DIVING ON THE PANDORA

Uncovering the ship that chased down the mutineers of HMS Bounty The scuba tanks swayed in their racks like drunken sailors as our boat rolled in a frothy sea, fighting strong currents and keeping a respectful distance from the barely submerged, razor-sharp reefs that surrounded us. A greenish patch of tropical water straight ahead marked the spot where more than two centuries earlier the hapless HMS Pandora--exactly the size of our own charter craft--slid to the bottom. Thirty-five men were lost, including four prisoners who had taken part in history's most famous mutiny at sea. It was a relief to slip below the waves, and even a greater one to find the currents had suddenly, but not untypically, relented. Guided by an orangecolored line, we glided downward through the placid, shimmering blue to a depth of 100 feet. A few coral trout finned through the rectangle of sea floor 150 feet long and 90 wide that had been marked off with aluminum poles. But there were few evident signs of a shipwreck except a small stove from which a reef resident, a small fish--safe by nearly two centuries from being fried--stared at us with curiosity. However, below the sand lay, in the words of Australian marine archaeologist Peter Gesner, "an absolute jewel of a shipwreck," a freezeframe of the age of Pacific exploration and eighteenth-century naval life complete with an estimated 100,000 artifacts, ranging from cannons to Polynesian souvenirs to jars still redolent with the scent of cloves. Also below were the bones of sailors who drowned when the ship sank. The tale of the Pandora begins in 1789 with a more famous vessel, HMS Bounty, which was on a botanical voyage in the South Pacific when crewmen mutinied and cast adrift their captain, William Bligh, and 18 others. Although a series of Hollywood movies have cast Bligh as a cruel, hateful figure, it appears more likely that mutiny was sparked by beguiling Tahitian women, to whom some had become attached, rather than Bligh's character. After an epic, 3,100-mile ordeal in a small, open launch, Bligh and his loyal men landed on the island of Timor in the Indonesian archipelago. Nearly a year after the mutiny, Bligh was back in England and before an Admiralty angered that one of His Majesty's vessels had been pirated. Pandora, a 513-ton, 24-gun frigate, set sail from England in 1790,

commanded by Edward Edwards, a man whose demeanor was very close to Hollywood's portrayal of Bligh. He was ordered to "proceed as expeditiously as possible" into the vast reaches of the Pacific, there to track down the mutineers and bring them to justice. The core rebel group of the Bounty, under Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, had found final refuge on the remote island of Pitcairn, where some of his descendants still live. But 14 others had stayed behind in Tahiti, and there Pandora's captain captured them with ease. On deck, Edwards ordered the construction of a claustrophobic, sun-seared cell-dubbed "Pandora's Box"--into which the prisoners were placed. The box soon crawled with maggots and stank of human waste. With his prisoners manacled, and unable to find the other mutineers, Edwards set sail for home. On the dark night of August 29, 1791, trying to navigate a safe passage through the Great Barrier Reef, Pandora struck an isolated outcrop of submerged coral, wrestled with the sea until dawn and then succumbed. "Never fear, my boys, we'll all go to hell together," yelled the master of arms when the prisoners begged him to free them from the box. As the vessel sank, a more humane crewman did unbolt the cell; ten of the 14 mutineers survived, along with 89 of the ship's company. Back in England the mutineers were tried. Four were acquitted, three hanged, two pardoned and one freed on a technicality. On the other side of the world, off the very wild and remote (then and now) northeastern tip of Australia, Pandora rested on the sea bottom. On November 16, 1977, Australian film maker Ben Cropp and Americanborn naturalist Steve Domm found the wreck after extensive archival digging by one of Domm's associates, Australian filmmaker John Heyer, and a difficult search involving divers and airborne magnetometers flown by the Royal Australian Air Force. The latter honed in on the vessel's iron guns and metallic ballast. Two years later a preliminary archaeological assessment survey was carried out, and Pandora received government protection under the Historic Shipwrecks Act of 1976. This legislation safeguards th estimated 5,000 wrecks off the Australian coast that are 75 or more years old. Work on the Pandora began in earnest in 1984, with Gesner, curator of the Maritime Archaeology and Shipwreck Survey Section of the Queensland Museum, participating in the effort from the start. Although educated in terrestrial archaeology and history at the University of

Amsterdam in the Netherlands, the Hong Kong-born Dutchman was bitten by the underwater bug while diving on a wreck off Jordan in the 1970s. He looked around for a place to pursue his newfound passion and ended up in Australia. Gesner describes the Pandora as a "marine Pompeii," covered not by volcanic ash but by another great preserver, sand. "It's a class I wreck" he says, "went down in one piece, settled on the bottom, and remained generally undisturbed. On the Pandora we have a snapshot, a frozen moment which can be excavated, reconstructed, researched and displayed." For more than a decade Gesner and his team have been trying to develop this snapshot as clearly as possible. Eight expeditions have been mounted, with three more planned, the last scheduled for 2001. The excitement has mounted with each season as more of the ship has been discovered and in better condition than had first been expected. And some 70 percent of the wreck still awaits exploration. There are no current plans to recover the remains of Pandora, about 30 percent of the original structure, but with enough funds--possibly as much as $60 million--the copper-sheathed hull could be brought to the surface and put on display like the seventeenth-century Swedish warship Vasa or England's sixteenth-century Mary Rose. "Pandora should be raised to become Australia's Mary Rose," one visitor wrote after seeing an exhibition which has traveled through the country since 1995. Assembled to educate the public, the show includes a number of the ship's artifacts, 14 photographic panels and a video. The exhibition also helped raise some of the $2 million the recently formed Pandora Foundation has on hand to complete retrieval and conservation of the ship's contents by 2001. A new wing of the Museum of Tropical Queensland in Townsville in North Queensland, scheduled to open several months before the Sydney Olympics in September 2000, will serve as a permanent repository for the artifacts-- just over 2,000 of which have been recovered and registered to date--along with associated research material. Systematic excavation began during the 1984 expedition, when the site was divided into grid lanes and movable, 6-by-6-foot aluminum grid frames. To locate and profile the 114-foot wreck, a sonar survey was carried out. The survey showed that about a quarter of the hull was still intact although its exact condition couldn't be determined.

That year, clusters of items from the officers' cabins in the stern were also uncovered, and their locations recorded to the nearest quarter-inch like all other objects subsequently found on the wreck and surrounding sea floor. It soon became clear that much of the vessel had been quickly sealed with sand and did not appear to have been attacked by borers, sedimentary bacteria, or man. Over the years, the forecastle, quarterdeck and upper deck rotted away but the rest of the hull--the lower and platform decks--had lodged itself, layer upon layer, beneath the sand. From historical records it was known that each of the ship's decks had its special function: the hold was used to store water and spare parts; crewmen kept their personal gear on the platform decks; most cabins were located on the lower deck; the upper deck housed the captain's cabin, day room, and galley; the functions of steering and command were carried out on the quarterdeck. Thus, as Gesner and his team sifted their way downward, layer by layer, deck by deck, determining where all the items recovered were at the time of the disaster, a wonderful portrait of Pandora and its crew began to emerge. "It was like entering a room which had been locked for 200 years," said Gesner after the 1997 expedition, 22 on-site days during which 500 artifacts were recovered. The focus was the captain's storeroom, from which sand was carefully removed. The first feature the team came upon was shelving built by the ship's carpenter and containing some of Captain Edwards' creamware dinner service, blue and white bowls as well as wine glasses and tumblers. On the floor stood rows of ceramic jars, many still corked and packed in sawdust. They had probably contained essence of spruce, used to brew "spruce beer," used for preventing scurvy in the eighteenth century. Checking the ship's logs against finds, Gesner's team believes the some 100 jars recovered were among the 343 "pots of essence of spruce" taken aboard. Skeletal remains of a crew member were also found within the storeroom, and nearby two fancy shoe buckles, some buttons and two wax seals the hapless sailor may have carried in his jacket pocket. One of the seals, or intaglios, is stamped with a warrior's head--possibly Hannibal--and was manufactured by the renowned firm of Wedgwood & Bentley. The other shows Atlas carrying the world on his shoulders. Intriguing items surface each season. Among the 489 objects recovered during the 1996 expedition was a clump encased in marine growth. When conservators removed the encrustation, they found a lead letter stamp with "LARKIN" inscribed in mirror image. It confirmed the suspected location

Once underway. "The wreck's condition is much better than expected and further excavation will reveal other storerooms in the same state of preservation as the captain's. and display the Pandora's hull.500 a day.of First Lieutenant John Larkin's cabin." Meanwhile. and ignore the beeper indicating that it is time to surface. "There is another potential for danger. Also. and the Royal Naval Museum in Portsmouth. gunner and steward. With compressed air supplied by the ship the time that divers can safely stay below is doubled. but probably impractical proposal. cranes and workers would have to make their way to the remote Cape York waters. the depth of the wreck allows less than 20 minute on the bottom each dive when scuba is used. "`It's such a meaty wreck. a mini-armada of barges. the chances of getting sustained periods of calm weather are most favorable during the cyclone season. Work on any sunken vessel is fraught with problems. Oddly. all on an often rolling deck. Each expedition is limited by funds and weather conditions. from December to April. bring it up and excavate the hull on land with water still inside the container while videotaping the entire process. the vessel's rear deck is a beehive of activity as divers bring up items from the seabed in plastic crates and turn them over to an on-board conservation laboratory. some items are partially cleaned on site. Should some generous benefactor come up with the sums needed to bring up. where they are immediately reimmersed in seawater. Still to be explored are the storerooms of the officers. conserve. but those Pandora presents are particularly difficult. "You realize you're the first person to see it after 200 years and you get carried away." Gesner . unpredictable currents. Despite handicaps. carpenter. England. and. For a start. making the operation a logistical nightmare and extremely expensive. Metal objects and concretions are treated with corrosion inhibitors. divers face what they call the "washing machine"-strong. subsequently described the stamp as the first of its kind found from the eighteenth century. is to envelop the entire site in a caisson-like container. the living areas used by the ordinary crew." says Gesner. swirling." says Gesner. work on the Pandora has already yielded artifacts that are more important than the hull itself. The cost of a charter boat alone is some $4. probably the most significant archaeologically. the site is a long way from nowhere. None have been longer than 40 days. bosun. One imaginative.

but the hardest part is the interpretation. axes. tools and glass beads to exchange with the natives for the collectibles. a preservative which displaces the salt water. sand-timers to determine the speed of the vessel. tip the sailors and ask them to pick up handicraft items and other "curiosities" while in the South Pacific. the great British navigator was killed by Hawaiian natives 12 years before Pandora's final voyage.000 hours of conservation work. We move on to the conservation room to examine five ornate Polynesian war clubs. On return. then heated and impregnated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). uncovered from the area of Larkin's cabin along with an assortment of items labeled "artificial curiosities. Conservation is painstaking. the artifacts were dried out very slowly. The vessel sank towards the end of this era. The seamen would take along nails. as well as food and the favors of Polynesian women. a rum shot glass and a cocoa cup with an almost contemporary design--"I thought someone had played a joke on us and bought one at Woolworths and buried it. taking me through the storage area of the Queensland Museum where some of the finest recovered items are kept in specially made boxes. "Life on board his ships was about the same and technology did not change very fast in those days. Gesner is especially interested in details of the social fabric and daily life of the sailors and those who sailed to the South Pacific for exotic discovery and scientific inquiry." Gesner says. the ship's surgeon. or they might keep the artifacts as mementos.says. Souvenirs were an important aspect of ship life. To maintain their consolidation. "The final analysis of it all will probably take 20 years." Gesner says. "We're actually excavating Cook by proxy. The clubs were worked on for more than six years before becoming stable enough to be handled with gloves. raised in 1986 and 1995." . a sandstone basin to purify water. and three of the ship's 24 cannons. During this era. The five wooden Polynesian clubs. The storehouse is bulging: a fireplace from an officer's cabin. a gold and silver pocket watch which may have belonged to George Hamilton. A heavily encrusted brass field telescope will take at least 1. which began in the 1740s and reached its apogee with the voyages of James Cook. Among them are a telescope. they would be paid a welcome sum that supplemented their meager wages." Gesner jokes." were . British gentlemen collectors would send their lackeys to departing ships. is absorbed by the items.

can be pinpointed in time. Our own inspection of the Pandora ended at a concrete obelisk set into the sea floor during the 1993 expedition. which add to knowledge about health and hygiene aboard His Majesty's vessels." an inscription on the plinth reads. both the unknown sailor and those bringing the Pandora back to life. the other by a gun carriage. The remains appear to have been wrapped up with some material. while a special permit. syringes for treatment of venereal disease and other items from the doctor's medicine chest. Bishop Museum in Hawaii most of the great Polynesian collection is not securely dated. photographed. is required to dive on the site. and it is thought that the victim was taken to a lower deck to preserve morale until he could be buried. there are rules about dropping anchors in its vicinity. Bermuda Triangle Stargate? A CONNECTION TO ATLANTIS? Do Newly Mapped Magnetic Anomalies Point to the Stars? . which were probably used for ceremonial purposes." These remains. three-quarters of a skeleton found in 1986.000-page book. I saluted." A wreck is like a 1. "This monument contains the skeletal remains of one of Pandora's crew who perished. Its remoteness offers perhaps the best protection. Gesner is also worried about someone damaging the Pandora with an errant anchor or pilfering its treasures. like the clubs. And. If somebody comes along and tears out a few pages for the illustrations. So can the tourniquet clamp. But artifacts off Pandora. One was struck by a falling beam. Gesner says that even at the Bernice P. researched and conserved. difficult to obtain. nobody coming afterwards can read it in its entirety. "The 24-gun frigate Pandora was sent into the South Pacific. As we began our slow ascent from the plinth. are believed to be those of one of two crewmen killed as the ship was rolling on the reef." he says.almost certainly from Tonga where either sharks' teeth or iron nails were used in the eighteenth century to produce intricate surface carvings on the clubs. It's not easy keeping up with the material that must be cataloged.

sunk beneath these waters millennia ago. As a practicing historian. that apparent paranormal grab-bag of missing vessels (hundreds of ships and scores of planes). the most controversial being that the Bahamas archipelago is comprised of the mountaintops and higher areas of the lost continent of Atlantis. Michael Preisinger A German historian/scuba diver has recorded the exact location and value of deviations in magnetic fields off the Bahamas coast." And he has reached some new conclusions concerning Atlantis and the Bahamas. Oceans of ink have been spilt over the subject of the Bermuda Triangle. Scientists to whom he has shown the figures do not dismiss the possibility that they are caused by micro-wormholes.(Please be patient while the maps load) Dr. abrupt outpourings of fog. UFO sightings far above the national average-and much. deviations in the magnetic field. A vast amount of pure speculation has accompanied these reports. much more. His researches have also led him to wonder whether the American AUTEC naval base on Andros Island is not-perhaps on account of these same wormholes-an "Underwater Area 51 of the Caribbean. with a doctorate in history and sociology from the German Sports University in Cologne-and therefore with a vigorous .

Dogleg Reef. accompanied me on these expeditions. a Jamaican. it would make for an unusual diving experience): I decided to look for magnetic field anomalies in the places where the deviations had been noted. near Nassau. near Nassau. I chose more than half-a-dozen points at which to dive: Fish Hotel. in South Florida. We found clear evidence of deviations at four locations: Fish Hotel." near Bimini. and singly or in pairs. near Marathon. the "Atlantis Wall. we dove at each location several times. In the course of our dives. Dressed in our scuba gear. I communicated these figures to a number of physicists around the world. Pure happenstance changed all that.training in avoiding speculation-I certainly never expected to have anything to contribute to this controversy. I am also a trained scuba diving instructor. an American. Bahamas. and White Hole. usually descending to a depth of no more than a few dozen feet. Over the course of several weeks. I was sent by my company on a six-month stint to Nassau. I heard persistent reports of persons on boats who had experienced sudden deviations in their compass readings which had put them right off course. In the course of my work. about an hour by boat from Nassau. To a one. My task was to develop tourist programs for scuba divers and help customers who were already there. Based on the stories I'd heard. Over the next few months. The dives lasted 60 to 75 minutes. and. Lyford Cay. White Hole. which I tended to entirely dismiss. and Joel Green. Lyford Cay. Fellow scuba divers Al Miller. and try to bring back exact figures for those deviations. and Dogleg Reef. and Sunken Train. besides. My curiosity as a historian got the better of me (and. we recorded precise figures for what the compass readings were as compared to what they normally should have been. other times from rented boats. Lost Blue Hole. near Eluthera. we carried out one to seven dives a week. an hour by boat from Marathon. depending on the time we had available. in the Florida Keys. in 1995. My German customers were the travel companies Inter Airlines and Aeroplane. they told me that such magnetic field . sometimes we made them from cheap inflatables. with my wife and children.

preceded by a decimal point. physicist. then with growing interest. Whenever these two kinds of virtual matter build up to any extent. these wormholes may be only a giga-fraction of a square inch in size-the number one preceded by 33 zeroes." These startling results led me to investigate. Their counterparts-so-called mini-white holes-are virtual anti-matter. Tokyo. Karlruhe. the strong interdependencies with gravitation and the earth's magnetic field may be a way to track them down. some of the other "Bermuda Triangle" phenomena associated with the Bahamas area. NJ. phone interviews: "If the theories of inter-dimensional connections are not completely wrong and can develop in the way I am expecting them to. physicist. in a radio discussion together with myself. Wheeler can offer no explanation as to why mini-holes appear. as far as I knew. I was the first to come up with any figures). then reappear. from some of the scientists-usually quantum physicists-to whom I spoke: Dr. Werner Muller. tentatively at first. According to Wheeler. in 1997: "From the physicist's point of view. they can exist for a limited time only." Grazyna Fosar. They could think of no other explanation for the deviations. Japan. Germany. Regarding my magnetic field anomaly readings. they immediately destroy themselves. 1995." that is. has given the name of "wormhole" to what he believes may be "transit tunnels" between different dimensions of reality. physicist. are thought to be bits of "virtual matter. Prof. there are just the quantum physical theories left to explain the phenomenon. here are some typical responses. Germany. of Princeton University. Berlin. I knew that the theory of compass deviations as being caused by "stargates" went back some way (though. I was now told that the extremely high incidence of UFO sightings in the Bahamas archipelago had been associated by some researchers with these stargates. John Wheeler.anomalies could be caused by briefly-appearing micro-wormholes. Wheeler says these mini-black holes. constantly blinking in and out of the geometry of space. gates to hyperspace can be the only reasonable explanation for these mysterious deviation fields. I was further told that many of the sightings took place near the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC)." Professor Tsung-Min Gung. in Princeton. in a 1995 phone interview: "According to the figures you provided and the fact that no natural source was found in the bottom of the sea. disappear. the American naval base .

to try to get to the bottom of these extraordinary speculations. they were grilled by a colonel for hours. including an underwater range for testing and research on acoustic equipment. Coming to within almost half-a-mile of the object-which was now gleaming oddly-the yachter observed that it was some kind of manmade craft of ultramodern design. strange craft have been seen from time to time which not only resemble UFOs. leaping out of the foliage behind them.100 fathoms (more than a mile) at the northern end. At that very moment. a group of duckhunters-who. I learned from more than one source that the Andros base has an ultra-top secret caliber of security.670 square miles of the surrounding Caribbean. admittedly. By any reckoning. In 1997. A Viennese businessman told me that. in waters over a mile-and-a-half deep. from time to time. Florida. but actually comprises 1. two miles away (it was a very clear day). Taken to a nearby tent. a motionless object he thought was a whale. abruptly. and which. The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) possesses unique resources. when he was yachting off the coast of Andros. Here is an illustration. declaring.a place where secret research was being carried out on UFOs by the American government. once. It is located 177 miles southeast of West Palm Beach. The Andros Island AUTEC test facility-access to which must be obtained beforehand . with depths varying from 700 fathoms at the "rim" to 1. the officer released them. this is a huge amount of underwater space. as a historian. "I believe your story. had hurled them to the ground. The hapless duck-hunters quickly discovered that the foliage contained sailors in heavy camouflage." In the waters off Andros island. I decided. and that some researchers believed AUTEC might be an underwater "Area 51". they were knocked off their feet and their faces thrust into the ground. was even visited by UFOs. he glimpsed. but which display the same unbelievable swiftness of motion and execute the same incredibly sharp turns.on the Bahamas island of Andros. This ocean area is a steep-sided deep-water embayment 100 miles long and 20 miles wide. until they were certain they would be thrown into prison. at Andros Island and the Tongue of the Ocean. and that other sailors. .covers only one square mile on land. had walked right by a PROHIBITED AREA sign less than a mile from the base-suddenly found themselves confronting an unusually thick wall of foliage. in Bahamas. Then.

where there is a very great proliferation of blue holes. Rob Palmer. who claimed that many of the people to whom he gave readings had lived past lives on Atlantis." Here is an example. it disappeared beneath the waves. and possibly by a post-hypnotic suggestion which caused him to take his own life while he was under the waters of the Red Sea. Blue holes are small underwater caves. and was presumed dead. I have been told of conspiracy and suppression theories of a very dark nature which have been burgeoning around the subject of AUTEC as an "underwater Area 51. In addition. But their existence suggests there might well be significant clandestine activity taking place at the Andros island AUTEC facility. however indirect. the craft took off in a southerly direction at what my informant described as a "lunatic speed. which are found predominately in the area of the Bahamas archipelago. As a professional historian. My informant told me there was a rumor that Palmer might have been murdered by officials at AUTEC. I now decided to investigate the story that the area of the Bahamas is the site of the (not completely sunken) continent of Atlantis. probably because he knew too much. who had been director of a "blue holes" research center in Bahamas for a number of years. I don't care to indulge in such lurid speculations. abruptly. Since so much of the far-fetched material I had investigated had turned out to have some basis in reality. had entertained a roughly analogous theory. had failed to surface after a dive in the Red Sea. 1997." It sped along the surface of the water. passed along to me by an informant whom I interviewed in November. he believed blue holes might be the transit points for UFOs arriving here from other dimensions-and his investigations were taking him closer and closer to the AUTEC base on Andros Island. apparently formed from within. in mid-July. Florida.Suddenly. not to be seen again. 1998. Many have long believed that Bimini is a remnant of Atlantis. have been formed by the popping in and out of existence of micro-wormholes. I was told that highly respected and world-class British scuba diver Rob Palmer. apparently. at NASA headquarters at Cape Kennedy. The idea was first mooted by trance-medium Edgar Cayce. perhaps. Then. Using . in Israel." just as they have been around the subject of the real "Area 51. I think it possible that blue holes may.

not because they came from Atlantis. may account for a good many of the granite stones now found at such places as Bimini.the latest technology. To navigate over the reefs that filled these waters. to put it another way. What easier way to do this than by dumping granite stones from the ship"s ballast? That. but as historical fact. surrounded by high mountains to a distance of 200 miles. a great many ships ran the Union blockade to bring trade to Confederate harbors. I decided to read the single text upon which all of the thousands of books on Atlantis are based: the dialogue called the Critias. were not nearly so "New Age. and that these mountains themselves were located in a large plain. but because they were left there during the American Civil War. that the center of the island. as so many have. as myth or metaphor. Pursued by Union ships. by the Greek philosopher Plato. not. they frequently had to jettison weight so as to ride higher in the water. I think. scientists from the British Government's Building Research Establishment have even discovered tiny amounts of coal and gold in apparently man-made stone found on the seabed at Bimini. lower the water level surrounding Bahamas by 300 feet (its level during the last Ice Age)-you would end up with a country that closely matched. concentrating instead on its dimensions as reported by Plato: What shape did Atlantis have? How long and wide was it? I learned something intriguing: that if you were to take the present-day Bahamas archipelago and raise the entire land-mass by 300 feet-or. . As a historian interested in primary rather than secondary sources. In those days. Moreover. thought by many to be a remnant of Atlantis." I believe that some of the stones making up the wall appear to be man-made. these vessels often escaped into the shallow Bahamas waters where the big man-o-wars couldn"t follow. the ancient Atlantis of Plato: The philosopher wrote in the Critias that the continent was larger than Egypt (as it was then known). was formed by a plain surrounded by shallow mountains to a distance of six miles. not far from the sea. My conclusions regarding the so-called Bimini Wall. in shape and size. I decided to read the dialogue. And I bypassed most of Plato"s detailed account of the splendors of this ancient kingdom.

January 1.O. published in 1997. though. Box 1462. Copyright . We could do it during the coolest month of the year in Bahamas-January. He is the author of Das Bermuda Rötsel Gelöst. But I and my scuba diving colleagues would be glad to train as divers any prospective psychics. I came away with the impression . Michael Preisinger may be contacted at : P. My proposal may seem outlandish. I discovered there are numerous "ghost stories" associated with Bahamas. even "interdimensional. that Bahamas has its own legends of mysterious little monkey-like creatures that are almost never seen: the "chickcharnies". and that the shamans of the area are reputed to have almost godlike-powers. I continue to wonder what might be the next step in researching these "stargates." I have a proposal. and descend with them to the ocean bottom off Bahamas. 2000.1996-1999 Atlantis Rising. and not far from shore-and not far from the Bahamas capitol.I pursued my investigations in a number of other areas. FAX (+49/0) 7552-97805. underwater micro-wormholes. It would be interesting to actually try to enter one of these "stargates"-except that they are usually microscopic to an extreme degree. and they tend to fluctuate in and out of existence. filtering ever so briefly through these on-again. which are shallow. off-again. but there must be many youngish. Do I have any takers? Dr. perhaps those near Nassau. I found out. 88620 Pfullendorf.one that can scarcely be proven scientifically that there is high degree of psychic." which I discovered with my friends Al Miller and Joel Green. athletic and gifted psychics who could be persuaded to don scuba diving gear and venture to the bottom of the ocean to see what telepathic feelings and messages they might be able to pick up. for instance." Jeanne Dixon may be too old for such a venture." energy in the Bahamas archipelago. I would like to suggest that one or a number of psychics descend to the sites of some of these underwater anomalies. keeps returning to the "underwater stargates of the Caribbean. seems like a propitious date. which could make an excellent host to a world press tempted to attend this unusual "Underwater Splashdown to the Stargates of the Caribbean. Therefore. Germany. My attention. All Rights Reserved END .

or how quickly storms could develop in that area. Many ships. The reason can be found in the weather patterns that affect that area. Is best known for over 100 airplane disappearances and over 1000 lives lost since 1945. Ships can be turned away from them before they get into trouble. reconnaissance planes. many of the ships sunk because the captains had no idea how powerful hurricanes could be. even in modern times. violent storms and hurricanes. The legend of the Bermuda Triangle actually started in the 1500s during the height of trading between Spain and the Americas. curious false bottom readings. and glowing streaks of luminescent fish or minerals. Storm systems exiting the United States usually strengthen in the Bermuda Triangle during the fall and winter because the very warm water in that area helps to develop those storms very quickly and sometimes without warning. Some of the more interesting aspects of this area include: great ocean trenches of up to seven miles in depth. with weather satellites. and other observation methods. hurricanes and other storms are much more detectable and predictable. which is also during Hurricane Season in the Atlantic Ocean. Critics argue that sea piracy or bad weather is often to blame. Ivan . unpredictable tidal like waves on calm seas generated by underground earthquakes. One general and common distress message which has been received during loss of ships and planes has been the reported observation of a spinning compass. however not allot of bodies or debris has been recovered. Actually. through the Bahamas past Puerto Rico. and then back to Bermuda. advanced radar. Many other devastating hurricanes have passed through this area over the past 30 years. and caused incredible amounts of damage in the northernmost Bahamas. and also in south Florida. loaded with gold and jewels for Spain. This devastating hurricane passed right through the heart of the Bermuda Triangle. The peak trading season was between June and October. BERMUDA TRIANGLE: This area extends from Bermuda to the Southern tip of Florida. or would arrive in Spain badly mauled by terrible storms. sunk in that area. and would either never return. Today. especially before the 1950s. and have caused several ships to sink. A perfect example of the volatile weather in that area came in the form of Hurricane Andrew. which the people on the ships claimed were attacked by sea monsters.The Weather In the Triangle It's no accident that many ships. would set out into the Bermuda Triangle.

The Bermuda Triangle stretches from San Juan. and the minor one. In fact." Although. A Brief History of the Devil's Triangle Limbo of the Lost. Columbus wrote of seeing "a great flame of fire" that crashed into the ocean -. Flight 19. Mary Celeste. electromagnetic storms. which. As for the lights. Puerto Rico and Fort Lauderdale. and then to Miami. Florida. The lights. From the account in Columbus's journal." In fact about 50 people have supposedly "disappeared. The Twilight Zone. have been recorded for centuries. brief flashes near the horizon. or nearby. of course. and people have "disappeared. it is thought that his compass's slight inaccuracy stemmed from nothing more than the discrepancy between true north and magnetic north. and powerful ocean currents. to Bermuda. Florida. but it is not. . boats.probably a meteor. but these events have mundane explanations. He saw lights in the sky again on October 11.Sanderson another serious researcher mapped twelve areas on the earth with abnormal electromagnetic aberrations shown by the map below: The Bermuda Triangle is supposedly a "gateway to other dimensions"(Carnegie). most of this can be explained by waterspouts.000 square miles(36. it is reported that Columbus's compass went haywire and that he and his crew saw weird lights in the sky. there are two major occurrences that started the myth: the major one. Some say that planes. many claim that Christopher Columbus bore witness to the Bermuda Triangle's weirdness. Hoodoo Sea. was the day before his famous landing. The Devil's Triangle. were spotted in the area where dry land turned out to be. It is 14. extreme air turbulence. but reports of bizarre happenings there.260 square kilometers). the Pinta and the Santa Maria sailed through the area in 1492. did not receive its most famous nickname until 1964. As the Nina. The vast three-sided segment of the Atlantic Ocean bordered by Bermuda. Puerto Rico.

that is mainly how the rumor got started. Here are some more facts. isn't that the place where Mary Celeste was abandoned. Twenty-seven minus fourteen equals thirteen. Now here is some more about the myth. but it was actually an island of the Bahamas. "Twenty-seven men lost in the Bermuda Triangle. Five times three equals fifteen. if you had a perfect landing. After that people started to blame the Bermuda Triangle. Also. and left. By now the rain had turned into a huge storm. It is supposed that the captain thought that there was going to be a huge storm. That means that about thirteen men went searching for fourteen men. This cannot be a coincidence. Taylor also refused to switch to an emergency radio channel. Mary Celeste Mary Celeste was a boat from the 1870's. and still no one knows why. It is very hard to find practically anything in that water. He was leading the flight. even to this day. they sent some more planes out to look for them. So. Other Disappearances . There were five planes. Charles Taylor was the Patrol leader of Flight 19. and never came back. Flight 19 probably sank over the Continental Shelf." Later he thought he saw the Florida Keys. Lt. It actually blew up 23 minutes after it took off. but they were heading to a very deep part of the Atlantic Ocean. then he flew north. Their route was "160 miles east. and also had a hangover. It was a "clear" day when Flight 19 took off. he thought he would fly by "Pilotage. they just guess. but that is only if the sea is calm. 40 miles north." and "dead reckoning. and after an hour he said to fly east. Supposedly. This is weird. when his compass went out. It was raining.Supposedly five Navy Avengers and one Martin Mariner flight-bo disappeared without a trace. He had though that they were above the Gulf of Mexico. or so we think. but one person did not come. He was the only experienced pilot on the flight. the Martin Mariner flight-bo was never lost. and no one. knows why. It has been over 100 years. all the pilots were experienced. The planes could float for two minutes. but still. and 120 miles straight. launched the lifeboat. thinking." Each plane took three people. So. minus one equals fourteen men. which is over thousands of feet deep. You might even be able to get out of the planes. It was abandoned. but it really was not anywhere near the Bermuda Triangle. It supposedly was in the Bermuda Triangle." So. In fact.

On December 28. was about to switch from radio contact with its departure point in Bermuda to radio contact with its destination Jamaica. A rescue plane with 13 crewmen was sent out and also disappeared without a trace. 1945: at Cecil Field in Jacksonville. 1814: US Navy vessel the Wasp.Flight 19. Proteus and Nereus both vanished on separate runs from the Virgin Islands to the USA. On March 13. 14 crewmen disappeared without a trace. 1949: Second Tudor IV vanishes. 1949: a DC-3 carrying 30 men and women and 2 babies. . never made it to his destination 1812: the ship Patriot and its main passenger Theodosia Burr Alston. left Barbados on March 4. wife of the Governor Joseph Alston of South Carolina and daughter of the Former Vice President Aaron Burr. captained by the eccentric Lieutenant Commander George W. Almost to the year. 1918: The USS Cyclops. Worley who frequented the bridge of the ship wearing long underwear and a bowler hat. 1945. commanded by Johnston Blakely. 1918 to Baltimore. 1948: DC-3 lost with 32 passengers and crew. 1948 the aircraft Star Tiger disappeared without a trace en route to Bermuda with 31 people on board. two the USS Cyclops's sister ships. when it vanished. a DC-3 carrying 35 people from Puerto Rico also disappeared shortly after the pilot radioed a similar message that it was just 80 kms south of Miami. a massive search ensued but no trace of the largest ship in the Navy or the 300 people on board were ever found. the Star Tiger's sister. Florida 24 skilled pilots A few hours later 10 planes returned out of the 12. 1941: In late November and early December 1941. 1948. 5 Navy Torpedo Bombers. 1949. On January 30. when the ship was long overdue. the Star Ariel. on January 17. The pilot had reported perfect weather. 1947: Army C-45 Superfort vanishes 100 miles off Bermuda. moments later the pilot radioed to ground crew that they would be shortly arriving on schedule.1609: mate Henry Ravens sailed in a long boat with a volunteer crew of 7 men. 1948: Four-engined Tudor IV luxury liner lost with 31 lives.

Several other pilots .000 tons. 1962: US Air Force KB-50 tanker plane lost. other occurrences in the same region are more hard to explain. On arrival the crew denied that anything odd had happened to them except that they had flown through a light fog for 10 minutes. a National Airlines 727 passenger flight disappeared from radar screens at Miami International Airport for 10 minutes. disappears with crew of ten.000 ton German freighter *An area called the "Devil's Sea" by Japanese and Filipino seamen. 1972: German freighter Anita. She routinely radioed her position and was not heard from again. 425-ft-long American freighter. lost with crew of 32. 1951. 1956: US Navy seaplane. sinks without trace. All the timepieces on the plane were ten minutes slow though they had matched up in a time check with the airport shortly before their disappearance. Two US Air Force giant stratotankers disappear on simple exercise. also exhibits the same magnetic characteristics.1950: Giant US Air Force Globemaster lost. located off the East Coast of Japan. 1954: US Navy Lockheed Constellation vanishes with 42 aboard. The vessel and her 28-man crew were never heard from again. vanishes with entire crew. 350 ft long. 1967: Military YC-122. 1970: French freighter Milton Iatrides disappears. lost. These were just a few of the disappearances that have been reported over the Bermuda Triangle but even if one were to accept the reasonable explanations purported about mutinies and bad weather and accidents and poor navigation. Only one life jacket was found from the disappearance. A giant air force tanker took off from Langley Air Force Base in Virginia and never came back. 1950: American freighter. 20. It is also known for its mysterious disappearances.C-124 Globemaster with 53 passengers 1952: British York transport plane lost with 33 aboard. Martin P5M. No Mayday signals and no wreckage ever found. SS Sandra. 1963: Marine Sulphur Queen. 1973: the 33. For instance. converted to cargo plane. C-132 Cargomaster also vanishes.

but this island looks uninhabited . A VLF-Resonance transmitter (a technology many believe to be in use by the North American Air Defense Command.no buildings. Gaddis. with a number of books (mostly just re-written versions of the older books) getting national press. in a somewhat altered state. gives rise to other explanations. Another case that strengthens this theory is of a less fortunate pilot called Carolyn Casico and her passenger. this unexplained phenomena has provided an ample battlefield for a fierce controversy that has raged since the early 60's. "I can’t understand it.have related experiences of gaining impossible time after flying through sudden hazes. or NORAD) would have an antipode directly in the middle of the Bermuda Triangle. relied on the power of energy crystals.. Also known as the "Devil's Triangle". a licensed pilot. ground staff saw her circling aimlessly. The airport manager received no response to radio contact.V. even if they go contrary to the natural laws of physics. The advanced state of Atlantis at the time of it's submersion.W.. she turned back and flew away. when it was brought to light as "The Deadly Bermuda Triangle". The term "Bermuda Triangle" was not coined until 1964. and ones that might better explain the Bermuda Triangle mystery. and reiterated two years later in an Fate magazine article. Carolyn. roads .... when he heard her exchange words with her passenger. This hypothetical system would be capable of . Lastly. Some believe that the Bermuda Triangle Phenomena is caused by the Lost City of Atlantis. Carolyn and her passenger were never seen or heard from again . Jones as a side note to the many ships lost in the area.. sending out rays of energy that either confuses the instrumentation of vehicles. That of an aberrant energy field that creates time warps or gaps. an article in Argosy magazine by Vincent H. the shape is right. First reported as an AP dispatch in 1950 by E. by George X. or disintegrates them all together. suggesting that it was alien in nature. As she approached the island. many believe the Bermuda Triangle to be a man-made energy field using Tesla based technologies. It’s the right place on the map... Sand.. sunk thousands of feet below the water's surface. Which of course. Books on UFOs in the late 50's also spoke of the triangle. took a charter flight to Turk Island in the Bermuda triangle. After a few more circles. This should be Grand Turk but there is nothing there. Bermuda Triangle fever peaked in 1974.nothing”. It is possible that these crystals are still at the bottom of the ocean.

000 feet of water. jacks. The Lost Blue Hole Perhaps the most unusual dive site in the Bahamas. is now a simple framework draped with a kaleidoscope of colorful gorgonians and sponges. giant Southern Stingray. Navy for submarine exercises. Along the perimeter divers may see large schools of reef fish. Also found nearby will be large Groupers. Rainbow Runner. good u/w photography site. tethered in 6. drops to about 200'. and Sergeant Majors. Stopping at sites like Tuna Alley.S. Tunnel Wall . diving as we go. Its mass floating on the surface attracts a wide variety of pelagic marine life such as Dolphinfish. or a pod of spotted dolphins . each circling around each coral head. Angelfish. Tears of Allah . Hogfish City and finishing with Wanyes Shark Hole where it is not unusual to find sleeping reef sharks. this natural hole extends about 100' across. eels and numerous sharks. Nearby are these: The Shark Buoy / Deer Island Buoy . Upon clearing Bahamian Customs & Immigration in Bimini we journey south.network of crevices and tunnels. Most shops permit a maximum 80' depth. although six days trips can be arranged. and would definitely provide enough interference to scramble signals that airplanes and boats rely upon. including Chromis. Cay Sal Bank There are few places in the world that can equal the diving you will find in Cay Sal.wrecked freighter where James Bond eluded the Tiger Shark in "Never Say Never. exits along the vertical precipice at 70 or 80 feet. offering great u/w photography. and Silky Sharks. dotted with isolated coral heads.recharging speculated secret electric-powered submarine classes. Typically these trips last seven days.used in "Thunderball". The Vulcan Bomber . sits in 40 feet of water. Visibility usually in excess of 150 feet.used by the U. Victory Reef. starting at a depth of 40'. with its perimeter. Again". starts in 30 feet. With pristine water and unparalleled wall diving it's no wonder so many people going there every year.

Take time to explore the many chimneys that start at the top of the reef and open somewhere on the wall. Cayce told of an advanced civilization. exploring deserted islands. viewed at the right time of day pillars of fire appear to dance across the cave floor. tuna or even mammals like ocean dolphins off in the distance. Cayce also predicted that the western ridge of Atlantis would be discovered off the coast of the Bimini islands. wall dives that are teaming with marine life. In The 1960's a startling discovery was made in that same place. Eagle. Amongst the coral you will find colorful tropical fish. a citizen of Atlantis. another dive site. making the ruins much easier to explore. The Red Hole. but a giant death ray machine. where lush wall dives await you. .which extends beyond sight. enjoying super snorkeling with all the swim throughs and hidden caves. You will spend the next few days doing wall dives. The Fire Demon is one such cave. As you drift along the wall be sure to watch for eagle rays. and huge lobster. Beginning at 65' these walls then drop off to ? ? ? Often you will find the wall to be inverted. If the Edgar Cayce readings are correct. and also as the father of holistic medicine. the sinking of the West Coast will rise this area above sea level in due course. eels.The Captains drive late into the night making way to remote Cay Sal. It was that of an ancient roadway built out of large stones which was under the ocean off the coast of Bimini. Elephant Rock. starting at 25 to 30 feet deep this hole cuts back then opens into huge bowl. The most notable weapon being the "death ray". THE ATLANTIS CONNECTION? Edgar Cayce. is small enough to swim around and has an interesting cave off to one side. so lush is the overgrowth. with all the inventions of our modern day life including weapons of mass destruction. because the gulf stream passes so close by there is a constant supply of fresh water circulating. Last Rock & The Chimney. Could this be an ancient highway of Atlantis? THE SCOTT STONES The possible accuracy of Aaron Du Val’s claims about the "Scott Stones" near Bimini certainly appears to fit this criteria quite nicely. Death rays came in all sizes. Anchoring at the Blue Hole. After a day of blue hole diving you head for Elbow Cay. But the walls are why you came. who was know as a healer and psychic. in a former life. This clean water also produces 150' plus visibility. which was the largest of all their weapons is said to be the weapon that destroyed Atlantis. sharks. This is no accident. claimed that he was.

Ireland. however. appear to be identical matches with those found on the Bimini temple stones. Although many maps of the heavenly realm adorn various walls of these mysterious Bimini temples. This same checkerboard pattern . So called "quarry marks" found in the Aswan quarries and also on the Great Pyramid. although smaller in size than the Great Pyramid of Giza.000 years old have been found near Bimini. megalithic walls and walkways. Other characteristics closely match features at megalithic sites in Peru. Evidence indicates that a "checkerboard" calculator system was being used.) Preliminary analysis has revealed that the original structures. It appears that the most important or revered numbers associated with these ruins were the numbers five and nine. several match those found in the famous Altamira Cave in Spain which contains the well-known bison painting. Bahamas. In addition. white. there is an almost complete lack of other markings. which Hermann believes to be the Tower of Ilta that is referred to in the Edgar Cayce readings.000 years ago has only just begun. the Yucatan. The ruins of temples dated at 12. Casing stones have been measured which are of the same unique angle as those at the Great Pyramid. appear to have been more advanced. Preliminary analysis has revealed that the original structures. although smaller in size. and black. The ruins are megalithic and bear a remarkable resemblance to ancient sites in Egypt. The stones are already drawing international attention and aggressive research and analysis projects are being set up which hope to commence more involved investigations shortly. appear to have been more advanced than the Great Pyramid of Giza. Examples of this system were found on top of the Great Pyramid and were long used for numerical calculations in Mesoamerica. metal-coated walls. These numbers were also of great significance to the ancients of Egypt and Mesoamerica. Charles Berlitz had already given pictorial and radar – based evidence for submerged step pyramids. Other characteristics either closely match or are identical to features at megalithic sites in Peru. Of the limited glyphs that do exist. and intermingled stones of various colors.Before Du Val. Casing stones have been measured which are of the same unique angle as those at the Great Pyramid. and Scandinavia. itself. as well as a fantastic – sized tower. Analysis of these enigmatic ancient temples built near Bimini over 12. Mexico. Ireland and Scandinavia. (including red. there are exact orbital plots of the planets and what seem to have been intricate star shafts. the Yucatan.

however. The major concern of the mysterious ancient civilization that produced these heavenly maps seems to have been Saturn and Jupiter -. But perhaps. The organic matter was in pristine condition and should prove to be . the cement that once held the huge stones together is now completely crystallized. The antiquity of the stones almost leaps out at you upon first glance. along with unrusted. according to some astronomers. The stones are already drawing international attention and aggressive research and analysis projects are being set up which hope to commence more involved investigations shortly. for the present. The unnamed discoverers have given the temple ruins the title of "The Scott Stones" -. Of the limited glyphs that do exist. now exhibit significant portions which have metamorphosed over the ages to the point where they are no longer even granite. geologists tell us. There are hollows which have been left in certain broken stones which have undergone such an extensive amount of crystal growth upon their inner surfaces that they now look like the inside of a geode! In many cases.in honor of the Professor who laid down the clues which made the discovery possible. the most significant of all is the fact that organic matter has been found within an hermetic seal. worked iron. however. The exact location of the site is being withheld. several match those found in the famous Altamira Cave (known as the Sistine Chapel of pre-history) which contains the well-known bison painting. The iron began to rust soon after the seal was opened. themselves. there is an almost complete lack of other markings . Although many maps of the heavenly realm adorn various walls of these mysterious Bimini temples.000 years. this pattern served as a calendar regulator to measure the sunrise and sunset directions on solstices and equinoxes. strangely enough. which would indicate that the seal had prevented the entry of oxygen for thousands of years. To begin with. Also. There are also instances in which lava has flowed in between some of the temple stones which may give scientists an approximate date when submitted to testing.just as found in the pyramids at Giza.shows up on the lintel stones of temples built by Celts of Iberian origin. the area in which they were built.with the oldest records reflecting and emphasis on Saturn. until the proper government officials and museums can be notified. some of the massive granite blocks. has been underwater for about 12. Even more telling is the fact that.

