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Communicate Minds
31st March 2006 FORTNIGHTLY

Khirod Ch. Malick Pitabasa Sethi Jogeswar Majhi Makardhwaj Sahu Shiv Prasad Meher Aurobinda Mahapatra


ince the beginning, mankind has been generating waste, be it the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to make their carts. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated became a more complex problem. At the end of the 19th century the industrial revolution saw the rise of the world of consumers. Not only did the air get more and more polluted but the earth itself became more polluted with the generation of non-biodegradable solid waste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible for the increase in solid waste. Each household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we have no longer need or do not have any further use fall in the category of waste, and we tend to throw them away. There are different types of solid waste depending on their source. In todays polluted world, learning the correct methods of handling the waste generated has become essential. Segregation is an important method of handling municipal solid waste. Segregation at source can be understood clearly by schematic representation. One of the important methods of managing and treating wastes is composting. As the cities are mounting in size and in problems such as the generation of plastic waste, various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to try and resolve these problems. One common sight in all cities is the rag picker who plays an important role in the segregation of this waste. Garbage generated in households can be recycled and reused to prevent creation of waste at source and reducing amount of waste thrown into the community dustbins. Mantra followed for waste management 4Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle & Reduce) 1. Refuse. Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy new items, though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have. 2. Reuse. Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade paper or paint them and use them as pencil stands or small vases. 3. Recycle. Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again will this come under recycle or reduce? Segregate your waste to make sure that it is collected and taken for recycling. 4. Reduce. Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.

In this Issue...
Editorial Save Environement Health Camp Other BISWA News

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Chief-Editor Debabrata Malick Editor Guru Prasad Nahak

Contact :The Link BISWA At-Danipali P.o-Budharaja Dist-Sambalpur, PIN-768004 Tele fax- +91-663-2533597

Types of solid waste

Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, b) Industrial waste as hazardous waste, and c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.

a) Municipal solid waste:

Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle

31st MARCH
composted and reused. In fact, proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle.

Solid Wastes in India pose a frightening challenge to urban managers today and it is roughly estimated that the country produces 50 million tonnes of urban solid waste annually. It has been calculated that about 0.1 to 0.2 kg per capita waste share to the population of India. Prevailing management strategies are inefficient, because of its complexity, cost and lack of technology. Improper management of these wastes leads to public health hazards, unaesthetic appearance, pollution of soil and water sources such as lakes, groundwater sources, etc. Most parts of India are inefficient in handling wastes in terms of lack of stakeholder participation and inadequate organizational framework. In order to improve the present practices and to avoid environmental degradation, an effort is made in this study to arrive at the best solid waste management strategy as applicable to developing countries using an exemplary model, which represents a typical urban system. With the help of identification of problems and analysis of those problems, best management strategies include effective implementation of all essential aspects of urban solid waste management. The combine efforts of public as well as private partnership are needed to eliminate this kind of bigger problem. The proposed management strategy could be implemented in urban pockets irrespective of geographical area and population.
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b) Hazardous waste:
Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles.

c) Hospital waste:
This contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants, and mercury, which is used in thermometers or equipment that measures blood pressure. Most hospitals in India do not have proper disposal facilities for these hazardous wastes. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refineries, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal. Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of bio-logical. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that out of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infectious. Garbage: the four broad categories Organic waste: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits. Toxic waste: old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. Recyclable: Paper, glass, metals, plastics. Soiled: Hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids. There are different categories of waste generated; each takes their own time to degenerate: Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc -a week or two, Paper-1030 days, Cotton cloth25 months, Wood-1015 years, Woolen items-1 year, Tin, Aluminium, and other metal items such as cans-100500 years, Plastic bags-one million years and Glass bottles- undetermined.

and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition is changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose the waste. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater. Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be


An awareness meeting on Solid Waste Management was organized by BISWA at Jhankarbahali on March 26th 2006, with the support from Centre for Environment Studies, Bhubaneswar. Speaking to the gathering of local volunteers and farmers, Sri Gangadhar Panda from Agriculture office, Rairakhol, gave much v a l u a b l e information on Green Manure. Sri Panda, as the Guest Speaker and Resources Person explained use and preparation of Compost Manure, Dhanicha, Blue Green Algae (BGA), Ajola (Microphil), Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Vermi Compost. He also displayed some samples like, Dhanicha INAUGURATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM Skill up-gradation training program on Brass & Bell Metal Craft was inaugurated by Mr. Padmanava Sasani, Asst. Director, (DC) Handicraft, Sambalpur on March 28th2006 at CFC Rengali. Mr. K.C.Malick, Chairman, BISWA presided over the meeting. The other two program like Integrated Technical Design Development on Brass & Bell Metal. Design Development Program was also inaugurated on the occasion. This program was supported by Development Commissioner, (Handicraft) Govt. of India, Ministry of Textile, New Delhi. Mr. Sasani advised the trainee to learn and extract maximum benefit from the training program & try to improve their skill. Mr. B.S.Mishra, Program Officer; Mr. J.Swain, Planning Manager; Mr.L.Dash, Asst. Planning Manager and Mr. Subash Chandra Mishra, In-charge, CFC, Rengali of BISWA were also present in it. and BGA along with detailing the benefits of their uses. Sri S.P.Meher, Public Relation Officer, BISWA presided over the meeting and spoke on the theme at the outset. He linked the proper management of our day-to-day solid waste with sanitation and said with utilization of these solid wastes as compost manure, we may derive double benefit such as appropriate sanitation in our daily life and use of green manure in our agriculture fields. About sixty volunteers & farmers from the locality participated in the meeting. They also raised questions on related issues to satiate their quench for knowledge. Sri Mihir Kumar Nath, Area Coordinator, BISWA arranged the meeting & introduced the invited guests to the gathered audience. He also proposed the vote of thanks at the end. HEALTH CAMP Now a days Jujumura block of Sambalpur district is infested with Maoist insurgency & in such adverse situation BISWA organized a health camp on March 29 th, 2006 at Chhamunda Gramapanchayat of this block. The health program was successfully completed by the help of local people and support of Jujumura CHC & Hatibari PHC staffs. In this health camp 145 persons were treated by our doctors and medicine was given them at no cost. Mr. Bhawani Sankar Mishra, Program Manager; Mr. Akshya Satpathy, RCH Project Coordinator and other staffs of BISWA were also present on the program. BISWA is thankful to Dr. U. Mishra, Medical Officer, Jujumura & Government for providing such opportunity for helping the poor.

