( )

( )

( )

( )

15

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
6

( )

(6 )

( )

(3 )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

(Root Verbs)

1.

3.

2.

4.

5.
6.

7.
8.
16

6.1 (Tense and Nouns formation, including Adjectives)



1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.

1. ---- ( past tense - ) / /


--- (future- --- Present Tense -
)
---- / /

/ / -- / to kill ( infinitive) /
-- / --Adjective
--- / / / /
--- /
--- / /
---- / -- Adjective/
---- / /
--- / /
--- / /



--
---
--- / /

17

--- / /
---

----

---

---

-----

----

---

---

---

--- / /

---

---- / /

---

---- / /

--- / /

---- / /

---- / / --- / /
--- / / ---- / /
---- / /

--- / /

---

---- / /

-----

----

----
----

---
--- / /

--- / /

---

---- / /
--- / /
--- / /
. ( future) ( Present)
/ /
.
. (past)

2. --
---
----
----

/ / ---

3. ---
---
----
----
/ / ---

18

----

----

----

----

---

----

--- / /

---- / /

---

----

---

----

---

----

---

---- / /

----

-----
---


. . .

4. ---

5. ---

----

---

----

---

---

---

/ / ---
---

* / / ---
----

--- / /
---
--- / /
---
---

---
----
--- / /
---
----

----

----

---

---

. . .
6. ---
---

7. ---
---

19

---
----

---
----

/ / ---
---

* / /----
----

---
---
--- / /
----

---
---
--- / /
---

----

----

---

---



8. ---
---
-----
---

/ / ---
----
----
-----
---- / /
---
----
----

/ / . . .
/
/


6.2 (Irregular Verbs)


20

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /
/ /




/ /

( Continuous)

( )

7. (Prepositions and Conjunctions)


1.
/ Since, because, for/
/ / / / / / / /
/ / / /

2.
/ / / / / / / /

3. / /
7.1 / /
.

---
---

21


---

/ /

--


















--- / /
/ / / . . . /
/ / /

22

1.
2.
3.




1. -- --- ------ ------


2. --- ---- ---- -----

3. -- ---- ----
---

4. --- / / / / / /
/ /

---
---

---
---

/ /

/ /
--- /
---
--

--
/ / ---

---
---

---

--

---

--

23

---

----

---

/ / --

---

---

----

---

--

--

--
--
---

--

/ --
---

--

---

---

---
---

--
----

---

---

---

---

----
----

--
---

--

( )

/ /



1.

24

2. - /
/

3. -


/ /

/



1.
25

2.
1.

.

.

--

---

8. ( Adverb)
I came

yesterday. I will come tomorrow


/ / / /




-----


26



------
----

----

------
----

9.

/ N0 /
-- --

---

. ----
. ---
. ---
. ---
. ---
/ /

. ---
. ---

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

/ /

27

.
.
.
/ / / /

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
/ /

1.
2.
3.
4.
/ /
/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

//

//
/ /
/ /

/ /
/ /
/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /
//

/ /
/ /

/ /

//

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ / /

28


/ / /
/ / 1. --

2. ---
3. ----
/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

//

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

/
/

1.

3.

5.

2.

4.

6.

7.
8.

29

( Possessives)


- . . .




/ /

30


/ / = = . . .
/ /

/ /

/ /

1 .1
/ .../
1. / /
2. / /
3. / /

31

1 -



2 -

1 .2
= / /
=/ / / /
= / / / / / /
= ( /
/ / / / /
/
= / / / / / / / /
= / / / / / /
= / /
= / /
= / /

32

=
/ = /




/ /






/ / --
=
=

/ / =

=
=

1 .3

=
=
=
/ / =
=
=
=
/ /=

=
=
= / /
/ / = / /
=
=
=
/ / = /

33

/ /=

/ / =

= / /

1 .4 / / / Verb to have/
=
=

= / /
=



/ /

= / /

=
=

34

=
=
=

1 .5 (Subjective Pronoun)
/ /







/ -- /

= / Himself/

= (Themselves)

= (Herself)

= / / (Themselves)

= (Yourself)
= (Yourself)

= ( Yourselves)
= / / ( Yourselves)

/ = / ( My self) = ( 0urselves)

1 .6 ( Objective Pronouns)

= ( Me)

= (Us)

= ( You)

= (You)

= ( You)

= ( You)

= ( Him)

= ( Them)

= ( Her)

= ( Them /

35

/
/
- . + =

+ =
. + =
. =
=
=


- + -

=
=
=


- --

--

--

- --

--

36

- =

- =

=
- =

/ /

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

37

25.
26.
27.

1.
2.

9.
1 .

3.

11.

4.

12.

5.
6.
7.
8.

13.
14.
15.
16.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13. / /

38

14. / /

15.
16.
17.


/ /

39

II / / Direct and indirect Object /


/ / / /

/ / / /
/ /
=
=
/ /
/

/ / (subject)

/ / (direct object)

1. --

2. =

/ /

3.

/ /
---

40

4.

5.
1.

2.

6.

/ /

7. / /
/
/

1. . . .
/ /

/ /

/ /

( Adjective)
1. -

41



/
/
=

=
2. -

3.

4.

5.

--


/ /

---
---

/ /

42




/ /



/ /

-----

-----

-----

-----

---

----

-------

--------

---

----

-------

--------

43

----

---

---

I. /
/

1.
2.
3.
4.
5. / /
6.
7.
8.
II.

III.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
44

6.
7.
8.
9.
IV.

( )
. / /

. / /

.
.

45

/ /

--

14.

15.


/ /
/
/

1. / /

/ /
2. / /

/ /

46

3.

4.
/ /

1

/ /

/ /

( to kill)

/ / / /

/ / / /

/ / . . ./

1. . . .

2. . . .
3.
/ /

47

/ /

--------------------

--------------------

---------

----------

---------

----------

---------

---------48

---------

----------

----------

----------

. . .

/ /

49

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

---

---
---
---
--

50

/ / /

1.
2.

.
.

3.
4.

5.
6. / /

7.

8.
9. / -- /
/ /

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15. / /
I / /

51

----

-----

---

---

------

---

-----

----

-----

--------

-------

------

------

---------

-----

-------- -------

---

--------

II

III
17.
1.

2.

52

--

--

3.

/ /

/ /

4.

5.

53

54

/ /


. / /

. / /

. / /

. / /

. / /

/ /

55

/ /

/ /

/ / / /

/ /

/ /
5

= / /
= / /

56

= / /
= / /
= / /
= /
= /
= /
=
=

---
1.
/ /



/ /










/ /

57

2.
---

58

--

--

--

--

--

---

--

---

/ /


/ /

59




/ --- /
/ - /




/




/ /
/ /

/ ---- /

(Dictionary)

60

/ /

/ /

/ /

/ /

61

62

63

64

/ /

65

66

67

68

/ /

69

70