As progress continued in translating an ancient form of writing found in Egypt. and the explorers say that as translations continue." The explorers also say that the unthinking and inconsiderate attitudes of some. the explorers were able to locate (on the 23rd of October) a MATCHING SET OF RECORDS IN THE YUCATAN AREA! This latest find is very exciting. is that by matching the available clues. Other hermetic seals. But the important news. and the religion of Atlantis. itself! The explorers say they are "thrilled. pending the institution of proper protection and supervision. . a SIMILAR SET OF RECORDS had actually been carried to the area of the Yucatan! A full explanation of how this was determined from actual records in Egypt will have to wait. for the time being. the explorers who discovered these matching sets of ancient records say they will continue to decode them and leave the rash and irresponsible thrill-seekers to their frantic antics of helpless envy. Records which have been translated.an interesting target for dating procedures. remain a secret. which have yet to be opened. so far. that there may be many who will see this information as quite "shocking or up-setting. They warn. are known to exist. it was realized. to date. It is estimated that a full translation of records found. historical events. It is for this most obvious reason that the exact location of both of these sites MUST. the explorers were finally able to vault a formidable barrier. to both the revelance and the fragility of these discoveries (not to mention the inevitable complications involved with governmental entanglements) leave them little room to reveal much more at this time and still insure the responsible protection of these sites. for now. 1998. it may be possible to locate other sites with matching records. could take years to accomplish. to the surprise (and joy) of the explorers. awed. by carefully following guidelines laid out by Professor Scott. deal with prophecy. that at some point in time. Until such time. EXACTLY how old are the Scott Stones? will this ancient megalithic site be one of the first to yield an accurate account of its true age? Did men work iron before the Iron Age? We may soon know! On the 23rd of September. making it possible to begin deciphering an ancient form of writing which apparently goes all the way back to Atlantis. dimensional shifts in time. But the fact that the very same information is found in both hemispheres can only be seen as a RESOUNDING VERIFICATION as to the authenticity and intention of these records. as well. and humbled" by the information they are recovering. however. as well.

sonar tracing has mapped the pyramid's outline. ARE intricately and indisputably linked. without the actual records which were discovered at the Scott Stones site. Manson Valentine.200 feet below the surface of the Atlantic. and they DO absolutely corroborate each other!! What's more. distributed by Roger Brown of "Fountain Adelaide".According to the explorers.R. just any pyramid. Dr. who discovered the puzzling phenomenon while making sonar tracings of the sea floor in an area of the Atlantic between South Bimini Island and the north end of the Cay Sal Bank. with a base of a thousand feet square. is convinced and points out that the area where the pyramid is located was once dry sand. Also. anthropologist and zoologist at the Miami Museum of Science. British Edition. though NOT identical. 6. "And not.E.) are saying that: "It cannot even be debated (probably much to the rancor or chagrin of some) that the actual INFORMATION contained in these records *DOES* POSITIVELY CONFIRM things which Edgar Cayce supposedly saw. it will be virtually impossible to locate the matching set of records in the Yucatan area. however. The area has long been suggested as the site of Atlantis. including: startling new information concerning a predicted RETURN!" Pyramid Found Under The Sea SOURCE: Janet Ann Spencer extracts from "The Planetary Connections". I was more surprised when he immediately recognized who I was. Issue No. He stated emphatically that the quarry marks he had witnessed on the stones were . Christopher Dunn reports . He was staggered when he realized that this undersea pyramid was some three hundred feet higher than the Cheops Pyramid. the explorers (although independent and having no connections whatsoever with the A. The discovery was made and then confirmed by Captain Don Henry. The explorers explain that these three sets of records. having read my articles in Atlantis Rising and on the Internet.I was intrigued by this report and immediately called DuVal to get more information. Surprised when DuVal answered the phone. they say that without the Egyptian set of records. J. Winter 1994/5-Newsweek reports the discovery of a pyramid under the Bermuda Triangle. and shows it rising to a height of some 780 feet from the otherwise flat ocean floor 1. these current researchers stand little to no chance of being able to locate the Egyptian set of records which has proven so helpful.

he had his own reservations. but he refused to reveal its whereabouts. He said that if anyone should view this site. then we may have indications of a prehistoric advanced culture. Even though skeptical of DuVal. another researcher. while keeping an open mind. I told him I couldn't make it to his conference on July 25th. I asked DuVal where the site was located. and friend of his. I asked him if there was evidence of precision machining with small corner radii where a tool was used. He claimed emphatically that if I came to Florida.a feat that he says would require sonic drills (see picture at beginning of this article).identical to those I had taken in Egypt and published in my article. After e-mailing the information to Atlantis Rising editor Doug Kenyon. I was mindful of the experience I had while in Egypt in 1995. He told me about petalshaped holes that were drilled through 12 feet of granite. and if I was shown an ancient artifact that was identified as being 12. I followed up with a telephone call. Wingate described petal-shaped holes drilled through 12 feet of granite. He also wouldn't tell me what kind of transportation I would take to get to the site.000 years old with the same precision as the stones in Egypt. with thousands of tourists passing it by. Doug and I agreed that it may be worth checking out. but suspicious that DuVal's discovery was actually the jetties in Miami. it might indeed be a remarkable discovery. The item I studied on the Giza Plateau had been overlooked for centuries. saying that the site needed to be protected. One premise put forward by Wingate was that the Moselle Shoals (formerly the Moselle Reef) near Bimini are the ruins of a prehistoric structure. He responded that the radius on the stone he had seen was larger than the one I had published. I came across and was able to inspect evidence of advanced methods of machining granite. . I should. We both agreed that if DuVal's analysis of the site could be verified. He then told me about Richard Wingate. because I was moving into a new house. Upon further questioning he said that the stones were not a part of a recognizable structure. On July 13 I received the following e-mail from DuVal. I wouldn't be disappointed. who had worked in that area. I told him I could probably make it at an earlier date. Many of the blocks of stone that make up the First Street Jetty and others in Miami were taken from the Moselle Reef and brought over on barges in the 1920s. Doug had already talked to DuVal and. We were both exceedingly curious. He did say that people have not recognized it for what it truly is. and wouldn't answer when asked if they were in their original location. In support of his premise that these are the stones of Atlantis.

He stated emphatically that I would not be disappointed by what I saw. Thank you for your interest in this matter. but I did have an enjoyable weekend in Miami. When I called DuVal again. He indicated that he would reimburse me and asked how much it was. He promised to pick me up at the airport. We then talked further about the site and I told him I was going to write an article for Atlantis Rising on my visit. 1997. We have decided that it would be good for you to see the Scott Stones right away. but I couldn't find it. Needless to say. Please make a short call to us. Again there was silence. He gulped when I told him and said he would send me an e-mail the following day.3 days in showing them to you. The following day. He didn't answer.Mr. I spent quite a bit of time clambering over the rocks in the Miami jetties seeking evidence of advanced machining technology. I asked if the site was on the mainland. He nervously apologized and informed me that he couldn't show me the site as planned. who laid the groundwork for their discovery. Dunn. I booked a flight to Miami for July 18th and called DuVal with my arrival time. he extended his hospitality and offered accommodation if I would come to Miami.M. I assured him that I would not reveal the location of any site he showed me that had not been similarly identified in the past and that credit would most certainly go where it is deserved. Tuesday. He said that they would probably reveal the location of the site at the conference. I asked him if the site was indeed one of the jetties in Miami. He wanted me to promise two things: that I would not reveal the location of the site and that credit for the discovery of the site would go to Professor Scott. because once the photographs and video were shown. I know there are people who would like to believe that eventually some hard evidence would be found to support Edgar Cayce's prediction that Atlantis would be found in the Bahamas. if this might be suitable for you. Aaron Du Val. On July 16. . The best time for us would be anytime between 15 July and 21 July. I told him I had already bought the plane ticket and on such short notice I couldn't get a refund. Or e-mail us if you would like to set a different date-time. and described to him Richard Wingate's research. I received no e-mail or reimbursement. We would be most pleased to spend 2 . July 15th. if that would give you enough time to get the pictures and measurements you might need. the site might be recognized. at 10:30 P. I received a call from DuVal.

access to an Internet service and. I can only conclude. I was looking for precision. DuVal claimed. expressing. They tend to muddy the water and give strength to the orthodox status quo. as it allows for greater freedom of expression. though. a modem. DuVal describes in his several press releases. after this experience. suddenly. Unsubstantiated reports such as these can harm serious researchers who accept the evidence that prove advanced civilizations existed in prehistory. again. 1997. comes responsibility. I stopped in the Miami Museum on the way back from Coral Castle in Homestead. I'm sure. a concern for the protection of the site. Just as anyone can rent a hall. 1997 DuVal apologized for treating me rudely and told me that they are waiting for lab results before revealing anything to the public. to the disappointment of attendees. There were many blocks of granite that had intriguing hole patterns drilled into them. I did locate much of what Mr. On September 27. The Egyptology Society of Miami still has not presented their findings to the public. that this may be the case. We are responsible for how we influence others. by what I have observed. as well as how we permit ourselves to be influenced. will give him some space and the opportunity to identify the correct site so that his claims can be checked and verified. Given that I specifically gave DuVal the opportunity to deny that the site was the jetties in Miami and he didn't. Doug Kenyon. With this freedom. The quarry marks were nothing like the quarry marks found in Egypt. was. but meet periodically in their auditorium. Obviously. They also had the large radius that DuVal described. our major concern should be how other authors influence us. The concrete curbs taken from the streets and thrown on the jetty were made up of red and white concrete. One large piece of concrete had a piece of steel running through a channel. you are an instant author! Is this a bad thing? Not necessarily. anyone can publish on the Internet. All you need is a PC. and couldn't find it. I suppose with a little imagination. If my assumptions are incorrect. . Their originally scheduled date of July 25. 1997. on this great Atlantean caper.Interestingly. I also learned that they are not affiliated with the museum as Mr. Let's not forget the story about the boy who cried wolf. one could make something of them. and learned that the Egyptology Society was indeed scheduled to give a presentation on July 25th. and given the circumstances leading up to my observations. rescheduled for August 8.

Later. The noted similarities to Egyptian ruins included distinctive quarry marks on the rocks and the same geometric angles present in the Great Pyramid of Giza. president of the Miami-based Egyptology Society. in an interview conducted by a new age organization called New Heaven New Earth. South America and other parts of the world. which is actually a natural formation of limestone. Du Val claimed the structures bear markings and architectural specifications that match wellknown megaliths in Egypt. 1997. Du Val made no specific reference to Atlantis. he stopped short of claiming . Du Val said the Bimini ruins contained "exact orbital plots of the planets and what seem to have been intricate star shafts. metal-coated walls.000-year-old temples off the coast of Bimini.Sunken Cement Barrels Atlantis Debunked by D. recently announced that a team of underwater explorers has found the ruins of 12. Trull Enigma Editor The island of Bimini in the Bahamas has long been a favorite hotspot in the search for Atlantis." In the initial press release. To make his claims even more fantastic. and intermingled stones of various colors. Speculation has centered around a supposed "Bimini Road" (or "Bimini Wall"). Other markings were said to match the Altamira cave paintings of Spain. There have also been unfounded reports of stone columns and giant pyramids in the island's waters. Aaron Du Val. and it appears that it will prove just as insubstantial as the Atlantis theories that have come and gone before. a structure often said to have been paved on the ocean floor by Atlanteans. Now another claim has surfaced of a great discovery at Bimini. dated July 6.

" Du Val was quick to agree when the interviewer noted how his announcement seemed to fulfill the predictions of alleged prophet Edgar Cayce. "Now we are not saying it is Atlantis. In a statement issued to New Heaven New Earth." Du Val said."Bimini is not the lost world. Paul Pettennude.that these ruins were evidence of the legendary sunken city. an underwater archaeologist with the Maya Underwater Research Center." In fact. Du Val's claims garnered a stern rebuke from Dr." Du Val said. Megalithic structures are not supposed to be in the Bahamas. Du Val planned a press conference for July 25. one of the top Atlantis advocates of all time. He also stated that he had never claimed the ruins were Atlantis.among other things -. who is intimately familiar with the waters around Bimini. Plato's description of Atlantis was most likely a reference to the Minoan island of Santorini. These are closer to what you would find at Giza than what you would find in Mexico or Peru. which is very strange. "Atlantis is a pretty touchy subject.that Atlantis would rise again to the surface in 1968 or 1969. Among the points of Pettennude's argument: -. very popular resort destination . Du Val remained tight-lipped on crucial details of the Bimini ruins. He explained that he needed to work out arrangements with museums and the Bahamian government to protect the site before its location was made public. It is a very. although he seemed to relish the possibility. including the exact location of the findings and the names of the explorers who found them. "Maybe this will be the trigger to bring more people forth to explore ideas that have been taboo in the past. which was devastated by a volcano. Cayce actually prophesied -. People are saying unbelievable things like it could force the re-interpretation of the course of human history. apparently to combat the "Atlantis fever" word of his announcement had triggered on the Internet. but it sure is strange how these findings not only match Cayce's predictions but Plato's writings as well. he listed several reasons why nothing like the ruins Du Val describes could possibly exist. promising full disclosure and presentation of video tapes and photographs of the ruins. "This discovery fits right with his predictions. near Crete. even to the metalcoated walls.

" -. leaving stone casts after the wood staves of the barrels rotted away.000 feet was examined and every piece of the wreck larger than a dinner plate was recovered." -. There are only a handful of people in the world trained and certified to dive these research blends. NASA had the Navy scour everything north of Cuba to north of North Carolina looking for pieces of the exploded Challenger shuttle. 1997 press conference at the last minute."The reefs off Bimini from 300 feet up to the surface are less than 14."The U. and the Rosenteil School of Oceanography at the University of Miami "is very sophisticated and there is nothing but known wrecks being found. These artifacts were actually formed by barrels of cement and similar materials that sunk from ships and hardened underwater. No one has any knowledge nor has been asked to find an ancient city. I am one of them and the group is a close knit family." -."Divers could not have found a city below 250 feet without special diving gases. It paints a picture of everything from the bottom up. Navy maintains a system called SOSUS which cost $16 billion to secure the ocean floor from foreign subs. There could not be a sunken city because the Bahama Islands are not shrinking but actually growing inches per year. He indicated that more time was necessary to ensure the safety of the ruins.." -. lest they fall victim to looters and vandals."In 1986. Du Val rescheduled the press conference for August 8." -. Florida. '97 but it was postponed a second time.000 years old.Equipment used by the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Melbourne. As it turned out. Another red herring that has thrown off Atlantis seekers at Bimini are stone pillars on the ocean floor that resemble shattered marble columns. . he canceled the July 25th. Manson Valentine. This would have made any ancient city unstable. ." Pettennude also mentioned the spurious "Bimini Road" and noted that the man who discovered it in 1968. was one of his professors at the University of Miami. J.. Every square foot of bottom down to 6.and thousands of divers visit it every year. Every available reef is dived frequently and nothing else has turned up.S. The weight of the evidence certainly seems to be stacked against Du Val. This is the level to which the water rose at the end of the last ice age.

" At ParaScope. the mass media has made no announcement on the discovery of Atlantis. The only news outlet that seems to be following the story is the web site of New Heaven New Earth. It is supposed to be part of a story told by Plato's great grandfather (Critias). Obviously.After extensive research. Extract from Plato's Timaeus and Critias This extract from the work of Plato (circa 427 .at a cost of $100 a year. ParaScope has found no further information on this supposed discovery or any subsequent public remarks from Du Val. whose news bulletins are available to members only -. we may have more to report on this story after all the details have surfaced. where we believe the news should always be free for everyone. News concerning the Bimini discovery is to be posted by NHNE "four weeks after our subscribers have received it.347 BC) is the first appearance in classical literature of the Atlantis myth. who heard it from his great-grandfather (Dropides). who heard it from an Athenian traveller .

and from them the whole opposite continent which surrounds what can truly be called the ocean. On this island of Atlantis had arisen a powerful and remarkable dynasty of kings. For the sea within the strait we were talking about is like a lake with a narrow entrance (the Mediterranean sea). At a later time there were earthquakes and floods of extraordinary violence.(Solon). and in a single dreadful day and night all your fighting men were swallowed up by the earth. and then when they deserted her and she was forced to fight alone. It is supposed to describe a historical war between the ancient Athenians and the legendary Atlantis. and some Canarian writers have associated Atlantis with the Canaries. and the island of Atlantis was similarly swallowed up by the sea and vanished. The narrator is an Egyptian priest talking to Solon. from it travellers could in those days reach the other islands. first published 1965. and many other islands as well and parts of the continent. she overcame the invaders and celebrated a victory. attempted to enslave. the outer ocean is the real ocean and the land which entirely surrounds it is properly termed continent. she led an alliance of the Greeks. Ivan Sanderson . at a single stroke. within the strait. It was then. 'Our records show how your city checked a great power which arrogantly advanced from its base in the Atlantic Ocean to attack the cities of Europe and Asia. This dynasty. Libya up to the borders of Egypt and Europe as far as Tyrrhenia (Italy). this is why the sea in that area is to this day impassable to navigation. in addition it controlled. Although Plato describes Atlantis as an island in the Atlantic Ocean. who ruled the whole island. after running into direst peril. Penguin Classics. Her bravery and military skill were outstanding. For in those days the Atlantic was navigable. the remains of the sunken island' Translation by Sir Desmond Lee. she rescued those not yet enslaved from the slavery threatening them. that the power and courage and strength of your city became clear for all men to see. your country and ours and all the territory within the strait. There was an island opposite the strait which you call the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar). and she generously freed all others living within the Pillars of Hercules. which is hindered by mud just below the surface. Solon. it is now generally believed that the Atlantis myth is a memory of Minoan Crete. an island larger than Libya (Africa) and Asia combined. a civilisation which was overwhelmed by the volcanic explosion of the Mediterranean island of Santorini in the fifteenth century BC. gathering its whole power together.

wrote "The Twelve Devil’s Graveyards Around the World" for Saga magazine in 1972.1976 The riddle of Atlantis is among the greatest of the world's unsolved mysteries. historians. as early historians reported.." plotted ship and plane disappearances worldwide. New Jersey. . for a start. were equally rich in disappearances and space-time shift occurrences. 1980. Reprinted in Paradox. Here events have become so sinister that the Japanese government has officially designated the area a danger zone." this chapter examines in detail the basic evidence for the existence and cataclysmic destruction of Atlantis. Other zones of anomaly. with several associates. and occultists have kept up an almost ceaseless search for its precise whereabouts. .. though less familiar.The professional biologist who founded the Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained in Columbia. Penn. equally spaced over the globe. Sanderson theorized that the tremendous hot and cold currents crossing his most active zones might create the electromagnetic gymnastics affecting instruments and vehicles. His theory is now being balanced against several. Highest on Sanderson’s statistical priority list was a lozenge-shaped area east of Miami. by Nicholas R. Another area of continuing disappearances and mysterious time-warps is the Devil’s Sea located east of Japan between Iwo Jima and Marcus Island. His success was startling. on the western tip of the infamous Bermuda Triangle. Dorrance & Co. archaeologists. Ardmore." THE ATLANTIS MYSTERY Excerpted from Mysteries of the Lost Lands by Eleanor Van Zandt and Roy Stemman circa .. Nelson. vanish from the earth in a day and a night? Small wonder that since the earliest times scholars.. Beginning with the Greek philosopher Plato's first description of the lost land that was apparently "the nearest thing to paradise on Earth. in which magnetic anomalies and other energy aberrations were linked to a full spectrum of strange physical phenomena. Where. "The Twelve Devil’s Graveyards Around the World. ". was the exact site of this huge island civilization? did it really. was mostly due to the enormous flow of air/ sea traffic in the area. This area’s "high profile" of strange events. he set out to 'pattern the mysteries' by taking full advantage of modern communication technology and statistical data analysis. Sanderson concluded. focusing attention on 12 areas. in the Bahamas..

He was the first to describe it in detail. Said to have been a huge island continent with an extraordinary civilization. it is reported to have vanished from the face of the earth in a day and a night. restaurants. short stories. the lost continent of Atlantis has exerted a mysterious influence over the human race for thousands of years. Underground streams of wonderfully sweet water were used to irrigate the soil. or is it just a myth? Ours may be the generation that finally solves this tantalizing and ancient enigma. did Atlantis exist. Its name has been used for ships. to provide hot and cold fountains and baths for all the inhabitants. Today the search for evidence of the existence of Atlantis continues with renewed vigor. All kinds of tame and wild animals roamed its meadows and magnificent forests. Atlantis is probably the biggest. and drank from its rivers and lakes.600 years ago. the Atlanteans were accomplished engineers. silver. and . and even a region of the planet Mars. Fragrant flowers and herbs bloomed n the wooded slopes of its many beautiful mountains. and their principal royal palace was a marvel of size and beauty. and above all it offers the challenge of a genuinely sensational detective story. So complete was this devastation that Atlantis sank beneath the sea. Thousands of books and articles have been written about the lost continent. situated in the Atlantic Ocean. and movies. magazines. Despite this colossal vanishing trick. Pythagoras taught Plato what he knew) Of all the world's unsolved mysteries. Besides being skilled metallurgists. It appeals to our nostalgic longing for a better. Atlantis has come to symbolize our dream of a once golden past. Atlantean societies have been formed to theorize and speculate about a great lost land. It is almost as though a primitive memory of the glorious days of Atlantis lingers on in the deepest recesses of the human mind. A huge and complex system of canals and bridges linked their capital city with the sea and the surrounding countryside. using 20th century man's most sophisticated tools in the hope of discovering the continent that is said to have disappeared around 11.(Note: Plato was not the first one to know about Atlantis. poems. tin. The earth was rich in precious metals.There were even baths for the horses. and the Atlanteans were wealthier than any people before or after with gold. happier world. it feeds out hunger for knowledge of mankind's true origins. Fruits and vegetables grew in abundance in its rich soil. and ivory. nor have centuries of skepticism by scientists succeeded in banishing Atlantis to obscurity in its watery grave. . The passage of time has not diminished interest in the fabled continent. brass. taking with it every trace of its existence. Atlantis is said to have been the nearest thing to paradise that the earth has seen. It has inspired the authors of novels.

bit also by their own discoveries. Whether they lived in the city or the country. Although Plato claimed that the story of the lost continent was derived from ancient Egyptian records. The Atlanteans were poised to strike against Athens and Egypt when the Athenian army rose up. wise. the people of Atlantis had everything they could possibly want for their comfort and happiness. their noble nature became debased. Hardly had the Athenians tasted victory when a terrible cataclysm wiped out their entire army ina single day and night. Why. They were a gentle. and loving people. they set about waging war on others. Plato was a master storyteller who put his philosophical ideas across in the form of apparently real-life events with well-known characters. nor has any direct mention of Atlantis been found in any surviving records made before Plato's time. are there so many remarkable similarities between the ancient cultures of th Old and New Worlds? Why do we find the same plants and animals on continents thousands of miles apart when there is no known way for them to have been transported there? How did the primitive . and defeated them. The man who first committed the legend to paper was the Greek philosopher Plato. The very fact that it is still widely relegated as a factual account 2300 years after he wrote it shows the extraordinary power of Plato's story. It has inspired scholars to stake their reputation on the former existence of the lost continent. In time. subsequent authors have merely interpreted or added to it. and caused Atlantis to sink forever beneath the waves. Their vast armies swept through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean region. who in about 355 B. wrote about Atlantis in two of his famous dialogues. more than 9200 years later. At all events. Their actions were prompted not by the Greek story alone. unaffected by their great wealth and prizing virtue above all things. and his Atlantis story might well have been firmly relegated to the realms of fiction. Perhaps a few survivors were left to tell what happened. the story is said to have been passed down through many generations until. and explorers to go in search of its remains. the Timaeus and the Critias. it was made known to the world for the first time.there were magnificent docks and harbors for the fleets of vessels that carried on a flourishing trade with overseas countries. conquering large areas of North Africa and Europe. Every book and article on Atlantis that has ever been published has been based on Plato's account. however. no such records have ever come to light. which seemed to indicate that there must once have been a great landmass that acted as a bridge between our existing continents. drove them back to Gibraltar.C. ask the scholars. No longer satisfied with ruling their own great land of plenty.

they take the form of dialogues or playlets in which a group of individuals discuss various political and moral issues. Critias the elder. Like Plato's other writings. is certainly true. Plato had already used the same cat of real-life characters in his most famous dialogue. and he planned his trilogy as a sequel to that debate. Leading the discussion is Plato's old teacher. Nevertheless. critias.) Critias says that while Solon was in Sais. Timaeus. His debating companions are Timaeus. a group of priests told him the story of Atlantis . and the mens tart by recalling their previous conversation. who ..C. who passed it on to his son." Solon made notes of the conversation. and part of the second.the few survivors who were not on or near the island continent when it was engulfed? Even without Plato's account. Dropides. Timaeus begins on the day following the debate recorded in The Republic.C. a poet and historian who was a distant relative of Plato. Then Hermocrates mentions "a story derived from ancient tradition" that Critias knows.peoples of many lands construct technological marvels. the quest for answers to these mysteries might have led to the belief by some in a 'missing link' between the continents . why do the legends of people the world over tell the same story of an overwhelming natural disaster and the arrival or godlike beings who brought with them a new culture from a far? could the catastrophe that sank Atlantis have sent tidal waves throughout the glove. the Greek philosopher Socrates. causing terrible havoc and destruction? And were the 'gods' the remnants of the Atlantean race . but he did not do so. in which the four men had talked at some length about ideal government. and Hermocrates."a tale that. and intended recording the story for posterity. though strange. Instead he told it to a relative. an astronomer from Italy. Plato intended writing a trilogy in which the Atlantis story plays an important part. it is the Greek philosopher's story that lies at the heart of all arguments for or against the existence of such a lost continent. so 20 years earlier than the date given b Plato. Plato set the meeting of the four men in Critia's house in June 421 B. Critias recalls how. such as Stonehenge in Britain.a land-bridge populated by a highly evolved people in the distant past. Pressed for details. written some years previously. a general from Syracuse. a century and a half earlier. the huge statues of Easter Island in the Pacific and the strange sacred cities of the Andes? Were they helped by a technically sophisticated race that has since disappeared? Above all. the great Athenian statesman Solon had visited Egypt (Solan was a real person and he did visit Egypt. but he completed only one of the works. The Republic. Critias. an Egyptian city having close ties with Athens. although his trip took place around 590 B.

"two of land and three of water.a nd there he fell in loe with a mortal maiden called Cleito. caused by the subsidence of the island. where Critias gives a much fuller description of the island continent.eventually told his grandson. "This vast power.five pairs of male twins . He goes back to the island's very beginning when the gods were apportioned parts of the earth. and the island of Atlantis in a like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea. and making every variety of food to spring up abundantly from the soil. because there is so much shallow mud in the way. Cleito dwelled on a hill in Atlantis. ."Athens." Socrates is delighted with Critias' story. standing alone. and the the story of Atlantis is continued in Plato's next dialogue. The Atlanteans ruled over their central island and several others. In Timaeus Critias gives a brief account of what the priests had told Solon. "and the whole of the region within the strait. Greek god of the sea and also of earthquakes. the first born of the eldest twins. as is usual in ancient histories.) At the same time there had been a mighty empire of Atlantis based on an island or continent west of the Pillars of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar) that was larger than North Africa and Asia Minor combined." said the Egyptian priests. defeated the Atlanteans. gathered into one. the Critias. in about 9600 B. "bringing up two springs of water from beneath the earth. which he turned as with a lathe." Poseidon and Cleito produced 10 children . one of warm water and the other of cold. and over parts of the great continent on the other side of the ocean. Then their armies struck eastward into the Mediterranean region. endeavored to subdue at one blow our country and yours. and to prevent anyone reaching her home. and in a single day and night of destruction all your warlike men in a body sank into the earth. For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable.and Poseidon divided Atlantis and its adjacent islands among these 10 sons to rule as a confederacy of kings. Beyond it lay a chain of islands that stretched across the ocean to another huge continent. ." However.C. Poseidon encircled the hill with alternate rings of land and water. "But afterward there occurred violent earthquakes and floods. conquering North Africa as far as Egypt and southern Europe up to the Greek borders. Atlas (after . which as "the very great advantage of being a fact and not a fiction. another Critias . was given Atlantis. the rest of Timaeus is taken up with a discourse on science. Poseidon. According to ancient Egyptian records there had been a great Athenian empire 9000 years earlier (that is." He also laid on abundant supplies of food and water to the hill.the man who features in Plato's dialogues.

which they intermingled for the sake of ornament. sheltered by lofty mountains. linked the great harbor with the sea at the southern end. It was a circular city. Some of their buildings were simple." the inhabitants of the mountains and of the rest of the country were "a vast multitude having leaders to whom they were assigned according to their dwellings and villages. 300 feet wide and 100 feet deep. measuring 230 by 340 miles. was divided into 60.whom atlantis was named). "One kind of stone was white." But it was into their magnificent temples that the Atlanteans poured their . and their descendants ruled for many generations. and meadows. assigned to farmers. The built palaces and temples.000 square lots. and lakes. harbors and docks. crowded with shipping. The mountains beyond housed "many wealthy villages of country folk. and much wood of various sorts. formed a citadel about three miles in diameter. cavalry. situated at the very center of the impressive city. and chariots. Critias tells how the stone used for the city's buildings was quarried from beneath the island (Cleito's hill) and from beneath the outer and inner circles of land. was made chief king. Plato and Critias paint a vivid picture of Atlantean engineering and architecture with an attention to detail that bears the hallmark of a very factual account. The rings of land were surrounded by stone walls plated with precious metals. having roofs formed of the native rock." These leaders and the farmers on the plane were each required to supply men for the Atlantean army. This rectangular plain. and rivers. and as they quarried they at the same time hollowed out docks within. abundant for each and every kind of work. about 11 miles in diameter. wild or tame. another black. They accomplished great feats of engineering and architecture. the people accomplished great feats of engineering and architecture. to be a natural source of delight. A huge canal. and joined the city to a vast irrigated plain. Ass the population of Atlantis grew and developed. which lay beyond the city walls in the north. but in others they put together different stones. and Cleito's hill. and another wall ran around the entire city. which included light and heavy infantry. The kings built bridges to connect the land rings. The outermost ring of water became a great harbor. and tunnels through which ships could pass from one ring of water to the next. surrounded by its concentric rings of land and water. The kinds in turn had numerous children. and reaped the rich harvest of their agricultural and mineral resources. and third red. The kings and their descendants built the city of Atlantis around Cleito's hill on the southern coast of the island continent. supplying food for every animal.

and in length allowed to extend all around the island. During this meeting a strange ritual was enacted." Inside the temple was a massive gold statue of Poseidon driving a chariot drawn by six winged horses and surrounded by 100 sea nymphs on dolphins. The roof's interior was covered with ivory. Critias tells of the beautiful buildings that were constructed around the warm and cold fountains in the center of the city. which were recorded at daybreak on tablets of gold.greatest artistic and technical skills. the people of Atlantis began to lose the love of wisdom and virtue that they had inherited from Poseidon. and there were many temples built and dedicated to many gods. Gold statues of Atlantis' original 10 kings and their wives stood outside the temple. After further ceremony. on which the laws of Atlantis were inscribed. others roofed over . while the remainder was conveyed by aqueducts along the bridges to the the outer circles.which "glowed like fire. and there were separate baths for women. After offering up prayers to the gods. which were kept apart. and orichate . The captured animal was led to a bronze column in the temple. and others for horses in both of the two islands formed by the zones (rings of water) . which roamed freely within the temple.some open to the heavens. some for men. and to capture one of them for sacrifice. Of the water that ran off they carried some to the grove of Poseidon. also gardens and places of exercise. silver. This was so high that its head touched the temple roof. and for horses and cattle . sitting in a circle they gave their judgements.probably a fine grade of brass or bronze . At alternate intervals of five and six years the 10 kings of Atlantis met in the temple of Poseidon to consult on matters of government and to administer justice. In the center of the citadel was a holy artistic and technical skills. for horses to race in. and cisterns were designed . In the center of the citadel was a holy temple dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon and this was surrounded by an enclosure of gold. and was slain so that its blood ran over the sacred inscription. As their divine . Trees were planted between the buildings. Nearby stood Poseidon's own temple. and the baths of private persons. the kings were required to hunt bulls. where were growing all manner of trees of wonderful height and beauty. the kings partook of a banquet and when darkness fell they wrapped themselves in beautiful dark-blue robes. a superb structure covered in silver. and to each of them they gave as much adornment as was suitable.to be used as baths. and in the c enter of the larger of the two there was set apart a racecourse of a stadium (about 607 feet) in width. "There were the kinds' baths. with pinnacles of gold. owing to the excellence of the soil. In the course of time. using only staves and nooses. and lavishly decorated with gold.

He went on.nature was diluted and human nature got the upper hand. The Egyptian priests are said to have told Solon that Atlantis was destroyed 9000 years before his visit. and wanting to punish them that they might be chastened and improve.. However. Some regard the Critias dialogue as a rough draft that Plato abandoned. says Plato. Critics of the Atlantis theory claim that these invalidate the story as a factual account. And when he had called them together he spoke as follows. Assuming that Plato's facts are right but his date wrong." And there. which. and frustratingly. to write his last dialogue. The Laws. exaggeration. being placed into his most holy abode. never to be completed. or understandable mistakes that have crept in during the telling and retelling of the story over many centuries before Plato reported it. Whereupon. Their evidence suggests that either Plato's story is an invention or he has the date wrong.C. collected all the gods into his most holy abode. The Egyptian priests are said to have told Solon that a series of . Plato makes it clear that in 9600 B. part-fact. Others assume he intended to continue the story in the third part of his trilogy. and each has been hotly defended over the centuries. being placed in the center of the universe. and that the account would have originated in Egypt. instead. and domineering. and is able to see into such things. but he never even started that work. Supporters of Atlantis point out that modern discoveries are constantly pushing back the boundaries of human prehistory and we may yet discover that civilization is far older than we think. corrupt. enigmatically. they became greedy..C. the god of gods. which.. perceiving that an honorable race was ina most wretched state.C.. Plato's story of Atlantis breaks off. Plato's story certainly presents a number of problems. However Plato has an explanation for this. sees all things that partake of generation. Supporters maintain that they can be accepted as poetic license. Controversy has raged over Plato's story ever since he wrote it 2300 years ago. ARchaeologists claim that their knowledge of Greece in the early days of its development is sufficiently complete to rule out the possibility of highly developed people in that country as early as 9600 B. Was his account fact. which is far earlier than any known evidence of civilization. what evidence do we have to support his account of the origin of the Atlantis story? Bearing in mind that the war was principally between Atlantis and Athens. "Zeus. or total fiction? Each explanation has its inherents. it seems odd that there were no Greek records of the battle. Athens was also the home of a mighty civilization that defeated the Atlanteans. in about 9600 B. The greatest stumbling block is the date that the Greek philosopher gives for the destruction of Atlantis. who rules by law.

and put his words into their mouths. For example. History provides us with many examples of supposedly mythical places and subsequently being discovered. Critics of the Atlantis story believe that it is simply a myth invented to put across the great philosopher's views on war and corruption. Timaeus.catastrophes had destroyed the Greek records. Homer wrote about the . or this part of his story at least is an invention. a highly respected statesman with a reputation for being 'straight-tongues. did Plato fill his account with remarkable detail and then stop abruptly at the very point where we would expect the "message" to be delivered? In spite of the errors and contradictions that have found their way into Plato's account. is certainly true. Plato used real people in his other dialogues. Moreover.C. let alone made detailed notes of it. However. Either his account is based on records made my someone else. There is no reason say the detractors. Supposing that Solon did hear about Atlantis during his Egyptian trip. to assume that Timaeus and critias are different in this respect. Why didn't he simply refresh his memory from Solon's notes? And why didn't he show the notes to his three companions as incontrovertible proof of the truth of his rather unlikely story? Yet another problem is that Plato dates the meeting of Socrates. The problem here is that if the Egyptian disappeared as completely as Atlantis itself." And why. Critias. here again we encounter a difficulty. and Hermocrates. as a dramatic device to present his ideas. but Plato seems to expect his readers to draw different conclusions. For whereas in one place Critias states that he is still in possession of Solon's notes." and having Critias declare that the Atlantis story. too. if his sole intention was to deliver a philosophical treatise. because the art of accurate oral transmission was highly developed in the ancient world. in another he declares that he lay awake all night ransacking his memory for details of the Atlantis story that his grandfather had told him. he could hardly have taken in much of their discussion. his story of Atlantis can still be viewed as an exciting recollection of previously unrecorded events. but as he was only six years old at the time. Plato may have been present during their conversation. tracing it back to Solon. is it credible that such a detailed story could have been passed down through the generations as Plato asks us to believe? This is not impossible. and Critias claims that these were handed down to his relatives. during which Atlantis is discussed. He is at great pains to stress the truth of his account. or the date is wrong. whereas their own had been preserved. as 421 B. Solon is said to have taken notes of his conversation with the priests. "though strange.

As the Irish scholar J. THE ATLANTIS MYSTERY DEEPENS In 1940 the American psychic healer and prophet Edgar Cayce predicted that Atlantis would 'rise again' in 1968 or 19969. Luce observes in his book The End of Atlantis. described by Cayce as the 'western' section of Atlantis? Were Plato and the other Atlantists right after all when they placed their lost civilization way out in the Atlantic Ocean? . sir Arthur Evans revealed that a highly advanced European civilization had flourished on the island of Crete long before the time of Homer. but he dug up Troy and thereby demonstrated the inestimable value of folk memory Sir Arthur Evans did much the same thing when he found the labyrinthine home of the Minotaur at Knossos. and Peru. the Sahara desert. in 19968. So. In this case there would be some evidence of their influence and culture in lands that survived the catastrophe.V. some 4500 years ago. southern Spain. The question of Atlantis was reopened. numerous scholars and other Atlantis enthusiasts have since scoured the globe for more likely sites. the German archaeologist Heinrich Schlieman excavated in Hissarlik and uncovered Troy just where Homer had placed it over 1000 years previously in his epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. then we know that the Atlanteans traded with their neighbors.. Cyprus. Could this be Poseidia. The problem is that whereas Troy and Knossos were simply buried. The lost kingdom of Atlantis has been "found" at various times in the Pacific Ocean. Troy has since been found and dug up. the West Indies. these have not always been in the ocean. "classical scholars laughed at Schlieman when he set out with Homer in one hand and a spade in the other. the North Sea. Atlantis could be submerged hundred or even thousands of feet beneath the waves. And the force of the destruction may have destroyed the remains beyond recognition. when it seemed that the site of the world's most famous lost land had finally been located in the eastern Mediterranean. Surprisingly. Believers in Atlantis have furnished us with a formidable array of such "proofs". Atlantean-type civilization that was responsible. but to name a few. In 1871. This should be justification enough to keep an open mind on Plato's account. Sweden. Palestine. Certainly there are scattered around the glove to lend support to the idea of a highly advanced.Trojan War and subsequent research has shown that it was based on real historical events. Although Plato appears to place Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean and early cartographers did likewise. if Plato's account is based on fact. news that underwater vast building off the Bahamas shook Atlantist everywhere. Crete." Indeed. However.

R. The pilots made their sightings just off the coast of Bimini and photographed the underwater formations from the air. Until this and similar discoveries have been thoroughly explored. and still another at the bottom of a lake. including what appears to be an entire city submerged off the coast of Haiti. by Cayce's son Edgar Cayce. From these numerous findings. These interviews were recorded verbatim. Expect it in ''68 and '69. So the A. Poseidia was the "western section of Atlantis. which is dedicated to the study of the teachings and "psychic readings" of the late Edgar Cayce.in the Atlantic. Their discovery was immediately hailed by some as the fulfillment of a 28 year-old prophecy concerning the reappearance of Atlantis. Indeed one of the pilots had been keeping a lookout for underwater structures while flying his regular assignments because he believed Atlantis was about to reemerge from the Atlantic in this very area. is naturally delighted about the underwater find in the Bahamas.E. Between 1923 and 1944 Cayce made numerous references to Atlantis in the course of trance interviews concerning the alleged former lives of the people who consulted him. right where most people always considered the long-lost continent to be .In 19968 two commercial pilots flying over the Bahamas spotted what appeared to be several underwater buildings coming to the surface. the "sleeping prophet" and psychic healer. an organization based in Virginia Beach." and the area off Bimini is the highest point of this sunken land. just where and when the famous prophet said something would appear. it would appear that par of the continental shelf of the Atlantic and Caribbean was once dry land. The man concerned is a member of the Association for Research and Enlightenment. VA. and much of the material about Atlantis has been published in a book called Edgar Cayce on Atlantis. we have to admit that There may yet have an equally plausible rival for the title of Atlantis. In his book 'The Mystery of Atlantis' Charles Berlitz comments that "Other underwater ruins have subsequently been found near other Caribbean islands. It includes this prediction. made in June 1940: "Poseidia will be among the first portions of Atlantis to rise again. What appears to be an underwater road (or perhaps a series of plazas or foundations) was discovered in 1968 off north Bimini beneath several fathoms of water. The so-called "Bimini road" is dismissed by skeptics as nothing . Not everyone accepts these underwater features as being of man-made origin. not so far away!" According to the Cayce readings. sunk or flooded during a period when man was already civilized.

such as the Azores. that haphazardly splitting rock does not make 90. do not agree. after all. Do these intriguing finds indicate that Atlantis was. to be fairly satisfactory. let us take a fresh look at the Atlantic Ocean to see if the theory of continental drift might still leave room for a missing continent there. the American archaeologist and oceanographer who discovered the "road". the ridge was forced upward from the ocean floor. at distances up to 100 miles from the shore. When a computer was used to reassemble the continental jigsaw. One theory is that as the continents drifted apart they produce a huge fault line that is a center of earthquake and . Off the coasts of eastern Yucatan and British Honduras seemingly man-made roads stretch far out to sea. but that picture does not take account of a fascinating underwater feature known as the mid-Atlantic Ridge. include what appear to be vertical walls. But most modern geologists and oceanographers consider that. Ascension Island. another island in the Bahamas. According to Berlitz. nor does it normally have regularly laid-out passageways running between sections of it." writes Berlitz. some 10 miles north of Andros. far from being the relic of a continent that sank beneath the sea. above all. This mountainous ridge. and the French bathyscape Archimede has reported sighting flights of steps carved in the steep continental shelf off northern Puerto Rico. and Tristan da Cunha. However. Meanwhile. the Russians have explored an underwater building complex covering over 10 acres of the sea floor north of Cuba. the fit across the Atlantic was found. with some adjustment. pilots have photographed formations on the seabed that look like great circles of standing stones. Berlitz and Dr. and deem the Venezuelan wall "too big to be considered man-made". a great arch. runs in an S-curve down the Atlantic midway between the Americas and Africa and Europe. nearly two miles high and hundreds of miles wide.more than beach rock that just happens to have produced an unusual effect. geologists have declared many of these to be natural features. in the Atlantic? it seems we must keep an open mind until they have been investigated more thoroughly. Manson Valentine. probably by volcanic activity. are 'natural' beach rocks. lying on the ocean floor. likely to be found supported by stone pillars precisely placed beneath them!" Other sightings made off Bimini.degree turns. reminiscent of Stonehenge. As early as 1883 Ignatius Donnelly suggested that the mid-Atlantic Ridge was a remnant of Atlantis. and pyramids or bases for pyramids under the sea. following the contours of those continents and marking its course above water with a number of islands. "It should be pointed out. Nor. "that beach rock does not form great blocks which fit together in a pattern. and off Venezuela a 100mile 'wall' runs along the ocean bottom.

known as Romanche. Dr. and brought up granitic rocks.produce a huge fault line that is a center of earthquake and volcanic action. a long east-west fracture zone lying between aFrica and South America close to latitude 11 degrees "N". Bruce Heezen of the Lamont Geological Observatory said: "Up to now. there is evidence that this explanation may have to reviewed before too long. The discovery comes from analyzing dredge samples taken along the line of the Vema offset fault. Minerals in the limestone indicated that they came from a nearby source of granite that was unlikely to occur on the ocean floor. And in one of the deep valleys. even rising above the waves in several places. the occurrence of light-colored granitic rocks may support an old theory that a continent formerly existed in the region of the eastern Caribbean and that these rocks may represent the core of a subsided. . geologists generally believed that light granitic or acid igneous rocks are confined to the continents and that the crust of the earth beneath the sea is composed of heavier. sands have been found that appear to have been formed by weathering when that part of the ridge was above water level. The report goes on to state that in 1971 two researchers from the University of Miami recovered some shallow-water limestone fragments from deep water in the area. an international group of oceanographers has now convincingly confirmed preliminary findings that a sunken block of continent lies in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. 1975 reported. Under the heading "Concrete Evidence for Atlantis?" the British Journal New Scientist of June 5. A recent report on the nature of the Atlantic seabed appears to confirm that there is at least part of a former continent lying beneath the ocean. "Although they make no such fanciful claim from their results as to have discovered the mythical mid-Atlantic landmass. dark-colored basaltic rock. lost continent. . Seabed cores taken from the mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1957 brought up freshwater plants from a depth of two miles. implying formation in very shallow water indeed. which are normally found only on continents. In a 1969 a Duke University research expedition dredged 50 sites along an underwater ridge running from Venezuela to the virgin Islands. However. Some of the earth's molten center has erupted through this crack and built up into a ridge. Commenting on this discovery. Thus. a view confirmed by the ratios of oxygen and . More exhaustive analysis of the dredge samples revealed that the limestones included traces of shallow-water fossils.