VISIT ORS VISITORS Mr. S.L.Aind, UDI-Assistant, KVIC & Mr.Rameswar Thakur, DCIO, DIC, Sambalpur visited one of the microenterprise soap unit of BISWA at Budapada on March 17th,06. They interacted with trainer and trainees about the soap making process. They also advised for improving the quality of soap, so that the marketing value will increase. On March 28th, 2006 Dr. R.C.Nanda, CDMO; Dr. T.Panda, ADMO(PH) & Dr. Sundarai from District Head Quarter Hospital, Sambalpur visited BISWA central office & met Sri K.C.Malick, Chairman & other senior staff members. The purpose of this official visit was to discuss various activities of BISWA in health sector. The visiting officials were appraised about programs like RCH-II, Health Camps & particularly activities on prevention of AIDS & HIV. Mr. Steven Ulrich from Misereor, Germany & Mr. Sachin Kumar, Research Associate from Center for Microfinance Research, Mysore, visited BISWA on March 18th, 2006 for conducting study on microfinance & micro enterprise. IN-HOUSE TRAINING PROGRAM ON GPD : BISWA organized a two day training program on Gender Policy Development from March 24th to 25th 2006 with the support of CARE. The main objective of training program was to enhance knowledge among the staffs about gender sensitivity & importance of Gender Policy in NGO sector. Twenty seven number of CARE-CASHE supported staffs took part in the training program. Mr. Bishnu Panda, Partnership Coordinator CARE-CASHE, Mr. Ashish Kumar Sahu, Project Officer MF; Dr. Avanti Pradhan, Asst. Consultant; Ms.Sarita Mahapatra, Help Line Operator of BISWA joined as resources persons and facilitated the program.

31st MARCH PAR TICIP ATION: ARTICIP TICIPA District Task Force Committee: A District Task Force Committee meeting for Intensive Pulse Polio Immunization (IPPI) Program, Sambalpur, was held on March 25th 2006 at Collectors Chamber under the Chairmanship of Mr. Vishal Gagan, IAS, District Magistrate and Collector, Sambalpur. The main objective of the program was to draft suitable planning & to ensure smooth implementation of the ensuing IPPI program. The district level officials like Dr. R.C. Nanda, CDMO, Dr. U.K. Sahoo, ADMO, Sri Tribikram Sahu, D.S.W.O Sambalpur, President- Rotary Club, President- Lion Club, R.T.O, Sambalpur, MO, I/C, NPSP unit Sambalpur and Secretary Marwari Yuba Manch, Sambalpur were present in it. Mr. Shiv Prasad `Meher, PRO and Ms. Sarita Mahapatra, Help Line Operator, SWADHAR participated in it on behalf of BISWA. Orientation Program on TSC: An orientation program on Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was held on March 24th at DRDA Conference Hall, Jharsuguda. Mr.Rabiranjan Mallik, DM & Collector, Jharsuguda presided over the program. The main objective of the program was to review and prepare action plan for successful implementation of TSC program. In the program Mr. Chitaranjan Mohanty, Executive Engineer, State Water Sanitation Mission and Mr. Sankar Prasad Mishra, Executive Engineer- RWSS, Sambalpur were present as key persons. The other concerned district officials also participated in it. Mr. Lingaraj Dash, Asst. Planning Manager and Mr. Jogeswar Majahi, Chief Advisor participated on behalf of BISWA in it. Grain Bank formation meeting: Grain Banks are being proposed to function at village level in the Baduapali Grampanchayat area organised by BISWA. A series of meetings were organized in the last week of March at Budapada Tangerjuri, Kundebahal, Rathipada, Mahulpali, Jugipali, Mendlipali, and Antapali villages in this connection. Sri S.P. Meher, P.R.O. and Sri Bhawani Mishra, Program Manager went there to participate as resources persons, explaining the villagers about the aims and objectives of Grain Banks at local level. They also detailed the gathered audience about the modalities of formation of Grain Banks. It was urged upon them to start their Grain Banks as soon as possible, and particularly before the rainy days are ushered. These meetings were organized by Sri Umakanta Pati, Project Coordinator, Baduapali at the scheduled locations. Exposure Visit: On an exposure trip, eight members of BISWA visited B MASS Sarada, of Ganjam district on March 22nd & 23rd,2006. The main objective of the exposure was to enhance knowledge about Grain Banks. Participants learned record keeping, loan processes and function of Grain Banks.

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Printed and Published by Debabrata Malick, Chief Editor. The Link, at BISWA Computer Section, Danipali, Budharaja, Sambalpur. PIN- 768004 Ph. No- 0663-2533597