Vertical movements made by the block appear to have raised it above sea level at some period during it's history. nearly all of the ridge. volcanic activity in the Azores resulted in the emergence of a new island called Sammrina. or perhaps too close to the center of the destructive forces that plunged Atlantis into the ocean. Perhaps Plato's Atlantis was a remnant of the continent that oceanographers now appear to have detected in the Atlantic. is under two or three miles of water.after all. except for the small and mountainous Azores region." He also points to a report published in 1967 by Dr. In our own time. which shortly sank back again into the sea. One piece of limestone was pitted and showed evidence of tidal action. then swallowed them up again. The bed of the Atlantic is. In 1811. has slowly risen from the ocean. It would therefore seem that there is a lost continent in the Atlantic. it would certainly have been plagued by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. for example. Ewing could have been looking in the wrong places. and perhaps it was not submerged until very much more recent times. Is it mere coincidence that Plato should have situated his lost continent in an ocean that does apparently contain . who announced that "after 13 years of exploring the mid-Atlantic Ridge. If Atlantis did exist in the Atlantic above the great fault line that runs between the present continents. an unstable are and one that has given birth to numerous islands. 20 miles southwest of Iceland. but unfortunately for Atlantists.carbon isotopes found in the fragments.000 years required to fit in with Plato's date for the sinking of Atlantis. he had "found no trace of sunken cities. As L." the New Scientist observes that "the granitic minerals could thus have come from the bordering continents while the ocean was still in it infancy. the island of Surtsey. Some Atlantists have suggested that the original Atlantic landmass broke up into a least two parts. Sprague de Camp comments in his Lost Continents. "and there is no known way to get a large island down to that depth in anything like the 10. The researchers believe that the limestone dates from the Mesozoic era (between 70 and 220 million years ago) and forms a cap "on a residual continental block left behind as the Atlantic spread out into an ocean. one of which sank long after the other. it evidently disappeared long before man appeared on earth." Atlantists reply that Dr. Maurice Ewing of Columbia University. Most scientist remain convinced that there is no likelihood of finding the Atlantis described by Plato in the area of the midAtlantic Ridge. Surtsey was formed during a continuous underwater eruption between 1963 and 1966.

the Atlanteans achieved an astonishingly high level of technology before the continent sank. fantastic. it was sufficient to give him the name and address of a patient for him to supply a wealth of information about that person. and that he. Kentucky. Cayce's sons. as his sons and thousands of followers believe. if he proves accurate on this score he may become as famous an archaeologist or historian as he was a medical clairvoyant." If. They discovered that when Cayce was in a state of trance. This work alone would appear to justify the description of Cayce as America's most talented psychic. Edgar Cayce is in a very unenviable position. but that subsequent tests on the patient proved to be correct.C. however. On the other hand. atomic energy. On the other hand. so far as we know. My brother and I know that Edgar Cayce did not read Plato's material on Atlantis. it seems reasonable to give a fair hearing to other psychic statements he made. If his unconscious fabricated this material or wove it together from existing legends and stories in print or the minds of persons dealing with the Atlantis theory. it is . around 10. and cybernetic control of human beings. who help run the organization set up to study his work. there are some Atlantists who believe that the destruction of Atlantis was brought about not by geological events but by a man-made disaster. television. aircraft. often drawing attention to medical conditions of which the physicians were then unaware.such a continent." Edgar Evans Cayce makes the comment that "unless proof of the existence of Atlantis is one day discovered. And if one aspect of his clairvoyant powers could prove so successful. and it was the misuse of the tremendously powerful natural forces they had developed that caused their destruction. Edgar Cayce's readings were supernormal and not the product of reading the works of others. admit that their life would be far simpler if Edgar Cayce had never mentioned Atlantis. overall evaluation of his life's work. Hugh Lynn Cayce comments. such as a nuclear explosion. had absolutely no knowledge of this subject. and in an area subject to the very kind of catastrophe he describes? Atlantists think not. death rays. According to the Cayce readings. They invented the laser. Cayce is best-known for his apparent ability to diagnose illness even in people whom he had never met. This would not be fair in total. This ability was tested by a group of physicians from Hopkinsville and Bowling Green.000 B. "It would be very easy to present a very tight evidential picture of Edgar Cayce's psychic ability and the helpfulness of his readings if we selected only those which are confirmed and completely validated. or books on Atlantis.

their moral disintegration. but their opponents argue that the existence of such a civilization . including references to the Atlanteans telepathic and other supernormal powers. The persistence of the Atlantis legend is almost as intriguing as the lost continent itself. and during our own time. Whatever prompted Plato to write about Atlantis.during the latter half of the 19th Century. "he who invented it. larger than himself? Certainly popular interest in the mystical side of Atlantis is always most intense when the life of the spirit is in the greatest disarray . there will still be people who continue to look for convincing case for the identification of Plato's Atlantis with the Minoan civilization of the Aegean. The solution may be simple or complex. he could never have dreamed that he would start a worldwide quest for the lost continent. There are. some fascinating similarities between Cayce's descriptions of Atlantis and those of occultists such as Madame Blavatsky. and the civil strife and misuse of their powers that finally caused their demise.does not preclude the existence of an even great civilization in the Atlantic. it has managed to enchant. for example. baffle. Rudolf Steiner.the they .the hope of finding a master key to unlock the secrets of the past? Or is it simply man's thirst for mystery itself . also destroyed it. their advanced technology. and W. and challenge mankind for over 2000 years.certainly an intriguing case.or a canny understanding of the human spirit . Either Cayce was psychically readings the works of these earlier writers. or . What is it that keeps the Atlantis debate alive? Is it a longing for reassurance that men and women once knew the secret of happiness." Yet through a fortuitous accident . and the discovery of what appears to be a submerged continent in the Atlantic adds a new dimension to the Atlantis mystery. Perhaps.for something grand and inexplicable. The finds in the Bahamas remain to be verified. Scott-Elliott. Cayce's readings also mention Lemuria.really were 'tuning in' to the past.Plato hit upon a story that has struck a responsive chord in people's minds and hearts down the centuries.however striking it similarities with Atlantis . in the aftermath of Darwin's bombshell. or he . It could be sensational or disappointingly dull. for example. The day may yet come when the key is found and the mystery of Atlantis is solved once and for all. and really did inhabit a Garden of Eden? Is it the thrill of the search . or in the depths of the Thera basin. We may already suspect the answer. or Mu. Whatever the result of future investigations around the splendid temples and palaces of Crete. as his pupil Aristotle hinted. Whether his story was fact or fiction. a distorted version of real events or a fable that just happened to tie in with reality.

nimble and vigorous. and that Plato's lost continent remains just beyond our grasp. prayers. but which blazed when he was angry. I can remember his giving to the poor. alms. I do not want to forget to say that he engaged willingly in fasts. Michel Nostradamus Introduction Everything proceeds from the divine power of almighty God. for the time being. of robust body. He praised and loved freedom of speech. thinking much and saying little. He slept only four to five hours per night. gray eyes which were generally pleasant. By nature he was taciturn. towards whom he was very liberal and charitable. and patience. we should be glad that the answer has not yet been found. He had a large and open forehead. he abhorred vice and chastised it severely. . in his joking. it would rob the world of one of its most fascinating enigmas. and showed himself joyous and facetious.it may surprise us. He approved of the ceremonies of the Roman Church and held to the Catholic faith and religion. Michel Nostradamus He was a little under medium height. from whom all goodness emanates. Perhaps. though speaking very well in the proper time and place. a straight and even nose. as well as biting. Either way. Atlantis has intrigued and inspired people for a very long time.

but become crystal clear after the event has occurred. View online The Centuries or consider getting some of many books written about Nostradamus and his prophecies. His followers say he predicted the Great Fire of London (1666). the birth and rise to power of Hitler. They have enthralled generation after generation of readers. His prophecies have a magical quality for those who study them: they are muddled and obscure before the predicted event. the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Nostradamus wrote fourline verses (quatrains) in groups of 100 (called centuries). He was often referred to as the prophet of doom because of the visions he had involving death and war.James Chavingy Michel Nostradamus (1503-1566) was a 16th century French physician and astrologer. . Prophetic vision of Nostradamus is contained in 942 cryptic poems called The Centuries. and the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger. His modern followers see him as a prophet. the French Revolution.

His family had converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1502. Nostradamus was the oldest son. 1503 (11 years after Christopher Columbus discovered the New World) in St. Astronomy and Astrology. was a notary. Greek. Nostradamus' grandfather. He graduated with a bachelor degree and was soon licensed to practice medicine. Nostradamus came from a long line of Jewish doctors and scholars. inspired him to study astrology and the celestial sciences when he was very young. Remy. Jean. Jean. he was active in treating the victims of the "Black Plague" and developed unique and effective methods of treatment which helped to lessen the suffering of many people. Provence. Mathematics. 1522 In 1522. France. James. Hebrew. 1529 . He upheld the Copernican theory that the world was round and circled around the sun more than 100 years before Galileo was prosecuted for the same belief. as a result of persecution on the ascension of Louis the XII (it was the age of the Inquisition). and had four brothers. It was then that Nostradamus was introduced to Latin. His father. the youngest. at the age of nineteen. became Procureur of the Parliament of the Provence. of the first three we know little. Nostradamus decided to study medicine and enrolled at Mont Pellier (the most famous school of medicine in France). As a healer.Biography 1503 Michel de Nostradame was born on December 14.

To a workman casting a bronze statue of the Virgin. The plague came to Agen and. 1534 While practising in Toulouse he received a letter from Julius-Cesar Scaliger. Nostradamus had some trouble in explaining his unorthodox remedies and treatments he used in the countryside. were causing trouble and he set off upon another spate of wandering. He remained teaching at Montpellier for a year but by this time his new theories. the philosopher considered second only to Erasmus throughout Europe. Nostradamus had commented that he was making devils. 1538 Then a series of tragedies struck. His plea that he was only describing the lack of aestheticappeal inherent in the . The he quarrelled with Scaliger and lost his friendship. at 26. very beautiful and admirable'.On 23rd October 1529. The academic skill he displayed while working towards his doctorate won him praise and admiration from the whole college. for instance his refusal to bleed patients. His late wife's family tried to sue him for the return of her dowry and as the final straw. The fact that he was unable to save his own family had a disastrous effect on his practice. and circa 1534 he married a young girl 'of high estate. whose name was lost to us. He had a son and a daughter by her and his life seemed complete. This life suited Nostradamus admirably. Apparently Nostradamus' reply so pleased Scaliger that he invited him to stay at his home in Agen. Nevertheless his learning and ability could not be denied and he obtained his doctorate. despite all his efforts. killed Nostradamus' wife and two children. He was recruited as an instructor after his graduation and taught for about a year. in 1538. he was accused of heresy because of a chance remark made some years before. Nostradamus returned to Mont Pellier to complete his Doctor's degree.

. For a period of three years he again fought the plague. Nostradamus returned to his native turf where he was employed by the city of Aix in 1546. His services were viewed as invaluable by both his patients and his peers. Nostradamus worked ceaselessly. We know little of this period. After traveling through Italy and France for six years. set out on his wandering again and kept well clear of the Church authorities for the next six years. which listed the names. Once the city had recovered. Nostradamus. circumstances reversed with the Inquisitors. location and specialties of physicians and healers practicing in Europe. 1554 By 1554 Nostradamus had settled in Marseilles. a rich widow. Nostradamus moved on to Salon de Croux. the world's first medical directory. From references in later books we know he travelled in the Lorraine and went to Venice and Sicily. The house in which he spent the remainder of his days can still be seen off the Place de la Poissonnerie. which he found so pleasant a town that he determined to settle there for the rest of his life. It was during this period of his life that he acquainted himself with the apothecaries and healers of the area in order to include them in his book Traite des Fardmens.statue was ignored and the Inquisitors sent for him to go to Toulouse. In November he married Anne Ponsart Gemelle. 1546 Over time. having no wish to stand trial. The plague redoubled in virulence. the Provence experienced one of the worst floods of its history. spread by the waters and the polluted corpses. In November that year. Legends about Nostradamus' prophetic powers also start to appear at this time.

whose tragic fates he had already revealed in the centuries. Nostradamus and the Queen spoke together for two hours. summoned Nostradamus to her court in Paris in 1556. died before he could inherit. Henri II. Certainly she continued to believe in Nostradamus' predictions until her death. and have been in print continuously ever since. in 1554.Nostradamus began to write his prophetic verses in the city of Salon. Catherine de' Medici. he . granted Nostradamus only a brief audience and was obviously not greatly interested. not to a unit of 100 years). All he would tell Catherine was that all of her sons would be kings. From this time on. suffering from gout and arthritis. 1555 The Centuries were published in 1555 and 1558. and he swiftly returned to Salon. so much so that the French Queen. His book became very popular among the literate and educated Europeans of the day. Soon afterwards Nostradamus was warned that the Justices of Paris were inquiring about his magic practices. They are divided into ten sections called Centuries (which refers to the number of verses in each section. By 1555 Nostradamus had finished the first phase of his book that would contain his prophecies. Nostradamus' fame quickly spread throughout Europe. The book contained only the first three Centuries and part of the fourth. Two weeks later the queen sent for him a second time and now Nostradamus was faced with the delicate and difficult task of drawing up the horoscopes of the seven Valois children. Upon its publication. Francois. which is slightly inaccurate since one of them. She is reputed to have asked him about the quatrain concerning the king's death and to have been satisfied with Nostradamus' answer. One could only wish that there had been a witness to record their meeting.. The king.

two years after his death. that would decode his prophecies. His health continued to worsen and he wrote his will on June 17. now Queen Regent. Apparently he allowed a few manuscript copies to criculate before publication. Nostradamus is said to have predicted his own death.seems to have done little except draw up horoscopes for his many distinguished visitors and complete the writing of the Prophecies. 1559. others amazed. which carried with it a salary and other benefits. 1566. When his assistant wished him goodnight on July 1. His fame grew even more. 1566. Some people were upset with Nostradamus. 1565-66 In 1565-66. because many of the predictions were understood and quoted before the completed book came off the printing press in 1568. It was rumored that a very secret document existed in his coffin. quatrain # 1-35 which predicted the accidental death of an "old lion" (an allusion to Henri -. Nostradamus' health began to be troubled with gout and arthritis. decided to make a Royal Progress through France. In . 1566. Nostradamus remained in Salon for a number of years. Nostradamus reputedly pronounced. They dined and Catherine gave Nostradamus the title of Physician in Ordinary. He was visited by many people of nobility and distinction during those days. 1559 On June 28. While travelling she came to Salon and visited Nostradamus. and continued to work on his writings. 1564 In 1564 Catherine.the King of France) came true. "You will not find me alive at sunrise." He was found dead on July 2.

However. Careful not to disturb his body a quick look inside revealed an amulet on his skeleton. fresh air and unpolluted water for the healthy. Nostradamus can indisputably be said to have been ahead of his time. the soldiers who desecrated his tomb for the final time were ambushed by Royalists on their way back to base and killed to the last man. View online The Centuries or consider getting some of many books written about Nostradamus and his prophecies. at least in terms of medical practice. with the year 1700 on it. Nostradamus had the last laugh. in search of loot. Evil will come to him That no one will be able to prove. Quatrain 7. he had written: The man who opens the tomb when it is found And who does not close it immediately.1700. and (in contravention of contemporary medical practise) not bleeding his patients. soldiers from Marseilles broke into the church. It is no wonder that a sense of apocalyptic terror fills Nostradamus' quatrains. . In Century 9. a herbal preparation rich in Vitamin C. One night in 1791 during the French Revolution. Reputedly. the coffin was moved to a prominent wall of the Church. Prophecies and Predictions of Nostradamus During Nostradamus' lifetime the Black Death (today known as the bubonic plague) wiped out over a quarter of Europe. His treatment of the Black Death involved removal of the infected corpses.

Each of the centuries (or chapters) contain 100 prophetic quatrains. while sitting on a brass tripod. adding or removing letters. and published them in 1568. and some make no sense whatsoever. Nostradamus referred to the ten chapters of his famous book. astrological configurations. two years after Nostradamus passed away. anagrams and allegorical imagery. and use puns. except for Century VII. and sometimes actual dates. . The obscuration is claimed to have been done to avoid his being tried as a magician. The Centuries. Nostradamus intentionally confused the chronological order of his quatrains (a four line prophetic stanza which constitutes one of his prophecies) as a way to make the interpretation of future events slightly more difficult. although they have nothing to do with 100 year cycles. which has 42.Nostradamus had the visions which he later recorded in verse while staring into water or flame late at night. After his death. Some of them are chilling. It is this quality of both vagueness and specificity which allows each new generation to reinterpret Nostradamus. sometimes aided by herbal stimulants. geographic locations. literal descriptions of events. The resulting quatrains (four line verses) are oblique and elliptical. his son Caesar gathered the remaining prophecies which had been unpublished up to that point. He intentionally obscured the quatrains through the use of symbolism and metaphor. The interpretation of some quatrains are very specific. giving specific or nearspecific names. The rhymed quatrains of Nostradamus were written mainly in French with a bit of Italian. as "centuries". and Latin thrown in. Greek. Most of the quatrains are open to multiple interpretations. as well as by making changes to proper names by swapping. for a total of 942 prophecies.

for in many ways The Centuries reads like a book of 1. Europe. The majority of the quatrains pertain to the geographical regions of France. Most quatrains. while the lines following it may apply to a time frame later than the lines before it. This is interesting and seemingly correct. the Mediterranean. it seems to apply to some. View online The Centuries or consider getting some of many books written about Nostradamus and his prophecies.others more general in nature. the Middle East and Asia. Some readers might discover that it takes time to get a feel for reading the quatrains. Nostradamus stated in the Epistle. one pertains to the Moon. A few quatrains pertain to the New World. we can see the past from a clearer perspective. require a detailed examination. The clearly stated quatrains speak for themselves. with a little hindsight. The more you read them however.001 future disasters. but are clear enough to be comprehended by men of good intelligence. Most readers might be shocked by the perceived contents of some quatrains. requiring little interpretation. Some quatrains were written in a manner that suggests a chronology of time from the beginning of the quatrain to its end. In the preface ( a letter dedicated to his son Caesar). the easier it is to make sense of them. however. he perceived his prophecies to carry more weight. that as time goes on. The first line or two of this type of quatrain may pertain to one given period of time. . While this chronological rule does not apply to all quatrains. Nostradamus stated that his prophetic quatrains were covered with a veil cloud. especially considering that as time passes. North Africa. and a few others make references to outer space.

Words that that the author claimed held no significance for him.S.' The submarine. Air warfare. 'flying boats and galleys.. It is far more difficult to truly understand. Roberts wrote as he read the 1672 edition: 'I had perused but a few pages when I was struck by the sense of familiarity that these verses seemed to hold for me. 'Nostrodamus often mentions exact specifics such as 'Franco' and 'Pasteur.NOSTRODAMUS 2000 by Doug Yurchey The name Nostrodamus evokes everything from reverence. Henry C. Pasteur. WWI & WWII. Free America to the west.modern events were published in the 1672 edition: 'The True Prophecies and Prognostications of Michael Nostrodamus. French & Russian revolutions.. Mussolini. The atomic bomb.' In 1946. mystery and the occult to total skepticism. Atlantis. & its Eagle symbol.. Napoleon. Motors & antennae. Franco.S. A man from the 16th Century should NOT have been able to write about these 20th Century things: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Hitler. Man-made mountains. Roosevelt. It is easy to be a skeptic. U. .' Even a hardcore skeptic must soften when they realize that somehow. U.

Splendor! The Divine Genius As to precisely sitteth by. At times. Nostrodamus Fearsome awe trembles my trembled in fear hand. (quatrains) are perpetual prophecies from this year to the year 3797. Nostrodamus was careful not to be too specific.. used for wet the limb and foot..' The following verses are some of the most extraordinary. He understood that this could trouble powerful people in his own time. Although in the very first two quatrains. during these I await. dowsing. How did Nostrodamus predict? We may never know. The result is 4-lined quatrains that serve as enigmatic puzzles.past.. the solitude. the seer is very specific and the quatrains are not a matter of interpretation. the prophet described his source of knowledge: I/1 His nightly Seated at night in my secret preparations and study. branches. at which some perhaps will frown. reposing over the a para-normal brass tripod. Set in the middle of the Clearly. visitations seem like Alone. became clearly focused into patterns of events . present and future. seeing so large an extension of time. what 'Genius sitteth by' him. Heavenly encounters. . Making me pronounce that which is not in vain. I/2 He employs a With divining rod in hand.' Seer to French kings. Nostrodamus wrote: 'They would condemn that which future ages shall find and know to be true. experience in an A slender flame leaps out of occult setting..took on for me a definite meaning. I divining rod.

With his powers of speech&mob-control. great ones shall run to their surreys. a dictator. VI / 33 His last hand bloody through all U.S. pau. it becomes Nay. III / 35 Out of the deepest part of the west of Europe. more in fire their blood shall be. The in discord. Pampon. nay. Seen to swim. The black and wrathful one shall be repentant. X / 66 This remarkable The chief of London by rule quatrain states that of America. Hitler (Anti-Christ #2) was born in Austria& in poverty. similar to the previous verse. Durance shall keep them enclosed. Mussolini. nay. British & USA The Island of Scotland shall leaders will empower be tempered by frost.. If 'Pau. who is a false Antibetray the leaders & Christ peoples of both Who will put them altogether countries. Hitler's influence was VIII / 1 Pau. This odd quatrain is actually a play on words. The aggassas shall refuse the entry. he seduced many. A number of quatrains speak of the 'Black One' which refers to the leader of the Black Shirts. loron' is switched around. . Kings and Priests shall have An Anti-Christ will one. From poor people a young child shall be born. Shall not save him by sea.' but he did in X/66.S. loron. Who with his tongue shall seduce many people. French prophet should not have written 'L'Americh. Here Nostrodamus actually writes of the U.we can only imagine. Between two rivers he shall fear the military hand. loron or Napoleon.

Nostrodamus dates all events starting with the Council of Nicaea. topsy-turvy. gold.D. I / 69 The great mountain . From Arton shall a phalange go by sea and land By the navel of the world. They shall pursue crosses of iron. Eastern Empire of Japan.Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. books censured. banishing & burning books. high priest. Could the 'great mountain' be a VI / 49 By the project of Mammon. Classic interpretations of this quatrain attribute it to Atlantis (Arton). but real history. topsy-turvy' is certainly a description of the Nazi Swastika. Hitler & his men also wore the Iron Cross. A. VIII / 71 The number of Astronomers shall grow so great. The year one thousand six hundred and and seven years by Glomes.His fame shall increase in the even felt in the Eastern Kingdom. banished. Nostrodamus did not speak of fantasylands. 325. 'Crosses of iron. II / 22 The Camp Ascop shall go from Europe. They shall subjugate the borders of the Danube. 325 must be added. Slaves. 1607 + 325 = 1932. And shall come near the submerged Island. Driven away. jewels. Subjugating the lands around the Danube was foreseen as well. a greater voice shall be subrogated. With a given date. Atlantis was the 'navel of the world' and spread out to all corners of the Earth. more than a hundred thousand rubles. That none shall be secure in sacred places. In January 1933.

Fall of Man. The great foundations could be massive monoliths that compose the ancient structures. The sinking of the continent is the reference. mean your basic Shall trouble so much the flying-machines. World Wars. destruction. Atlantean sinking great countries. and This quatrain could inundation. Confused. famine. His body hanged from the ship's antenna. Shall be thrown down before his adversary. speak of the Shall tumble a great way. they shall fly Here is a remarkable quatrain because of the modern word: 'antenna. very large pyramid? After peace. rest of the verse And within shall be so much seems to describe the rioting. A great Even ancient houses and their tumble might be the great foundations. Roberts interpreted this to mean radio. lasers & EMPs. The captain of the besieged. destruction airplanes That the besieged shall be in have caused in the despair. VI / 34 The word The contraption of flying 'contraption' could fire.encompasses seven stadia. On the left hand the affliction shall be greater. Roberts wrote before the age of . technology sometime That they are the authors of a in our far future? Are great war. IV / 92 The head cut off of the valiant Captain. war. the sword & lance hiThe sky that was serene shall tech weapons like show sword and lance. I / 91 Does 'Gods' refer to The Gods shall make it an advanced appear to mankind.' Henry C.

They have posted that Nostrodamus wrote of the destruction of the 'twins. as the Illuminati. Shall come to deliver the Prince of a Denmark. In They shall be near the Bravaria of 1776.the mountains of Germany. not far from the Louve where glass pyramid stands. Could the 'shameful ransom' be the killing of Princess Diana? She died in France. A shameful ransom shall be paid into the temple of Artemis.with oars against the wind. Artemis is the Greek goddess that in Roman mythology was called Diana. III / 67 This quatrain A new sect of appears to describe Philosophers shall rise. A 'ship's antenna' could mean a flying saucer topped with a power/receiver-type of antenna. you can read where he predicted 9/11. the origin of the Despising death. UFOs. under Nostrodamus. On the Internet. by deposing Imperial rule. Tarascon of six arches Where is still standing the pyramids. On line never gives you the quatrain # where you could look it up in his . honors Secret Society known and riches. Order of the They shall have abundance of Enlightened planned others to support and follow to take over the world them. Around where she died is a garden devoted to the goddess Diana. IV / 27 Salon. gold. Mansol.' This is not exactly true.

They are actual Nostrodamus verses that any reader can verify. The city shall be on fire. The fire shall come near the great new city. VI / 97 The heaven shall burn at five and forty degrees. A poison hidden in the fold of letters. Two great rocks shall long time war against each other. I / 41 A siege laid to a city. V/8 The fire shall be left burning. the enemy shall be favorable to it. The following quatrains could refer to 9/11..C. New York is not far from the sea & some escaped the tragedy. When they shall make a trial of the Normans. I / 87 Ennosigee. & the rest of the country. By night the fleet shall shoot against the city. the dead shall be hid. The POISON hidden in the fold of letters is an obvious reference to the anthrax scare that hit D. Within the globes terrible and fearful.. In an instant a great flame dispersed shall burst out. . Arethusa shall color red the fresh river. After that.completed works. Shall make an earthquake of the New City. and assaulted by night. 'Assulted by night' could mean the WTC attack was first initiated at night or mean by dark forces. fire of the center of the earth. A few shall escape to fight not far from the sea. A woman swoons for joy to see her son returned.

S. Cancer.where powerful nations war and realign. the 'great theatre. 'A.' is an the Moon. negative and bloodied. 10th destruction of Mercury in Taurus. incredible reference The deplorably obstinate to America. Some are positive. There shall be a strange age. X / 67 Confirmation of a The earthquake shall be previous prophecy so great in the month of May. (IX/83) of a May Saturn. Adding 325 to 1589.' Venus also. new age in the far future. VI / 2 In the year five hundred eighty more or less. IX / 66 The classic . Jupiter. Then shall hail fall bigger than an egg. Arab nation. In the year seven hundred and three (witness heaven) Many kingdoms. and be describing the A. Not all of the seer's predictions for the future are grim. one to five shall be changed. Against the Sect of Caitifs of and A. Refer to the end of the Farshores article 'More on the World Wireless' and find a Nostrodamus prediction whereby Tesla Technology creates a grand. and its21st Century war with Afganistan. Mars in Zero. Caper. Nostrodamus might Of the two wounded by A. we arrive at 1914or WWI. U. shall be afraid. 325 added to 1703 is 2028. sect. a very critical time in our history.X / 96 'Caitifs of the Moon' Religion of the name of translates to the the seas shall come.

Wars shall cease. Seven thousand years another shall hold his monarchy. the first fruit. Estates. the low high and the high very low. shall be and profound changes. offices. the reason From the skies shall come Prince wrote an alarmingly powerful king. possibly foretell of a Martian invasion in the year 2324? The following two verses predict an End of the World! In 7000 years. pains. also civil processes and strife. 666? Before and after. Not far from the great age of the millennium.Peace. union. interpretation is that a 'Utopian age' shall come to be. Then is fulfilled and ends my prophecy. A journey shall be prepared for. To raise again the great King of Does999 mean the Jacquerie. Mars shall reign Could it at will. . Is this when the meek inherits the Earth? This is one of Nostrodamus' X / 72 most famous In the year 1999 and seven predictions and months. will the sun expand and consume the Earth as in I / 48? I / 48 Twenty years of the reign of the moon having passed. his 1999 song. X / 74 The year seven of the great number being past. When the sun shall resume his days past. but not without much pain. There shall be seen the sports of the ghostly sacrifice.

will be brought about by a sudden reversal in the earth's magnetic field. indicates ancient knowledge of sun spot cycles and their effect on the human race. . Examining the archaeological record. Recommended viewing: The Man Who Saw Tomorrow. This. Somehow. Roberts. EPILOG: Skeptics should think again before they criticize Nostrodamus.366. They explore the popular myth of Quetzalcoatl and its origins in Maya ideas concerning the sun cycle. The authors demonstrate how the Mayan Holy Number 1. according to Cotterell's sun-spot theories. It is a book full of startling discoveries not only about the past and the seemingly remote civilization of the Maya but ourselves and the destiny of the human race. they find further evidence for linking the origins of Mayan civilization with the mythical lost continent of Atlantis.That the buried shall come out of their graves. They show the links between the pre-Columbian civilizations of Central America and the Old World. They reveal that the Mayan calendar prophesies the end of our own "Age of the Jaguar". Nostrodamus knew the future. hosted by Orson Welles.Doug Yurchey The Mayan Prophecies Short Overview. in particular Egypt.560 days. which according to Plato was destroyed in a series of catastrophes. Recommended reading: The Complete Prophecies of Nostrodamus by Henry C. known as the birth of Venus and the basis of their calendar. What other quatrains will suddenly become understandable due to current events? © 2002 . the fifth and final "sun" in 2012 AD. Investigate the prophecies yourself. The book is lavishly illustrated with 40 colour plates as well as many black and white pictures and diagrams.

would one day no longer send its life force. This. Every day had two names. such a friar named Bernadino Sahagun. On March 4 1519 Hernan Cortes. named after the town in whose library it . their world would come to an end. which included human sacrifice on a grand scale. The sign they were looking for was the Pleiades star-group. the Indians believing that he was a god named Quetzalcoatl whose return had long been prophesied. He discovered that central to their philosophy was a belief in the cyclical nature of time and an awesome fear that one day. going up into the surrounding hills. thereby bringing to an end the fifth and last age of man. When one of these 52 year time periods. It seems that they believed that the sun. 16 horses and some artillery landed on the coast near what was to become Vera Cruz. they believed.Introduction Mexico is a strange country that contains many secrets. anxiously watch the stars. 600 foot soldiers. was both barbarous and satanic. one according to each calendar so that the same combination of names would not recur for 52 years. possibly sooner rather than later. Fortunately not all the Spanish were as unsympathetic towards the Indians as Cortes. which they nourished with their sacrifices. known as an Aztec century. with 11 ships. came to an end they would leave their cities and. meant that the heavens had not stopped turning and the sun would rise again. hunger and over-work were forcibly converted to Catholicism. Most native Meso-American documents were destroyed in the early years of the Spanish occupation but a few priceless books and relics did survive the destruction. crossing the southern meridian at midnight. Whole libraries of colourful bark-books were burnt and those natives who did not die from disease. made friends with the natives and attempted to record for posterity their traditional beliefs and ideas. By August 13 1521 he had conquered the Aztec Empire. The Spanish for their part were both fascinated and appalled by what they found in this 'New World'. either having been hidden by the Indians or exported back to Europe as presents for the King. Accordingly they set about destroying it without trace. symbolising for them a cosmic snake's rattle. one a "vague" year of 365 days and the other a shorter cycle of 260 days. They counted the days according to two calendars. To them the indigenous religion. A few. symbolising the rebirth of the world. The Aztecs celebrated the birth of this new 'century' with rejoicing and the lighting of fires. Part of the reason for his success was a case of mistaken identities. The most important of these was what is now called the Dresden Codex. the most powerful state in all of the Americas.

1. he also found that they had another system of counting the days relative to a starting date. He therefore proposed that . Cotterell was well aware that they have profound effects upon the earth's magnetic envelope. He had for some years suspected that the sun's variable magnetic field had consequences for life on earth. Working from their start date this Mayan Prophecy points to a date in our own time. turned his attention to this codex. which could be factorised in a number of ways and which harmonised the cycles of Venus and Mars with two "yearly" cycles also used by the Maya: the sacred tzolkin of 260 days and the Haab of 365 days. "years" or tuns of 360 days and longer periods of 7200 days. These were so accurate that they put our own calendar to shame. The number. size and location of sunspots are constantly changing and as a former Radio Officer. starting from the Birth of Venus. was written by Maya Indians who once ruled over much of Central America.was lodged. He also found evidence for a curious "magic number".040 days. His work took a new turn when he read about the Mayan super number from the Dresden Codex: 1. who was working as a librarian in Dresden. called the Birth of Venus and now known to be 13 August 3114 BC. inscribed with unknown hieroglyphs.366. after 13 of these longest periods. As expected his model predicted that there should be a sunspot cycle of roughly eleven and a half years. This calendar was divided into "months" or uinals of twenty days. By a process of extraordinary detective work he cracked the code of the Mayan calendar making it possible for other scholars and explorers to translate the many dated inscriptions to be found on buildings. the magnetosphere.366. He discovered that the Dresden Codex itself was concerned with astronomy providing detailed tables of lunar eclipses and other phenomenon.560 days. The number 13 was magically important to them and they believed that.000 days. 22 December 2012. the katun and 144.560 days. the world would come to an end. This strange book.366. German scholar. he also found graphic evidence for longer cycles including a period of 1. or baktuns. the ruins of their once grand civilization littering the jungle. The sun has a complex field which loops and twists itself into knots. which are dark blemishes on the sun's skin. stelae and other ancient Mayan artefacts. In 1880 a brilliant. closely corresponding to what has been observed over several centuries. he devised a program that would compute the relationship between the sun's magnetic field and the Earth. It has long been suspected that these loops give rise to sunspots. the baktun. In 1986 Maurice Cotterell put forward a revolutionary theory concerning astrology and sun cycles. However. This was exactly two 260 day cycles larger than his theoretical sunspot period. Whilst working as Head of Electrical and Communications Engineering (Estates) at Cranfield Institute of Technology. However.

Whereas the Egyptians studied the movements of the Hyades. the Maya were more interested in the nearby Pleiades star-cluster. Gilbert was able to relate the first of these to Atlantis and investigated certain prophecies relating to this fabled civilization. even though their civilizations are separated by millennia. Travelling in Mexico. believed there had been four ages prior to our own. some of whom went to Egypt and some to Central America. He discovered some curious cultural similarities between the early Maya and the ancient Egyptians. This later degenerated into human sacrifice: physical hearts instead of emotions being offered to the sun. probably lived at the start of the fourth age. he now had evidence that the Mayan calendar was not arbitrary but was based on a knowledge of the effects of sunspots. As his earlier work on what he called Astrogenetics indicated that human fertility was dependent on the presence of sunspots. Gilbert too went to Mexico and was fascinated to discover the extent to which the ancient Mexicans venerated the rattlesnake. Perhaps we are already witnessing the beginnings of this change with the . who believed it showed the picture of an ancient astronaut. Orion and its companion star Sirius. a mysterious sarcophagus cover made famous in the 1960s by Eric von Däniken. which seems to have corresponded to the ecliptic. may well owe its origins to survivors of this lost race. Cotterell extended his ideas and gave them a public airing on television. This explained the near obsession they had for long cycles of time and their belief in the rise and fall of four previous ages of man. The original Quetzalcoatl. which the early Spanish conquistadors attempted to eradicate. who had recently co-authored a book on the Egyptian pyramids called The Orion Mystery. The Maya. around 3114 BC and initiated a highly ethical religion of penance. They viewed it as the warning rattle of a great cosmic serpent. After giving a lecture at the Voluntary Cultural society.the two were related. The Mayan calendar points to 22 December 2012 as being the end of our present age. Changes around that time to the sun's magnetic field could have consequences for us all. he was awarded a medal by the wife of the President. It seems that the serpent religion. Other prophets of the same name lived later and Cortes was mistaken for his reincarnation. Cotterell now identified the lid as a graphic representation of Mayan philosophy and as containing many hidden messages and codes. By now his work included some very esoteric investigations into the 'Lid of Palenque'. In 1994 he met up with Adrian Gilbert. whose name means 'plumed serpent' and who was identified with the planet Venus. like the Aztecs. The head of this serpent was the sun and they believed that it was the source of all life on earth.

leading to the collapse of the Mayan civilization. is an internationally acclaimed writer. jungle cities are a warning to us all. we need to understand fully how America was populated. His new book. The Mosaic Mask of Palenque (1994). The Supergods (1997). It appears that there have been some gross inaccuracies and misunderstandings that have led scientists to accept an oversimplified model of human entry into America via the Bering land bridge during the height of the last ice age. Architecture and carvings. how the Maya encoded secret knowledge into their art. it would be foolish to assume that America did not play a part in the populating of the Pacific.desertification of more and more land. stretching from 70degrees North to 55 degrees south. and The Mural of Bonampak (1995). his co-author for The Mayan Prophecies Ancient America The Pacific Ocean is bounded by America on its eastern side. The Amazing Lid of Palenque (1993). Their ruined. and Independent Scientist. provisionally entitled "Magi: quest for a secret tradition". Engineer. to ascertain the complexities of human migration in the Pacific region. He has his own Web site. Cotterell's co-author for the Mayan Prophecies. author of Astrogenetics (1988). which will be published by Bloomsbury next autumn. builds up Velikovsky's work and explains how ice ages are caused. As trade winds and equatorial ocean currents travel in a westerly direction. Therefore. pyramid research this century. He may be contacted by fax (UK) on 01752 840945. regarded by many as the greatest breakthrough in Egyptian. Maurice Cotterell. He is currently working on a new book. This seems to have happened in a more localised way at the time of another sun spot minima. is the co-author of the number one international best-seller The Orion Mystery. why the mammoth disappeared. No consideration to the possibility that ocean . About the authors • • Adrian Gilbert. and how the intellectual ascent of man is punctuated by outside intevention just as geological evolution is punctuated by catastrophes.

volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. 11. Therefore almost all ancient towns of any consequence would have been by the sea and so.000 years ago. It was after these events that we find the survivors taking an interest in . 8. transporting large cargoes for trade. Boats were one of the earliest forms of communal transport invented by man.crossings played a significant part in the populating of the Americas. his desire to determine where he was going. has been given. but boats were the trucks of the olden days.500 years ago talked about later in this chapter would not only have produced a rapid rise in sea level. jungles.000 and 5. mathematics. seaworthy boats would have expanded mans horizons immeasurably. but also.000 years ago were much the same as they are today. the great majority of towns and cities prior to 6. deserts or hostile tribes to interfere with ones passage).000 years ago are all underwater from sea level rises since the last ice age. Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level.000 years ago. fueled a revolution in astronomy. therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event.000 and 12. Many megalithic monuments around the world are made from rocks that have been transported hundreds of kilometres away from their source.000 years ago and possibly as early as 18. Recent discoveries of three 13. but also much of the knowledge they possessed. Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. The Polar meltdown between 7. as a result the preferred sites for towns and cities would have been on the coast. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6. Not only did it destroy the people of this time.200 and 6. The sea provided unhindered passage to other towns for trade (no mountains. This was not the only catastrophic rise in sea level that early man has had to deal with. resulting in the devastation of coastal towns and the decimation of all seafaring nations around the world. canyons.000 years ago. the iso static rebound would have caused earthquakes. Temperatures are less extreme and the likelihood of life giving rain is also much greater.000. Not only this. suggesting that large sailing boats were in use 6.14. there were others . Not only that. as both land and marine produce can be obtained. but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans.000 years ago. distorting the picture of early habitation of our planet.600. The availability and choice of food is also more diverse along a coastline. Factors that determined human settlement 20. helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18. trigonometry and ultimately world trade.000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct. As a result of him using the 'highways of the sea'. powerful river currents.

swamp agriculture around lakes and on highland plateaus without fear of inundation. Such areas that were chosen were , Lake Chad, Lake Titicaca, New Guinea Highlands, Highlands of Luzon, the Nile, the Tigris, the Indus, the Upper Amazon, the Mississippi, the Mekong, the Yangtze and so on. With these few survivors, they would have retained only the bare essentials and much of the old technology was lost or forgotten. It appears that archaeologists may have mistaken this regrouping of man after the final floods as the beginning of agriculture and civilization. Discoveries of cities around India, Yonaguni and an underwater city in 700m of water off Cuba indicate that archaeologists have grossly misunderstood their findings and have merely scratched the surface of human prehistory. Dr Muck, an archaeologist, describes archeological sites in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Southern Carolina, dating back 15,000-18,000 years which demonstrate that the ocean-going Solutreans may have first entered America by sailing across the Atlantic. The notion that Clovis originated in or spread throughout North America from a point of origin in the Northern Plains (within an ice-free corridor between the continental glaciers) is not supported by the distribution of finds. Clovis may actually have dispersed into North and South America from the Caribbean and Central America, much of which is now submerged, making it difficult to ascertain the exact time of entry into America.

Underwater caves off Yucatan yield three old skeletons —remains date to 13,000 years ago.
by Dr. Greg Little September 10, 2004 "At the international "Early Man in America Seminar" in Mexico City on September 9, 2004, an archaeological team from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History reported one of the most significant finds ever made in American archaeological history. Three well-preserved skeletons were discovered in underwater caves off the Caribbean coast of Yucatan during dives during 2001 and 2002. The skeletons were found in 65-foot-deep water. The University of California in Riverside carbon-dated charcoal samples found with one of the skeletons to over 13,000 calendar years ago—11,000 B.C. The find represents the oldest carbon date associated with any human bone remains found in the Americas. Mexican archaeologist Arturo Gonzalez led the dive team. Gonzalez noted that during the last Ice Age, sea levels were much lower, but as we reported in our book and video documentary, "The ARE's Search for Atlantis," archaeologists from Florida State University's Underwater Archaeology Department (FSU) found that in the area "of the Bahamas in

10,500 B.C., the water levels were about 100 feet lower than today. But areas of human occupation on these ancient shores tend to cluster at depths around the 45-foot level." The new discovery of Yucatan remains dated to 11,000 B.C. comes as we are completing the video documentary, "The Yucatan Hall of Records," scheduled for release at the ARE's Annual Ancient Mysteries Conference. The discovery has been incorporated into the video and confirms several statements made by Andrew Collins, which were made during a videotaped interview for the documentary. Collins, author of the best selling, "Gateway to Atlantis," tells the story of Votan, the Guatemalan highlands version of Itzamna. In both the stories of Itzamna and Votan, related in Maya codices, the founder of the Maya culture was said to have come from an island in the east. Collins stated that substantial research has shown that Votan's origin was definitely Cuba. Both Itzamna and Votan carried written records with them. According to Collins, Votan landed on the shores of the Yucatan coast and gradually moved north. We believe that Cerritos Island, which we visited in August 2004, may have been the initial landing site of Iltar/Itzamna/Votan."

The Clovis - Solutrean connection
Dr. Stanford an archaeologist of the highest caliber, turned away from the Bering route and looked elsewhere for the first migration. His thinking evolved over three decades. In the '60s Stanford, like most of his colleagues, believed that Clovis came from Asia. It wasn't until the '70s that he began to believe that Clovis was a New World development and that evidence of pre-Clovis would be found in the Arctic. "But I wasn't seeing evidence," he recalls, "and after a while it started not to make sense. Everything I found in Alaska that was fluted was post-Clovis in age." There was no technology he considered pre-Clovis. He hoped at the time that once Siberia was opened up to Western scientists we would find the missing evidence. But the end of the Cold War didn't provide the solution for Stanford and his co-theorist, lithics expert Bruce Bradley. Stanford and Dr. Bradley independently looked at the evidence and arrived at the same conclusion. They inspected late-Pleistocene sites and scoured museum collections in Siberia, Russia, and northern China, seeking pre-Clovis technology. Instead, what they found was a totally different method of making tools and weapons. The Clovis fluted point is knapped from stone, flaked on both sides (bifacial) and shaped into a beautiful thin, flat killing instrument; the base is thinned and relieved into a concave recess so that the point can be securely hafted onto a foreshaft or shaft. The Asian upper-Paleolithic

weapons that Stanford and Bradley found, however, were made using a microblade technology, where tiny blades struck from wedge-shaped cores of stone were inset into long, narrow rods of bone, antler, or ivory. When Far East craftsmen tried to make bifacial tools, the result was relatively crude implements (quite thick in cross section, compared with exquisitely thin Clovis points) and frequently bi-pointed. Nowhere in Asia did Stanford and Bradley find the ancestor of the Clovis point. They reasoned that if the first immigrants were Asian, they must have brought with them their inset-microblade manufacturing process, in which case there must exist evidence of a transition to Clovis technology. So far, however, nothing resembling an intermediate form between inset microblades and a knapped biface has been found in North America. Stuck at a dead end, Stanford and Bradley took up a fresh trail. The roots of Clovis, they reasoned, must lie in the Paleolithic Old World outside of Asia. They took up the search for a parent technology that specialized in making thin, flat bifacial projectile points, knives and other biface implements, and other artifacts of stone and bone similar to those of the Clovis culture. They found only one Paleolithic culture whose technology met their criteria, the Solutrean people. Named for the French town of Solutré, the culture spread across much of France and the Spanish Peninsula. They were highly efficient hunters. Full bellies gave them leisure time, which they used to decorate the walls of their caves with fabulous surrealistic paintings of bison and horses and ibex that continue to awe us today. They were carvers, too, for art's sake. "They had the only upper-Paleolithic biface technology going in Western Europe," Stanford points out. They were the first to heat-treat flint, and the first to use pressure flaking--removing flakes by pressing with a hardwood or antler tool, rather than by striking with another stone. "In northern Spain, their technology produced biface projectile points with concave bases that are basally thinned," he notes, not bothering to say he could just as well be describing Clovis points. The pressure flakes Solutrean knappers removed are so long it's almost a fluting technique--"almost," he's careful to say, but not quite. The parallels between Solutrean and Clovis flintknapping techniques seem endless. The core technology, "the way they were knocking off big blades and setting up their core platforms," he explains, "is very similar to the Clovis technique, if not identical." They perfected the outre passé --overshot--flaking technique later seen in Clovis, which removes a flake across the entire face of the tool from margin to margin. It's a complicated procedure, he emphasizes, that has to be set up and steps followed precisely in order to detach regular flakes predictably. The Solutreans set up

platforms and followed the technique through to the end, exactly as we see in Clovis. "No one else in the world does that," Stanford insists. "There is very little in Clovis--in fact, nothing--that is not found in Solutrean technology," he declares. Archaeologist Kenneth Tankersley of Kent State University seconds Stanford and Bradley's opinion: "There are only two places in the world and two times that this technology appears--Solutrean and Clovis." On and on the similarities pile up. We find carved tablets in Clovis sites remarkably similar to Solutrean specimens. Both cultures cached toolstone and finished implements. Stanford and Bradley know of about 20 instances of caches at Solutrean sites; in North America, by comparison, according to Stanford, "we're up to about nine or ten." Just like Clovis knappers, Solutreans used flakes detached by outre passé to make scrapers and knives. Clovis bone projectile points bear an uncanny resemblance to ones made by Solutreans. When French archaeologists saw the cast of a wrench used by Clovis craftsmen at the Murray Springs site in Arizona to straighten spear shafts, they declared it remarkably similar to one found at a Solutrean site. Proof that Solutreans were also mariners was in the discovery in 1992 of Le Cosquer cave near Marseilles by diver Henri Cosquer. Among the rock art figures are depictions of seals impaled by harpoons as well as flounder and halibut - deep-sea fish! Clearly Solutreans learned how to exploit marine resources, possibly in hide boats made from mammoth ribs. At some stage either by accident or on purpose, they caught the northern Equatorial current and favourable trade winds, to find themselves in the heart of a magnificent Archipelago of uninhabited islands. Here they flourished, discovering new plants, animals in abundance and minerals. These people have been called the Clovis hunters in America. Dr Stanford and Dr Bradley point out the discoveries in genetics by researchers at Emory University and the Universities of Rome and Hamburg. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited exclusively from the mother, normally contains four markers called haplogroups, labeled A, B, C, and D. These four are shared by 95 percent of Native Americans. Recently, however, the genetics team identified a fifth haplogroup, called X, which is present in about 20,000 Native Americans and has also been found in several pre-Columbian populations. A most interesting fact is that haplogroup X is also present in European populations but absent from Asians. The geneticists' research suggests the marker appears to have arrived in the Americas 12,000 to 34,000 years ago, not from Asia, but from Europe.

bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe. Geneticist Prof Steve Jones says: "The Welsh and the Irish are among the most homogenous people in the world. who recently published a book called Y . from the research that's been done so far." .The Descent of Man. M. "There has been much less interbreeding in Wales than you might expect. The red haired Caucasian Paracas mummies of Peru is also proof that Caucasians were part of the indigenous culture of America. American prehistory must also be considered. Prof Jones.A.000 and 12. It is common for them to have curly reddish brown hair and green eyes. said genetics provided more reliable clues to the distant past than language did.D. most likely arriving from Spain between 18.000 years ago. leading up to the exodus to Easter Island! They mention tribes from the ancient land of Tulapin (Turtle Island). which is passed by males from generation to generation.As well as the Caucasian Marker X in North America.Carroll..000 and 12." The genes of Scottish males betrayed considerable inter-mixing with outsiders.000 years ago to become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Scots. They were all Caucasians. the Araucanians of Chile also have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them. Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish. The Solutreans of Spain are now believed to have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18. the Eagle Clan and the Children of the sun or Ra. London. Wales and Ireland have the most homogenous group of males of anywhere in the world. "Most native Americans have the same one. I also found that in 1892 the Easter Island scripts were deciphered by A.000 years isolated from Europe before returning. The results show that the Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans.. Welsh. M. He and colleagues at University College. Genetic similarities between Europeans and American Indians Archaeologists are just beginning to realize that to understand European prehistory. They are a detailed history of tribal conflict in South America. have spent years creating a genetic map of the Y chromosome. Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain 12.000 years ago and spent 6. but have been ignored.

which provides the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking populations. Apparently these great ocean navigators after the destruction of Carthage. The Celts carried the early Y chromosome. revealing “remarkable' similarities. 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames. and 150 Basques. 88 “Celtic fringe” individuals from Anglesey. New Hampshire. in particular New England. author of 'America B.C. He also identifies many early style Celtic Megalithic monuments on the east coast of America.James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University College London." said Prof Goldstein. Vermont and Woodstock. Phallic menhir. researchers concluded. Men-a-tol. Libyan and Viking scripts in America. found that Welsh and Irishmen are genetic blood-brothers of the Basque people. Spain and Africa that goes back to at least 800BC. The findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the people known as Celts and the Basques. decided to withhold all information on navigating to the Americas from the Romans and by the end of the Roman Empire and the onset of the dark ages. Iberian. The gene patterns of three races passed down through the male line are all strikingly similar. On the other hand. We conclude that both the Basques and Celts are reflecting pre-farming Europe. Barry Fell. Barry Fell has identified Ogham script that has come from Ireland. but ceasing around the time of the beginning of the Roman Empire. The team looked for similarities between the Y chromosomes (which are only carried by men) they sampled DNA from. fiercely proud of their ancestry and traditions. indicating that a great deal of trade contact occurred during and after the Bronze Age. we also noticed that there's something quite striking about the Celtic populations. “They were statistically indistinguishable'. Phoenician. he and his colleagues compared Celtic and Norwegian populations and found them to be quite different. much was forgotten about trans Atlantic navigation and the Americas. Basques can trace their roots back to the Stone Age and are one of Europe's most distinct people. with colleagues at Oxford University and the University of California. they take the form of Dolmens. Early Egyptian scripts were used by the Micmac right up to the arrival of Missionaries. . Egyptian. and that is that there's not a lot of genetic variation on the male Y-chromosome. Berber. Somehow these people have remained in isolation from the rest of Europe up until the Bronze age where their genes begin to indicate an influx of female genes from mainland Europe. North Wales.' is an accomplished decipherer of ancient scripts and has managed to identify a great deal of Celtic.

which in Gaelic means ‘slow flowing waters' Nashaway River in Algonquian means ‘land between' and in Gaelic naisguir means ‘land connecting'. especially on the Dingle peninsular. tend to keep their old names despite the invasions of foreign conquerors. In Gaelic Morriomach means ‘of great depth'. one finds a striking similarity to the Algonquian language. In Algonquian Coos and cohas mean ‘pine tree' and in Gaelic. . In Algonquian Ammonoosuc means ‘small fishing river' and in Gaelic. the Algonquian word for ‘one who takes small fish' is Amoskeag. Merrimack River in Algonquian means ‘deep fishing'. rivers and geographical features. In Gaelic Ammo-iasgag means ‘small fish stream'. Ottauquechee River flows through a 162 feet deep gorge is similar to the Gaelic word Otha-Cuithe which means. Am-min-a-sugh means. Although Barry Fell did not go further than assert that most Celtic connections occurred around the Bronze Age. more accurate dating of the Dolmens and other megalithic monuments will possibly show that some American megaliths may actually predate the arrival of Celts on the Dingle peninsular in Ireland. He was not aware of the more ancient genetic connections the Celts had with the proto-American Indians. which in Gaelic is.massive stone Druid's chairs.C. Solstice and Equinox viewing chambers and burial mounds. Pioscatacua means ‘pieces of snow white stone'. but when pronounced in the ancient Gaulish or ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques. Kaskaashadi another Algonquian name for the Merrimack River sounds similar to Guisgesiadi. With further studies done. Piscataqua River means ‘white stone' and in Gaelic. it would seem. ghiuthas means ‘pine tree'. ‘waters of the gorge'. Seminenal River means ‘grains of rock'. ‘small river for taking out fish'. Brittany and some sites in Spain. For example. semenaill Quechee matches the Gaelic work Quithe meaning pit or chasm. New England's Celtic Place Names From. megalithic chambers. As usual this work has been ignored by the Eurocentric 'No one before Columbus' fraternity. America B. Modern Gaelic preserves many spelled letters that are no longer pronounced. by Barry Fell “I was surprised to find many Amerindian place names had somehow survived the onslaught of colonists. These all parallel similar structures in Celtic Europe.

The native name of Brittany in France is Armorica. As the Gaelic language is unrelated to any IndoEuropean languages. These are names given to these places by the indigenous Amerindians. Pontanipo Pond means cold water and in Gaelic Punntaine-pol means ‘numbingly cold pool' Natukko means cleared place (land) and in Gaelic Neo-tugha means not covered (by vegetation). . Monomonock Lake means 'island lookout place' and in Gaelic Moinemanagh-ach 'means boggy lookout place'. Attilah means blueberries and in Gaelic Aiteal means juniper berries. another big hint as to their origins. Wadjak means on top. in Gaelic the word is uachdar. Asquam Lake means ‘pleasant watering place' and in Gaelic Uisge-amail means ‘seasonable waters'. Similar to Gaelic Cabach-sugh. It stands to reason that anyone speaking Gaelic related languages in Europe were originally from America. The suffix . through many changes over the past 300 years. These names which have stuck. The Sturgeon fish have unfortunately fallen victim to environmental degradation.that the Gaelic language was the original mother tongue of many Amerindians.nock is used in New England to denote hills and mountains. Cnoc in Gaelic means hill or rocky outcrop. Monad means mountain and in Gaelic monadh means mountain. this can mean only one thing . are not names left by Bronze Age European traders who have sporadicly visitored America.Cabassauk River in Algonquian means place of Sturgeon. Munt means people and in Gaelic muintear means people.

man and spirals compared to spirals on a rock marking the entrance to a Celtic tomb. 2.C. is very similar to constructions in South America of the same vintage.900 B. Photo. More early Celtic designs compared to an Anasazi design .Stonehenge construction in Southwestern England. Maxine Marsh Anasazi cup.

Crow. Shoshone.05/15/96 . showing that the Boundaries between people on the either side of the Atlantic is not as great as some would like to make out. Crow and Zuni. compared to a Celtic petroglyph Here are a few examples of Amerindians.Anasazi Gazelles. Mohave. Oldest Known North American Mummy From Enigma .

One dominant genetic trait reveals the Cro Magnon man heritage is hidden in American Indians is their tallness. blonde and red hair are all recessive genes and so the European heritage of American Indians was masked by the genes of the new comers. The races that possess this blood are races of the Americas. Age of the White Haired Giants Aztec and Toltec history identifies that 17. Scandinavians. The mummy. named the Spirit Cave man. with 5-20% of the population being rhesus negative. common in America is also a genetic throwback to a time that once was.500 years ago.400 years (7. If these findings turn out to be true it would mean that the there were people in North America more than 9. they inevitably interbred with the Rhesus negative Red Heads.000 years ago with the knowledge and technology to weave cloths on looms. or in Inca history .400 BC). Celts. traditionally called the blood of royalty (blue blood) and stems from Cro Magnon man. Discovered in Nevada in 1940 it was originally thought to be 2000 years old. The most intriguing facts is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. Incas and Auracanians are all virtually 100% group O. the Basques.608 years ago was the beginning of "The Age of the First Sun" or the "Age of White Haired Giants". the Canary Islands. Not only this. DNA and other tests are being undertaken. They have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them. Recent radiocarbon dating has pushed its age back to 9. as a rhesus negative mother who gives birth to a rhesus positive baby develops antibodies against rhesus positive blood and is then unable to succesfully have any more children without the help of modern medicine. as well as some Polynesians. When the Rhesus positive Asians arrived in America 5. Other studies show that Mayans. this was the blood of the original Europeans. Another genetic marker indicating that Caucasians were in America are the Araucanians of Chile. Gigantism. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. They are in effect a relic of the people of Atlantis. when hunting mammoths and sabre toothed tigers was a part and parcel of daily activities. for the already decimated population of Red Heads. but blue eyes. This would have proved disasterous. . Such a level of sophistication again pushes back the dates of early civilization and should makes us question some long held assumptions about the primitiveness of ancient people. when 'size did matter' for survival.The "discovery" of the oldest known mummy in North America.the “White and Bearded Gods”.the Age of Viracochas . was found on the shelves of the Nevada State Museum.

In White County. It is no . "very large" bones in stone graves found in Williamson County. A skeleton estimated as being 10. and in some legends it was called Atlantis. Spain and North Africa and Egypt talk of their legendary homeland being on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. In February and June of 1931.000 years old was found in the ‘tomb of Palli Aike' in Tierra del Fuego in 1969-70 and has been identified as CroMagnon. Tennessee. It sounds to me like cultures on either side of the Atlantic are describing the same breed of man. 1931). The first of these two skeletons found measured 8 1/2 feet tall and appeared to have been wrapped in a gumcovered fabric similar to the Egyptian manner. in 1821. Brittany.010 years. In the book. The demise of Atlantis was somewhere in the middle of this. While digging through heavy clay soil they were astonished to uncover three giant skeletons strands of reddish hair clinging to the skulls. Hill. had pale skin.D. Nov 10. This Age lasted 4. Tennessee. Ohio. so did the Amerindians.600 years ago In Aztec legends. Just as black haired Greeks had an earlier past of taller blonde and red haired people (the Titans). A local doctor was called to examine the remains and was able ascertain after careful measurement. The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee. a nine-foot. Indiana(Indianapolis News. George W. M. Archaeological finds in America appear to confirm the existence of very tall people being the base layer of the Native American cultures. it began with the Biblical and Sumerian Great Flood.the “Golden Age” and is remembered in Incan legends as the “Age of Giants”. the skeletons had supported people approximately 8 feet tall. was the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun . large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock. eight-inch skeleton was excavated from a mound near Brewersville. author John Haywood describes. followed by the Deluge and ended with a calamity involving the Wind Serpent. In 1879.According to European archaeology. June 19.(Review . The second skeleton was almost 10 feet long. an "ancient fortification" contained skeletons of gigantic stature averaging at least 7 feet in length.. blonde hair and was capable of growing beards. The Golden Age 13. Nevada. Cro Magnon man was quite tall. European legends from Ireland. which indicates that these people also spread to South America. 1975) In 1875 workmen were constructing a bridge near the mouth of Paw Paw Creek at Rivesville.Miner. dug out a skeleton "of unusual size" in a mound of Ashland County.

Cuba is in a tectonically active area. Tolan. along with end of the Clovis people and Atlantis 11. This period abruptly ended with the demise of the megafauna of North America.600years ago. Atlanta. suggesting a subsidence of the whole Cuban tectonic plate. The comet impact in North America around this time .coincidence that many Central American place names are also derived from the fabled city of Atlantis. The Grande Bahama Bank would have been a large island up until about 6. which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore.000 years ago.000 years ago! This correlates perfectly with the Clovis hunters and the time of Atlantis.000 craters known as the Carolina Bays (see Catastrophes Chapter) could possibly have been the cause of this abrupt end to an Era in America. centred around Cuba and the Grand Bahama Banks . Six of over sixty discovered archaeological sites are marked here. as marked. When comparing Platos story to this area it all fitted except for talk of horses and elephants in the city. There appear to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks. The red spot marks the approximate position of a city recently found in approximately 700m deep water. If Atlantis was destroyed . Mountains in Cuba would have been correspondingly higher. to find that Mastodons and horses became extinct approximately 11.000 years ago would have been an island as big as Ireland. The green area is presently underwater but would have been exposed during the last ice age when sea levels were 140m lower. just off the edge of this shallow bay. The most likely site for the civilization of Atlantis appears to be in the Caribbean. Tulan. adjacent to Cuba.a shallow area of sea that 10. Azatlan. Gold dust amongst the beach sand of this bay could quite possibly be from the gold used to decorate the buildings of Atlantis. This area meets all the criteria of the city's location. and Tenochtitlan are all linguistically similar.as evidenced by the 500. I then looked up mammal extinctions in North America. Aztlan. with a deep oceanic trench (subduction zone) south of it. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures.000 years ago. including stone Quarries in 1020 metres of water. Tlan. The red rectangle depicts the possible site of Atlantis. Archaeological evidence shows that the Clovis people multiplied and spread across North America from the Gulf of Mexico about 13. A Hexagonally tiled floor has been uncovered as well as numerous stone roads. Modern side scanning sonar has recently picked up what appears to be the ruins of a city on a 7sq mile plateau in 2300 feet of water.

There appears to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks. which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore. products of this civilization show the greatest amount of evidence in America. Other sites of towns appear to be on the Grand Bahama Banks– a shallow area of sea that 6. but sea levels world wide have risen ~300 feet during this time. Artists impression of what has been sited in 2000feet off the western end of Cuba.11. but this culture is only 5.com.000 years old. If these people . Whether Atlantis was in the Azores or the Caribbean. Atlantis was said to be on an island. the Azores. if it does have any parallels with the ancient Atlantian culture. including stone Quarries in 10-20 metres of water. A Hexagonally tiled floor.“The Age of the Red Haired People. Not only this. then it is from wayward settlers from the ancient American civilization of Atlantis. The Minoan civilization of Crete was another suggestion. This is totally plausible in geological terms.000 years ago would have been an island 600x200 miles. 6 foot across and 4" thick have been uncovered as well as numerous stone roads.Pottery ~6000 years old has been found amongst these ruins. Western Africa and the Antarctic. adjacent to Cuba. is remembered in Aztec legends as the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun . South America.C. from the survivors of Atlantis.Image from Atlantisite. These people are most likely a reformed fragment.600 years ago then this means this plateau has been dropping at a rate of ~2" every year.590 B. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures. therefore. Ther have been many assertions that Atlantis was in: Spain.This period of development. each tile. Indonesia and the Black Sea. one of 10 kingdoms that spanned a country as big as Africa and Asia together (N&S America). not to mention other more outlandish suggestions that ignore a basic fact that it was outside the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar) and have postulated that it was in Taiwan. starting 7.

In the bay at the western end of Cuba. Catastrophes and Prehistory . Both Copper and Gold can be found in nature as pure nuggets. This can only be an individual representing the Anu. He says they hammered out great sheets of these metals and covered large stone structures marking the entrance to great harbours. is from gold looted from the Aztecs and Incas on a Spanish wreck in the bay.11. the sandy beach contains minute grains of gold. either via the St Lawrence River and down the Mississippi.000 tons of copper from this mine back to Europe. The cultural development of the Sumerians may give us some idea what these cultures were like. These can only be individuals representing the people of Atlantis. As the cities of the Veda and the cities associated with Atlantis are all in at least 40m of water. medicine and astronomy. Even Lixus city on the West Coast of Africa was most likely active at this time too. Sometime after 11600years ago a god like person named Anu helped transform the primitive Sumerians into farmers. So far copper artefacts ~8000 years old have been found . purple clothed people with golden wings appear in the Sumerian historical records. 11.600 years of erosion would easily reduce sheets of gold into minute grains. They are seen as educators in the humanities. Is it possible that such early use of metals has been hidden from archaeologists eyes? The earliest use of copper in the world was in Michigan. People have suggested this gold. It would not be possible for a cache of gold to be reduced to such fine specks in only 300 years. which are better known as the Veda of India. Use of Metals in ancient times There is an ancient copper mine in Michigan that was used by these people and later by the Phoenicians and Berbers who exported about 500. Then a 600 years later a group of white faced. I suspect that the date for the earliest use of metals will be pushed back to the time of Atlantis . Plato also talks of Orichalcum and Gold.were travelling back to Europe to fight the people of the Mediterranean.Gold has also been found associated with ancient copper artefacts. I am sure that islands of the Central Atlantic and coastal Spain would most certainly have been controlled by these people also. the simple process of hammering it into sheets would not have been a terribly difficult concept to grasp. little can be ascertained about the cultural development of these people until an actual city site is found. which does not come from a motherload in the area. where the main city of Atlantis was meant to have been situated.500BP.

The second skeleton was . some were less than a metre tall others were over four metres tall. Just as we see a great range of body sizes in the canine species. In White County. Recent studies in Indonesia have unearthed 'the Hobbit' a very small human. it is only logical to assume there has been a similar variation with humans. they were all capable of using tools such as hammers. With their opposing thumbs. axes and spears.000 years ago. This has been spelled out fairly clearly by Bryan Sykes in his book 'The Seven Daughters of Eve'. as similar tools have been found in Indonesia. such as a comet impact. causing massive droughts and a scarcity of food. Despite this. chance. smaller people would have had a better chance of survival after a natural catastrophe. an "ancient fortification" contained skeletons of gigantic stature averaging at least 7 feet in length.000 years ago. let us look at the bigger picture.Now that we have a better picture of the people who became 'the Polynesians'. In February and June of 1931. dimming the earth for a few years. Woolly Mammoths and other large and powerful beasts were in the environment. from about 13. Large 20kg axe heads have been found associated with 60cm footprints in New South Wales. which indicates the size and technological development of these people. The skeleton was about one metre tall. The tools are thought to have been made by 'Java Man'. large and powerful people would have had a better chance of survival. The locality of impacts. Nevada. large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock. had a much bigger part to play in determining who the survivors were. from Great Danes to Chihuahuas. where dust was thrown up into the atmosphere. The first of these two skeletons found measured 8 1/2 feet tall and appeared to have been wrapped in a gumcovered fabric similar to the Egyptian manner. "very large" bones in stone graves found in Williamson County. The general consensus of geneticists is that the present species of humans Homo Sapiens began in Africa 150. Tennessee. author John Haywood describes. Diprotodons. to name a few. The Leaky family did extensive studies in Africa on a 3 million year old bipetal hominid they called Lucy. of how humans have changed over time. There is also Java man. Tennessee. In the book. On the other hand. in 1821. eruptions and tsunamis would have played a big part in who the survivors were. Peking man and Australopithecus. When Sabre toothed tigers. The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee. Recently a 7 million year old bipetal hominid (human) skull was unearthed in Chad by professor Michel Brunet of the University of Poitiers in France. Rather than 'survival of the fittest'. we must not forget that there have been many species of humans or bipetal hominids with opposing thumbs that have populated the world before us.

albeit 100. dug out a skeleton "of unusual size" in a mound of Ashland County. Asia and across to America. that these people were dark skinned. Indiana(Indianapolis News. June 19.000 years ago when Lake Toba exploded. Andaman Islands. It is interesting to note that these genetically related people all appear to have the bow and arrow as a hallmark of their culture. almost woolly hair. George W.. short. While digging through heavy clay soil they were astonished to uncover three giant skeletons strands of reddish hair clinging to the skulls. Ohio. is not an abberant mutation. Skeletons of these people have been found in Brazil and Tierra del Fuego. Congo Basin. In 1879. . creating a massive caldera in the highlands of Sumatra. whether it be large predators or famine. but a genetic throwback to a 'time that was'. It is believed from genetic markers in remnant populations around the world. M. As variations in the environment put pressure on these groups. 1931).500 years ago. Relic populations of these pygmies can still be found in the. a nine-foot eight-inch skeleton was excavated from a mound near Brewersville. It is quite likely that they had this technology 100.E. Phillippines. cooling it down and creating droughts and famine that may have lasted for over 10 years. Hill. indicating that they constituted a major pan global population that was crushed by a major natural catastrophe 75.almost 10 feet long. Survivors of this world population of Pygmies can still be found in the Congo. Even Polynesians have traces of this ancestry in their DNA through contact with Melanesians 11. The first migration of Homo sapiens spread out from Africa between 80 and 100. with very frizzy. New Guinea highlanders and some Aborigines of North Queensland.D. Gigantism often found in America. numbers dwindled in the populations less suited to the environment. 1975) In 1875 workmen were constructing a bridge near the mouth of Paw Paw Creek at Rivesville.000 years ago. Nov 10.000 years ago across India into S. the Highlands of New Guinea and the Phillipines. A local doctor was called to examine the remains and was able ascertain after careful measurement. It has been confirmed by geneticists that there are specific DNA markers that indicate without a doubt that The Highlanders of New Guinea are directly related to the Pygmies of the Congo Basin. the skeletons had supported people approximately 8 feet tall.Miner. This eventually led to the situation today where most humans are between five foot and six foot 6inches. Andaman Islands.000 years ago.(Review . Dust from this massive explosion would have dimmed the planet.

They were 3-4 feet tall and their cranium size was equivelant to a 7 year old child. Steve Sailer website (See links).000 and 3. by Barry Fell. Andamaneseii from the Andaman Islands. Recent studies on the Malaria parasite gene have shown that. Their passage to New Guinea from Africa can also be traced by the Malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum that they brought with them. East Tennessee. "Plasmodium falciparum appeared in Africa and spread around the world with migrating . 2. A significant population of these people lived in this area between 40.000 years ago. Pygmy skull found in Holliston Mills.C.1. From America B.Photo.

trans oceanic voyages in the tropics must have been undertaken 10.000 years ago. Once again 'isolationism' has marked comparison of African to Melanesian genes a no go area for research. which ranges widely through Asia. The Blue Black Solomon Islanders bear testament to a separate migration to the Papuans from Africa. as much as 100. Their coincidence with the development of settled agricultural societies in tropical regions seems to be a telling clue to the history of the disease and the movement of man around the world". carrying hundreds of people.000 years ago.the Veda. had wavy black hair and beards. therefore. this parasite was brought not by some wayward fisherman. in India . and they knew how to utilize equatorial currents and the trade winds. As malaria is a tropical disease. The second wave of humans to leave Africa after the Toba disaster were the Anu. Africa.populations.the Ainu.000 years ago. it would have been a case of 'going with the flow' letting the wind take them to a new land over the horizon. forming Plasmodium vivax. in Japan . numerous tribes went under many different names. This is the only way this disease could have spread from Africa to Panama.the Batak and in Australia. in Lake Toba . It must be logical to assume that because they had boats seaworthy enough to cross the Atlantic. Malaria in New Guinea bears testament to their curiosity. The islands of Melanesia are in the exact place boats from the Panama region would end up. there would be nothing stopping them from giving the Pacific Ocean a go. but by a whole fleet of ships. it is highly unlikely that it travelled between continents via the Polar Ice caps. From this. they found another ocean beckoning them. This time they were taller. Melanesia and the Americas. therefore. Both the parasite and the mosquito underwent rapid evolutions about 10. In Africa they were called the Anu. When they crossed the narrow isthmus of Central America. The age of the Pygmy was over and a new balance of human genes spread across the planet. This disease needs to have a significant population of people living close together in order to survive. . we can only assume that Melanesians originated from a number of different migrations at different times from Africa.

Australia and America 50. Cro Magnon man lived in the colder areas of Eurasia. blonde hair and a beard.000 years ago. Needless to say a significant pocket of Veda/Anu survived in India and carried on to begin Western civilization in the Middle East as we know it today. racially similar to the Indian Veda and Australian Aborigines. They are bound to have witnessed many natural catastrophes. this occurred 10.Japanese Ainu. he was very tall. decided to resurrect their civilization amongst the Sumerian tribesmen. In other words. These people once populated Asia. recede to 140m below their present level. but living in the tropics they developed a darker skin for protection against the damaging rays of the sun. averaging 6 to 10 feet. According to Hebrew texts.000 years ago. In Biblical records.000 years ago Genetic studies indicate that Cro Magnon man and the Veda separated ~28. in his book "The Genius of the Few" The great 'Lord Anu' decided to 'plant a garden in Eden' which was a fertile valley . knowledgeable survivors of the Veda/Anu civilizations of India. The Veda were also tall and had beards. According to Christian O'Brien. had pale skin. These people saw the sea levels around the planet. Lord Anu was the culture bringer to the Sumerians.

as the water always having a tendancy to come up from below (Tsunamis and sea level rises). that the survivors of a global catastrophe. tsunamis). gives a fairly good picture of what has happened in the past. and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes (volcanoes. the blue robed copper culture of the Tuaregs. For example. When on the other hand. at such times those who live upon the mountains and in the dry lofty places are more liable to destruction than those who dwell by the rivers or on the sea shore. It would only be natural. regardless of their origins. These people were obviously survivors of the pan Atlantic culture that also gave rise to the purple robed. and know nothing of what happened in ancient times. the seafaring Berbers. The earths ancient geological history is full of evidence of such catastrophes. red haired Phoenicians. comet or meteor impacts as well as associated earthquakes and tsunamis have not been given enough consideration when assessing the forces that have shaped the development of man." These disasters "leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education. Anasazi and Araucano.000 feet thick lava flow. Therefore we have a Veda bringing knowledge of agriculture and a Caucasian American bringing science to the Sumerians to start Western civilization as we know it today. Celts. and so to begin all over again like children. earthquakes. the reverberations around the planet met in Siberia. So what was this global catastrophe that ended these civilizations? In Plato's Critias. 256 million years ago a large celestial body impacted the planet south of South Africa. purple robed people with gold wings came and gave them incredible scientific knowledge. the greatest have been brought about by the agency of fire (comets) and water (ice age meltdown). Toltecs. sometimes in greater. Then 600 years later the "Shining ones" . sometimes in lesser numbers. Basques. creating a massive 12." He also says "that wherever the extremity of winter frost (Ice ages) or of summer sun (climatic change and drought after volcanic eruptions) does not prevent mankind to exist."The declination of bodies moving in the heavens around the earth." Catastrophic events such as massive volcanic eruptions. the gods purge the earth with a deluge of water. 210 million years ago .white faced. rupturing the earth's surface. " There have been and will be again. would have pooled together their recources to start anew. this catastrophe ended the 'Age of Amphibians' and almost wiped out all life on Earth. many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes. the survivors will be those who dwell up on the mountains.overlooking fertile plains in Lebanon where a village named Ehdin still exists. which recurs after long intervals. and a great conflagration of things upon the earth (comet/asteroid impacts). The wise Egyptian priest in talking to Solon.

melting within the year. During human history.000 bodies. Then 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period a meteor impacted the Yucatan Peninsular. From this we can see that catastrophic events have occurred repeatedly in the past and have most definitely played a big part in the evolution of species on our planet. then in one terrible moment the ice holding back the water would break and this huge body of water would gather all the other lakes in its path. Scientists are beginning to realise that the 140metre rise in sea level since the last ice age was not necessarily gradual.another meteor impacted the planet in Canada . This meteor brought to an end the Triassic period. The Atherton Tablelands in Queensland is a 2.000 foot thick lava flow that formed about 1 million years ago in a geologically stable area.000 years. also appears to have been devastated by a tsunami at about the same time. This catastrophe brought to an end the 'Age of the Dinosaurs'. The underwater ruins around Yonaguni and India are also testament to rapid sea level rises within the last 20. The cave system in Malta called the Hypogoeum was filled with 7. but smaller events have occurred.000 foot thick lava flow. similar. possibly from a meteor impact in the Mid Atlantic. but thousands smaller ones have. the opposite side of the planet ruptured. but may have occured in steps. Numerous floors and foundations under the sand indicate that a large city was devastated by a massive tsunami ~7. without predators. once again. On the other side of the Atlantic. This island that was once as big as Ireland was known as Tulapin or Turtle Island and according to legend was the homeland of many native American tribes. a 5.000 years ago when the sea level was over 10metres lower. creating the Deccan in India. Charles Darwin in his 'Evolution of the Species' did not put enough emphasis on the effects of catastrophes and the part that random chance played in determining who the survivors were. resulting in a massive sheet of water punching into the ocean causing a tsunami and contributing to a rise in sea level of a couple of metres. The most obvious example of random chance changing the course of history is the meteor that ended the reign of the large and powerful dinosaurs allowing smaller mammals to freely develop.the Manicouagan Crater 100km wide. A meteor impact in the North Atlantic would most likely have been the perpetrator of this catastrophe. the island which is now the Bahama banks. soil and debris washed in from a massive tsunami. as massive ice shelves broke off the Polar ice cap and drifted into tropical waters. It is obvious that no massive meteors have impacted the planet since the end of the age of the dinosaurs. Rapid rise in sealevel is also believed to have been caused by massive lakes forming on top of the ice sheets as the ice melted. .

Approximately 11. Some of the animals that went extinct are well known (like sabre toothed cats.Such catastrophic events have by random chance repeatedly crushed the dominant world population of humans. This event is thought to have occured around the time that the civilization of Atlantis ended. These were mostly mammals larger than approximately 44 kg.000 years ago. Before this extinction the diversity of large mammals in North America was similar to that of modern Africa. As a result of the extinction. giant sloth and the giant beaver). . Others were less well known animals (like the short-faced skunk. Here is just one example of the destruction caused by a comet in human history. Andrew Collins in Gateway to Atlantis talks about this event in detail.000 years ago a variety of animals went extinct across North America. The possibility that a comet destroyed the mega fauna and human population of North America is highly likely. relatively few large mammals are now found in North America. ending the Golden Age of man in America. allowing a small pocket of survivors to multiply and repopulate the planet with a new mix of genes. Some animals went extinct in North America but survived elsewhere (like horses and tapirs). mammoths and mastodons). USA showered by a watery comet ~11.

Howard website (see Links) .Photos from George A.

with earth piled up on the SE rim up to 25 feet high. Carolina Bays tend to become more elliptical with increasing size . Comet impact. The consistent repition of shape and alignment can mean only one thing. Direct evidence of a cataclysmic event around the time of the Clovis hunters of America. Large bays tend to be deeper than small bays and they tend to occur either in linear arrays or in complex clusters. caused by bullets of water from a disintegrating comet.11. Their orientation across the landscape is in a NW to SE direction. which number in total.Carolina Bays .000 year old Impact sites. It is believed that these depressions were not caused by a rocky comet as no .000 litter the SW corner of North America. 500. This is consistent with a large body of water taking longer to dissipate as it travels at speed across the landscape.up to 10km long. The geological formation of the oval shaped depressions termed Carolina Bays.

a more accurate date for their formation has not been ascertained as yet. one must assume that a significantly large body impacted the Atlantic Ocean.000 years ago. The fact is that these depressions occur in sand. devoid of pollen. creating a wiggly. During it's passage through the sky it looked like a feiry snake.Their orientation is consistent with a NW to SE trajectory comet impact. Pollen samples indicate a pine forest prior to their formation changed to a deciduous forest after their formation. people have tried desperately to think of some other way that these depressions could have occured. The change in forest type after these depressions were formed indicates that they precipitated a radical climate change. Core samples indicate the Carolina Bay formations was between 11-15. or more specifically Tulapin (Turtle Island). soil. onto the earth. but not on any rocky outcrops. Many native American traditions tell of:…a moon fell out of the sky. This change is seen in the core samples either side of a layer of sandy blue clay. Whether or not there are any craters on the bottom of the ocean. therefore they must be all of the same age. snake like trail. This marks the time of creation of the lakes. and the resultant settling of dust after impact. their homeland. It is believed that these impact sites are associated with the Carolina Bays. Therefore as there are 500. but by bullets of water hitting the ground from a disintegrating comet.heavy metals have been found in the craters. just north of the Grand Bahaman banks. "Gateway to Atlantis" we get the following interesting information. . There has been some disbelief that such a catastrophic event could have occured in human times. The speed at which a meteor enters the atmosphere also gives the visual impression of the speed of a striking snake. It has also been noted that there are two oval shaped craters on the bottom of the ocean. the nature of a disintegrating comet entering the atmosphere is that small pieces of debris break off first. mud. Whoever was living in America at the time would have found this event totally devastating as shown in the following accounts of tribes from the area. All the craters show a similar amount of weathering and infilling. The only mechanism for similar shaped depressions to occur in a diverse range of sediments is by a massive body of water. One can imagine an elongate meteor. rotating as it enters the atmosphere. or a later event that destroyed Atlantis is yet to be determined. Whether it was this. travelling at a high velocity at a low trajectory and dumped upon the earth. From Andrew Collins book. The Anasazi have a legend that talks of a fiery sky serpent destroying the civilizations on the islands of the Carribean. upland gravel. the largest remaining piece/s travels the furthest.000 small craters along the Atlantic coast. resulting in a massive tsunami.

. their discontinuous panting cause great disasters: storms. gales.. is said to be "the daughter of the Devil and to have had a tail in the early days". post impact). it means destruction. Just one of hundreds of flood traditions that many scholars have collected. Men having fastened boats together trembled with cold. men. The waves traversed the Rocky Mountains. Days and days of rain quenched the fire. A great wind drove them. The wind carried them away. many people died. Men died of a terrible heat (firestorms post impact). and all living beings. If it approaches the earth. Most telling of such lore this author has read are these amazingly informative tales of the Yakuts: . causing vast amounts of water to evaporate). even in the summer. A number of cultures retained stories of impact induced winter. This most likely describes the impact of the comet that created the Carolina Bays. fathom deep snow will fall even in the summer. . They also perished in the waves. . When these two stars come close to one another. human dwellings disappeared. . They fastened several boats to one another. . it is a bad omen.there were terrible earth quakes and the day turned into night. the daughter of the Devil is a beautiful girl . animals and trees will perish . there was a gigantic flood and a formidable rain that lasted many days. "The water having poured over the land (2km thick ice sheet collapses into the sea). their eager quivering. Uprooted trees floated about in the waves. Men bewailed what happened. forming a great inland sea. . Great holes burned in the earth by the fire were filled. When they unite. blizzards. and rain soon followed (oceanic impact. storm and frost. she is the bride and the sweetheart of Satan's son ÜRGEL (Pleiades). The above translation is attributed to the native tribe called the Esquimaux of Canada. . . . . Presently the moon and the sun disappeared (atmospheric dust. Also from further south in the Carolinas we have the following very interesting tradition: "a star fell to the earth.

Recent studies on ice cores in the Antarctic have found numerous Iridium layers during the last 100. The earth shook. In the night. Comets are not the only cause of major changes in the earths population over the last 15. according to the above information. confusing the origin of the Iridium. Antarctic ice sheet key to sudden sea level rise . deadly storms. Often these layers of Iridium are mixed with Volcanic ash. Iridium is commonly found in meteors. "the earth shook" suggests a sizable impact. destroying coastal trading ports causing a shift in surviving populations.000 years. Human belief systems have been greatly influenced by the phenomena attending the progressive break-up. As the above example suggests. stars fell like rain. This mixing suggests that the impact of a Comet or Meteor precipitated volcanic eruptions. of this large comet. Scientists have also found a direct correlation between Iridium layers and the beginning of many ice age events suggesting that the combined effect of a comet impact and the resultant volcanic eruptions had a big part to play in turning points in human history. but is an extremely rare mineral on Earth.e. into five significant chunks. In short.000 years. Also. these legends accurately describe what can now be inferred from astronomical data on comet Encke and the ring of debris its progenitor strew about the Sun. There is considerable reason to suspect that the majority of the planets namesakes were comets--probably of the Encke family. frost and deep snow in summer. The idea of a wrathful sky god or star positions influencing events on Earth are legacies of this influence. The E and Loh became dry. Sudden sea level rises appear to have happened a number of times in the past.…… five planets went out of their courses. contemporary researchers need to be wary of assuming our predecessors' folk memories of astral events relate to bodies familiar to our time. "Stars falling like rain" indicates a large amount of debris entering the atmosphere. we are told that this is most likely to occur if the comet appears close to the Pleiades. From these lines we gather that a comet with a tail came close enough to influence weather on Earth--i. over thousands of years. What is remarkable about these particular tales is the conjunction of several pieces of information. It appears that sea level rises since the end of the last Ice Age have not been as gradual as previously believed.

and Mark Tamisiea. He says the relic mangroves show an abrupt rise in the sea level. first identified in 1989 . The scientists say their research not only pinpoints the source of the meltwater pulse as coming from West Antarctica. in the March 29 issue of Science . the United States and Britain have concluded that a massive and unusually abrupt rise in sea level about 14. so it does tell us that when climate change happened at least when it happened in the past it was comparatively quick.has been unknown until now.four times faster than usual for that time period and at least 20 times faster than sea levels are rising now. Ancient Mangrove Forests Found Under Reef North Queensland marine researchers have opened a window into the past by exposing ancient mangrove forests entombed beneath the Great Barrier Reef.400 and 8.Researchers show Antarctic ice sheets may not be as stable as previously thought. Glenn Milne of the University of Durham in the U. It also makes the case that significant climatic events can occur very rapidly and unpredictably.000 years ago was caused by the partial collapse of ice sheets in Antarctica. "Material was very much intact.called the global meltwater pulse 1A. report geophysicists Jerry Mitrovica of the University of Toronto. it didn't even have time to fully decompose when it was buried.000 years ago which affected Europe. by Janet Wong March 28. Dr Dan Alongi from the Australian Institute of Marine Science says they have unearthed 9. 2002 -. A cold event 8. solving a mystery scientists have been heatedly debating for more than a decade.K. North Africa and North America causing significant climate . a post-doctoral fellow at U of T. 20 times faster than previously thought. Near the end of the last Ice Age." he said. the Earth's sea level abruptly rose over 20 metres .200 years ago Nature 22 July 1999 A cold event occurred between 8. The cause of this event .000-year-old mangroves in old river channels that were swamped when sea levels rose after the last ice age. Peter Clark of Oregon State University .Physicists from Canada.

It is believed to have been triggered by global warming which caused a catastrophic drainage of the Laurentide lakes in Canada. high-resolution Holocene sediment record from the Antarctic continental margin." The sediment sample revealed higher concentrations of diatom shells during the mid-Holocene. "The Antarctic Peninsula is an ideal region to investigate climate change at decadal to millennial time scales due to its location in one of the Earth's most dynamic climate systems. roughly 5.470 calendar years ago.changes.a further indication that temperatures were higher.7m higher than present day levels. separating the people from one another by arms of the sea. "The ODP sample gives us the first continuous.000 years ago. The sudden increase in freshwater. ODP scientists extracted a 150-foot-long sediment core from the muddy bottom of the Palmer Deep . This cooling event was forced by a massive outflow of fresh water from the Hudson Strait. . Antarctic mud reveals ancient evidence of global climate change By Mark Shwartz In 1998. higher productivity suggests that sea ice was less abundant during the mid-Holocene .000 years to the beginning of the Holocene . "We think it was quite a bit warmer then. Legends around the Caribbean tell of a heavy rain falling for many days and many were drowned.000 feet below sea level. reduced sea surface salinity and altered ocean circulation.500 to 7. "Warmer temperatures appear to have produced freshwater streams that fed nitrogen and other nutrients into coastal waters." noted Dunbar." he explained. Little by little subsequent tempests submerged the lands of the Bahamas.the most recent geologic epoch. The sediment sample was loaded with the shells of microscopic creatures called diatoms dating back some 10.000 years. The glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway were originally dammed by a remnant of the Laurentide ice sheet and drained catastrophically 8. It was this deluge that separated their islands from the mainland. thereby initiating the most abrupt and widespread cold event to have occurred in the past 10. sea levels rose from approximately 10m below the present sea level to approximately 1." he observed. According to Dunbar. During this warm period. which indicates that the waters surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula were more biologically productive then.a submerged section of the continental shelf along the west Antarctic Peninsula about 3. noting that geochemical analysis of the sediment also revealed higher levels of nitrogen during the mid-Holocene.

Conclusion Outriggers.E. genes and needs of the people in their new environment. S. The survivors would have been fragmented. It . eventually regrouping to form a variety of new population bases. The new cultures would be reinvented according to the surviving knowledge. Suva harbour. Photo L. Marsh The populating of the Pacific Rim and hence the Pacific.Asia. America. but was also the homeland of many European tribes such as the Basques and Celts. Beqa in the background. Catastrophic events such as comet impacts. Such catastrophic events would have changed the genetic balance of the population by random chance and each time the emergent population would have had different qualities. It appears that the ancient civilizations in India. Most of the evidence lies under many metres of sediment and coral. has been a very complex affair with tribal inputs stemming from ancient civilizations in Asia. unique to the lucky survivors.Future studies of archaeological remains on the Bahama Banks will most likely prove that this strategically placed large island at the end of the Northern Equatorial current and at the beginning of the Gulf Stream was not only the homeland of Many American tribes. Tsunamis and massive Volcanic eruptions have changed the course of man's history many times in the past and will continue to do so in the future. South America and the the Carribean. Africa and the Mediterranean. were much more ancient and much greater civilizations than anyone has ever imagined.

The Hawaiian genealogy goes back to Lai Lai who existed 16. They as a culture were created in the Pacific. Due to their isolation. They did not come from one place.000 years ago. Apparently our intelligence has not changed significantly in the last 20. but there is much that has been lost to conquering tribes. with a history going back a very long way.000 years. then slowly it all begins again. By comparing cultural traits throughout the region and identifying what they have in . This is not to say the defeated did not contribute to the resultant culture. Isolated island communities are in some ways veritable time capsules of past civilizations. is a rather simplistic picture of our past. Can we really be so bold as to assume that we are so much more special than our ancestors. but they glean what they can use and trash the rest. prior to destruction by mother nature. been passed off as mere folklore. one just needs to look at how rapid the development of technologies has been over the last 200 years. sadly.should also be noted that if the core of a civilization is destroyed much technology can be lost. people on the scattered isles of the Pacific have retained cultural traits from their ancestral civilizations. There have been many rapid developments. but unfortunately such stories have. Not only have natural catastrophes changed the course of history. The old adage that the 'meek shall inherit the earth' and the 'Phoenix shall rise from the ashes' has happened many times in the past. The victorious tribe does not make an effort to tell the history of the vanquished. Therefore when attempting to use language to trace the history of man. but genetic and cultural elements of that preexisting culture remain. The idea that there has always been a slow upward trend in the development of civilization since the days of the cave man.000 years. followed by a hiatus. The Polynesians are the product of many encounters. There are many archaeological enigmas that abound around the world that can be answered by this process involving natural calamities on a global scale. It is also why they are culturally rich. but they came from many places. that is why their early history has so many conflicting stories. There is no need to have these mysteries answered by aliens arriving from another planet. they are merely previous peaks in mans development. we must remember it will only tell us half the story. Their language and history may have been lost. with certain belief systems dating back over 12. It may even be found that previous species of humans may well have had periods of development far more advanced than previously thought. with tribes of differing backgrounds. If one doubts the rate of development possible from early man. The Polynesians are a combination of fragments of civilizations from both east and west.

but once again he is forgetting that both the Celts of Europe and the native Americans from Peru all originated from the same ancient civilization that existed in America and carried with them many common characteristics. but there has been a disturbing tendancy in recent times to attribute many supposedly 'un-Polynesian traits' within Polynesia.Gavin Menzie's '1421The Year The Chinese Discovered The World'.with no mention that these Taiwanese genes show a separation from Taiwan 6. 3. Unfortunately 140m of water. Not only this.000 years ago! I do not doubt that the Chinese explored the world. archaeological evidence on Malta. Unfortunately Robert had no idea that the same Basque genes were also in relic native American populations. To suggest that the ancient genealogies and depth of Polynesian culture is a recent concoction of cultures. tens of metres of sediments and the passage of time make it very hard to piece together this most interesting period of human prehistory. numerous tombs with round headed Austronesian skeletons throughout coastal Europe and outrigger petroglyphs in Norway.Robert Langdon's 'The Lost Caravel Revisited' asserts that the Basque genes of the red headed Easter Islanders prove that they are descendants of an early Portuguese shipwreck in the 15th Century. is an absolute insult to any self respecting Polynesian. whose origins also came from the Atlantes people. To suggest that these wretched sailors squirmed their way into many of the chiefly families of Polynesia and then concocted an ancient Polynesian genealogy that bears no resemblance to their Portuguese past is absolutely preposterous. we can start to build up a picture of what these ancient civilizations were once like. He makes no mention of the fact that the Moai were built between 1100AD and 1400AD . remnants of these people can be found in the remains of the Etruscan culture. 2.common. The Moai depict long skulled Caucasian features similar to the surviving Red Heads of the island. where he asserts that the Taiwanese genes in Maori must be from Chinese voyagers less than 600 years ago . but there is mounting evidence that proves that Austronesians were actively trading with Europe 4. 1.Martin Doutre's "Ancient Celtic New Zealand" does mention many examples of seemingly un Polynesian characteristics. To ignore these connections is to ignore a veritable treasure trove of information. such as the Araucanians. but many of his assertions of cultural diffusion from the Chinese sailors is questionable. Some examples of theories that are an insult to Polynesian heritage are contained in.000 years ago. to recent cultural contact in the last 500years. I have merely scratched the surface in this article and much work is yet to be done. Not only this. Red .well before any possible arrival of Portuguese sailors.

stretching from Borneo. they were far more able to survive in what Europeans would call a hostile environment. Early man has moved around the world sharing ideas far more than previously thought and oceanic voyages have played a big part in this. My hat goes off to people like Tim Severin and Thor Heyerdahl who dare to step outside the square of "normal thinking". Diffusion of ideas between cultures has always been happening and will continue to happen. . who put their lives on the line to prove that long distance sea voyages in ancient times was possible and therefore played an important part in the development civilizations around the world. It is high time all scientists took a long hard look at all the evidence.An obscure New Zealand scientist recently asserted that the Rongo Rongo tablets were merely created by the hands of idle islanders attempting to mimmick the writing of the early Spanish explorers . Keep in mind that Europe was under ice during the last ice age and therefore has no ancient heritage. Europe is not the centre of the universe. Early man was far more adventurous than todays average European.what total drivel! This certainly does not explain why Rapa script bears many similarities to the Ha'Rapa script of India. but because of their intricate knowledge of mother nature. 4. hidden away or ignored because the scientists do not understand it's place in prehistory. especially those artifacts that do not fit into the presently accepted models of prehistory. Uniformitarianism has also limited scientists scope in understanding how natural catastrophes have shaped humankind. This most appalling 'scientific' paper was a poor attempt to discredit and belittle Polynesian heritage. So much has been destroyed. across to South America and into the Mediterranean. The dogma of isolationism is also an ingrained belief system that has not allowed scientists the freedom to compare and contrast cultural similarities of civilizations that are geographically separated by oceans. not only that. around Africa. Without it we would stagnate and become very narrow minded. We must stop this Eurocentric mindset. so to suggest that they were the ones to bring culture to the world is nonsense.slipped pottery was a hallmark of these Austronesian traders. A racist motive can only be assumed.

in particular.The Author (at 10 yrs). . I realised at an early age that what was right in one culture. as he seemed to have a much better grasp on the reality of the situation in the Pacific. Hindu. either religious or developmental. Since travelling around the central Pacific as a child. I therefore tried to keep an open mind when hearing legends and stories from the islanders and did my best to filter out the Eurocentric dogma that pervaded colonial Fiji. was often wrong in another culture. Photo by Loisette Marsh As a child I was immersed in cultures totally different to my European heritage. and have found some of the hypotheses 'wanting' in their logical reasoning. Brian and chief in 1964 after a walk to Wainivundi Falls to view ancient Lycopodium noded grass. slow trains. he would be the laughing stock of the village. in fact quite the opposite. I have been weighing up the evidence on how the Polynesians entered the Pacific. I also found that the European explanation for 'the way things were' was often tainted with hidden agendas. This would never happen to an 'academic' spouting off hypotheses about fast trains. Chinese and Polynesian. express trains and entangled banks. I have to admit that the treatment Thor Heyerdahl got from the academics used to anger me. with father. Fijian. Thor was highly respected by the islanders to the point that he was made an honorary chief of Rapa nui.

New discoveries in partially submerged caves in New Ireland. but someone. Evidence now suggests that man may have ventured out into the Pacific over 30. Tonga and Samoa so we can better understand the order of events and ultimately how the Pacific was populated. for man appears to have been in mainland New Guinea for at least 40. indeed. difficult.com Mysteries of the Polynesians Did the Peoples of the Pacific Originate on a Lost Continent? by David Hatcher Childress The settlement of the Pacific remains a mystery to this day. somewhere may still have some writings from early scholars who have taken heed of Polynesian oral history. Lets listen to the oral history of these people.000 years ago. peterpanther08@hotmail. describing early voyages. are proving that man reached these islands tens of thousands of years ago. a long narrow island east of New Guinea.It is high time we put an end to the many Euro-centric ideas that have tainted our thought processes when trying to build up a picture of how the world once was. In his book The Fragile South Pacific. especially details outlining the interactions that occurred around Ra'iatea. at best.000 years. please email me at the address. and may the inner spirit of these culturally rich people soar once again. This seems odd. If so. Andrew Mitchell says "Until recently archaeologists who worked in the Bismarcks and the Solomons were unable to find any evidence of occupation by man older than 4. some believe that . It may be too late.500 years. While anthropologists agree that there are at least three races in the Pacific region. they have not agreed on where they came from or when the Pacific was settled. The vastness of the Pacific as well as the lack of concern by historians has made tracing the origin of the Polynesians.

Carbon dating in New Zealand places settlements there at least about the ninth century A..In 1985. excavated Matenkupkum cave in New Ireland and found human artifacts 33. What took man so long to reach these nearest major islands? . it seems that these same navigators would have reached New . But the location of Hawai'iki is open to considerable interpretation. These finds are set to revolutionize theories about the movement of man into the Pacific. The Moriori were driven out of New Zealand and lived only on the remote Chatham Islands." According to Maori tradition.000 years old deep in the earth deposits. Most anthropologists who write about the Maori do not believe that Hawai'iki is the same as modern-day Hawaii.. a group of people called the Moriori. where he sighted Aotearoa. when a great storm arose and blew him far down to the south. Jim Allen and Chris Gosden from La Trobe University in Melbourne. Fiji and New Caledonia were colonized at least 3000 years ago. the Morioris being part of the earliest migratory waves. which are more than 500 miles to the east of New Zealand. In addition. but other theories place it much longer ago than that. and told them of his discovery. a powerful man and a legendary navigator of Pacific. accepted belief usually places Hawai'iki at either Tahiti or in the Marquesas Islands east of Tahiti. though today prevailing theory is that they were part of different waves of "Polynesian" migration." The legend says that Kupe eventually made the return voyage to his homeland.D. Kupe was fishing near his island home Hawai'iki. Early observers to New Zealand considered the Maoris and Morioris to be different ethnic groups. It is generally accepted that Maoris are Polynesians. "the land of the long white cloud.agriculture originated in the highlands of New Guinea so old are the cultures that have been discovered there. the first Maori to come to New Zealand was the warrior Kupe. Many researchers believe that this happened as late as 950 A.D. Today. there are indications of even earlier settlers in New Zealand than the Morioris. Since archaeologists admit that nearby islands to New Zealand such as Tonga. with the discovery of the Kaimanawa Wall in the Taupo district of the North Island. according to tradition. New Zealand was already inhabited by another race of people before the Maoris. Rather.

Early on. a Malaysian origin for the Polynesians was speculated. Shem. and many Pacific islands. Heyerdahl is not a Mormon. it was generally believed (by Europeans anyway) that the races of man were descended from the sons of Noah.F.C. Japheth and Ham. This fifth race was Malaysian. The history of New Zealand." Such doubts also afflicted James Cook and his men. but does believe that there was contact between Polynesia and the Americas. Asiatic. stating that the Polynesians were descended from American Indian Semites who first landed in Hawaii in 58 B. Many critics of Heyerdahl have believed that he advocates the American contact theory exclusively. Blumenback's book Natural Varieties of Mankind (1781) added a fifth race to his originally speculated four of Caucasian. Darker races were considered the sons of Ham. The Dutch Navigator Jacob Roggeveen said that the Polynesians were descended from Adam though "human understanding was powerless to comprehend by what means they could have been transported to the Pacific." thereby making them one of the lost tribes of Israel. which is wrong. after voyaging in Mexico and South America. Prior to the publication of Darwin's The Origin of the Species. would seem to need some radical revision. The second edition of pioneer anthropologist J. such as American Indians and Polynesians. are Semites. which included the Polynesians.Zealand as well. American and Ethiopian. Thor Heyerdahl has sought to provide some evidence of this hypothesis in a number of his expeditions. especially such islands or groups as the Marquesas. and Polynesians in general. With the arrival of missionaries in the Pacific came other theories. were considered the sons of Shem. EARLY THEORIES ON THE POLYNESIANS The origin of the Polynesians perplexed early explorers in the Pacific from the very start. Heyerdahl has stated that voyagers in the Pacific came from both the shores of Asia and the Americas. The sweet potato . The Book of Mormon also follows this theory. while lighter races. such as that the Maoris "had sprung from some dispersed Jews. Rapa Nui and Hawaii. We now have the notion that Maoris. Archaeologists admit that there is evidence that the Polynesians were in contact with North and South America.

plant. others had come in a northern arc through Micronesia. The South American sweet potato was cultivated in ancient New Zealand and the Maoris called it Kumara. is originally from South America and was known to have been cultivated on many Pacific islands before European discovery. The main contributor to this theory was a book entitled The Aryan Maori." Unlike earlier philologists. or yam. Brown settled in New Zealand and published his first book Maori and Polynesian in 1907. such as the detection of Sanskrit words in Polynesian vocabularies. contact with the Americas does not necessarily mean that the Polynesians originated there and the prevailing theory of the late 1800s and early l900s was that the Polynesians were actually an IndoEuropean group who came to the Pacific via India. History. The Polynesian language that eventually emerged was a combination of several primitive Aryan tongues. including the origin of the Maori. but later he shifted his ground. A leading philologist of his day. Brown suggested that the amalgam was formed in Indonesia. but by the phonology. and Political Economy at Canterbury University College in 1874. and Malaysia. by Edward Tregear. Some had come through South East Asia. Brown retired from his chair in 1895 and spent much of the remaining forty years of his life traveling the Pacific in pursuit of his intellectual hobbies. In the days when racism was a common fact of life. one reason for such a theory was partly political: to prove that a fellowship existed between Maoris and Europeans. How then did the Aryan forbears of the Polynesians come into the Pacific? Brown believed that they had come by several routes from the Asian mainland. Linguistic evidence was usually cited. A more important scholar who supported Aryan Maoris was John Macmillan Brown who had studied at Glasgow and Oxford before taking up the Chair of English. having been driven on by a Mongol influx. Brown admitted that the phonology of the Polynesian dialects differs by a whole world from that of all the languages to the west of it-that is. Brown stressed that the "true classification of linguistic affinities is not by their grammar. In Maori and Polynesian. However. the language of Melanesia. published in 1885. Indonesia. In his 1920 . This northern migration had passed over the Bering Strait into the Americas before doubling back to colonize eastern Pacific islands like Easter Island.

. Here was the Chancellor of the University of New Zealand advocating a sunken civilization in the Pacific and not without reason. The Languages of the Pacific.. Brown had also been to Easter Island where the local tradition has it that natives are from a sunken land called Hiva. Brown claimed that the megalithic remains at Coworker and Atiamuri in New Zealand were evidence of Aryan occupation. published in 1924. and enthusiastically championed unorthodox theories on the origin of the Polynesians. Brown's magnum opus on the Pacific startled many people." Brown went on become Chancellor of the University of New Zealand." What had induced Brown to change his mind was the discovery of Tocharish. even to the point of advocating a lost continent in the Pacific which a few years later was called "Mu" by Colonel James Churchward. One of the ancient papers allegedly contained a fragment of a map which showed a sunken continent (see my book.We must conclude that the Aryan language started on its career from twenty to twenty-five thousand years ago. as Brown called it. some written in unknown languages that have never been deciphered. a "primeval" Aryan language. The Riddle of the Pacific. He was convinced that an advanced culture once existed throughout the Pacific and that sudden cataclysms .. Brown found Greek. had been founded by Aryans from America. His final book. something most anthropologists and historians had not done. Said Brown. and that philological students of Latin and Greek and the modern European languages must study Polynesian in order to see the type from which these sprung. claimed that there was once a continent in the Pacific that was now mostly submerged. of which most Pacific islands were the last remnants. "The main features of the Polynesian tongue. Brown had traveled widely throughout the Pacific. He believed that he could trace the footsteps of the Aryans into and through the Pacific from their megaliths. and was awed by the many megalithic remains he had seen.. Brown argued that "the linguistic attitude" of the Polynesians faced "north towards Japanese and Ainu. Celtic.thesis. was to provide a gold mine for those scholars who took interest in them. and especially Scandinavian models for Polynesian gods. go back to the old stone age in Europe. Lost Cities of China. Brown may have first become convinced of a lost Pacific continent when he was introduced to the ancient texts at Dunhuang.. Central Asia & India). in a manuscript found at Dunhuang in the Gobi Desert in 1911. This continent. This famous cache of ancient texts.

Writes the author. Phoenician characters were stated by me to be still in use in South Sumatra. need thousands of years of blowing sand to flatten their tops.C. just how often is the usual question. p. A letter in the January 21. Despite the fact that geologists of his time discounted any rapid geological change in the Pacific it is a fact that the flat-topped guyots throughout the Pacific must have been formed above the water. between the second and fifth parallels of south latitude. 199). 1875 issue of the magazine Nature spoke of Phoenician script in Sumatra. . Today. Libyan. Fell even goes on to call the dialect used by the Zuni Indians of the American south-west as Mauri script and maintains that the Maoris may be related to the Zuni Indians and their "Mauri" language. working as sailors to Egyptian gold mines in Sumatra. a former Harvard Professor and native New Zealander popularized the theory that the Pacific was settled in second millennium B. Similarly. and Passamah. Lemba. Fell believed that the Polynesians were descended from Libyans in the service of Egypt. Park Harrison: "In a short communication to the Anthropological Institute in December last (Nature. XI. Most geologists now favor both theories and admit that occasional catastrophes do take place. These wind-blown mesas.had submerged most of the land causing a collapse of the civilization. Vol. He is well known for advocating Egyptian. EGYPTIANS IN THE PACIFIC The late Professor Barry Fell. Celtic and Phoenician ancestry for American Indians. and applies his epigraphic (the study of ancient writing) research to Polynesians. similar to those in the American southwest. Kiribati or the Ha'apai group of Tonga would become mini-continents if the ocean levels were dropped only a few hundred feet. I write to say that the district above alluded to includes Rejang. J. by the Egyptians. Phoenician and Libyan rock inscriptions have been discovered in Indonesia. He also believes that many Melanesians are the descendants of Negro slaves used as workers in the gold mines. geology remains divided as to slow geological change and sudden geological catastrophes that occasionally take place. As many of your readers may be glad to have more information of the subject. large atoll archipelagos such as the Tuamotus. and even Australia and elsewhere.

1977) that the island of Mir in the Torres Strait was similar to the Egyptian word for pyramid. "mir" and even that the name for Egypt is "Misr. Curiously. while the subject slept on his back. an ancient Egyptian word is important in the government. The archaeologists declared the Torres Islands the "crossroads of civilizations" and were quoted as saying "Now it's a new ball game in an archaeological sense. prepared in a fashion that has been compared to that practiced in Egypt between 1090 and 945 B. This carved headrest was used to slightly elevate the head. Some of the cave drawings.One clear link between Australia and Egypt is that the Torres Straits Islanders." In 1875 the Shevert Expedition found similarities in Darnley Island boats and ancient trans-Nile boats." Another similarity with the Torres Strait Islanders. Egyptian practice was to ferry corpses across or down the Nile for desert burial. Here we have the exact same word meaning the exact same thing in ancient Egyptian and modern Pohnpei dialect. Island boats were used to row corpses to sea and leave on a coral reef. The Macleay Museum at Sydney University has a mummified corpse of a Darnley Islander (Torres Strait). Similarly. were of a Macassan prau which is a unique vessel with telltale double rudders and triangular sails used by beche de mer (sea cucumber) fishermen out of the Indonesian island of Sulewesi.C. A coincidence? . on the island of Pohnpei (formerly called Ponape). use the curious practice of mummification of the dead. Fiji and Polynesia. Similarly. between New Guinea and Northern Queensland. It is unusual to ancient Egypt and certain Pacific Islands around New Guinea that these headrests are used. as well as in the Solomon Islands. in ancient Egypt. it was pointed out by the Kenneth Gordon McIntyre in his book The Secret Discovery of Australia (Picador. on isolated Booby Island. a district was known as a nome. a wooden headrest was used. Pohnpei island is divided into five districts and the governor of a district is called a Nan marche in the language of Pohnpei. It was reported in Australian newspapers circa 1990 that a team of Marine archaeologists from the Queensland Museum had discovered extensive cave drawings on many of the Torres Straits Islands. and a district governor was known as a nome-marche. the new capital of the Federated States of Micronesia.

As Wei Chu-Hsien noted. For the next ten years. Prof Wei Chu-Hsien stated that he. Chen Yin-ko and Li Chi in 1926's Tsing-Hwa University of Beijing. had linked the 'yi' bird to America's hummingbirds.Excerpted and edited with permission from Ancient Tonga & the Lost City of Mu'a by David Hatcher Childress (Adventure Unlimited Press). PROF WEI CHU-HSIEN & "CHINA AND AMERICA" This section is to explore ancient China's contacts with the American Continent. I am also torn by a split exertion of my efforts to ancient history or to modern history. first coming across in 1961 a Confucius' passage on 6 birds which flew backward as recorded in Spring and Autumn Annals. Similarly. a student of Wang Guo-wei. totalling 1. Prof Wei Chu-Hsien. In "China and America -Volume One". I will transcribe Wei Chu-Hsien's studies. with a stubborn cognizance that ancient history could not buy a living while modern history might not self-strength China which is now ruled by self-destructing communists. he began to compile 81 essays. had published a book called China and America -Volume One in March of 1982 via Taiwan's shuo wen shu dian bookstore. he had been tormented by the fact that it was difficult to find translators who knew and understood ancient classics good enough to translate his book into English. I felt often intimidated by the strenuous task ahead of me at the sight of the high-rising volumes of ancient Chinese history. on ancient China's contacts with America which was . In this section.4 million characters. Liang Qi-chao.

(Dragon totem could also be a lizard. could be seen as similar to sea-horses. Chu Principality poems) and Wai Guo Tu (i. a HK publishing house first published a table of contents about the book which was entitled "The Chinese Discovered America !" Wei Chu-Hsien stated that he had to use the subscription fees from some donators for sustaining his impoverished 'filling lines with characters' career.. Wei Chu-Hsien. and iii) Chinese inscriptions found in America.. felt that his theory had been vindicated by the discovery of stone anchors near California coast in Nov 1982. Later history records referred to Japanese as Dao-yi (Island Alien). Fang-Zhang and Ying-Zhou (land in the sea). ii) ancestral stone worshipping. Sima Qian did repeat ancient Chinese legends about the islands of Peng-Lai. Wei ChuHsien also analyzed the character for phoenix to derive a conclusion that ancient Indonesians had brought 'jile-niao' peacock kind of red bird to China.e. Wei Chu-Hsien spent considerable time reading into ancient classics and excavated interesting points covering more than the American continents: Wei Chu-Hsien pointed to Chu Ci (i. In 1969. Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi covered the island of Japan and grouped the early Japanese in the section on Dongyi (Eastern Yi).e. too.) Dao-yi (Island Alien) Designation. Wei Chu-Hsien further validated records of southern hemisphere by pointing out two incidents of sun eclipse as recorded in Spring and Autumn Annals. in his Backword. & Fu-sang Sima Qian's Shi Ji stopped at Wudi's overthrow of Wei Man Choson. Wei Chu-Hsien mentioned that 'Shang Ruins' had produced 4-leg and 1-tail lizard which Shang Chinese treated as dragon and that ancient emissary to Korea mentioned that ancient Ryukyu people treated lizard as dragon. in a third form. On the oracle bones. Wei Chu-Hsien analyzed the character 'long' for dragon and derived a conclusion that it was originally in the form of 'king snake' which the ancient Indian circus people brought over to Shang China. Wei Chu-Hsien met Prof Lau Tun-li of SUNY in 1970 and began to exchange opinions as to American Indian's heritage such as i) praying for rain. foreign country maps) for records of a land similar to Australia where the weather was hot in winter and cold in summer and where the grass died away in summer and grew in winter. dragon. and Wei Chu-Hsien emphasized the cross emblem on the tombstones of nobles of Southern Dynasties in Nanking for the spread of Christianity in China 1500 years ago.separated from each other by a 56 mile stripe of the Bering Straits but with two Diomede Islands in the middle. in descriptions of Xu Fu's elixir-seeking journey. .

) Yi is more an inclusive word to mean aliens. i. and there were eight to nine different 'niao-yi' people in the east. Shang Dynasty people. possibly sparrow) as their totem. of black body and white eyes. touched on in prehistory section.os.. In later times. Also recorded would be two statelets to the southeast of Japan. pointing to the barbarian peoples in East China Seas. To the northeast of Japan. were said to have delicious meat on their body. in return for being called the nickname of 'suo lu' (pigtailed enemies).html stated that "Sankuo-shih or Three Country Record does not use the distance unit of li to be 435 meters as used during the Chin or Han dynasty Period but rather it uses the unit adopted by the Wei and Western Chin dynasties.e. In early times. including Queen Beimihu (Himiko) Wa Statelet.. Island Statelets Beyond Japan: Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi recorded dozens of statelets on the Japanese islands. claimed that the Koreans were true descendants of the Dongyi people. Yao Silian's Liang Shu (History of Southern Liang Dynasty) further mentioned that the two statelets of Luo-guo and Heichi-guo were 4.xaxon. bird aliens) for possibly southern Chinese pitched accents or generic kind of name for southeastern Chinese and islanders. (Both the character 'niao' and 'dao' looked quite close and might have corrupted consecutively during the course of history. Manchurian legends as to the birth of their founder had something to do with birth-mother swallowing the red fruit dropped by a bird.Ancient Chinese had different terms for barbarians in four directions.e. the Yi was associated with the word 'niao' for bird. Liang Shu recorded a Wen- .. which is that one li is approximately 77 meters. it said that travellers would shoot to kill those islanders for eating them. Some Japanese historians speculated that the two statelets to the southeast of Japan must have been located in Central or South Americas. the Yi designation would be associated with a word 'dao' for island." Note ancient chronicles usually built upon previous dynasty's records via direct paragraph by paragraph citation. could not match with the distance of 7000 li between South Korea and Japan.000 li to the southwest of Japan where people. were recorded to have treated 'Xuan Niao' (i. Luo-guo (naked body) statelet and Heichi-guo (black teeth) statelet. would call southern Chinese by the derogatory name of 'niao yi' (i. Toba Wei Dynasty. in my opinion.000 Chinese li distance to the southeast of Japan or 1-year sea journey by boat.) Liang Shu also recorded an island 10.ne. and a pygmy statelet to the south of Wa etc. (Conflict: 4. which could be reached by travelling for one year on boat.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/esss.e. Dongyi or Yi-of-the-East will include peoples in Manchuria. http://www. considered a group of Yi people. The big Korean school of thought. Black bird. Gounu-guo statelet under a king in the south.000 Chinese li distance or one-year boat travel. Korea and Japan.

000 Chinese li distance away from Japan.uh.Korea ---. Fu-Sang (Fusang) Statelet was located 20. Wen-shen-guo would be somewhere near Hokkaido. Dan-mou-luo-guo might not be the same as Ryukyu. The more exact mapping would be to measure distance between statelets in between: a Wen-shen-guo (tattoo) statelet (near Hokkaido?) was located 7.000 Chinese li distance to the east of Da-han-guo.) Bei Shi (History of Northern Dynasties) recorded a big island statelet called Dan-mou-luo-guo statelet to the south of Paekche.net/~maracon/index. to Korea. "Great Han" -------------. (Conflict: Three months' travel would probably lead to Southeast Islands or Australia.shen-guo (tattoo) statelet that was located 7. The word 'fusang' would later be used by Chinese for designating Japan in poems.Fu-sang / country / /"tattoo body" / country / / China ---. http://www. 5000 li to the east of Wen-shen-guo would be Da-han-guo statelet (near Bering Straits.) Since Bei Shi separately described the Liuqiu (Ryukyu) island.000 Chinese li distance to the northeast of Japan.g. while Da-han-guo statelet would be likely in Bering Straits. that it had lots of deers. It said that the island.Japan Both Chinese websites and American websites. Here.wi. having a span of over 1000 li distance south-north and several hundred li east-west. to "Great Han" country..geocities. 5000 li to the east of Wen-shen-guo would be Da-han-guo statelet. and to Fu-sang. Aleutian Islands & Alaska?).html http://www. Aleutian Islands & Alaska.edu/engines/epi1028. and that it was a vassal of Paekche. we could see an apparent linkage from China. could be reached by boat after three months' travel. Wei Chu-Hsien validated a separate identity of Fusang from Japan by citing ancient records in regards to the usage of iron in Japan but not in Fusang. to Japan.html http://ussers. somewhere near British Columbia or Oregon. to "tattoo body" country. (In my opinion. Liuqiu (Ryukyu) island was recorded to be reacheable after 5 days of boat travelling. e.com/EnchantedForest/Tower/1217/asia.htm . Fu-sang Statelet: Liang Shu was noted for its record of Fu-sang Statelet to the east.

that Fu-Sang (Fusang) looked similar to bamboo shoots at early stage. and he merely returned to China in AD 499. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) appeared to be of red color and tasted like pear. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) had written language and used Fu-Sang (Fusang) skin for paper.. AD 458. Liang Shu stated that during the first year of the Yongyuan Era of Southern Qi Dynasty. iii) 'Brown Bear' stories. i.had mentioned Monk Huishen and the Kingdom of Fu-Sang (Fusang). that it was located 20. i. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) people used buffalo horns for holding stuff. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) surface could be used for cloth or cotton.000 li distance from Da-han-guo statelet. buffalo carts and deer carts. headed by Monk Biqiu. with minor offence going to north while serious offence going to south prison. Hui-shen or Hoei-shin did not take part in the AD 458 journey to Fusang. that king possessed drums and wore different color robe for different seasons. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) people ate it for food. arrived at Fu-Sang (Fusang) from Libin-guo statelet (Kabul of Afghanistran) during the 2nd year reign of Daming Era of Liu Song Dynasty.. My speculation is that the trips from China to ancient America was frequent enough for Hui-shen to return to China on a different ship. ii) 'Feather Mountain' island in possibly Pacific Northeast. from ancient Chinese chronicles. that it was a land full of Fu-Sang (Fusang) wood (speculated to be North American corn by Chinese or cactus-like agave by Americans). that Fu-Sang (Fusang) people used deer milk for cheese. Note that most of secondary records had errors in regards to the five monk team.e. that Fusang did not treasure gold or silver. Hui-shen claimed that Fu-Sang (Fusang) was to the east of China. why would it not be possible that Monk Hui-shen and etc could have travelled to ancient America? I picked up Prof Wei's book again and found out that Prof had listed abundant written texts. Prof Wei had citations of dozens of entries about the Redwood Tree. and propogated buddhism there. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) leaf was similar to Tong-tree leaf. AD 499. and iv) the Redwood Trees. Popular belief is that Fusang was located in today's Mexico. about the existence of i) 'Deep Sea Valley' beyond Japan. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) possessed horse (?) carts. Hui-shen further stated that Fu-Sang (Fusang) people had log cabins but no cities. only. that amnesty went to north prison. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) previously had no buddhism but a five member monk team. a monk by the name of Hui-shen (Huishen or Hui Shen) arrived at Jingzhou prefecture from the Fu-Sang (Fusang) Statelet. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) had copper but no iron. which was known to Chinese as the 'Fu-sang' in Chinese . that Fu-Sang (Fusang) had no army or weapons. Should Monk Fa-Shien had returned to China from India by ship at the timeframe. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) had two prisons. that Fu-Sang (Fusang) was abundant with walnuts.e.

hairy body. ancient Chinese in AD eras.e. Apparently. Hui-shen also stated that over 1000 li distance to the east of Fusang would be a country called Nü-guo (women statelet).000 volumes of books at the time of Emperor Yuandi's death. Monk Hui-shen of 5th century. i.. Japan to the east. ancient Burma/Indochina/India/Ceylon to the south. ancient Peruvians had imported iron from ancient China for cutting the stones for the palace construction. . Often researched upon by scholars would be a drawing by Liang Dynasty's Emperor Yuandi. With Tuoba Wei China developing the northern Silk Road. Also. Liang Shu further cited a personal account stating that a Jin'an area traveller was blown to an island of women during the 6th year of Tianjian Era (i. Prof Wei Juxian validated ancient Chinese texts [prior to BC eras] as to the abundance of silver and gold in ancient America that the American natives did not treasure the metals as recorded in "Liang Shu" After the nomadic rampage of 4th century. Liang chih-kung-t'u. Nü-guo was speculated by Minhua Zhang to be the Amazon statelet in South America. Central Asia to the west. Japan's history in Fourth Century became forever "mysterious" as a result of Northern China's disintegration. had mutated the ancient term 'Fu-sang' to mean something different from the Redwood tree. The point to make here is that Liang Dynasty had apparently received delegations from 2-3 dozen statelets covering the countries mentioned earlier. and Arab/Persia/Roman further away.. Nü-guo women were said to have lighter skin. was supposed to be a recollection works of the emissaries who had visited Jingzhou the garrison city where Yuandi had stationed throughout dozens of years. and long hair that dangled to the floor.e. The drawing's minute details about the ancient countries in today's Afghanistan and Iran and their emissaries absolutely corroborated the facts that China's linkage with Central Asia was live and frequent. entitled "zhi [duty or post] gong [tribute] tu [picture]" [Liang chih-kung-t'u]..texts prior to BC eras. Prof Wei Juxian validated that though America had no iron. whose original drawing possibly destroyed together with 140. Tuoba Wei Dynasty & Southern Chinese Dynasty. i. renewed historical contacts with the rest of the world. Monk Fa-Shien's return trip from India had been widely analyzed to infer a possible blowaway to Mexico coastline before going the opposite direction to China. respectively. AD 507). Nevertheless. yielding substantial validity to the person of Monk Hui-shen and his story of the trip to the American continent. Liang Dynasty of southern China underwent a prosperous sea route exchange with the rest of the world.e.

Peru had been the place where most of the potteries. Wei Chu-Hsien pointed out that the southside of red-bird and northside of snake-turtle coupling were imports since snakes and turtles rarely existed in deep spirit spirit both . Most notable would be a silver artifact of a nude goddess excavated by Corde de Gugui on Mt Truillo in northern Peru in 1865. Artifacts of four divine spirits were also found on stone coffins excavated in Korea and Manchuria. had two plates in her hands. the snake-turtle coupling was treated as a divine spirit called 'xuan-wu' during China's south-north dynasty time period. 'bai hu' (white tiger which used to exist in China 2000 years ago but now available in India only). Wei Chu-Hsien pointed that the sunflower goddess. and 'zhu que' (red bird). Ancient classics Wu-zi (military strategist Wu Qi of Warring State time period) listed 'xuan-wu' together with three other divine spirits of 'qing long' (green dragon which was speculated to be sea-horse by Wei). Peru. Mexico and Uruguay after getting in touch with Prof Lau Tun-li in 1970. with Chinese characters 'wudang shan' or Mt Wudang-shan inscribed and that in Wudang area of China's northern Hubei Prov.Prof Wei Chu-Hisen's Expositions On Symbols & Characters 1) Nude goddess excavated by Corde de Gugui on Mt Truillo in northern Peru in 1865 Wei Chu-Hsien received pictures of findings with ancient Chinese characters from scholars from US. sitting on a turtle with snake winding arount it. and jade / silver articles carrying Chinese characters had been located.

meaning martial principle). via HK consul Marto F. Wei Chu-Hsien recognized 6 characters and a picture of a man with three eyes. concluded that someone called Mu Wuben visited Peru in the 1st century AD in search of the legendary Qigong-guo and left his name on the high mountain. [Wei Chu-Hsien stated that Shang Chinese. had at one time received hundreds of turtles from ancient Indonesians and Malasians as tributaries and later used the turtle shell for incribing oracle characters. Sui (hence) Wei (made into) Ji (a record)'. but an import. something to mean that Huangdi's 25 sons had established their . The picture of thee eye man was speculated by Wei Chu-Hsien to have relation to the legendary one-arm and three-eye Qigong-guo statelet as recorded in Shan Hai Jing. pictures taken by Prof Daniel Ruzo of inscriptions on Marcahuasi Plateau which was about 3800-4000 meters above sea level. by examing the font of the characters. more than 2500-3700 years ago. a surname) Wu-Ben (given name. Wei Chu-Hsien came to a natural conclusion that ancient Chinese.] Wei Chu-Hsien cited numerous records stating that 'xuan-wu' was not a spirit born in China. had contacts with Central America's tropical tribesmen who adored snaketurtle as a spirit. Wei Chu-Hsien cited the claim of Guo Pu of Jinn Dynasty that Qigong-guo people had visited first Shang Dynasty overlord in 18th century BC. 3) 23 Chinese characters of 'ya' inscribed on a pottery excavated in Mexico Wei Chu-Hsien explained that the Mexico pottery had 23 'ya' characters inscribed because the base of the pottery was too small to fill up another two characters to make a total of 25 which would be symbolic of twentyfive clans of Huangdi the Yellow Lord. 2) Chinese characters of a name inscribed on a high mountain in Peru Wei Chu-Hsien received. The 6 characters would be 'Mu (wood. on basis of oracle words feng (phoenix people) lu (surrender) bai (hundred). Wei Chu-Hsien cited Jinn Yu section of ancient classics Guo Yu to translate the original meaning of 'ya' as lineage. Wei Chu-Hsien. Later legendary novel Feng Shen Bang wrote about three eye god.north of China. Rbatde Azva.

After defeating Ren-fang-guo. Wei Chu-Hsien cited the ancient dynastic transition of ShangZhou as the possible cause. The east-sea and north-sea kings would become the gods in revised book Shan Hai Jing. Zhouwang led a few soldiers back to the capital of Chaoge for lunar new year celebration.independent clans. Zhou Lord Wuwang marched towards Shang capital within six days and nights and encountered Zhouwang at the outskirts of Muye where Zhou army defeated Shang's drunken soldiers. one branch to Taiwan Island and the other branch to North America via the Bering Straits. As to the reason that the pottery was excavated in Mexico. Zhou Duke Zhougong assumed the post of a regent for Zhou King Chengwang. Peru Prof Wei Chu-Hisen's Expositions On Plants & Animals . Shang remnants hence fled towards two directions. conspired with the brothers of Zhou Wuwang in rebelling against Zhou Regent Zhougong. Shang Prince Lufu died. Upon hearing of Zhouwang's return with a light force. Shang Prince Lufu's son. Shang King Zhouwang committed suicide. Wei Chu-Hsien rephrased the Shang-Zhou story as follows: Last Shang Lord King Zhouwang campaigned against 'Ren-fang-guo' statelet on Shandong Peninsula. Zhou Lord Wuwang made Shang Prince Lufu inherit the Shang heritage and then went back to the west. Zhougong defeated the rebellion and furthermore campaigned against Shang remnants who were left by Shang Lord Zhouwang on Shandong Peninsula's Ren-fang-guo statelet.com/%7Ekon_artz/cultures/olmshang.htm 4) The Chinese character of 'fan' (sail or wind) inscribed on a pottery excavated in Lima. http://members. Prince Wugeng. In old Shang capital area. Those Shang people who arrived in North America stationed two chieftans on the east and west sides of the Bering Straits and conferred onto the two chieftans the titles of east-sea and north-sea kings.tripod. After Wuwang died.

C.) Bei"(Jade) Longshan Jade Discs (2000 B.Prof Wei Chu-Hisen's Expositions On Metals & Precious Stones TO BE CONTINUED ! Written by Ah Xiang CHINESE AND AMERICA JADES A Mayan green nephrite jade depicts the bust of a priest over 800 years old JADE EBAY AUCTIONS | CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY | ABOUT ME Missing Link Revealed | Q & A | CONTACT ME Olmec Jade Earpools (900 B.C.) .

C. 1000 .1200 B.) Olmec Motifs Shang Writing Ancient Chinese Cleft-head Motif (4000 B.C.600 B.D.) Modern Character / English .Olmec Jade Ritual Sharpener (900 .600 B.C.500) Shang Jade Statue (1600 .C.C.) Olmec Cleft-head Motif (900 .) Olmec Stone Statues Aztec Stone Statue (A.) Liangzhu Jade Ritual "Cong" (2000 B.

Olmec Motifs Shang Writing Modern Character / English .

Olmec Motifs Shang Writing

Modern Character / English

Olmec Ritual symbols

Abstract Tao Tie Dragon Face

Shang Ritual Symbols

Liangzhu Ritual Symbols

Altar symbol for both sites of the Pacific? When artifacts of the ancient Americans are examined side by side with ancient Chinese artifacts from the contemporary cultures it becomes evident that there are striking similarities. Perhaps, the strongest evidence of these ancient cultural ties comes from a study of ancient jades and the lapidary workmanship, motifs and shapes. It is an exciting exploration to journey down the Jade Road to discover that our early ancestors were not primitive people, but on the contrary sophisticated people who traveled the ancient world. -Ian (Fung Gen Qua)

The Age of the Red Heads
According to the Aztecs, 7,590 B.C. or 9,500 years ago was the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun also called the“Age of the Red Haired People. These people were the survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them. Not only did the Age of Red heads end in America and Begin in Europe at this time, but it also marks the massive genetic bottleneck in East Asia when the Thais, Tibetans, Tlingit, Haida and Hawaiians dispersed from the Taiwanese people. Many people seem to think that Celts influenced American culture and ancient petroglyphs and megalithic monuments may seem to suggest this, but what one is seeing here is a dispersal of culture not to America, but from America. After the final sea level rises 6,000 years ago, wiping the Bahama Banks clean of any civilization, there was a major shift in world populations. Remnants of this culture of Red Heads went their separate ways.The Celts took the Gulf stream back to their ancestral homeland of Europe, wheras the Anasazi, Hopi, Zuni, Algonquian and Auracano, just to name a few remained in mainland America and began to mix with incoming Asians who had suffered a similar catastrophe of Sea level rises on the East Asian coastline.

There are also suggestions that the Celts were in New Zealand before the Maori. This is not strictly true, they too along with the Red Heads of Rapa nui were also fragments of the Age of the Red Heads in America. The Picts of Scotland were probably from a similar tribe to the the Tattooed Red Heads of the Pacific.

This design is from a plate from Panama, with the cross and swirls, it would not look out of place in a museum on ancient Celtic art. It would also not be out of place in a book on Maori art.The bird motif is beginning to look like a Taniwha. The turtle is a from Central America, and signifies the importance of the turtle in many of these ancient cultures, including Rapa nui.

Maps of The Ancient Sea Kings
It appears from various scources of evidence that the Red Heads were the major population in America and the Caribbean up to about 6,000 years ago. We know from their megalithic monuments that they were keenly interested in Astronomy, not just for determining the seasons, but for navigation and mapping. It therefore stands to reason that they were the

people responsible for mapping the coastline of South America and the Antarctic during a particularly warm perion of the earths history, between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago. Core sampling aroun the Antarctica shows that there was very little sea ice during this time, making it possible for them to map a coastlinewhich is now under more than 1km of ice. This global meltdown would have caused a rapid ries in sea levels, ultimately engulfing the seafaring towns of the world. Isostatic rebalancing as the load of ice was released from the poles would have caused major earthquakes, which in turn would have produced tsunamis, devastating coastal civilizations around the world. As a result there remains very little evidence of these once great civilizations now underwater. Their buildings have been levelled in places such as the Bahamas and only rare snippets of information survive such as the map below, to prove their seafaring prowess. On the Front of Professor charles Hapgood's book "Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings" (Turnstone books, London 1979,) is the famous Piri Reis Map, drawn on a gazelle skin. It was found by a group of historians in 1929. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. His passion was cartography. His high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople. The Turkish admiral admits in a series of notes on the map that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of ource maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.

correlates very closely with Taiwan.The island marked on the North Eastern part of the map with its bays. who admitted that the map is a compilation of a number of maps.A compilation map such as this could well have been what misled Chistopher .It appears that Piri Reis also thought that there was only one ocean and confused the western seaboard of the Atlantic with the western seaboard of the Pacific.The map on the left is by Piri Reis.

when the Venetians entered Constantinople. year 1380. and the Palmer Peninsular. those maps begun to circulate among the European sailors. An even more amazing chart is the "Zeno's chart". Antarctic. It shows a big area in the north. year 1339. this also suggests that it is a compilation map from an earlier source. According to Hapgood's reconstruction. who were. Then in 1204. and those older charts had been used as sources by others who have drawn different maps still of great precision. We have evidence that they were collected and studied in the great library of Alexandria (Egypt) and the compilations of them were made by the geographers who worked there. year of the fourth crusade.000 years ago when the Antarctic was free of ice. Its precision is flabbergasting. The mountain ranges are accurate and rivers marked entering the Ross Sea are where glaciers exist today. Impressive is the "Dulcert's Portolano". where the latitude of Europe and North Africa is perfect.Columbus into thinking that by crossing the Atlantic he could get to the East Indies. perhaps by the Minoans and the Phoenicians. This strongly suggests that people with accurate timepieces albeit hour glasses accurate to within a miniute were busy mapping the world between 5. which is presently one mile thick. The map on the right is by Oronteus Finaeus and was drawn in 1532. It has been placed on the world map at too large a scale.500 and 7. The curious thing is that it depicts the Antarctic coastline without ice very accurately. in his book. In fact Piri Reis himself admitted he based his map on way older charts. going up to Greenland. the well-known most important library of the ancient times. showing it to be too close to Africa and South America. for a thousand years and more. Charles Hapgood. copies of these documents and some of the original source charts were transferred to other centers of learning. Dr. and the longitudinal coordinates of the Mediterranean and of the Black sea are approximated of half degree. It appears that the charts must have originated with a people unknown and they were passed on. said that: "It appears that accurate information has been passed down from people to people. The geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949. . and among them to Constantinople. This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap. the greatest sailors of the ancient world. Professor Hapgood claimed that the lower part of the map portrayed the Princess Martha Coast of Queen Maud Land. Piri Reis had probably come into possession of charts once located in the Library of Alexandria.

" Graham Hancock in his book Underworld. When human beings were supposed to live in a primitive manner. not glaciers. The evidence requires that all the other evidences that have been brought forward in the past should be reexamined with an open mind. And this common knowledge somehow fell into pieces. he found a copy of a map carved on a rock column in China. but here we have evidence that cannot be dismissed. the same grid method. in which he shows a land strip. who had lost the technical knowledge.. He also points out that ancient maps of India and the Maldives depict the coastline as it was 15-20. also points out that the Island of Hy Brasil marked on many of these ancient maps lies directly on top of Porcupine Banks a shallow area that would have been an island during the last ice age. As well as maps of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. markets and all kind of places. wide. year 1559. trigonometry and the most baffling of all. someone "put on paper" the whole geography of the earth. suggesting this area was mapped during a warmer period of the Earth's history. that joins Alaska and Siberia. Not only this but most of the old Greenland maps show the coastline without ice and they depict rivers in the valleys. There are maps showing Greenland as two separate islands. Oronteus Fineus was another one who drew a map of incredible precision. This evidence of a lost technology suggested by these ancient maps will support and give credence to many of the other hypotheses that have been brought forward of a lost civilization in remote times.000 years. from 1137."It's impossible" says Hapgood "that someone in the fourteenth century could have found the exact latitudes of these places.000 years ago when sea levels were approximately 80m lower. then gathered here and there by several people. It has so many common points with the western ones that it makes one think that there had to be a common source: They seem to be pieces of a very ancient world wide map. He too represented the Antarctic with no ice-cap.. drawn by unknown people who were able to use mathematics. as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands. year 1532. Scholars have been able to dismiss most of those evidences as mere myth. the same use of spheroid trigonometry. not to mention the precision of the longitudes. It showed the same high level of technology of the other western charts. had acess to accurate timekeeping equipment." Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed. Such a natural bridge has been covered by water for almost 10. about 1600 Km. bazaars. so just copied what they could find in libraries. .

ODP scientists extracted a 150-foot-long sediment core from the muddy bottom of the Palmer Deep . The scientists say their research not only pinpoints the source of the meltwater pulse as coming from West Antarctica.000 to 5.000 years ago was caused by the partial collapse of ice sheets in Antarctica.a submerged section of the continental . 2002 -. from 7.has been unknown until now.four times faster than usual for that time period and at least 20 times faster than sea levels are rising now. Near the end of the last Ice Age. Peter Clark of Oregon State University .called the global meltwater pulse 1A. The cause of this event .K. that these people were avid astronomers. and Mark Tamisiea. in other words during the Age of the Red Heads in America. the United States and Britain have concluded that a massive and unusually abrupt rise in sea level about 14. As it is known from numerous archaeological sites around the Atlantic and in especially in America around areas such as the Yucatan.Physicists from Canada. first identified in 1989 . the Earth's sea level abruptly rose over 20 metres . a post-doctoral fellow at U of T. Glenn Milne of the University of Durham in the U. Lake Titicaca and Nevada. Antarctic mud reveals ancient evidence of global climate change By Mark Shwartz In 1998. It also makes the case that significant climatic events can occur very rapidly and unpredictably. Antarctic ice sheet key to sudden sea level rise Researchers show Antarctic ice sheets may not be as stable as previously thought by Janet Wong March 28. in the March 29 issue of Science .500 years ago.The following information indicates that conditions were favourable for mapping both Greenland and the Antarctica without ice. solving a mystery scientists have been heatedly debating for more than a decade. report geophysicists Jerry Mitrovica of the University of Toronto. it stands to reason that it was these native Americans were the great mappers of the world.

Thus giving rise to the Anasazi and Celts. Next was the Age of the Black Haired people. It was this deluge that separated their islands from the mainland.000 feet below sea level. "The ODP sample gives us the first continuous.514years ago.the most recent geologic epoch." he explained. The sediment sample was loaded with the shells of microscopic creatures called diatoms dating back some 10.a further indication that temperatures were higher.7m higher than present day levels. via the Kuroshio current from submerged cities North and South of Taiwan. Little by little subsequent tempests submerged the lands of the Bahamas. Legends around the Caribbean tell of a heavy rain falling for many days and many were drowned. separating the people from one another by arms of the sea. separating and isolating the red heads living on what is now the Bahaman banks.000 years to the beginning of the Holocene . high-resolution Holocene sediment record from the Antarctic continental margin. and was called the Age of the Fourth Sun. "Warmer temperatures appear to have produced freshwater streams that fed nitrogen and other nutrients into coastal waters. According to Dunbar." The sediment sample revealed higher concentrations of diatom shells during the mid-Holocene. which according to Aztec and Toltec history began 5.500 to 7." he observed. roughly 5.000 years ago described above. sea levels rose from approximately 20m below the present sea level to approximately 1. These legends most likely tell of the polar meltdown around 6. higher productivity suggests that sea ice was less abundant during the mid-Holocene . During this warm period. This was the time of arrival of the East Asian civilization into America. . "We think it was quite a bit warmer then. which indicates that the waters surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula were more biologically productive then." noted Dunbar.shelf along the west Antarctic Peninsula about 3. noting that geochemical analysis of the sediment also revealed higher levels of nitrogen during the mid-Holocene. "The Antarctic Peninsula is an ideal region to investigate climate change at decadal to millennial time scales due to its location in one of the Earth's most dynamic climate systems.000 years ago.

and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9. pottery. sections of walls. sculpture.500 years old. The peace loving Kukul Khan (Kukulcan). The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology.000 years. reporting on the Cambay find: The vast city which is five miles long and two miles wide.the Mayan culture hero was obviously Asian. "The whole model of the origins of civilisation will have to be remade from scratch. have discovered archaeological remains of a lost city 36 metres (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India.000 years ago." Unheard-of Scope of Cambay Ruins The BBC article tells us that the remains of this ancient city stand upon "enormous foundations.500 year old City Found Underwater off India Discovery in Bay of Cambay Will Force Western Archaeologists to Rewrite History Marine scientists in India. Several reports confirm this estimate. According to the BBC's Tom Housden.500 years old (BBC article). Carbon dating indicates that the city is 9. beads. Using sidescan sonar. including construction material." in 130 feet of water." Marine archaeologists discovered them with a technology known as "sub-bottom profiling.Genetics indicates that the actual genetic bottleneck (or ocean voyage) occurred 6. which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean. they recieved sonar images of square and rectangular shapes with 90-degree angles off the northwestern coast of India in the Gulf of Khambhat . It is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5. Housden added. Debris recovered from the site. they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120 feet. Other Civilizations around the time of Atlantis 9. who were conducting a survey of pollution.

"Within the past few months. So it would radically affect our whole picture of the development of urban civilization on this planet. From previous chapters we learnt that the Anu were a people from which the Ainu and Veda are descended from." Cremo told her. And they were able to do more intensive sonar work there and were able to identify more structures. In other words. I think that would radically change the whole picture of Indian history which has basically been written by Western archaeologists." According to Howe: Even if we don't know what the cultural background of the people is. Cremo. Howe said. and many other things that indicated that it indeed was a human habitation site that they had. In Biblical records. pieces of pottery. fossil wood. who investigates occurrences of this type worldwide. What was found has surprised archaeologists around the world" The Find Includes Human Remains Linda Moulton Howe. decided to resurrect their civilization amongst the Sumerian tribesmen. in his book "The Genius of the Few" The great 'Lord Anu' decided to 'plant a garden in Eden' which was a fertile valley overlooking fertile plains in Lebanon where a village named Ehdin still exists. purple robed people with gold wings came and gave them incredible scientific knowledge. Now. occurred 10. if it does happen to be a city that is 9500 years old. knowledgeable survivors of the civilizations of India. They appeared to have been laid out on the bank of a river that had been flowing from the Indian subcontinent out into that area. Cremo is a researcher and author of the book Forbidden Archaeology. According to Hebrew texts. This began western civilization as we know it in the history books. Then 600 years later the "Shining ones" . which I think is quite probable given the location of this off the coast of India. It is older than the Egyptian. These people were . The Indian Minister of Science and Technology ordered that the site be dredged. interviewed Michael Cremo about this new discovery. older than the Chinese. from which the bible was written.000 years ago. now we know why. "the engineers began some dredging operations there and they pulled up human fossil bones. It has often been said that the Hindu religion is one of the most ancient religions of the world. it is also said that the English language has it's origins in India.(Cambay). Lord Anu was the culture bringer to the Sumerians. that is older than the Sumerian civilization by several thousand years. has visited India and attended local meetings about the Cambay site. According to Christian O'Brien. If it turns out they are a Vedic people. stone tools. if it further happens that additional research is able to identify the culture of the people who lived in that city that's now underwater.white faced.

regardless of their origins.. Others are responsible for recording the fauna and flora in both the Highlands and the Lowlands. In the Hebrew chronicles of Enoch it says. the Sun and the Moon and record the peacful order of the World.There are 'Angels' who record the seasons and the years. red haired Phoenicians. and on their shoulders were things which I can only describe as 'like golden wings'. Their faces shone like the Sun and their eyes burned like lamps. different from any that I have seen in the lowlands. that the survivors of the global catastrophe that occured 11. And there are 'Angels' who study mankind and record the behaviour of men and how they live. Some of these 'Angels' study the movements of the Stars. Celts.obviously survivors of the pan Atlantic culture (Cro Magnon man) that also gave rise to the purple robed..being purplish. others who study the rivers and the seas.. undertake teaching and give instruction in clear and melodious voices. and the breath from their mouths was like smoke (tobacco or hashish). Other 'Angels' there. the blue robed copper culture of the Tuaregs. two very tall men. would have pooled together their recources to start anew. Their clothes were remarkeable . It would only be natural.600 years ago.the men brought me to the sixth haven. Toltecs. and there I saw seven groups of 'Angels'. . the seafaring Berbers. with the appearance of feathers. .. others who study the fruits of the lowlands and the plants and herbs which give nourishment to men and beasts. "I awoke to find in my room. Anasazi and Araucano. Basques..

'meaning Ogma the Sun Faced' who precided over the occult and was the inventor of Ogam writing.C. The Ogam symbols in his left hand spell his name 'Ogam'. by Barry Fell. From.These are petroglyphs are from Nevada and California and depict the Irish god Ogma Grian Aineac. . In his right hand is a druids wand. America B.

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Ogam writing is found on many megalithic monuments in America and has often been passed off as marks from ploughs. It was a simple method easily taught using the fingers. bone tools from 20. We should keep our minds and eyes open to the meaning of ancient inscriptions. despite the fact that such inscriptions are on walls of tombs. Their answer to this is that early settlers must have built these 'bunkers' out of rocks in the field after repeated ploughing to cause such a multitude of scratches. This writing system is based on sounds and has no connection to the modern alphabet. . It appears that Cro Magnon man was much more than a dirty unshaven bloodthirsty barbaric troglodite who hunted animals and dragged women around by the hair. Once again the intelligence of so called scientists is called into question.000 years ago have been found with grooves cut in them similar to ogam writing. often assumed to be idle scratches in rock was their writing system. they may teach us a lot about our ancestors. It seems that there was once a highly sophistocated civilization that influenced many cultures around the world before it was destroyed by the hand of nature. Ogam writing. Although mainstream scientists deny that this writing system was around before 1000BC.

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Jordan of the Smithsonian. D. by Barry Fell. once thought to be the brainchild of an over zealous missionary. The Smithsonian..C. excerpt from Archeological Coverups by David Hatcher Chi Perhaps the most amazing suppression of all is the excavation of an Egyptian tomb by the Smithsonian itself in Arizona. "is that no Egyptian artefacts of any kind have ever been found in North or . until more recent times. After speaking briefly to an operator. though we felt there was little chance of getting any real information. I told her that I was investigating a story from a 1909 Phoenix newspaper article about the Smithsonian Institution's having excavated rock-cut vaults in the Grand Canyon where Egyptian artefacts had been discovered. let alone . the first thing I can tell you.A.deciphered." she said.C. turns out to be closely related to an ancient Egyptian script that was unknown by westerners. we were transferred to a Smithsonian staff archaeologist. Other styles of writing are quite common in America. gave a highly detailed report of the discovery and excavation of a rock-cut vault by an expedition led by a Professor S. Micmac writing. and whether the Smithsonian Institution could give me any more information on the subject. A lengthy front page story of the PHOENIX GAZETTE on 5 April 1909 (follows this article). "Well. suggesting a thriving trans Atlantic trade during the Bronze Age. The World Explorers Club decided to check on this story by calling the Smithsonian in Washington.Pages extracted from America B. and a woman's voice came on the phone and identified herself. however. claims to have absolutely no knowledge of the discovery or its discoverers. before we go any further.

A. Horus Temple. Therefore." Indeed. the Buddha Cloister. Osiris Temple. "because of dangerous caves.. then obtained a hiker's map of the Grand Canyon from a bookstore in Chicago. and that all American Indians. While it cannot be discounted that the entire story is an elaborate newspaper hoax.A..E. Jordan. In the Haunted Canyon area were such names as the Cheops Pyramid. Manu Temple and Shiva Temple. We could only conclude that this was the area where the vaults were . (Any information on G.write to Childress at the World Explorers Club at the above address. the fact that it was on the front page. on both continents. Tower of Ra. and were told that the early explorers had just liked Egyptian and Hindu names.no one is allowed into this large area. and gave a highly detailed story that went on for several pages. Is the Smithsonian Institution covering up an archaeological discovery of immense importance? If this story is true it would radically change the current view that there was no transoceanic contact in pre-Columbian times. apparently) with names like Tower of Set. we were amazed to see that much of the area on the north side of the canyon has Egyptian names. that readers may have would be greatly appreciated. or their alleged discoveries. this entire area with the Egyptian and Hindu place names in the Grand Canyon is a forbidden zone . but that it was true that this area was off limits to hikers or other visitors. Neither she nor anyone else with whom I spoke could find any record of the discovery or either G. I can tell you that the Smithsonian Institute has never been involved in any such excavations. lends a great deal to its credibility. knew nothing. and Isis Temple. The area around Ninety-four Mile Creek and Trinity Creek had areas (rock formations. Buddha Temple. Jordan.E. Historian and linguist Carl Hart. named the prestigious Smithsonian Institution." She was quite helpful and polite but. Kinkaid and Professor S.) Is the idea that ancient Egyptians came to the Arizona area in the ancient past so objectionable and preposterous that it must be covered up? Perhaps the Smithsonian Institution is more interested in maintaining the status quo than rocking the boat with astonishing new discoveries that overturn previously accepted academic teachings. editor of WORLD EXPLORER.South America.. Kinkaid and Professor S. Poring over the map.. It is hard to believe such a story could have come out of thin air. are descended from Ice Age explorers who came across the Bering Strait. Was there any relationship between these places and the alleged Egyptian discoveries in the Grand Canyon? We called a state archaeologist at the Grand Canyon. in the end.

in large part. as the Smithsonian has been called. will be solved. the explorer who found the great underground citadel of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green River. the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America. possibly from Egypt. Yet today. the archaelogists of the Smithsonian Institute. Wyoming. and evidence that tends to disprove the official dogma that is now the history of North America. which is financing the expeditions. tracing back to Ramses. According to the story related to the Gazette by Mr.located. this area is curiously off-limits to all hikers and even. Kinkaid. have made discoveries which almost conclusively prove that the race which inhabited this mysterious cavern. evidence for ancient voyages of various cultures to North America. who they were and whence they came. park personnel. If their theories are borne out by the translation of the tablets engraved with heiroglyphics. I believe that the discerning reader will see that if only a small part of the "Smithsoniangate" evidence is true. Kinkaid. If Americans were ever allowed inside the 'nation's attic'. in a wooden boat. to Yuma. The Smithsonian's Board of Regents still refuses to open its meetings to the news media or the public. which was mentioned some time ago in the Gazette. 1909 EXPLORATIONS IN GRAND CANYON Mysteries of Immense Rich Cavern being brought to light Jordan is enthused Remarkable finds indicate ancient people migrated from Orient The latest news of the progress of the explorations of what is now regarded by scientists as not only the oldest archeological discovery in the United States. their ancient arts. was of oriental origin.E. then our most hallowed archaeological institution has been actively involved in suppressing evidence for advanced American cultures. was brought to the city yesterday by G. several months ago. evidence for anomalistic giants and other oddball artefacts. and Arizona and the Colorado will be . what skeletons might they find? -------------------------------------------------------------------from the front page of THE PHOENIX GAZETTE of April 5th. Egypt and the Nile. but one of the most valuable in the world. hewn in solid rock by human hands. down the Colorado.

S. indicate the high state of civilization reached by these strange people. Some forty-two miles up the river from the El Tovar Crystal canyon. sharp-edged and hard as steel. his history sounds fabulous. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho and has been an explorer and hunter all his life. Several hundred rooms have been discovered. to find another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores of passageways. Kinkaid's Report Mr. There was no trail to this point. looking for mineral.000 feet above the river bed. A Thorough Examination Under the direction of Prof. When I saw . alone. which will be continued until the last link in the chain is forged. The scientists wish to work unmolested. A. There are steps leading from this entrance some thirty yards to what was. stains in the sedimentary formation about 2.486 feet down the sheer canyon wall. Nearly a mile underground. Above a shelf which hid it from view from the river. So interested have the scientists become that preparations are being made to equip the camp for extensive studies. The entrance is 1.linked by a historical chain running back to ages which staggers the wildest fancy of the fictionist. Even briefly recounted. like the spokes of a wheel. and doubtless they had their origin in the orient. and the force will be increased to thirty or forty persons. It is located on government land and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty of trespass. the Smithsonian Institute is now prosecuting the most thorough explorations. and the visitor would be sent on his way. thirty years having been in the service of the Smithsonian Institute. The story of how I found the cavern has been related. but I finally reached it with great difficulty. without fear of archeological discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic hunters. was the mouth of the cave. Jordan. I saw on the east wall. I would impress that the cavern is nearly inaccessible. "First. about 1480 feet below the surface. one of them having been explored for 854 feet and another 634 feet. but in a paragraph: I was journeying down the Colorado river in a boat. copper instruments. almost grotesque. at the time the cavern was inhabited. The recent finds include articles which have never been known as native to this country. A trip there would be fruitless. War weapons. Mr. reached by passageways running from the main passage. the level of the river. the long main passage has been delved into.

on both sides. The walls are about three feet six inches in thickness. several hundred feet long. The Passages "The main passageway is about 12 feet wide. from whence I shipped them to Washington with details of the discovery. The passages are chiseled or hewn as straight as could be laid out by an engineer.the chisel marks on the wall inside the entrance. About 57 feet from the entrance. During that trip I went back several hundred feet along the main passage till I came to the crypt in which I discovered the mummies. though the scientists are not certain as to what religious worship it represents. probably. I gathered a number of relics. One of these I stood up and photographed by flashlight. There are two large cactus with protruding arms. The sidepassages near the entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall. narrowing to nine feet toward the farther end. it is possible that this worship most resembles the ancient people of Tibet. or image. These are entered by oval-shaped doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through the walls into the passages. are a number of rooms about the size of ordinary living rooms of today. the explorations were undertaken. Following this. The Shrine "Over a hundred feet from the entrance is the cross-hall. Surrounding this idol are smaller images. which has been sought by chemicals for centureis without result. one on each side of the dais on which the god squats. the first side-passages branch off to the right and left. showing that these ancients smelted . others crooked-necked and distorted shapes. along which. There is also slag and stuff similar to matte. made of copper. I became interested. though some are 30 by 40 feet square. Taking into consideration everything found thus far. The ceilings of many of the rooms converge to a center. These people undoubtedly knew the lost art of hardening this metal. and the carving this cavern. In the opposite corner of this cross-hall were found tools of all descriptions. The cast of the face is oriental. The idol almost resembles Buddha. sitting cross-legged. On a bench running around the workroom was some charcoal and other material probably used in the process. with a lotus flower or lily in each hand. securing my gun and went in. All this is carved out of hard rock resembling marble. in which are found the idol. of the people's god. of good and evil. some very beautiful in form. but toward the rear they gradually reach a right angle in direction. which I carried down the Colorado to Yuma. symbolical.

on which is found copper cups and pieces of broken swords. but so far no trace of where or how this was done has been discovered. is a ver hard cement. the urns are finer in design. Each one is engraved with the head of the Malay type. and all are wrapped in a bark fabric. a yellow stone of no great value. Many of the rooms are bare but for water vessels. or walls over doorways . as it is twelve feet high and can be reached only from above. while as the higher shelves are reached. Another passageway leads to granaries such as are found in the oriental temples. which puzzles the scientists. made very artistic in design. no skins. The pottery work includes enameled ware and glazed vessels. The Hieroglyphics "On all the urns. Similar hieroglyphics have been found in southern Arizona. "Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been found. no children or females being buried here. The Crypt "The tomb or crypt in which the mummies were found is one of the largest of the chambers. Some of the mummies are covered with clay. On these are tiers of mummies. It is worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far have proved to be male. These granaries are rounded. which indicates that some sort of ladder was attached. the key to which the Smithsonian Institute hopes yet to discover. They contain seeds of varous kinds. One very large storehouse has not yet been entered. This leads to the belief that this exterior section was the warriors' barracks. "Among the other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper and gold. and tablets of stone which were found by the image are the mysterious hieroglyphics. nor the origin of the ore. no bedding. At the head of each is a small bench. Strewn promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what people call "cats eyse'.ores. The urns or cups on the lower tiers are crude. It resembles platinum. as the materials of which they are constructed. Among the pictorial writings. no clothing. each one occupying a separate hewn shelf. Two copper hooks extend on the edge. One is of prehistoric type. only two animals are found. The engraving on the tables probably has something to do with the religion of the people. the walls slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. for its identity has not been established. A gray metal is also found in this cavern. . I think. showing a later stage of civilization.

That messenger never returned. No sounds are heard.One room. a people lived here which reached a high stage of civilization. Undoubtedly a good many thousands of years before the Christian era. their lands and ancient dwelling place will be . was probably the main dining hall. which is the Colorado.000 people could have lived in the caverns comfortably. "One thing I have not spoken of. it is notable that among the Hopi Indians the tradition is told that their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the Grand Canyon till dissension arose between the good and the bad. but other boo-hoo this idea and think it may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the ancients. What these people lived on is a problem. about 40 by 700 feet. Upwards of 50. They sent out a message to the Temple of the Sun. When he returns. who was their chief. Machetto. and grew grain and corn. and when we approached it a deadly. though it is presumed that they came south in the winter and farmed in the valleys. and our flashlights and candles only make the darkness blacker. counseled them to leave the underworld. There is one chamber of the passageway to which is not ventilated. good will and rain for people of one heart. and then the people of one heart climbed out. for cooking utensils are found here. Some say snakes. and until stronger ones are available we will not know what the chamber contains. snaky smell struck us. The whole underground installation gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. but it smells snaky just the same. The chief then caused a tree to grow up and pierce the roof of the underworld. One theory is that the present Indian tribes found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people which inhabited the cave. but there was no way out. going back north in the summer. Our light would not penetrate the gloom. the people of one heart and the people of two hearts. Professor Jordan is much enthused over the discoveries and believes that the find will prove of incalculable value in archeological work. asking the blessing of peace. looking for the messenger. They tarried by Paisisvai (Red River). The gloom is like a weight on one's shoulders." An Indian Legend In connection with this story. may be of interest. Imagination can revel in conjectures and ungodly daydreams back through the ages that have elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space. The chronology of human history is full of gaps. but today at the Hopi villages at sundown can be seen the old men of the tribe out on the housetops gazing toward the sun.

If this is true. including the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and the land mass representing the Americas. but would also indicate that Carthaginian explorers had sailed to the New World. culture. In fact. McMenamin. Rollins. may have made another discovery--one that sheds radical new light on present conceptions of the Classical world and on the discovery of the New World. language. The discoveries in the Grand Canyon may throw further light on human evolution and prehistoric ages. One is that they came from Asia.restored to them. the artist. neither Columbus nor the Vikings were the first non-natives to set foot on the Americas. Both peoples are widely credited with significant . another that the racial cradle was in the upper Nile region. the meaning of which has long puzzled scholars. The legend was learned by W. Among the engravings of animals in the cave is seen the image of a heart over the spot where it is located. Working with computer-enhanced images of gold coins minted in the Punic/Phoenician city in North Africa of Carthage between 350 and 320 BC. That is the tradition. and naval enterprise. it was his interest in the Carthaginians as explorers that led McMenamin to study the coins. believed in the Indian origin of the Egyptians. (please see sketch of coin right and where the world map is supposed to have been inscribed) McMenamin has interpreted a series of designs appearing on these coins. Heeren. McMenamin believes the designs represent a map of the ancient world. The Phoenician coin presumed to contain a map of the ancient world If Mark McMenamin is correct. The Carthaginians were closely linked to the Phoenicians of the Middle East in terms of origin. during a year spent with the Hopi Indians. an Egyptologist. these coins not only represent the oldest maps found to date. There are two theories of the origin of the Egyptians. the Mount Holyoke geologist who last year led an expedition that discovered the oldest animal fossil found to date.E.

" "I was just the lucky person who had the geologic and geographic expertise to view these coins in a new light.. it left scholars baffled.in the deep off Africa is an island of considerable size. McMenamin was able to interpret the design as a representation of the Mediterranean. in the first century bc.... with. much of it mountainous. This detail of a gold coin shows what McMenamin believes is a map of the Mediterranean area.. surrounded by the land masses of Europe and Africa. and along the coast of Africa.. For example.The Phoenicians had discovered it by accident after having planted many colonies throughout Africa." McMenamin's interest in Carthage led him to master the Phoenician language.. Britain.fruitful. To the far left of the representation of the Mediterranean is what the geologist believes is a depiction of the Americas. and (at left) the Americas. In one of the coins studied by McMenamin. "I have been interested in the Carthaginians as the greatest explorers in the history of the world. the British Isles. Africa. A number of classical texts bolster this theory. Diodorus of Sicily wrote "." McMenamin notes. The image appears on coins minted in Carthage between 350 and 320 BC. to the upper left. Through it flow navigable rivers.. For many years. Working over the past few months. a horse stands atop a number of symbols at the bottom of the coin. When that theory was discounted in the 1960s. He has published two pamphlets on his work regarding the . The enhanced and colorized version is based on the illustrations courtesy of Mark McMenamin..sailing exploits through the Mediterranean.. scholars interpreted these symbols as letters in Phoenician script. to the British Isles. surrounded by Europe.

"If I had the time and the money. the scholar is trying to gain access to a number of coins --or casts of their impressions-. only half-kidding. the limits of the Mediterranean sea were altered. At the very least. Christian da C.) our planet was hit by a huge cataclysm when a good part of the Andes Cordillera was raised. sank. A study researched. There were furthermore sinking and rises in some other parts of soil. and the very large continent. One is written in ancient Phoenician. a leading journal in the study of coins.island that existed in the middle of the Atlantic ocean. known as Atlantis." McMenamin observes. which has accepted McMenamin's paper on the theory for publication. representing probably the first new work in that language in 1500 years. in proving the world map theory's validity.currently held in European collections." Additional study may well reveal that it was Punic explorers not Europeans who "discovered" the New World. The causes of the catastrophe are not completely known yet but it is believed that one of its probable causes was the arrival of a huge mass of a celestial body that might have passed near Earth provoking tremendous tensions in the internal magma of the planet. C. "I'd be in North Africa with my metal detector trying to find Carthaginian coins to further confirm my hypothesis.Carthaginian coins. These impressions will further aid him. At the same time. Brazil Phoenician Colonization About 11. he hopes. He has submitted a paper on his theory to The Numismatist. The big lake where today the Sahara desert is dried out.000 years ago (9500 B. McMenamin hopes his theory will focus new scholarly attention on ancient Carthaginian culture. translated and presented by kind courtesy of Mr. Those real magma "tides" have submitted the thin solid crust of the planet into stronger pressures than it could support. Karam. Porto Alegre. Student of Archaeology. In many points the soil became distended and in others it wrinkled. .

When they could. The Phoenicians inhabited the Mediterranean coasts. The Phoenicians navigated by using the technique of stars orientation. However. the presence of powerful neighbours and the existence of much cedar wood (quite good for naval construction) in the mountain forests may have been the additional elements that guided the Phoenician civilization towards the exploration of the seas. It is enough to say that various ancient texts state that after the continent. entered the Black Sea and left the Mediterranean Sea by crossing the Pillars of Hercules (today's Strait of Gibraltar and previously called the Pillars of Melqart) reaching the Atlantic ocean's African coast. They were already influential about the year 2000 BC but their power grew with Abibaal's (in 1020 BC) and Hiram's leadership. the narrow and fertile strip located between the sea and the mountains of Lebanon and AntiLebanon. Sidon and Tyre were successive capitals of a state. The Phoenician agents and diplomats were familiar with almost every war fought at that time and they used to take advantage of it. habits and religion instead of a more rigid political structure. they left indelible marks on the ancient people's culture such as in the Phoenician civilization that was their successor in the sea trade. Always trading. Byblos. They navigated the African continental coast in order to follow the opposite way that would be traced by Vasco da Gama much later. instead of doing it by the sword or by fighting.city trading empire. they stole a little but always trying not to provoke powerful enemies who they preferred to weaken with gold products. traded in Italy. its survivors went on to Africa. the sea flows and through the winds courses.Atlantis was the main victim of those cataclysms that caused the fall of its powerful civilization. by following those factors their captains covered huge distances with precision.island's sinking. So. Their small territory. and finally arrived at the Tin Islands in England. united before anything else by ties of interest. A little away from the Longá and Parnaiba rivers' . the Phoenicians built marts and warehouses along their routes. And more evidence seems to confirm that the Phoenicians used to cross the Atlantic Ocean to visit the "New Continent". They also visited the north African coasts and all the European south. They built numerous and powerful fleets. Phoenicians in Brazil Brazil is full of vestiges that corroborate the Phoenician presence in its lands and everything indicates that they concentrated their occupation in the northeastern region. Plato tells us about the fights that they had with the Egyptians and Greeks and how they finally were defeated.

Ludwig Schwennhagen studied the place's subterranean parts and the embankments carefully and also some others that exist near the village of Touro where the Phoenician navigators anchored after roaming about 10 km of a canal. Schwennhagen believes that the Phoenicians used Brazil as a base during 800 years at least. Researcher Raimundo Lopes. according to them. This is a fact that scientists accept as veridical nowadays. Mato Grosso and Bahia sierras. excavated that location at the end of the twenties and discovered typically Phoenician tools.confluence. Goiás. besides material evidences. The same professor Schwennhagen tells us that he found Phoenician inscriptions in the Amazon in which there were references to many kings of Sidon and Tyre (887 to 856 BC). Some inscriptions reveal that because of the geological shocks that hit Atlantis. Those inscriptions still mention the biblical flood that. traveled all over the Brazilian countryside in order to collect Phoenician inscriptions in the Minas Gerais. to their trade activity practiced in those distant lands and to the sinking of Atlantis. its survivors went to the north of Africa to found the empire of Egypt and many other nations of the region known today as the "Middle East". a French researcher. The inscriptions that he put together are so many that "they would fill uncountable volumes if they were ever published". Apollinaire Frot. according to Frot's statements. in Maranhão state. In the rivers Camocim (Ceará State). The Austrian professor Mr. in Piaui state. In Rio Grande do Norte state. when arriving in the Pindaré and Grajaú rivers' confluence we can find the Pensiva lake before known as Maracu. leaving here. Parnaiba (Piaui State) and Mearim (Maranhão state) entrance accesses there are stone and lime walls built by the ancient Phoenicians. the Phoenician boats used to anchor in the Extremoz lake. The translation of those inscriptions refers to Phoenician works in Brazil. was not a universal catastrophe but only a local cataclysm in the Mesopotarmia region. there is a lake where Phoenician shipyards and a harbour with a place reserved to tie the "Carpássios" (old long traveling ships) were discovered. born in Maranhão State. after roaming a 11 km canal. In that lake's borders there can be found shipyards made of petrified wood containing thick nails and bronze dowels. an important linguistic influence among the natives. . By navigating the Mearim river up north.

The inhabitants of those regions. Carthage. Although these are just theories. There is no scientific or cultural work in Brazil that has affirmative data about the Phoenician coming to its territory. survived and prospered when it inherited the sea trade from its ancient colonizing cities. on whose trade others depended. However. legendary and fictitious.to organize or to take trips to the other side of the Atlantic ocean because the frequent coming of men and resources were emptying the capital". Finally there is the famous inscription in the "Pedra da Gávea" (Gavea's Rock) in Rio de Janeiro which states: "Here Badezir. withdrew into a primitive status. It is the famous "quebracho" or "quebra machado" (the "ax breaker") as it its known in the . there are in some foreign material references to the Phoenecian navigators in Brazilian lands before its European discovery. Finally a strange racial element appeared the invaders from Europe. too far from the metropolis. it would explain the blond hair and the diverse physical constitutions of savages that can be found among some Brazilian Indian tribes in the Amazon. the Syrian and the Assyrian hegemonies and even the Persian domination. according to archaeological tests." a place where there was an abundance of food and lots of wood. Thus Phoenicia trembled. French archaeologists found in 1860 many wooden artifacts that only could have been taken from Brazil. who tells us that "the Carthaginian senate published a decree in order to forbid -under penalty of death -. the famous Greek historian. They mention an expedition of a Phoenician navigator to a region beyond the Strait of Moloch (today's Gibraltar) where "the sea penetrated into the land.. Phoenician inscriptions found in Tyre.. It is Herodotus. It would also explain the light skin and the big number of Phoenician expressions and words used by the Tiriós Indians. at first under the Greek invasion headed by Alexander the Great and later under the power of the Roman legions. With such a war the trading practices were interrupted and the far away colonies and marts now abandoned. which are now in London. Although that information may seem unreal. I want to believe that it is really true. the largest of the Phoenician colonies. There still is another --fact: in excavations that took place in Sidon. known today as Sur (its name in Arabic). King of Tyre. are on tombstones. gave Phoenicia a kind of stability that allowed its existence to last so long without having strong armed forces. Jetbaal's oldest son". started to be destroyed by local populations. Phoenicia survived the Egyptian.The economic leadership condition.

So. Other evidences are four Phoenician characters (signs) engraved on the peak of a big rock known as "Pão de Açúcar" (The Sugar Loaf). . whose documents related to that fact is in the Vatican archives. Those inscriptions demonstrate just a little of the greatness of the others that exist all over Brazil. what is the origin of the name. In the National Historic Museum many photographs show us huge inscriptions that are widely spread from the Solimões River up to the point where its name changes to Amazon River (from Ararí to Madeira River). Someone has already tried to show in Rio de Janeiro that the Maya people might have written the Gavea's Rock inscriptions. Nevertheless they are hieroglyphic inscriptions mixed with the Phoenician alphabet and originally engraved by Phoenician navigators. There are various confirmations that say Brazil was already known by many sailors from the Near East even before its discovery by the Portuguese. in the Royal Museum of London and also in Vatican and Lisbon historic documents that state the Solimões River's name came from its primitive denomination. they were not a colonizing people but a trading one. which is given to the Amazon River after its source? The answer to that question is in the Louvre Museum archives. By the way. He obtained from a "Syrian" slave a report and a confirmation of the existence of others lands.Sulaiman (Salomon) -. as well as in French Guyana and Surinam such as hieroglyphs and rock characters demonstrate clearly its origin from Aramaic. The first European navigator to be familiar with this land was the Roman Severus Pompeus. So.Brazilian countryside.given by his vassals who arrived in those regions guided by the Phoenicians. They were really interested in its native products. a few years before the Christian Era. it would be in honour of the great King of Israel -. in the Ararí area. Syriac and even Sanskrit scripts. All the cuneiform inscriptions discovered in the Amazon region. What is ignored is why that navigator did not try to verify those stories by himself. The Phoenician explorers were not interested in lands. which might be "Sulaiman".known in Portuguese as PauBrasil. Besides that kind of wood a red coloured one was found whose denomination today in Arabic remains the same as the one in Phoenician times: "Shajarat Ahmar" -.

Columbus gave his uncle what he had found. It is said that such a report is a legend but I believe it is true: Columbus came and discovered the American continent. Then both of them verified that those papers were descriptive maps made by a sailor from Tripoli (Trabulus) which had been buried many centuries before the fifteenth century when the place where Columbus' house was had been the sea's border. because they dominated . He declared that region as being a huge territory located beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Strait of Gibraltar). Then from that day on and protected by his uncle. the Toltec and the Aztec civilizations predominated all over the American continent. and he took them to one of his colleagues. How did he get them? Some ancient historians tell the following tale about that: "One day. he started digging quickly and he found a rotten wooden box. So. Nevertheless the Maya. without anything to do. have been writing that its origin is Indian. financing and support to be the "Lord of the World". Other paleontologists who searched and penetrated into thousands of caves. grottos and lime cesspools declared that it its neither possible to define the exact geological erosion of the Brazilian lands nor to determine an ancient settlement in Brazil before its European discovery.Columbus. In the "sambaquís" spread throughout Brazil many objects and rock inscriptions have been found. Columbus got an opinion from a very important cartographer about those exceptional findings. he had an itinerary. Columbus realized that in his residential area there was something buried in the ground.he became intrigued with the discovery and went to look for information with an uncle of his whom belonged to a religious institution and who also was a very respected person in the Spanish Royalty. Those populations did not spring from the ground and only two other peoples could be their ancestors: the Phoenicians or the Chinese. at his house. the great navigator from Genoa.he was quite a good sailor. Because he already had some nautical knowledge. had never been to the lands of which he used to talk so much. Some writers. He also said that its wealth was so great and there were such valuable treasures kept in that place that he who could dominate it would be considered "the Lord of the World". Inside it there was many human bones (even a skull) and among those bones Columbus found some papyri documents. Afterwards. Columbus started to visit the Portuguese and the Spanish courts in order to obtain concession. However. based on paleontology material. a map and other real documents concerning those distant lands. From the Phoenicians.

He verified that the legends about the existence of the Amazon women. Doctor Peter W. the Tupis. the Carijós. have on their names the etymology of the words whose Phoenician origin can be found in today's Arabic language.. Maya and Aztec civilizations differ little from the Phoenicians. took research trips to explore the Brazilian countryside. When Baron von Humboldt. administration. a great Danish scholar. Inca and Aztec civilizations offered to anyone's eyes and mind. and who still today execute the Marajoaras work perfectly. the Chambicás. have in their vocabulary thousands of Arabian words whose origin is Phoenician. the Guajajaras. We can still hear about the lost cities in the Brazilian countryside region. From São Luis dos Cáceres up to the north in the state of Mato Grosso. The Brazilian Indians. Goiás and Amazonas. Some other Brazilian Indian tribes such as the Guaranis. Lund. etc. Beuchat cites the important Inca influence in the South American civilization as well as the Aztec influence in Mexico and in Central American societies. at the end of the eighteenth century. The Indians who deal with oil. Their merchants. However. he reached the Orenoco slopes and was surprised by the greatness that Maya.whose name was given to the river. those basis are uncertain and imperfect just because until today historians were not able to elucidate such a vulnerable fact about the American pre-civilization History. in the north of Brazil.the western seas and from the Chinese because they dominated the Far East seas.were true. known as Carajás and Carajá-ís. adopt the same systems used by the Phoenician workers with oil who mixed wood and vine ashes with mud (clay) in order to produce ceramics. there are places that show the existence of buried cities that are the remains of a millenarian civilization very well. came up with the theory of a precivilization in Brazil and the Phoenician contribution in its formation. clans and their moral education clearly show us the ethnology of their civil way of life. the Anajás. governors. the petrified cities such as the one known as "Sete Cidades" (Seven Cities) in the state of Piaui and others in wild zones like the states of Mato Grosso. The resemblance among these .

the pots' shapes. states: "when the Phoenicians were established in Africa.drawings. endless. which meant that their lives had been renewed by god. Bolivian and Peruvian coins their resemblance to coins from Sidon and Tyre is very great. that happened 3.Atlantic"--: huge. Baal's will. they planned to cross the huge ocean towards the unknown".000 years before Christopher Columbus. in his books "General History of Lebanon". Making a comparison among these coins and Paraguayan. extensive. majestic.according to the Phoenician term "Al. Later it was corroborated that they had crossed the huge ocean and discovered the region where today is South America. In the Rio de Janeiro National Museum there exist tombstones with Phoenician. large. When I went on some trips into the Brazilian countryside. published in Beirut. the small statues and other Indian works and the Phoenician artifacts is noteworthy. I saw some coins that had been found in Brazilian ground whose origin is completely unknown. Edmund Bleibel. vast. So. a distinguished Lebanese historian.also was adopted by almost all Brazilian Indian tribes. That queen was sent to Lebanon to save Ilu of Jbail (Byblos) who was in a critical situation. the chosen queen to rule that place was Mirinieh Mirubieh known as "Queen of the Amazones" which means "Queen of the Warriors". The same Phoenician burial ritual -. They gave the first new land they discovered the name of "Barr Ilu" which means "The Continent of God". And in Arabic "AlAtlantic" means giant. legendarily known as Atlantis that in their language meant -. The Phoenicians had a factory or a mart in a region. When the nation was formed and its administration was organized.the one that buried the dead with all the objects that belonged to them -. Then Ilu of Jbail (Byblos) and his wife Harmonia (Harmony) prepared a big fleet and navigated the enormous sea looking for the "Eternal Islands" (Canary Islands) but they disappeared forever. . Syriac and Sanskrit inscriptions found in the Brazilian countryside. and Gibraltar was the limit of their empire. It was said that their souls embodied two serpents.

Its ancient inhabitants were proud of belonging to the Phoenician lineage just like the Irish people. e Andrade. Jbail and Tyre had 200 or 300 boats that headed to Brazil. Roberto P. A few historians have been investigating the origin of such a language and they found many evidences that confirm the Phoenician's coming to Brazil bringing with them some Greek workers before any other people. "Grandes Enigmas da Humanidade " . today completely lost in the admirable immensity of this country. during King Hiram's time. came to take gold.Capítulo 5: "Os que antecederam Colombo" páginas 96. 1969. Roberto P. São Paulo. the great navigator of Tyre. This last denomination was in honour of Atlas. Luiz C.A. and Andrade.100. It is located in the Amazon River borders. São Paulo. the great Phoenician king of Lybia Cadmus.historic reality. as well as by other Brazilian poets who sang on their lyres the Phoenician and their monuments on the Brazilian soil. Círculo do Livro S. They took this precious metal to Tyre and to King Salomon of Jerusalem from the land of Ofir. . where this mineral was very abundant. I wish the Brazilian honourable governors could help twentieth century dedicated scientists to research. Editorial. the one of its archaic civilization.100. That fact was confirmed by Plutarch and was mentioned by the great Brazilian historian Rui Barbosa. The smallest one was used to bring the members of the crew with their support material and equipment. They usually stopped to rest and also to buy supplies in Tunis and at the Canary Islands. 2. The historian Deodoro told the way they might have arrived here. References: 1. Círculo do Livro Press. Excerpts from the book by: Lisboa. and maybe we would have even surpassed the Greek and the Roman civilizations. Among the Phoenician civilization monuments in Brazil there is a city that was called "Airo".The "Queen of the Amazons" called "The Big Ocean" the ocean known before as 'Mirubi Ocean" which today is the Atlantic Ocean.Cadamiat -. left his city -. "Great Enigmas of Mankind" . Finally we verify that truth is clear and positive. for its pre. Each fleet that left Sidon. Luiz C. in the Brazilian entrails.on a scientific mission in order to study the Cuchite language spoken in Brazil.Chapter 5: "Columbus antecessors" pages 96. 1969. Excertos do livro de: Lisboa. They used to say that they were Tyrian descendants who.

who were mainly from the Regiment of the South Wales Borderers. Rio de Janeiro. 1945. England ?2004 "For Jack and Tanith" "All men dream. to make it possible. When I was a child and then a young man. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men. I'm a white Caucasian. Tanus Jorge "Lebanon and the Lebanese in Brazil" -.3.Eighth part: "Traces of the Phoenician arrival in Brazil" pages 155-159 Independent edition. 1945. the almost legendary battle that took place on January 22nd 1879. by Dennis Price. I'm interested in and proud of my ancestry. It was the greatest ever defeat inflicted on a native force by a .159. Lawrence from "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" I was born in a Western country and raised in Western culture with Western values. fought and defeated 4.500 Welshmen. Rio de Janeiro. for they may act their dream with open eyes. Excertos do livro de: Bastaní. I'm proud to be a Welshman and in case there is any doubt. I learned of an ancestor of mine who fought at Rorke's Drift. Netheravon.000 Zulus. E." T. Tanus Jorge "0 Líbano e os Libaneses no Brasil" -Parte oitava: "Indícios da vinda dos Fenícios ao Brasil" páginas 155. In this engagement. 1. and I'm naturally proud of my nation as a whole. or anyone feels it to be relevant. Excerpts from the book by: Bastani. but not equally. Edição independente.

I also learned that the greatest defeat ever inflicted on the Romans in Britain was when an entire legion under Manlius Valens was devastated by the Silures.colonial force." Before Glendower's rebellion. I'm not a military historian. while another began his service in the Second World War by surviving Dunkirk. where a vastly outnumbered and exhausted British army faced the flower of French chivalry and brought them low. Owen Glendower and his men fought a bloody rebellion against two English kings in an insurrection that lasted for fifteen years. I was extremely fortunate to receive a classical education and so it was I came to study Latin. Wales now possesses more castles per square mile of country than any other western European nation. long after the other British tribes had been vanquished. One of Glendower's detractors. and this in a relatively small island. Hammer of the Scots. "Three times hath Bolingbrook made head against my power. The few people outside Wales who have read of Glendower's rebellion are given the impression by most history books that it was largely a guerrilla war. the ancient tribe that once lived in the region that is now my homeland. One of my grandfathers fought in and lived through the First World War. William Shakespeare. He won. grudgingly noted these victories when he put the famous speech into Glendower's mouth. while 11 Victoria Crosses were won at Rorke's Drift. Three times. in his play Henry IV. but such accounts naturally fascinated me. It took the Romans over 40 years to finally subdue the Silures. have I sent him bootless home and weather-beaten back. but at a great cost. fought a long and terrible campaign against the native Welsh Princes. while as a direct result of his need to subjugate the Welsh. Greek and Ancient History. Before that. from the banks of the Wye and sandy-bottomed Severn. . Through this. but Glendower fought and defeated King Henry IV in at least three pitched battles on Welsh soil. I later read of the Welsh archers who were instrumental in defeating the French at the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415. I learned that the famous King Caratacus fled from Kent and from the invading Romans to seek the assistance of the Silures. I also learned of another ancestor who was the ship's carpenter on board Nelson's flagship the Victory. the most such awards won in any single action in British military history. King Edward I. who launched a massive counter offensive against the Roman invaders in around 55-53 AD. The XX Legion suffered a major defeat and the Silures broke out as far east and north as Gloucester.

The next governors of Britain, Gallus and Veranius, fought tirelessly against the Silures between 53-58 to redeem the situation. In 59 AD, the XX legion was removed to fight a campaign in North Wales, but the Silures, however, were far from beaten. When Paulinus was attempting to put down the revolt of Boudicca in 60 AD that threatened the entire province of Britain, the II Augusta legion remained in the south west. So wary were they of antagonising the Silures that not even an event of the magnitude of Boudicca's revolt could persuade them to offer assistance to their fellows. I have no love whatever for war, but perhaps you can imagine the satisfaction I had as I learned of my military legacy against an invader? While studying history, I learned of Britain's other exponents of the art of war, men such as Wellington, Nelson, Cromwell, King Henry V, King Alfred the Great and of course the renowned King Arthur, whose true identity lies perhaps forever hidden by the mists of time. My study of Latin, Greek and Ancient History led me to Rome and to the terrible foes faced over the centuries by the Romans, men such as Attila the Hun, Mithridates, Pyrrhus, Spartacus, the Caledonian King Calgacus and of course the Warrior Queen Boadicea. I read of numerous Gallic, Germanic and Eastern warriors who had inflicted crushing defeats on the Romans, while I also read of the Greeks, the Persians and the mighty Alexander. I studied and marvelled over their exploits, but to my mind, no general who has ever lived can bear comparison to the awe-inspiring Hannibal of Carthage, a man who stands alone. I shall leave it to others to examine, if they will, the precise record of Hannibal. For my part, I've made clear my background and loyalties, so what is it about Hannibal that has excited such admiration from me? My principal trade is as a writer of stories, so I am accustomed to trying to put myself into the place of other characters, whether they be fictional or historical. I make no pretence that what follows should be a cold, clinical examination of all the facts, so as such, I am happy to write in another vein entirely, to try to convey to a casual reader in an unashamedly personal account why it is that of all men in military history, Hannibal should receive my heartfelt and eternal admiration. As Hannibal grew up as a young man, he would have learned of Rome, the brooding enemy of Carthage, lurking to the north across the Mediterranean. He would have discovered that the ingenious and determined Romans had countered the superior naval skills of the Carthaginians by equipping their ships with grappling hooks, or corvi, which enabled Roman marines to storm the fettered Carthaginian warships.

He would doubtless have been impressed by the succession of Roman naval victories against a natural maritime force such as Carthage and by the undoubted sheer resilience of the Roman army. He would have learned of the successful campaigns by the Roman army against Carthaginian forces in both Africa and Sicily, and he would certainly have studied previous Roman military achievements. He would have seen an emergent, highly disciplined force that had already had innumerable victories to its credit, while it had also sprung back from many grave defeats. For a young man such as Hannibal to even contemplate attacking such a formidable adversary in the light of the humiliating defeat and terms of the First Punic War was brave enough, but for him to actually embark on such an undertaking was truly heroic. As everyone knows, he decided against sailing to Italy and instead decided to march his army through North Africa and across the Straits of Gibraltar. This would have been an ambitious enough scheme at any time for any military commander, but there was also the sheer logistical problem of how to transport not only men and horses across the sea, but also a troop of elephants and provisions for the beasts. Hannibal would presumably have outlined his plan at some point before his army set off, so consider the other problems. He would have had to utterly convince his men that he would succeed, and he would have had to prepare them for the terrible hardships ahead, a long, long way from their homes. Aside from the issue of gaining their loyalty, there was the linguistic problem. He would have had to address a mixed army of Nubians, Carthaginians and Spaniards, then later Celts and insurgent Italians. Whether Hannibal was conversant with all these tongues and dialects, or whether he was assisted by translators, it was still in itself an astonishing feat to address and command such a mixed group. In modern times, the British commander Major Tim Collins made a famous & inspiring speech before the invasion of Iraq, but he was aided by addressing a far smaller number of troops who all spoke the same language. He was also greatly assisted by modern technology in spreading the words of his speech outside their immediate circle, but Hannibal had no recourse to tape recorders, radio or the internet.

Once he'd achieved the almost literally Herculean task of crossing his army into Spain, Hannibal faced even greater and escalating problems. He had to retain the loyalty of his men and ensure that they were fed and watered. At the same time, he was leading them ever further away from home, through hostile Gallic territory and unfamiliar terrain, towards an end they could not know. All that was certain was that if they ever completed their marathon trek into a hostile land, they would eventually be facing the massed ranks of the most disciplined and successful army the world had ever seen, on their home ground. The details of Hannibal's march through southern Gaul is well-known, but I still marvel at his ability to fight against hostile tribes and cross difficult ground, which to many commanders would have been a successful and praiseworthy end in itself. Let us not forget that in Britain, we regard Dunkirk as a victory of sorts, inasmuch as a whole army was evacuated across the English Channel in the face of unrelenting attacks from German forces. To my mind, Hannibal achieved broadly the same thing with his march into Italy, but he was actually marching further into danger, whereas the British Expeditionary Force in 1940 was being taken away from combat. My second edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary, a highly authoritative source, informs me that Hannibal left Carthago Nova in Spain in April 218 BC. He had under his command 35,000-40,000 men, but after crossing the Alps, this number had been reduced to 26,000 men, while his task was made more difficult by the early autumn snow of that year. There are few images that have a global and timeless resonance and fewer still

that have been bequeathed to us from prehistory or antiquity. One perhaps, is the construction of Stonehenge, whose ruins sit just a few miles away from where I write this. Another might be the construction of the pyramids, while yet another could be Moses crossing the Red Sea. Our modern era, possessing as it does cameras and other technologies capable of recording instant images, has recorded countless memorable moments in the last century, many of them of a terrible nature, but few with a truly global resonance. So it is that we have had to rely on our imaginations to provide us with an illustration of Hannibal's heroic journey across the Alps, but it is nonetheless one of the most powerful and enduring images known to man. We each of us see a different picture in our individual mind's eye, but whether you are a layman or a historian trying to envisage the terror and chaos of snowstorms, screaming elephants, landslides and hostile tribesmen hurling a deadly rain of missiles down from mountain crags, the fact remains that Hannibal lost something like 14,000 men and most of his elephants during the course of that terrible crossing. Whichever way you look at it, 14,000 men represents over a third of his original force, while he must have been counting on his elephants to make a huge difference in Italy, or else he simply would not have taken them with him. There must have been many moments when all seemed utterly lost, in a frozen wasteland a world away from home, but somehow Hannibal rallied his men, lifted their morale and retained their loyalty, a feat which eventually defeated even Alexander the Great at the end of his epic journey into the East. Alexander by this time had many victories and spoils to share, but Hannibal had less than nothing to offer his men, yet still he led them and still they followed him into the heartland of the enemy. Every time I think of this near-miraculous feat, I find myself shaking my head in silent wonderment and admiration. Shortly after entering Italy, Hannibal defeated Publius Cornelius Scipio in a cavalry engagement at the Battle of Ticinus in northern Italy in November 218. To defeat the Romans on their home soil was impressive and satisfying enough, but the Romans must have been absolutely stunned to see their enemy emerging in numbers from literally the last place on Earth they expected to see him, from what they had always considered the natural and impassable barrier of the Alps. Again, I find myself cheering this innovation and success, while I find myself hard put to think of any comparable parallels. Just before the First World War, the Russian Fleet sailed around Europe and Africa and on into the Pacific, only to be severely defeated by the Japanese Fleet. Hannibal suffered no such humiliation at the end of his journey. T.E Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, struggled

In 217 BC. but by 216. so perhaps this is a comparable feat. in 216. to defeat the Romans on their home ground was no small achievement in itself. Hannibal attacked on three fronts. In the following year. then he sent out a force to attack the Roman camp and provoke them into attacking. unwisely forded a freezing winter stream in an attempt to engage their enemy. Again.through the southern desert of Palestine during World War I to take the strategic Turkish-held port of Aqaba from the rear. Hannibal ensured that his men were well fed and rested during the night.000 trained fighting men with which to finally crush the Carthaginian interloper. the Cunctator or Delayer. alarmed by an almost unheard-of night offensive. The Romans. Hannibal fought and defeated the combined forces of Scipio and Titius Sempronius at the Battle of Trebia in December 218. They were outflanked and cut to pieces. Thomas Edward (T. Hannibal fought and destroyed the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. so I'll confine myself to what I believe are some salient observations. the Romans had wisely withheld from giving battle on the advice of Fabius. leaving the hungry waters of the lake the only course of retreat open to the fleeing Roman legionaries. After the first three defeats by Hannibal. Incidentally. the Battle of Cannae in southern Italy.) Lawrence was born on August 16. there took place what was to be Hannibal's crowning masterpiece. they had gathered a massive army of ten legions. ingenuity and meticulous planning. In this disaster for Rome. Hannibal was aware that the Romans preferred to engage in set-piece battles on open ground and at the time of their own choosing. After the Battle of Ticinus. much has been written about this pivotal engagement. Again. not to mention bravery. so I'll simply deal with the bare bones. but much worse was to follow. but the victory at Trebia came about as a result of vision. where three legions were destroyed in AD 9 by Arminius. In an attack whose nature presaged the later destruction of a Roman army at the Teutoberger Wald in Germany.E. or something in the region of 100. . two Roman legions perished at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. hungry and bleary-eyed with sleep. Hannibal cut off the Roman force in a defile by the lake after having concealed his own men in the trees on the slopes and among the billowing fronds of mist. As a result. partly because Hannibal had possessed the foresight and artifice to make his cavalrymen lie their horses down among shrubs and bushes in ambush. The details of this battle are easily available elsewhere. 1888 at Tremadoc in North Wales.

but Tacitus claims that 80. or Boudicca. where there is no question that 1. while it took no less than two hundred and fifty Britons to kill a single Roman legionary. the Carthaginian forces were thought to be inferior in quality to the Roman infantry in almost every respect. So. It might not be a standard historical method.000 Romans.Let us dwell for a moment on the matter of the figures.000 strong and utterly defeated it in a pitched battle. Tacitus wrote that in AD 61. The Roman army always preferred to face its enemy in a set-piece battle on open ground and to clearly defeat it. Hannibal had planned the forthcoming battle down to the minutest detail. So here at Cannae.000 Iceni and confederates under Boudicca's command perished. at Cannae. This means that each Roman solider effectively killed eight Britons. for example at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. which is what happened. against something in the region of 100. but the Romans were just as guilty of over-estimating the size of the enemy forces and under-estimating their own. Now.500 English troops faced a Scottish army 40. but I am going to give Hannibal the benefit of the doubt. Furthermore. for reasons that will become clearer towards the end of this piece. an enemy that was outnumbered by as many as three to one. but how many of your men you could get to actually engage the enemy. the Roman General Suetonius Paulinus led 10. so as to make victory smell all the sweeter. he ensured that his superior cavalry under the command of his brother Hasdrubal destroyed the opposing Roman cavalry and drove it from the field. What is certain is that during the night. the dreaded Roman legions with their disciplined infantry faced an adversary on open ground. Firstly. However. Hannibal's demonstrable genius at Cannae was to realise that it did not matter so much how many men you brought to the battlefield. There are many stories told about Cannae and it is even thought that Hannibal arranged matters so that the wind blew dust into the faces of the advancing Romans. There is no question that Paulinus triumphed. rather than engage in any long-running guerrilla war.000 commanded by Boadicea. cavalry have always been notoriously unreliable in warfare because of their tendency to lose their . stranger things have happened. against a mere 400 Roman casualties.000 men. to give himself every single advantage possible. or ten legions and their support. while the unsuspecting Romans could barely believe their luck. perhaps. For example. Hannibal led an army of something in the region of 30. Many ancient sources provide notoriously unreliable figures. such as when Herodotus calculated the size of an invading Persian army to number in the millions.000 men into battle against a force in excess of 100.

Oliver Cromwell. The formidable heavy Libyan infantry and remaining Major Battles: .Ticinus 218 what were arguably . but the Carthaginian army was also successfully enveloping them.Numistro 210 the Roman legions.Cannae 216 Roman juggernaut. and foreign country. and so it was at Cannae. the Celts and Hannibal invaded Italy in 218 BC and left in 202 Spaniards simply BC. welded his cavalry into the now infamous Ironsides and crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644.heads. while it was to be over eighteen hundred years before any cavalry force would show such iron discipline.2nd of before the machineHerdonia 210 like onslaught from . tired of seeing his Parliamentarian horse routed as a matter of course by Prince Rupert's Cavaliers in the First English Civil War.Lake troops to the fore.2 of Nola were fantastically 215 rd brave but extremely . the homeland of the world's retreated into a mightiest empire and most formidable army. yet 214 Hannibal induced . Romans were successfully advancing. but then rallied his entire force and returned to the battle to execute his brother's precise orders.3 of Nola unpredictable.Capua 212 them to face the . Cromwell's horse troops went from being the whipping-boys of England into the most effective and feared cavalry on the continent of Europe. to Trasimene 217 face the relentless . when Hannibal placed .Silarus 212 st Roman steamroller .1 of in a convex arc.Trebia 218 his most unreliable . Another miracle took place at Cannae. The Hannibal was never once defeated.1st of Nola The Iberian and 216 nd Celtic swordsmen . disperse and chase a retreating and beaten foe. During those 16 memorable years in a hostile gave ground. against their nature. . One of the miracles of Cannae was that Hasdrubal not only defeated the Roman cavalry. concave bow. Herdonia 212 Rather than break .

Not only that.cavalry of Hannibal's flanks stood fast and overlapped the advancing Roman line. It would be wrong to say that the Romans were anything but brave. but to no avail. military commanders have striven through the ages to emulate Hannibal's stunning success. The Libyans then moved to encircle the tightly-packed Roman legions. yet there must have been tens of thousands of them who could do nothing more than stand still. certain that they could not miss. Given the size of the Roman forces in the field and given the undeniably overwhelming victory that Hannibal won. Given the Romans' known propensity for frankly lying about figures. certainly enough to earn the site of the engagement the notorious title of 'The Field of Blood'. but they could hurl stones. The reason for this will become apparent when we put the death toll at Cannae into some kind of historical perspective. Cannae was the greatest defeat the Romans had ever known. many of those who have studied Hannibal believe that it is entirely possible that somewhere in the region of 100. What can we compare this to? In the First Gulf War.000 Roman dead is not out of the question. with a vastly inferior force. Of the 100. illuminating in the process Hannibal's genius for warfare. Thus. It was undeniably the first ever battle of annihilation and as such. or from the side in the form of a bloodied sword or spear. in the form of a missile. which was by now more of a tight mass that had been deliberately funnelled together by the press from the sides and by the seeming retreat of the Celts and Spaniards at the front. while the Carthaginians could bring all their forces to bear and outnumber the entire Roman perimeter.000 or so Romans in this compact mass. They must each have died a thousand deaths before the final one mercifully arrived. a figure of 100. only the comparatively few on the outside could engage the enemy. while Hasdrubal completed the manoeuvre by smashing into the helpless formation from the rear.000 Romans died that day. packed together like sardines in a tin for literally hours while the outside of their formation was gradually hacked away. the American General Norman Schwarzkopf admitted to trying to emulate Hannibal's success at Cannae when he . Hannibal had succeeded in surrounding a numerically superior enemy and effectively nullified its fighting ability. javelins and any weapon to hand into the static and largely impotent throng before them. These men must have heard the screams of their dying fellows and would have had no choice other than to wait for death to strike from above. but it is only with the passing of long centuries that its true significance has become known.

attacked the Iraqi ground forces. long before the advent of weapons of mass destruction such as machine guns and cluster bombs. Capua and many towns in Campania and south Italy went over to him. this is far from being the whole story and so I feel it's worth quoting once more from my Second Edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary.v. over eighteen hundred years ago.000 Romans were killed in a single day as a result. Seen in this context. The Eastern King Mithridates ordered the death of every Roman citizen in Asia Minor and it is said by some sources that 70. In most histories of the Punic Wars.202 dead. The total American casualties in Vietnam amounted to 58. absolutely stunning. not even Attila the Hun with his vast army came close to killing as many of his Roman and allied adversaries as did Hannibal. Again. I find this Mediterranean and the Atlantic. and the Phoenician fourteen years. I must emphasise that it is not a pleasant procedure to compare lists of dead. that Hannibal was able to wander Italy.5) he inflicted on the Romans the worst defeat they had known. Again. or sixteen years colonies & settlements in the western in total. the undefeated in Italy for a further motherland. but there is not the remotest suggestion that anything remotely like 100. comparisons in such a grim affair may be invidious. However. the story of Hannibal versus Rome pretty much ends The Phoenician world is highlighted there. the heartland of the Roman Empire.000 men died. according to official government sources. "In 216 at Cannae (q. no military figure has ever exceeded the terrible toll he exacted from his enemy back in 216 BC. unbeaten for sixteen years until he decided to return home. but the official American government figures for the initial death toll at Hiroshima was 65. Even in the titanic Battle of Chalons in 451 AD. although that figure varies greatly. Hannibal's strategy at Cannae was more deadly than even a nuclear bomb. The first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916 claimed something in the region of 30. let alone in a single day. but it is my purpose here to demonstrate just how lethal and effective this Carthaginian was.000 casualties and this was as a result of British soldiers wading through knee-deep mud for hundreds of yards towards waiting German machine-gun emplacements.000. but as the Romans refused to acknowledge defeat and central and . although every authority with purple in the map beginning in admits that Hannibal remained th east with Phoenicia.

To put it bluntly. the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus held off an attack by Hannibal in the First Battle of Nola. the truth is that in 216 BC. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius in the First Battle of Capua. Centenius Penula. we learn the bare details that during the Second Battle of Nola. I've stressed from the start that this is a personal account and not an attempt to pen an academic document. so I'd personally be inclined to read this Roman version of events as Hannibal winning and the Romans narrowly escaping an utter massacre. it is recorded that Hannibal defeated the Consuls Q. At the risk of repeating my views about Roman historians. there should have been no further significant battles on Italian soil while Hannibal remained there. but I've not been able to find any reliable figures for Roman casualties. However. In 215 BC.northern Italy remained loyal to them. I was always puzzled to read that after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal. a Roman general again repulsed an attack by this mighty warrior. then I'd have expected to read details of the Carthaginians being put to flight with great swathes left dead. something they'd have trumpeted from the rooftops if it had been the case. while the reader is welcome to look up the facts and sources for themselves. but that the Roman army escaped. If after Cannae. after the Battle of Cannae. After all. although again. Call me biased." The italics at the end are mine. In 214 BC. The truth emerged after some research. I'm personally inclined to give Hannibal the benefit of any doubt and conclude that he secured another victory. Hannibal destroyed the army of the Roman Praetor M. Still. the Romans must be given all credit for their sheer resilience and bravery against such a terrifying adversary. Again. because the account doesn't state that the Romans actually won. who's counting? . I've discovered that in the same year. he had to devise a wider strategy to force them to dissipate their strength (see Punic Wars). In 212 BC. History is written by the victors or by those sympathetic to the victors and of course. Marcellus again repulsed an attack by Hannibal. the Roman Empire survived for many long centuries after Hannibal's death. we read that during the Third Battle of Nola. while in Italy he vainly tried to provoke another pitched battle. but it doesn't seem to be the case. None of the accounts actually state that Hannibal was defeated. in the Battle of the Silarus. I'm truly inclined to think that the only inconclusive thing about it was the scale of the Roman defeat. but it sounds like yet another resounding Carthaginian victory to me.

Also in 212 BC, I've ascertained from the written histories (Roman, of course), that Hannibal destroyed the army - not the legion, but the army - of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius, leaving at least 16,000 Romans dead on the field after the Battle of Herdonia. In 211 BC, Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal fought the Romans at the Battle of the Upper Baetis, killing both Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, but as this wasn't one of Hannibal's battles, it doesn't really count. On to 210 BC, and we discover that in the Second Battle of Herdonia, Hannibal killed Fulvius Centumalus and destroyed yet another Roman army, while at the later Battle of Numistro, Hannibal defeated Marcellus once more. I suspect that a true and full contemporary account of this campaign would add even more superlatives to Hannibal's reputation, but for the time being, the bare bones are enough for me. Never forget that Hannibal's victories were no shallow affairs, but they were full engagements with the greatest, most disciplined and most determined army the ancient world had ever known. Such a list of achievements would surely be enough for any man, but the story still doesn't end there, far from it. After his eventual defeat at Zama by Scipio, Hannibal fought on, always keeping faith with the vow he had made to his father never to be a friend to Rome. He was betrayed by his political enemies in Carthage and fled to King Antiochus of Syria, where he tried to raise another army to invade Italy. Had he succeeded, I have little doubt that the Romans would have suffered another sixteen years of continuous defeats at the hands of this utterly unique man. As it was, Hannibal took a small part in some wars in Asia Minor and fought a small naval engagement off Side, where he was defeated by a Rhodian fleet commanded by Eudamus in 190 BC. In the process, Hannibal is credited with another first in military history, inventing biological warfare, due to his idea of hurling baskets and pots filled with venomous snakes at opposing ships. The mighty Hannibal was relentlessly pursued by the Romans until he was finally surrounded and cornered in Bythinia. At the very end, he denied the Romans their triumph, as he chose to take his own life. Livy writes that he had poison in readiness and states that Hannibal's final words were as follows: "Let us ease the Romans of their continual dread and care, who think it long and tedious to await the death of a hated old man." Despite a life of extreme hardship and personal danger in battle, Hannibal lived from 247 BC to 182 BC, a truly astonishing age for anyone in those times, let

alone for a person who had risked and endured so much. It is my personal belief that he took his own life simply because he was bored, yet centuries later, Roman mothers would still frighten their badly-behaved children with what were still the ominous words "Hannibal ad portas" or " Beware! Hannibal's at the gates!" Has the world ever seen his like? I think not. As we know, Hannibal could ultimately trace his ancestry back to what is now modern Lebanon. All things change in time, but it never ceases to fascinate me how certain parts of the world flourish and bloom in different seasons and for different reasons, then retreat quietly back into history, content that they have contributed to the immutable way of things in some great, small or else ongoing way. The rise and fall of empires continues to this day and when we study the empire, we often forget the humble hearth and home that once gave birth to the Emperor or Warrior King. Attila emerged from somewhere out of the Russian steppes, while Alexander the Great was born in the hills of Macedonia. Genghis Khan rose up from the bleak wastes of what is now modern Mongolia, while Napoleon Bonaparte was born in a poor part of Corsica, not a place that immediately springs to mind as possessing a vast empire. Owen Glendower fought two English Kings to a standstill for fifteen blood-ravaged, fiery years and advanced further into England with an invading army than anyone has done since 1066, yet he was born in a humble farmhouse in North Wales. And so it is that whenever my children or anyone else asks me who the mightiest warrior in history was, and where the Land of his forefathers lay, I shall immediately name the incomparable Hannibal, produce a map and unhesitatingly point out to them the shores and groves of the Lebanon. Hannibal (247 - 182 BC) by Mary Holtby He'll be coming down the mountain when he comes In the bitter wind that batters and benumbs He'll be coming down the mountain and I see the vultures counting, They'll be counting up the corpses as he comes. He was born a Carthaginian and his Dad Was anxious to indoctrinate the lad So he took him into battle and informed his offspring : 'That'll Show you something of the hassle that we've had. Here's an altar and before I let you go, You must swear undying hatred to the foe!'

So for all the Roman nation he declared his detestation Which in later life he had the chance to show: Fought bravely under Hasdrubal in Spain And himself at last conducted the campaign. To restore some sort of order Rome set Ebro as a border, For a peaceable division of terrain; But Saguntum, on the Carthaginian side, The Romans in their arrogance denied. This Hannibal found shocking, so he gave the town a knocking And began to plan his celebrated ride. For the Romans had declared the Punic War, And Hannibal remembered what he swore. 'Now that Rome has tried to burke us we shall treat her to a circus Of a kind she's not experienced before.' So he settles on the Alps for his Big Top Where his elephants go dancing till they drop; At sour wine his clowns may grumble but it makes the rockface crumble And in Italy the hissing has to stop. He beat Scipio, the first upon the scene; Lured Flaminius to his fate at Trasimene; And at Cannae (somewhat later, thanks to Fabius Cunctator) Threw a spanner in the Roman war machine. But alas! This was the highlight of the show; His country is in trouble - he must go, And the end of all the drama is the battlefield of Zama, Where he can't escape the scourge of Scipio. Defeated, he still rules his native state, But the Romans want his blood and will not wait; He flees and raises forces, but exhausting his resources He eventually fixes his own fate. Though for cruelty the Romans curse his name And palpitating pachyderms may claim That they hold the same opinion, this ingenious Carthaginian Was a hero who deserves eternal fame.

— Dennis Price, Netheravon, England Dennis Price is a classical scholar and writer In August 1990, in what he very much hopes is a Hannibalic parallel, Dennis Price became the first western knight (in centuries?) to cross Europe and Scandinavia to take part in a mediaeval jousting tournament, in the city that was at the time named Leningrad, but which is now St Petersburg.

History of the Phoenician Canaanites

3000 B.C. to 634 A.D., Invasions, Sieges and Plunders
The Phoenicians of the Iron Age (first millennium B.C.) descended from the original Canaanites who dwelt in the region during the earlier Bronze Age (3000-1200 H.C.), despite classical tradition to the contrary. There is archaeological evidence for a continuous cultural tradition from the Bronze to the Iron Age (1200 -333 s.c.) at the cities of Tyre and Z araphath. In the Amarna age (fourteenth century B.C.) many letters to Egypt emanated from King Rib-Addi of Byblos, King Abi-Milki of Tyre, and King Zimrida of Sidon, and in other New Kingdom Egyptian texts there are references to the cities of Beirut Sidon, Zaraphath, Ushu, Tyre, and Byblos. Additionally there is a thirteenth-century B.C. letter from the king of Tyre to Ugarit, and a Ugaritic inscription has turned up at Zaraphath. Despite these facts showing that the coastal cities were occupied without interruption or change in population, the term "Phoenician" is now normally applied to them in the Iron Age (beginning about the twelfth century B.C.) onward when the traits that characterize Phoenician culture evolved: long-distance seafaring, trade and colonization, and distinctive elements of their material culture, language, and script.

Other groups invading and periodically controlling Phoenicia included the Hyksos (18th century BC).C. across the ages. and Gaza. The Achaemenians. the Philistines occupied the coastal area south of Mt.] apart). but Ramses III (1187-56 BC) lost it to invaders from Asia Minor and Europe. Ashkelon. Carmel. The history of Tyre and Sidon is intertwined (indeed they were only twenty-two miles [35 km. reflecting the waxing and waning of their individual fortunes and the impinging historical events of the Near East. At the beginning of the Iron Age. the material culture of the Phoenicians extended southward. the Egyptians of the New Kingdom (16th century BC). conquered the area in 538 B. an Iranian dynasty under the leadership of Cyrus II. By the eighth century B. They established commercial and religious connections were established with Egypt after about 2613 BC and continued until the end of the Egyptian Old Kingdom and the invasion of Phoenicia by the Amorites (c. Classical tradition suggests that Sidon was the more powerful at first but by the tenth century B.C. 2200 BC). Tyre's kings ruled a stretch of the coast that included Sidon and often they were referred to as kings of the Sidonians (1 Kings 16:31). This Monument at Nahr el Kalb (Dog River) served.. probably arrived in the region in about 3000 B. Sidon became a principal coastal city of this empire. whose lands corresponds to present-day Lebanon and coastal parts of Israel and Syria. especially Crete).C. however. and the Hittites (14th century BC). as part of the invasion of the Sea Peoples (groups from the Greek islands. including Dor. Ashdod. Tyre dominated. Seti I (1290-79 BC) of the New Kingdom reconquered most of Phoenicia. The hill that rises directly from the sea contains engravings and inscriptions of . as the s visitors' register or depository of "business" cards of invaders. and Sidon controlled Dor and Joppa during the Persian period (539-333 B.C).C.The Phoenicians.. The roster of Phoenician cities changed during the near millennium-long period beginning in 1200 B.C.

chose the Phoenician language and script for a long inscription at the front of his palace. the nature of the impact on Phoenicia changed from one of . As a result of the farreaching reorganization of the Assyrian Empire by Tiglathpileser III (744727 B. Tyre strengthened its influence over the northern kingdom of Israel. Phoenician influence is also to be seen in the region of Cilicia at Zinjirli where King Kilamuwa.C.C. There were no major Phoenician cities north of Arvad. the city state of Tyre rose to hegemony among Phoenician states and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean region. and other Phoenician cities. Obscurity surrounds the emergence of Phoenician culture during the twelfth and eleventh centuries B. The Egyptian Tale of Wenamun.C.C. The pace of Assyrian activity in Phoenicia quickened in the ninth century B.C. when Ashurnasirpal II. probably Aramaean in origin.). Assyria was gradually extending its control over the Levant. The strong Phoenician influence in Cilicia may be due to trading activities in a network including Urartu. with the collapse of Mycenaean and Hittite cultures and the destruction of city-states in the Levant. Tyre. In a foray. and Adadnirari III exacted tribute and taxes from Sidon. graphically portrays the decline of Egyptian prestige and power in the Levant. but Phoenician influence extended into Cilicia in the ninth and eighth centuries B. Shalmaneser III.invaders of Phoenicia for thousands of years.C. Trade was severely affected. This was due in part to the invasions of the Sea Peoples and the general disruptions of Late Bronze Age cultures throughout the eastern Mediterranean. dating to the mid-eleventh century B. Phoenician cities began exporting goods and services.C. Instead of the Levant being the recipient of Aegean wares.) sojourned at Arvad and received tribute from Byblos and Sidon. During the same time. There are ancient inscription such as those made by Pharaohs or the Allied Forces of the First and Second World Wars.C. In the 10th century B. the northern rival of Assyria in the ninth and eighth centuries B. Other Phoenician inscriptions come from the same region in the following centuries Azitiwada marked the rebuilding of his city with bilingual inscriptions in Phoenician and hieroglyphic Hittite at Karatepe. and there are archaeological data from Tyre and Zaraphath for this period.. the Assyrian king Tiglathpileser I (1114-1076 B. In the aftermath of the disruptions and the power vacuum a new order emerged in which flourishing Phoenician settlements replaced such destroyed centers as Ugarit on the coast of northern Syria.

C. uncharted waters.C. .C. helping bridge the Hellespont and fighting at Salamis. has read about the Greek and Persian wars fought during the sixth to fourth centuries B. Ezek.C.C. for a new Assyrian province. guided only by the stars. Persia is not a sea power and is land locked in Asia Minor and on the East Mediterranean coast with a formidable array of soldiers from many nations. 26-28: 19).occasional demands by raiding armies to incorporation as vassals into the empire. Bloody battles on land and sea follow. the Persian "King of Kings". Soon after Greece is invaded by Xerxes. During Sennacherib's reign (705-681 B. Later Sidon revolted against the Assyrian ruler Esarhaddon (681-669 B C.C.) laid siege to Tyre and Nebuchadnezzar besieged it for thirteen years (586-573 B. and forced Luli (Elulaeus). dangerous. An arrangement is therefore reached with the kings of the Phoenician cities to furnish a fleet to the Persians provided they are not bothered by them at home. sacked and destroyed it and in its place built a governor's residence. The reason is simple. Many cities lost their autonomy altogether and became part of Assyrian provinces administered by governors. called Kar-Esarhaddon.C. where he died. Sporadic fighting spreads to the Greek islands and Cyprus..) and led a Phoenician contingent in the Persian wars of the early fifth century B. Ashurbanipal (668-627 B. The Phoenicians. an Assyrian province of Simyra was established by Tiglathpileser III. at some time or another. king of Tyre. for example. Sidon reemerged as the dominant city of Phoenicia in the Persian period (539-333 B.) he crushed a serious revolt by coastal cities in 701 B. the seamen and the "know-how". on the other hand. He also made a treaty with Baal.) who in 676 B. king of Tyre. Herodotus and Phoenician history by Nina Jidejian Everyone. the navigators. have the fleets. What he perhaps does not know is that the Phoenicians played an important role in this great historical drama. to flee to Cyprus (see graphic depicting escape to Cyprus).C.. Guided by the stars they sail at night over dark.

With the spread of Greek culture and ideas. . thus bringing the war into Asia. the richest and most powerful man in the world. City after city go over to him. king of Persia. As a young man Herodotus. a new political and social order arises and travels to the farther reaches of his empire contributing to fashion the course of the modern world in which we live. Egypt and Lyclia who come to fear him. southwest Asia Minor. displays a great gift for story-telling. is attacked by a coalition of the other great powers of the day: Babylon. Herodotus is a Greek born during the fifth century B. Some settle for good on the islands. the greatest military power of Greece. Alexander's conquest of the East ushurs in the Hellenistic Age. The gateway to Greece and the Near East now lies open before the Persian king. others found a number of Greek cities all along the coast of Asia Minor. Croesus. In the spring of 546 B. king of Lydia. The Lydian kingdom henceforth becomes a province of Persia. joined by Sparta. even through the outlying provinces of Babylon. The Greek and Persian Wars 550 to 330 B.C. In the autumn of 546 Cyrus storms Sardis and orders that Croesus be taken alive. Alexander the Great at the head of his Macedonian phalanxes crosses the Hellespont in pursuit of Darius Codamannus. He is the world's authority on the Greek and Persian wars that shook the ancient world so long ago. in Halicarnassus.Then in 333 B. the Carians. put their families and belongings in ships and sail eastwards across the Aegean. intelligent and inquisitive. the Persian king. But Cyrus cleverly attacks first. He wanders freely throughout a large part of the great Persian empire recording all he sees and hears. The Ionian Creek cities of Asia Minor. This is his story.C. the Lycians and the king of Cilicia humbly acknowledge Persian supremacy. He defeats Croesus and follows him to his capital city. marches one thousand miles overland.C. Cyrus.C. Soon after his conquest of the empire of the Medes. advances into Cappadocia. Asia Minor while the other kings are still feverishly gathering their troops for battle. Centuries before his time the Greeks abandon their homes on the mainland.

Elibar.War with Babylon is inevitable. Ezra (3. Life is peaceful in Sidon. Thus Sidon. The Jews taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar are allowed to proceed to Jerusalem. Beirut. Then one day the mighty king of Babylon is no more. In Sidon at this time Mapen and his sister Myrra live in a little stone house near the port. Cyrus grants a royal concession of Phoenician timber to the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem and their temple. is a carpenter and is greatly respected for his ability and his skill. Byblos. The army of King Nabonidus is defeated and Babylon surrenders without resistance in October 539. Cyrus destroys the mighty kingdom." Cedar trees are cut on the mountains of Lebanon and rolled down the slopes. She also welcomes her children's friends with warmth at any time. The king of Persia from afar assumes sovereignty over Babylon's possessions on the east Mediterranean seaboard. Not only does he saw heavy logs of wood with precision for sea-faring galleys but he can also carve smaller bits of wood into various objects: luxury boxes to hold jewelry. wooden toys with which children can play: a cow. Arvad (Ruad) and the other port cities are left to themselves to enjoy a period of freedom and peace. plain boxes to hold precious spices. At nightfall around the fire their parents talk about what is happening in Babylon. a dog and even a small doll for Myrra. But all this is so far away. hoping for a toy. In a single swift campaign. Children follow him closely when he walks through the streets of Sidon. Tyre. Their father. a horse.7) infers that Jews and Phoenicians renew commercial relations: "So they gave money to the masons and the carpenters and food. Mapen and Myrra not only love their father but are very proud of him. king of Persia. Great excitement spreads in Sidon and Tyre when news arrives that all displaced persons by order of Cyrus can now return to their homelands. because she keeps the little stone house spic and span. They love their mother too. Phoenician artisans make their way to Jerusalem to take part in the reconstruction of the city. drink and oil to the Sidonians and Tyrians to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea to Joppa. In the Old Testament. according to the grant that they had from Cyrus. Logs are tied one to the other and dragged by teams of oxen to the .

) the kings of the Phoenician cities command their naval contingents and are treated as friends and allies. the Phoenicians refuse to sail because they consider the city is a colony of Tyre. There the family receives relatives and friends who eagerly listen to the stories Elibar tells them about Jerusalem. There they are lashed together with heavy ropes into rafts and floated down the coast. When Cambyses plans a campaign against Carthage. The Mediterranean seaboard must be taken but first an understanding reached with the kings of the Phoenician cities to supply Persia with the necessary ships and crews. The fall of Memphis completes the Persian conquest of Egypt. He has worked hard. Trade prospers. Mapen and Myrra rush to the shore. They are overjoyed to see their father once again. has been well-paid and has a leather pouch full of gold pieces. In 525 B. a galley is seen slowly approaching the port. All during the Persian period of domination (550 to 330 B. Cyrus dies and is succeeded by his son. In 529 B.C. From afar Mapen and Myrra see the logs arriving. Peace reigns in the region. Egypt alone remains unconquered by the king of Persia. Herodotus (1. The situation however soon changes.19-20) explains: . the temple and other unfamiliar sights. Cambyses. The children miss their father. The Persians are not seamen nor do they have a fleet. Then one day from afar. In return the cities are not occupied and are allowed to retain their native kings. But he is glad to return to the little stone house in the port.C. Cambyses captures Pelusium in the Delta. An arrangement is therefore made whereby the kings of the city-states place their fleets at the disposal of the Persian monarch. There is a frightening sound as they collide against each other.port of Byblos. . For the Phoenicians alone control the sea routes and are free to come and go. A year goes by . Elibar hugs his wife and children tight to his bosom and embarks for Tyre to pick up more artisans and then sails further south.C. Cambyses abandons the expedition. Herodotus (3. In the port there is a large galley ready to carry the carpenter and stone masons. The conquest of Egypt is necessary if Persia is to dominate the east Mediterranean world. .143) tells us that the Ionian Greeks too and those living on the Greek islands in the Aegean have nothing to fear from the Persians.

He orders that a royal highway with one hundred and eleven post houses link Sardis in Lydia to Susa in southern Persia. Darius is the first Persian king to coin money." Cambyses dies.C. he appoints three officials in each province: a satrap. Herodotus (5. This is the very first encounter at sea between Phoenicians and Greeks. Darius realizes the importance of good communications to hold his empire together."Cambyses did not think fit to bring pressure to bear because the Phoenicians had taken service under him of their free will and his whole naval power was dependent on them. marks the accession of Darius Hystaspis. At the post houses tired horses are exchanged for fresh steeds for the onward journey. Herodotus (4. Ships are sent to Cilicia to transport Persian troops to Cyprus. The Ionian cities in Asia Minor revolt against Persia.91) lists the twenty satrapies of the Persian empire and the taxes paid by each. a general and a secretary of state. a gold coin weighing 130 grains. Cyprus and Palestine in the Fifth Satrapy and is taxed lightly compared to the others. Next the Creek cities in Asia Minor rebel against Persia. Darius orders the Phoenician cities to assemble a fleet. Phoenicia is united with Syria. The Maric".106) tells us that in his anger Darius commands one of his attendants to repeat to . Herodotus (4. Herodotus (3. But trouble is now brewing in the provinces. The Phoenicians lose the battle but Persian land forces gain a victory over the Cypriotes. The revolt spreads to Caria and the island of Cyprus. The year 521 B. Darius believes that the greatest danger to the Persian empire is a rebellion in a distant province. A series of rebellions follow. independent of each other they spy on each other and report to the king direct. Sardis is taken and burned to the ground by Athenian and Ionian forces. Cyprus.52-56) travels on this royal road. The fleet anchors in the bay opposite Salamis. soon becomes the gold currency of the old World. Royal courriers find shelter and the much needed rest.168) tells us that silver coinage. Hatred flares up between the Phoenicians and the Greeks for the Greeks in the Aegean are a serious threat to Phoenician domination of the commercial sea lanes. facing the Ionian fleet already there. also called Maric% is subsequently minted by a Persian satrap in Egypt. To prevent power being held by one man.

Xerxes shows a marked preference for Phoenician vessels. foot soldiers and cavalry. questioning them while his scribes write down the answers. the narrow strait that divides Europe from Asia (called the Dardanelles today). Then comes the Persian setback at Marathon in 490 B. to the king's great pleasure.C. He decides to lead his army through Thrace and Macedonia with the ultimate goal of punishing Athens.100) boards a ship of Sidon. The loss of the fleet in the previous expedition off the rocky coast of Mount Athos prompts Xerxes to order that a canal be dug through the isthmus to . The Persian archers are cut down by the Greek phalanx of hoplites. the Sidonian ones in particular.him three times whenever he sits down to dine: Waster. according to Herodotus (7. A race of ships is organized in his honor and the ships of Sidon win. Riding in his chariot. the king drives past the men of each nation. Then the king alights from his chariot and. Forces are drawn from every quarter of the Persian empire. The decisive battle between the Ionian Greeks and Persia occurs at sea In the naval battle of 494 near the island of Lade opposite Miletus. sitting under a golden canopy. A great clash is in the offing. In 485 Darius dies and with the accession to the throne in 481 of his son Xerxes we are about to witness the greatest expedition of all times. Darius is pleased with the outcome of the battle and realizes that the conquest of mainland Greece will not present much difficulty. He sails past the prows of all the ships assembled before him. the Persians with the Phoenician fleet defeat the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor. Two bridges are thrown across the Hellespont. The Phoenician cities furnish a large part of the fleet led by the Persian general Mardonius in the year 492 But heavy losses occur when the ships are dashed against the rocks of Mount Athos and most of the fleet sinks. remember the Athenians".136) tells us that he has already sent a spying mission of Persian nobles in Phoenician ships to the coast of Greece. At Abydos on the Propontis a lofty seat of white stone is carved out on the hilltop to enable Xerxes to look down on the seashore where his army and fleet are assembled. Herodotus (3. questioning the seamen and ordering that their answers be written down.

Greece. son of Sirom (Hiram) of Tyre. son of Anysus of Sidon. But the decisive battle is yet to come. however. Herodotus (7. in command of the naval contingents of Halicarnassus. a widow. In 465. and Matten. example.allow his ships to pass in safety. Herodotus (8." Among the kings and princes of Phoenicia who sail with Xerxes. Macedonia. however. the Phoenicians dig a trench double the width at the top than at the canal level thus preventing wall collapse. Nisyra and Calydna in Asia Minor. His high esteem for the king of Sidon is seen by the place assigned to him at the meeting. in the section of the canal allotted to them. the sides cave in. Xerxes. Xerxes has one woman admiral. A fierce battle ensues.67) tells us "First in place is the king of Sidon and next the king of Tyre. Phoenician engineers. No sooner this is done. She is the only one to object to plans for a battle at sea. Before throwing his troops into battle at Salamis. The other engineers follow the Phoenicians'. where the Greeks await him. The narrowness of the straits at Salamis and the fact the Greeks are fighting in home waters leads to the defeat and flight of the Phoenician ships. Other Phoenician commanders become so alarmed that they desert the fleet and sail away. Herodotus (7. She is Artemesia. After the Persian victory at Thermopylae. . rescue the project. There he embarks on a ship of Sidon to reconnoiter by sea. marches into Thessaly and quarters his troops at Therma. Xerxes gives orders to proceed to Artemisium. The Athenians and Sidonians fight bravely.98) records. Xerxes has them executed on the spot.23) writes. Cos. are Tetramnestus. Xerxes holds a council of war. claiming that the Greeks are far superior to the Persians in naval matters. This is perhaps the reason why for the next fifteen years there is no record of Phoenician contingents in the service of Persia's kings. When some of the captains appear before him to furnish explanations. On Mount Aegaleos Xerxes surveys the naval engagement from his silver footed throne. at the head of his army.

The Phoenician fleet appears in support of the Persians once again as many of the cities of Cyprus are Phoenician colonies. In the meantime. These cities are united by federal bonds.1-2) records that they convene a common council or "parliament" in Tripolis. the first to be held in the East Mediterranean world. During the Persian period Phoenicians find the time to do a bit of business on the side and exploit mines on the island of Thasos. Adding these men to his own forces. A historian living in the first century B. The first hostile act of the Sidonians is to cut down and destroy the royal park.41. Tennes defeats the satraps and drives them out of Phoenicia. Repeated attempts by the Persian king to regain Egypt. conquered earlier by Cambyses. His failure to do so brings forth the great Phoenician revolt led by Tennes." In the early fourth century B. where the kings of Persia hunt called the paradeisos in Creek (from the old Persian term pardes. Fearing that his forces . Diodorus Siculus (16. King Tennes receives four thousand Creek mercenaries. Ambassadors are sent to Egypt to seek aid from the pharaoh. The year is 351 B. Artaxerxes 111 is in Babylon and hastily assembles a large army.C. In 366 the Phoenician cities join dissident satraps who wish to break away from the empire.C. Herodotus (6. News of its great size reaches Tennes. then they burn the fodder for the horses. The Phoenicians and the kings of Cyprus now show open contempt of the Persians. The Persian king's satraps and generals dwell in Sidon.C. the pharaohs of the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth dynasties stir rebellions in Cyprus against the Persians.the victorious Athenians threaten Cyprus..47) claims to have seen them: "A whole mountain has been turned upside down in the search of gold. In 358 Artaxerxes Ill (Ochus) ascends the throne of Persia. From 465 to 390 B. king of Sidon. meaning "garden"). Next they arrest Persian officials. they protect Cyprus from the Athenians and more than once fight them off. a very important political development takes place. Nearby is a beautiful royal park. This Greek word has been passed on from one generation to another to mean "paradise" in our days. fail. a place of beauty and delight. He feels he cannot deal with any rebellion until he conquers Egypt.C. Sidon and Tyre. Tripolis in north Lebanon is founded by Aradus. In return.

Tennes sends Thettalion. The Sidonians dig triple ditches and raise high fortifications. On this pretext he also takes with him one hundred of the city's most distinguished citizens to serve as advisors. More important still is the fact that Sidon possesses over one hundred triremes and quinqeremes. adventure and the dangers of warfare. These men are paid generously for their services. the king of Sidon treacherously decides to come to secret terms with the Persians in order to save his own life. a faithful attendant. Tennes in secret confides to Mentor. the commander of the Greek mercenaries in Sidon. In wealth and resources Sidon by far excels her sister-cities. For some time now his father has remained at court all the time and has not come home at night. they are proud of their condition and insolently swagger through the streets of Sidon. Argos sends three thousand and the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor send six thousand. They store up food. a man who is paid for his services can easily switch to another master if the pay is better. nor does he like them. leaves the city pretending he is going to meet with the kings of other Phoenician cities to plan a united strategy. armor and missiles.2). the king at the head of five hundred citizens. Thebes despatches one thousand men. to the Persians with a promise he will betray Sidon.cannot hold them off. Straton does not trust them. After all. he is familiar with the topography of Egypt as well as the landing-places along the Nile. In those days it was usual for a king to hire foreign mercenaries to swell the ranks of his army.43. The conquest of Egypt at this point is of great importance. marches on Sidon. that he plans to hand over the city to the Persians. Among them is the father of Straton. All this feverish activity raises the suspicion of young Straton. Since they love money. Tennes will also assist the Persian king defeat Egypt. for according to Diodorus (16. From an upstairs window Straton can easily see who enters and leaves through the palace gates. Without the knowledge of his people. Thettalion returns to Sidon and reports on the success of his mission. Persian envoys are sent to the cities of Greece for reinforcements. Artaxerxes does not wait for them to arrive and. . at the head of his troops. the son of a respected palace official. There is an important number of Greek mercenaries available ready to fight. Leaving him in control behind. He begins to fear for his father's life.

to free Asia Minor of the Persian king. The remaining Phoenician cities. Once the doors and windows are bolted securely. starts the long march back to Babylon. They too one by one are shot down and fall to the ground.) becomes king. the Sidonians in the meantime take many precautions to defend their city. panicstricken. fired by ambition. they shut themselves. Tennes assures the Persian king that he will now deliver Sidon to him. by Tennes' betrayal. About forty thousand perish in the flames. Now that Tennes is of no further use to him. go over to the Persians. Diodorus (16.C. Far away in Macedon Philip 11 (382-336 B. This treasure is gathered up and later sold by the Persian king for many talents. children and servants in their houses. Thus Sidon. After the destruction of Sidon and the arrival of his Greek mercenaries. He gathers together a large force of infantry and the phalanx to support his cavalry and looks eastward. Plumes of dust and smoke rise over the city. They burn all their ships so that the townspeople will remain to fight off the Persians and cannot secretly sail away. The year is 350 B.C. they set their homes on fire. News of the disaster that has destroyed Sidon spreads far and wide. Tennes and the one hundred Sidonians are suddenly seized and handed over to the king. Artaxerxes marches towards Egypt. Straton and his mother do the same. He leads the way and approaches the part of the fortifications held by Mentor and the Greek mercenaries. Artaxerxes welcomes Tennes as a friend but has the dignitaries executed as the instigators of the plot.3-6) tells us that when the Sidonians see the myriads of soldiers entering the city and swarming over the city walls. Artaxerxes at once has him put to death. Artaxerxes installs a Persian satrap in Egypt and. . Then come the five hundred Sidonian notables carrying olive branches as suppliants. is secretly delivered to the Persians. Alexander the Great 356-323 B. their wives. A vast amount of silver and gold is melted down by the fire. Unaware of their king's betrayal. The pharaoh picks up all his possessions and flees to Ethiopia.Upon approaching the Persian camp.C.45. They allow the Persians inside the city walls.

When Philip rises in anger with his sword drawn to attack his son. Philip and his attendants look on in wonder. leads to other marriages. As the horse is being led away. When Alexander dismounts. Alexander runs to the horse and turns him directly towards the sun. the horse rears up and tosses him to the ground. the bride's uncle in a drunken fit implores the gods to give the couple a lawful heir to the kingdom.5). He studies under Aristotle. Plutarch (6. The king and his attendants burst out into loud laughter. the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia.3-4) when newly wed. for the youth had observed that Bucephalus is afraid of the motion of his own shadow. witch-like daughter of the king of Epirus. quick to anger. the wild. Alexander exclaims that he is able to mount him." In the following years Philip's estrangement from Alexander's mother. Alexander to Illyria. Bucephalus is brought before Philip by a Thessalian who demands an exorbitant sum of thirteen talents in exchange. my son. No sooner does an attendant attempt to mount him. mounts him. Friends of the family bring about a reconciliation. according to Plutarch (6. Plutarch (9. lets him go at full speed and gallops away. and with one nimble leap. his foot slips and he falls to the ground.4-5) records that Alexander says insultingly: "See there.1-4) records that Alexander. Alexander thus becomes a great lover of all kinds of knowledge and always puts Homer's Iliad with his dagger under his pillow when he sleeps. tames this tempestuous and unruly steed.He marries Olympias. Alexander. is a fair-skinned handsome youth. look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself for Macedonia is too small for thee. the most celebrated philosopher of his time and has Leonidas as a tutor." After this incident Alexander and his mother withdraw from Philip's court. Alexander's faithful companion in both battle and the hunt is his horse Bucephalus. Alexander replies that he will pay his father the full price of the horse. stroking him gently. . At his wedding to the youthful Cleopatra. although short lived. He then leads the horse forward. Unabashed. The sullen and jealous queen travels to Epirus. Olympias. barely fifteen years of age. Attalus. Alexander is outraged by this affront and throws his drinking cup at Attalus' head. Philip embraces him and says: "0. Philip comes upon his wife asleep with a serpent by her side. Philip mocks his son and asks him what sum will he pay in case he is unhorsed. overturned in passing from one seat to another. He is filled with revulsion and fears her as an enchantress. a man of stern temperament. According to Plutarch in his Life of Alexander (2. born of their union.

A Hellenic league is organized that acknowledges Philip in the military command and furnishes contingents for an expedition against Persia.After subjugating his neighbors. Public officials and philosophers come from all parts of the land to congratulate Alexander -. "Yes". Philip crosses into central Greece.all but Diogenes of Sinope who is living at the time in Corinth. "I would have you stand from between me and the sun. the Macedonian phalanx crosses the river. He leaves behind him a kingdom beset by troubles. Alexander crosses the river on horseback and is met by a shower of arrows. the suburb where Alexander finds him lying in the sun. Except for a few hand-picked soldiers and a body of Greek mercenaries. he would choose to be Diogenes. but at the same time. Alexander is barely twenty years old when Philip is murdered. The Greek cities are on the verge of rebellion. Diogenes replies. and honors the memories of the heroes buried there. Alexander puts down the revolts and at the general assembly at the Isthmus. The countries surrounding Macedonia want to free themselves of its rule. Macedon. goddess of wisdom. According to Plutarch (14." Alexander is struck by this answer and is so impressed by the man that. In 337 he is in the Peloponnesus where he holds a congress of the Greek states at the Isthmus. he raises himself a little and glances at Alexander who asks him kindly whether he wants anything. he tells his followers were he not Alexander. the Greek cities agree to join him in the war against Persia and proclaim him their general. . the Macedonian army that enables his son within ten years to change the face of the old World. When the philosopher sees so much company about him. Alexander's aim is to strike at the heart of the Persian empire and ultimately conquer the entire East. the Persian king depends upon oriental recruits. horse against horse with his raised lance. He charges. The Persians take fright and flee leaving the high roads of Asia Minor open to the young Macedonian conqueror. While the horsemen are thus engaged. large in number but weak in fighting power.1-2) he does not even bother to leave Cranium. as he goes away. In 336 Philip is murdered during the marriage festivities of his daughter in Aegae. He crosses the Hellespont into Asia and at Troy sacrifices to Athena. The Persian advance guard is encamped on the further bank of the Granicus river.

So he marches instead on to Phoenicia. whose writings are lost. putting them to flight. The king's son Straton. It is of strategic importance for Alexander to control the naval bases from which the Persian fleet operates. Diodorus Siculus (first century B. coins of Lysimachus.) refers to the works of Ptolemy. the Phoenician cities are panicstricken.7-8). very few likenesses of the young Macedonian conqueror have come down to us. He yields to Alexander the island of Aradus and Marathus. each city adopts a position that suits it best. a great and prosperous city which lies opposite on the mainland (modern Tartous).) and Quintus Curtius (first century A. a general of Alexander.D. Even the inclination of Alexander's head a little on one side towards his left shoulder was reproduced in marble and was imitated afterwards by the generals who succeed him in an effort to emulate him. Independent of each other.C. . As Alexander moves down the coast. However he does not pursue Darius. Now the gates of the Near East lay open before Alexander. The Persian fleet is manned by Phoenician crews and the kings of the Phoenician cities are at the time at sea with the fleet.News of this military disaster reaches Darius. his daughters and court officials.C. Here Alexander appears as a god wearing the sacred horns of Ammon. Plutarch (4. Portraits of Alexander only appear later on the third century B. and Aristobolus.C. according to Arrian (2. Their armies meet at Issus (near modern Alexandretta) in October 333.13. Darius narrowly escapes. king of Thrace.1) records that the finest statues of Alexander were made by Lysippus for he was the only sculptor tolerated by the young man. Aradus (Ruad) is the most northern of the Phoenician city states. Coins minted during Alexander's reign have on the obverse the head of the god Heracles wearing the lion skin. Surprisingly enough. hastens to welcome him and lays on his head a golden crown. Alexander fights in the foremost ranks while his army closes in on the Persians.) no doubt had access to earlier histories that have been destroyed. Eye witness accounts of the daring exploits of Alexander unfortunately do not exist. At the head of a large force he marches toward Cilicia to engage Alexander in battle. leaving behind his queen. What we know about him comes from secondary sources. Arrian (first century B.

all the Phoenician ships will desert the Persian king and come over to his side. Quintus Curtius (4. is given the mission to choose a new king. So a delegation headed by the king's son and noblemen comes out to meet the invader. It is of strategic importance for Alexander to take Tyre as the city is an important base for the Persians. the trustworthy companion-in-arms of Alexander. He is away sailing with the Persian fleet. Hephaestion delegates the two Sidonians to bring him before Alexander. lives in the suburbs of Sidon where he cultivates a small garden. the two men dismount from their horses and hail him as king. in his garden plucking weeds. They give him royal garments to wear and accompany him to Alexander in his camp. As he stands up to greet them. modest and poor. Once Tyre is his. distantly related to the royal family. Alexander tells Abdalonymous that after all the years he has lived in poverty and privation. The king ruling at the time is called Ayinel. Gazing at him steadily. Alexander believes. . Many Sidonians perished in the flames and the memory of this disaster lives on. Abdalonymous by name. Alexander uses the pretext that he wishes to enter Tyre in order to sacrifice to Heracles. for the kings of Macedon hold they are descended from the god. The city is ruled at the time by a puppet of the Persians and Alexander is determined to get rid of him. Sidon was dealt a severe blow in 351 when Artaxerxes took the city. work-worn hands and replies: "These hands having nothing. Hephaestion. They realize the danger is great should Alexander enter their city. he marches south to Tyre. suggesting that he offer sacrifices to the god there. I lack nothing. the Tyrians object.1.24-28) records that the new king of Sidon puts out his grimy. They find him. The king of Tyre is at sea with the Persian fleet. Confident in the fortifications of their island city. he will now become powerful and rich. He finds two Sidonians. each one is worthy to rule. This man.Byblos (Gebal) surrenders without resistance. Alexander leaves Byblos behind him and marches on to Sidon. So they send envoys to Alexander telling him that there is a temple of Heracles on the mainland at Palaetyrus (old Tyre). so the choice falls upon a man. However it is the custom in Sidon that the king should come from royal stock." Alexander is impressed by these words and leaving him to rule Sidon.

work goes on smoothly enough but as his men get into deeper water and nearer the city. As long as the building of the mole is near the mainland. He sees Heracles stretching out his right hand to him to lead him into the city. Arrian (2. The Tyrians wait for a wind blowing towards the mole and tow the ship astern with triremes. Tyrians sail up on either side. Lycia and a fifty-oar from Macedon. for toil is the mark of Heracles' achievements.Alexander's face reddens with anger at this affront. The seers are summoned by him at once. The Tyrians fill a large horse-transport ship with dry boughs and other combustible materials. Soli. A strait of four stadia separates the island city from the mainland and is especially exposed to southwest winds.3) records: "To all these Alexander let bygones be bygones supposing that it was rather from necessity than choice that they had joined naval forces with the Persians. Alexander orders that two towers be built on the mole equiped with siege engines. Running the "fire-ship" at full speed upon the mole. each with a projecting arm from which is suspended a cauldron filled with bitumen." . Triremes arrive from Rhodes. He threatens to join the island fortress to the mainland by an artificial isthmus. In this way the prow is elevated so it can easily glide over the mole and reach the towers. they predict. Alexander orders that large stones and tree trunks from the mountains of Lebanon be brought down to the coast and cast into the sea. That night Alexander falls asleep and has a dream. The kings of Cyprus learn that Darius has been defeated at Issus and sail to Sidon with one hundred and twenty ships. Mallos. The stern of the vessel is loaded with stone and sand and is thus depressed. mocking and harassing them. Tyre would be taken with great toil and difficulty. sulphur and other highly inflammable materials. Hides and skins cover the towers so they can not be pelted with fire darts. they set torches to the combustible materials. They promptly desert the Persian fleet and arrive with their contingents and Sidonian triremes to side with Alexander. turn Tyre into a peninsula and bring his powerful siege engines up to the city's walls. They fix two masts on the prow. The kings of Aradus and Byblos hear that their cities are in Alexander's hands.20. They dash the ship violently against the mole and the cauldrons scatter the fiery mass in all directions. It takes Alexander seven months before he can enter Tyre. a volley of arrows fall around them shot by archers positioned on the walls. The crew of the burning ship easily swim away to safety.

The enemy fleet must be sunk. A few manage to get to safety but Alexander's naval forces put most of them out of action. The battery rams are brought up against the walls. say to Alexander plausibly enough: "Tyre (Tyros in Greek) is to be thine. Alexander is infuriated by this setback. Wheeling their ships about.While all the ships are being prepared for battle and his siege engines fitted for the final assault. including the ships of their sistercities. He conquers part of the country. Triremes are ordered to sail both to the "Sidonian" and "Egyptian" ports in an effort to force an entrance. So sails are spread before the entrance of the harbor to hide their preparations.22) tells us that a rumor spreads like wildfire that the god Apollo is about to leave the city. Alexander with some of his archers and cavalry march to the Anti-Lebanon. Plutarch (24. A great fear now arises in Tyre. a part of the city's fortifications have broken down. The fortifications on the mole are so high the Macedonians are unable to scale them. so-called because it faces north towards Sidon. the Tyrians attempt to sail back to the harbor. others readily surrender. Some of the crew jump overboard and swim to land.testing the walls on his way. The Tyrians bind the statue of Apollo with a chain of gold to its base and attach the chain to the altar of Heracles." The final assault is frightening. sinking several ships. It is too late. He orders his ships at once to sea to blockade the harbor. Those on the walls of Tyre see this and try with shouts and gestures to beckon their men to turn back.that facing Egypt -. Alexander is forced to turn south to the "Egyptian" port -. The Tyrians have no choice but to go on the offensive before Alexander attacks. hoping that he will hold Apollo back.5) records that the seers are called in and dividing the word satyros into two parts. the satyr surrenders. Quintus Curtius (4. their patron god. At midday when the Cypriote sailors are not on their guard. Alexander's ships close in on the city from all sides and bridges are thrown . This is not an easy task because ships from Cyprus are blocking the mouth of the "Sidonian" port. Alexander has another dream. Bridges are thrown over the walls but the Tyrians repulse the attack. In it he sees a satyr mocking him at a distance and eluding his grasp when he tries to catch him. Finally after much coaxing. This victory allows the Macedonians easier access to Tyre's city walls.3. There. Plans must be made in secret. the Tyrians set sail with their bravest seafighting men and attack the surprised enemy.

hastily assembled. Two thousand Tyrians. Both harbors are forced and the Tyrian ships are captured. Seeing themselves at last masters of the city. According to Arrian (2.17) are nailed to crosses along a great stretch of the shore.2) it is there that Alexander attacks them with his bodyguards. There is a bloody massacre. With the fall of Gaza to the south. the way lies open to Egypt.46. they fall mercilessly on the Tyrians. the Macedonians now easily fight off the Tyrians. the father of Cadmus and Europa. The siege has lasted seven months. Alexander leaves the Mediterranean to strike into the heart of the Persian empire. Azemilcus. To them Alexander grants full pardon but he severely punishes the people of Tyre. He founds the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile destined to be the new commercial and intellectual center of the East Mediterranean world.2. He rewards his men who have distinguished themselves and gives a lavish funeral for his dead.10-12) tells us that at this time a Carthaginian delegation is in Tyre to celebrate the annual festival of Melkart-Heracles.C. The Macedonians are infuriated.24. These men are dragged up on the walls. . Some thirty thousand are sold into slavery. Quintus Curtius (4. who when sailing from Sidon earlier. in legendary tradition. It is near Nineveh that Darius awaits him with a large army. They are also determined to avenge the death of their companions. A large number of Tyrians desert the walls and barricade themselves in the Shrine of Agenor. Diodorus Siculus (17. according to Quintus Curtius (4. Alexander consults the oracle of Zeus Ammon and is hailed by the high priest as the son of the god. the chief magistrates and the Carthaginian embassy take refuge in the temple of Heracles. In the spring of 331 B. A naval review is also held in the god's honor. The king of Tyre.5-6) ends his account of the dramatic siege of Tyre by telling us that Alexander solemnly removes the golden chains and fetters from Apollo and orders that henceforth the god be called Apollo "Philalexander". Alexander leaves Tyre. Agenor is their king. This monument is particularly revered by the people of Tyre for. Upon his arrival there. executed in full view of Alexander's forces and flung into the sea.4. Alexander offers a sacrifice to Heracles and holds a procession of his armed forces in the city. are captured by the Tyrians. At the battle of Arbela Darius is defeated and flees into Media.over the walls from the vessels. Crossing over and advancing through breaches in the walls.

From Ecbatana Alexander pursues Darius to the Caspian. What we see next is a king being chased by another king. Porus holds the opposite bank with a powerful force and two hundred elephants. Due to the nature of the crime. Alexander looks down on his fallen foe with compassion. Darius is deserted by his generals one by one and by his troops. Plutarch (38. Seeing he cannot escape.1) tells us that Bucephalus dies. Others relate that the horse dies of fatigue and old age. seizes this opportunity to rid himself once and for all of the Persian king. His cousin. It is at this time. However Alexander gains the fallen king as a friend. Bessus suddenly gallops up to the royal chariot. Alexander crosses the Hydaspes. During the battle Porus is wounded and falls into Alexander's hands. situated between the Hydaspes and Ascenines.Alexander follows the Tigris River into Babylonia. There he destroys the palace by fire according to the geographer Strabo (15. He hopes eventually to offer the Persian king as a hostage in exchange for Alexander's recognition of him as ruler of the eastern satrapies. then to the royal city of Persepolis with its enormous treasure. When he reaches the Hyphasis River (Beas) the Macedonian army refuses to go farther although Alexander believes he has not much more to go to reach . From there he proceeds to Susa. ostensibly as revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes during the GraecoPersian wars. The sentence is cruel. On the banks of the Hydaspes River he builds a city on the tomb of his horse which he names Bucephalia in his memory. and covers his body with his purple cloak. When Alexander finally catches up with his rival. is ruled by Porus. tie him up with ropes and carry him to his chariot and on to Bactria. Alexander marches through Bactria and Sogdiana putting down rebellions and founding Greek cities. Bessus is found guilty of rebellion against his king. Then he crosses the Hindu Kush and proceeds to India. he comes into possession only of his corpse. One of the principalities. Plutarch (61. not by himself. Bessus' nose and ears are cut off and he is led to Ecbatana where he is crucified on a tree. Bessus. stabs Darius to death and gets away. the central seat of the Persian empire and its richest region.1-4) gives another version saying that the fire is started during a drunken revelry but is then extinguished by order of Alexander who regrets the deed. wounded in battle. Alexander follows Darius in hot pursuit.6). Alexander is overcome with grief. The Persian empire is crumbling. Alexander has him sentenced by Persian judges. Eventually Bessus is captured and put in chains. At night he and a few followers burst into Darius' tent.

Ptolemy. in succession. Olympias is put to death. son of a Macedonian nobleman and the most trusted of Alexander's generals. Ptolemy. Alexander's successors use these two pathetic figures as a symbol of legitimacy to cover up their own ambitions. They argue bitterly among themselves for each is determined to build a Hellenistic or Greek monarchy on the ruins of Alexander's empire. an officer close to Alexander to whom Antipater had delegated his power. In the spring of 323 he returns to Babylon. 323 at the age of thirty-three. young Alexander and his mother are kept under close arrest. The day is now nearing when they can carve out a kingdom for themselves on the ruins of Alexander's empire. is accepted by the Macedonian generals as joint king with Alexander's half-brother. The two kings. Roxana and the boy to Macedonia. She is taken there by Polyperchon. He is obliged to give way and the return begins. Roxana flees with her child to Epirus seeking the protection of Olympias. The Hellenistic Age [please also see below Hellenistic Phoenicia (Review by Nigel Pollard)] 330 to 64 B.C. son by Roxana. Philip Arrhidaeus. Upon the death of Antipater. is born a short time later. the beautiful daughter of Oxyartes. Thus the dynasty of Alexander the Great comes to an end with the death of Alexander IV Aegus. consumed by a raging fever that does not leave him. king of Bactria. a child and one feeble of mind. Peithon and Antipater. Seleucus.the ocean and the eastern limit of the inhabited world. whose ambition knows no bounds. The child. In Babylon he falls ill. are put under the guardianship and protection of Perdiccas. was among the seven bodyguards attached to his person. mentally unfit to rule. Ptolemy takes Egypt as the safest and . There he makes plans for the construction of a great fleet and the opening of a route by sea from Babylon to Egypt around Arabia. The generals who succeed Alexander are Antigonus Cyclops or Monophthalmus. His. He dies towards evening on June 13. his son. so-called because he lost an eye in battle. Eumenes and Lysimachus. barely twelve years of age. Alexander's mother. named Alexander "Aegus". They are murdered in 310-309 by order of Cassander. In the division of the empire. From there Polyperchon accompanies Olympias. Cassander. All three fall into the hands of Antipater's son. Antipater and his son Cassander. and his son Demetrius Poliocertes.

Antigonus also controls parts of Greece. He dies soon after and is succeeded by Cassander.3-5) writes. He establishes three shipyards. Antipater establishes himself in Macedon. Byblos and Sidon and is covered with cedar and cypress trees of wonderful . Later Ptolemy mints a gold coin at Alexandria on which we see a car drawn by four elephants. Diodorus Siculus records that Antigonus collects wood-cutters. He even manages to carry off the body of Alexander from Babylon to Egypt in order to bury him in Alexandria and thus enhance his own position. Antigonus easily takes over the cities of Phoenicia but meets with firm resistance from Tyre. a youth of twenty-three of age when he accompanies Alexander to Asia. Perhaps this is an attempt made by him to represent Alexander's funeral cortege that included elephants. Antigonus has few ships as Ptolemy is holding all Phoenician vessels and their crews in Egypt. one thousand pairs of draught animals are used to transport it. "This mountain range". one at Tripolis. summons all the kings of the Phoenician cities and the viceroys of Syria and demands them to assist him in building ships. wins distinction in the Indian campaign. Diodorus (19. Military clashes eventually occur as each tries to encroach on the other's territory. one at Byblos. one at Sidon. sawyers and shipwrights from all regions and has wood carried from the mountains of Lebanon to the sea. and has him put to death. Antigonus too decides to enlarge his territory and set himself up as king of Asia Minor. Seleucus Nicator. Returning from successful wars in Babylonia. Eight thousand men are employed to cut and saw the timber.farthest place to establish a dynasty. He camps before Tyre. Ptolemy annexes Phoenicia to his possessions and places garrisons in the Phoenician port cities. Lysimachus sets himself up in Thrace. Asia Minor and Syria. Ostensibly Antigonus and his son Demetrius Poliocertes hope to reunify Alexander's collapsing empire but for their own purposes. Seleucus is given the government of the Babylonian satrapy. his son. Antigonus defeats Eumenes. installed as satrap of Cappadocia. "extends along the territory of Tripolis. He thus gets rid of his most dangerous rival. Seventeen years have passed since Alexander took Tyre and the city has recovered rapidly. so he decides to build a fleet of his own. Antigonus blockades Tyre by land.58.

After a siege of fifteen months. The war elephant plays an important role in the outcome of this battle and is the symbol of military strength. called the "battle of the kings". The battle of lpsus in Phrygia in 301.C. left mortally wounded on the battlefield. He allows Ptolemy's garrison to leave and establishes his own in the city. Henceforth the effigies of these men. He is succeeded by his son.beauty and size. On the coins of Seleucus. Alexander's name. In 305 B. Ptolemy has engraved the head of the newly deified Alexander with the sacred ram's horns of Ammon and an elephant headdress. In the year 285 Alexander's empire is neatly divided between three of his former generals. Ptolemy in Egypt. Notwithstanding. . he was hailed by the high-priest of Ammon as the son of the god and Alexander's generals are determined to let no one forget it. This ushurs in the age of royal portraiture. and Lysimachus in Thrace. Antigonus and his son Demetrius assume the title of king. Lysimachus and Seleucus react to the challenge by doing the same. wearing the sacred horns of Ammon. Seleucus in Syria. Tyre is taken by Antigonus. At his death at the age of eight-four Ptolemy leaves behind him a well organized kingdom and the great library at Alexandria. Ptolemy 11 Philadelphus (285-246). Lysimachus in his turn presents on his coins the diademed head of Alexander. not his. Cassander. Alexander's successors strike their own coins. It remains a dependency of the Ptolemies for nearly seventy years. The armies of Seleucus and Lysimachus with one hundred and fifty elephants cut off the infantry of Antigonus. his son Demetrius rules Phoenicia until 287 when it once again passes back to Ptolemy. Their patron gods appear on the reverse. Ptolemy. Lebanon and Palestine." We thus have a description of the extent of the luxuriant forests covering the mountains of Lebanon about two thousand three hundred years ago. Alexander is portrayed as the god Dionysus wearing a helmet covered with panther skin adorned with a bull's ear and horns. signals the great military clash between Alexander's generals. When Alexander conquered Egypt. deified. appear on their gold and silver coins. In order to enhance their personal prestige. On the obverse of his early silver coinage. appears on the reverse of his coins. wearing the Macedonian diadem.

Greek religious practices and beliefs take root but at the same time a Phoenician god travels south to Egypt and is honored with great pomp in Alexandria. His death is mourned annually at Byblos. In legendary tradition.. Adonis dies of the wound as his blood flows into the river turning the waters red and the anemones in the river valley scarlet. He is portrayed as a beautiful youth and the women cluster around him as he is carried through the streets in the procession. Adonis has come back to life for a brief reunion with Aphrodite and there is great rejoicing. a Greek poet born in Syracuse c. Byblos is the center for the worship of Adonis. Praises are sung to Queen Berenice. 315 B. The years roll by. the source of a river high up in the mountains of Lebanon. The crowd enters the royal palace as part of the ceremony is performed there. his sister-wife. On the first day a great procession forms as women and children pour out into the crowded streets to watch. loved by Aphrodite. Phoenician is discarded as a literary language and is replaced by Greek. . In his Idyll 15 he describes how the Festival of Adonis is celebrated in the city. king of the gods. to bring her lover back to life. In Alexandria.C. one way of eulogizing the family of Ptolemy who patronize the festival. Adonis is hunting the wild boar one day in the company of Aphrodite at Afka. On the second day the women lament the departure of the youthful god. Syria and Palestine also results in great cultural changes in the region. At the end of the festival the statue of Adonis is carried outside the city and flung into the sea amidst the wailing and weeping of the women..The persistent lug of war between Ptolemies and Seleucids over Phoenicia. Adonis in Phoenician means "lord" and is the title given to the young god of vegetation. the other part underground in Hades. lived in Alexandria in the time of Ptolemy if Philadelphus. Adonis is represented by a graceful statue reclining on a silver couch in a temporary bower ornamented with birds and cupids.. The second day is one of mourning as the women bewail the god's departure once again for the underworld. Theocritus. Aphrodite appeals to Zeus. a youth of great beauty. the mother of Philadelphus and Arsinoë. The boar turns on him and gores his thigh. He returns in the spring time to the upper world and there is great rejoicing. Zeus pities the youth and allows him to pass part of the year on earth.

including Phoenicia. Pompey replaces Lucullus in 66 B.In Egypt descendants of Ptolemy rule at Alexandria.C. the situation becomes so unbearable that merchants of Beirut desert the city and open commercial establishments on the Greek island of Delos where they conduct a flourishing business. The stelae today are exposed in the Archaeological Museum. in return a measure of . for the establishment and commercial expansion of Alexandria is a threat to their commerce. keep the Romans at home. to overrun Cappadocia and expel one of the last feeble representatives of the Seleucid monarchy.C. The Phoenician cities welcome the change.. Phoenicia and Coele Syria (the Bekaa valley) pass into the possession of the Seleucid kings. In 196 B. In the struggle to seize the throne between the usurper Tryphon and Antiochus VII Sidetes during the latter part of the second century B. Tigranes sits on the throne at Antioch and his frontier extends to Mount Lebanon. In the following years the cities of Phoenicia pass back and forth between the two powers.C. Syria is taken out of the hands of the Seleucids once and for all on the ground that they have virtually ceased to rule.C. Pompey turns the districts of the Seleucid territory. one after the other. The Italian wars of 9183 B.C. The chaotic conditions in Syria permit Tigranes 11 the Great. Syria and Palestine into a new province named "Syria". crosses the Euphrates in pursuit of Tigranes and invades Armenia. Although this political move consolidates Roman authority in the East and increases the annual revenue of the Roman treasury.C. The Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great (223-187) makes Phoenicia a battlefield in his wars against the Ptolemies. But in the West the rise of Rome presents a danger. Antiochus III drives the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator out of Syria. sit on the throne of Antioch. In 69 B. The discovery in 1897 of several painted funerary stelae in a garden south of Sidon point to the presence of Greek mercenaries in the armies of the Seleucids during the second century B. However his army does not support him so he withdraws to Asia Minor. The Seleucid monarchy is now in a state of chronic civil war. In Syria a line of Seleucid kings. takes Tyre and Acre (Ptolemais) and even threatens Egypt. usurpers and imposters alike. These soldiers of fortune from the Greek mainland and cities of Asia Minor died here while on active duty and were laid to rest forever in foreign land. Istanbul. By 83 B.C. king of Armenia. the Roman general Lucullus arrives in the East.

suggests. However. Alexander is supposed to have executed 2000 leading citizens but maintained the king in power. of course. resisted and was captured after a prolonged siege. suggests (p. The ruler of Aradus submitted. In his Introduction. 1990). While in his earlier volume. The first is the Phoenician cities' "methods of survival. and G.G. the king of Sidon was overthrown (perhaps by Alexander or perhaps by his own people) and replaced by a pro-Macedonian (and perhaps more popular) appointee. sensibly enough. in this second book he considers the manner in which the cities of Phoenicia. G.security is given to the peoples of the region that they had not enjoyed since the conquests of Alexander. refers to three important themes. illustrates the varied responses of the Phoenician cities to Alexander.was a period of tremendous upheaval in Phoenicia. and deals with the same region and the same period. and its subsequent destruction (though G. Both deal with the impact of Graeco-Macedonian expansion into the Near-East. is dealing with." The second theme is the fascinating issue of the cultural relationship between Phoenician and Graeco-Macedonian. Hellenistic Phoenicia. this tends to weaken his ability to tackle these key problems. survived through Macedonian conquest and Ptolemaic and Seleucid rule. To what degree did Phoenicia preserve a distinctive cultural identity? Does the concept of "Hellenistic Phoenicia" have any meaning at all beyond the purely geographic and chronological definition? The final theme is the economy of Phoenicia in the Hellenistic period.36-7) that he showed a preference for monarchs .C. follows remarkably closely on the heels of his first. G. 360-287 B. Tyre.C. Hellenistic Phoenicia Review by Nigel Pollard John Grainger's second book. dealt with the imposition of an entirely new Graeco-Macedonian urban network on Syria. and given the extremely limited nature of the evidence G.C. Anarchy and piracy is brought under control and the cities of Phoenicia turn to the sea and trade. which existed and partook of a distinctive culture before the arrival of Alexander. The Cities of Seleukid Syria (Oxford University Press. the compromises they made to do so. with the revolt of Sidon against Achaemenid rule in 345 B. that the latter was not as severe as implied by Diodorus' account) and the arrival of Alexander in 333-2 B. this arrangement works well enough for a study of the political and military impact between the Graeco-Macedonians and Phoenicians. a question raised by the reputation of Phoenicians as traders. The organisation of the book is generally chronological rather than thematic. and their varying responses to Greek and Macedonian power.

Thus G. suggests (p.C. in Phoenicia this independence focused on the autonomy of individual cities. provides a good survey and discussion of the limited evidence regarding the political histories of the cities of Hellenistic Phoenicia in the Hellenistic period. Likewise the ruling . which the 2000 executed men may have represented. just as in Seleucid northern Syria. not some wider political and cultural entity of that name. 81). raises the pessimistic possibility (p. and the only possible expression of something untypical of Hellenistic cities in general is the use of the Greek term dikastes for a Sidonian magistrate in an inscription. But what of his second theme. (p.saw the Ptolemies gain and maintain control of the cities (except for Aradus). The Seleucids gained control of Phoenicia early in the second century. After the siege of Tyre. as opposed to some form of oligarchy. G. Little is known about civic magistrates or the franchise. there is little to distinguish the Phoenician cities from "Greek" Hellenistic cities in terms of political situation and institutions. As before the Macedonian conquest. However.58) that in some cases the depositions were carried out by Graeco-Macedonian rulers because the kings had failed to change sides swiftly enough in the period of rapidly changing hegemony early in the century." Thus there is little evidence of any major political distinction between the "Phoenician" cities and the "Greek" foundations of the Hellenistic world. This phenomenon occurred in other geographically marginal areas of the Seleucid kingdom too.and popular control. The years 287-225 B. Ptolemaic or Seleukid.50-51) that the sacks of Sidon and Tyre had taught the value of cooperation and compromise with conquerors.66) "real power. no Phoenician city seems to have resisted occupation.51) that the "cultural heritage (of the Phoenician cities) was also surely mutilated beyond repair.C. suggests (p. despite the shifting control of the area by Ptolemaic and Antigonid/Seleucid armies in the following decades. that of cultural identity? Regarding the violence and shifting control of the period 360-287 B. a usage which may reflect the Phoenician title shofet (p." with epigraphic formulae (in Greek) suggesting similarities to the boule and demos combination of contemporary Greek cities in the area. G. leaving an impoverishment which Greek culture could hope to fill. They were replaced by nominally republican constitutions of "the Tyrians" and "the Sidonians. but from late in that same century there is evidence of increased assertion of local independence in the Phoenician cities as royal control broke down.G. Ituraean and Emesene neighbours of Phoenicia.65-6. and the disappearance of the Phoenician monarchies. notably those controlled by the Palmyrene." As noted above. military power lay in the hands of the king.

on p. The latter (p. Greek athletics and to have set up inscriptions in Greek. everted rim bowls. Phoenician and traditional" in terms of the names of worshippers. However. except for imported Rhodian amphorae. In addition. The evidence of such cooperation is slim enough. "Yet of Hellenization there is no sign" (p. Certainly the inscriptions are Phoenician.classes are known to have engaged in Greek philosophy. fish-plates. but local potters were copying shapes from Greece and elsewhere in the Hellenistic world. . Certainly these are not "Phoenician" in origin. which the excavators suggest was of local production and which G. the material culture such as pottery shows little evidence of external influence. But the report indicates that there were significant quantities of characteristically Hellenistic black slipped wares and some red-slipped "Hellenistic Pergamene" (Eastern Sigillata). On a more fundamental level. there are fragments of imported Rhodian amphorae. the bulk of the pottery from the site." displays strong evidence of the influence of the wider Hellenistic world. would be at home at just about any site in the Hellenistic world.78) "remains resolutely local.145 of Tyre and the Jews under John Hyrcanus as "bothself-consciously Semitic"). The significance. The former (p. and the courtyard plans of the temples on the site owe much more to Near Eastern antecedents than to contemporary Greek planning.'s comments regarding what one might describe as "pan-Semitic" cultural sympathies (such as his description. as G. but it deserves more careful consideration than G. incurved rim bowls. and there is plenty of evidence for conflict between "Semites" too. This tends to weaken the dichotomy between the "Hellenized elite culture" of the urban centres and the supposedly "more traditional" culture of the rural population. the details of those temples. Grainger refers us to sites away from the major urban centres. such as the architectural mouldings and the forms of column capitals and bases show very strong Greek influences. the languages they employed and the cult symbolism employed. In contrast. Examination of the excavation report suggests that this assertion is an unfortunate over-generalization. dismisses as "the usual local type. such as the cult centre of Astarte at Wasta and the rural community and cult centre of Umm elAmed. Jews and Ituraeans in the late Hellenistic period. and.81) he claims of Umm el-Amed. which manifested themselves as occasional political cooperation between Phoenicians. The forms of most of those vessels. one must take issue with some of G. nature and chronology of this "Hellenization" of the material culture of the site are all open to dispute. As G. fusiform unguentaria and even a lagynos and an amphoriskos. indicates.81-82) includes inscriptions in Phoenician (and only in Phoenician). gives them. The inhabitants of the site may not have been importing much pottery from Greece. according to Grainger.

known as traders. Under the Severan dynasty (A. G. Even if those responsible for policy-making in Phoenician cities at that time (the "hellenized" urban elite discussed above) had any conception of themselves as "Semitic.. A 6th-century Christian group .114). AD 300-634). says is reasonable. However. p. relatively obscure to this point. Phoenicians are. including olive oil production at Umm el-Amed and Sarepta (p.67-69) and the possible Phoenician involvement in the development of villages in the hinterland (p. since that was how Phoenicians appeared to the Greeks and Romans to whom we owe most of our evidence. Of course. albeit in the later Hellenistic and Roman period. between Phoenicians and Ituraeans). by way of Syria and the Euphrates. What cooperation existed surely was based on immediate and practical considerations.himself documents (cf. Unfortunately there is little evidence. Sidon. and we lack archaeological survey data. Roman Phoenicia In 64 BC Phoenicia was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria though Aradus. We do not have a clear idea of the rural hinterland controlled by the individual cities at specific times. If Phoenicians were important in trade east along the Euphrates. to the Red Sea. 193-235) Sidon. However. one might expect to find evidence of their presence at Dura Europos. Berytus (Beirut). rose to prominence by virtue of Augustus' grant of Roman colonial status and by the lavish building program financed by Herod the Great (and in turn by his grandson and great-grandson).153f. and probably Heliopolis (Baalbek) also received colonial status. and Tyre retained self-government. Much of what G. but at a more basic level it might be interesting to consider the contribution of local agricultural resources to the development of Hellenistic Phoenicia. he does seem to be stretching some very tenuous evidence too far. for example. Tyre. The third topic considered in the book is the economy of Hellenistic Phoenicia. focuses on trade and traders." surely it was as Phoenician or Tyrian rather than "Semitic" in any general sense which included Jews and Ituraeans too. Emperors embracing Christianity protected the area during the later Roman and Byzantine periods (c. when he tries to make a case for the Phoenicians as the developers of trade routes eastwards in the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods. and were. does marshal some of the scattered evidence for the rural economy. For the most part G.D. Arabia and India. along with the Palmyrenes who are attested there.

Hence. With this in mind. . references to individuals as Phoenicians need to be seen in this light. The geographical location of Phoenicia at the cross-roads of the Eastern Mediterranean made it a fertile ground for invading armies as indicated earlier. excluding only Phoenicia Maritima. absorbed the native population. In 608-609 the Persian king Khosrow II pillaged Syria and Lebanon and reorganized the area into a new satrapy.. More to come. the Phoenicians as a people did not remain pure Semites. the Phoenicians were influenced in many ways by the invaders. Between 622 and 629 the Byzantine emperor Heraclius mounted an offensive and restored Syria-Lebanon to his empire.fleeing persecution in Syria settled in what is now northern Lebanon. This success was short-lived. and founded the Maronite Church. Also. in the 630s Muslim Arabs conquered the old Phoenician that cities offered only token resistance to the invader..

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