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Class Book IKJ. .
No. namely. Chemical examination of the oil Available quantity of the oil 7 9 3 Uses and value Tomato-seed meal of the oil 10 11 11 5 Utilization for stock feeding 5 7 Available quantity of the meal 12 12 14 Physical and chemical properties of the Summary Literature cited crude and the refined oil: INTRODUCTION. The manufacture stitutes of tomato products in the United States conan industry of large and growing proportions and impor- tance. The increased interest in the production of foodstuffs throughout and packing operations. ucts. 632 Contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry A. from which the seeds and skins at present are discarded as useless. fixed oil and meal. In the following pages attention is directed to the possible utilization of the waste tomato material. troduction 1 Page- mmercial products from tomato refuse cumulation and disposal of tomato waste. both of which 180l>5°— 17 CvK . as in the manufacture of catsups and soups. TAYLOR. Page. SKINS. tomato refuse may be made to produce two important products. Drug-Plant and Poisonous-Plant Investiof Plant Industry. Percentages of seeds and skins Dryine the waste material and separating the seeds ctraction of tomato-seed oil 1 3 Extraction of tomato-seed oil—Continued. For this latter class large quantities of tomatoes are required. the country will doubtless result in an extension of all canning COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS FROM TOMATO REFUSE. including tomato products. not only from the standpoint of food conservation. Chief PROFESSIONAL PAPER November 30.UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BULLETIN WM. C. in Tomatoes serve as the basis for two general classes of prodone of which the fresh whole tomatoes are used and in the other the pulp alone. Chemical Biologist. Bureau CONTENTS. By proper treatment. 1917 THE UTILIZATION OF WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND By Fbank Rabak. but as a profitable adjunct to the tomato-canning industry. gations. Washington. D.
2 BULLETIN 632. Italy. 850. of d. of which about two-thirds are seeds. and the seed cake Later. thus becoming a nuisance. Some of the refuse was spread over the land as a fertilizer. potash. Italy perhaps leads all countries.3 per cent of oil having an agreeable taste and smell could be obtained from the seeds. determining also the industrial value of the oil and the fertilizer and feeding values of the residues after extraction.000 tons of skins and seeds. stated to have a heat value about equal to that of olive it When is treated with driers nutritive value. U.000 to It is stated that 4. Perciabosco and Semeraro (12) in 1910 investigated tomato residues with a view to extracting the fatty oil. Considerable work has already been done in foreign countries. and nitrogen. Kochs (9). The press cake is said to have excellent Fachini (5) also recommends the extraction of oil from the seeds. Accomazzo (1) in 1910 stated that in the province of Parma. S. After removing the greater portion of the moisture the residue would amount to about 3. p. dec 10 'mr . Harcourt (6) in 1907 called attention to the tomato refuse accumulating in increasing quantities at the canning factories in Canada. but in some cases it was allowed to accumulate near the factories. he lr Tne serial numbers In parentheses refer to "Literature cited. The industry there has assumed such proportions that the problem of the proper disposal of the residues has become an important consideration. erties. Tomato-seed oil oil.000 to 12. The oil ex tracted by carbon bisulphid was found to have properties similar to those of the oil previously reported by Battaglia.000 tons. Battaglia 1 (4) in 1901 investigated tomato-seed oil and reported on its prop- of excellent quality. The fat-free residues were found to be useful for fertilizing purpose-. This quantity would yield from 11. The mammal value was tested and found to compare favorably with barnyard manure in the three important elements. containing about 80 per cent moisture. mentioned tomato-seed oil and discussed its properties. It was reported that a large portion of the refuse was flushed into near-by rivers. but instead of drying the residue. oil is valuable as a stock food.000 quintals (83. from 500 to 600 tons of is oil and would therefore be possible to recover from the waste seeds. as proposed by Accomazzo. In the manufacture of tomato products. The seeds of the tomato contain a fatty possess considerable value. these seeds when extracted by pressure yield 18 per cent of It oil by solvents 20 per cent. 14-15.660 tons) of tomatoes were used annually. especially in Italy. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. phosphoric acid. in an investigation of certain residue-. acquires good drying properties and al-«> useful in soap making. on the utilization of tomato waste." pp. stating that 17.
undertaking led to the establishment of two other factories the following year. Florence.000 metric tons of stock feed were manufactured in Milan from the press cake and skins. while at Xaples the wet residue is sold at 4 to 8 cents per 100 pounds. extracted the oil by pressure and found that it could be refined and bleached easily and was apparently a satisfactory food oil.000 metric tons (1 metric ton=2. The yield of oil from the seeds is stated by Shriver to be about 20 per cent by pressure and 22 per cent by solvents. These operations yielded 150 tons of oil. and the refined oil for 88.500 metric tons of dry waste. Italy. or pressure. must be collected and dried it sells daily. In 1913.UTILIZATION OF WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AXD SKINS. When per 100 pounds. 3 suggests a method of separating the seeds from the skins by agitating the material with water and allowing it to settle. of tomato waste while the skins are suggested as a fertilizer. According to Consul Keena (5). were worked out for the extraction of the oil and manufacture of the meal. The seeds are sold at Parma for 14 cents per 100 pounds. and the conversion of the crude oil into an edible oil is also receiving attention. This residue. Ceriale. whereupon the The greater part of the water can then be removed from the wet seeds by centrifugal machines. and Pilastro. after being washed by a . 800 tons of oil cake.75 per 100 pounds. and 500 tons of tomato skins. with branch drying plants at Parma. culls. Piacenza. About 5.75 to 82.20 1 dry problem of the proper disposition of this waste has been receiving attention since 1908. The press cake is used in the manufacture of stock feed. The press cake is mixed with the skins and other ingredients and sold as stock feed. Cervia. The at 81. from 100 to 150 metric tons of oil and 1. PERCENTAGES OF SEEDS AND SKINS. which ferments readily. are thoroughly For the preparation of tomato pulp. ACCUMULATION AND DISPOSAL OF TOMATO WASTE. corresponding to 1. the utilization and the extraction of the oil from the seeds was The success of the first attempted by a firm in Parma in 1910. Tomato-seed oil has been utilized in the manufacture of soap.204 pounds) of wet tomato waste. carefully sorted to remove the. the fresh tomatoes. after which the seeds are dried easily and the oil can be removed by extraction seeds fall to the bottom. The oil is sold in the crude state for 87 per 100 pounds. Bailey and Burnett (3"). More recently attention has been called by Shriver ( 11 to the vast quantities of tomato seeds and skins accumulating as waste products from the rapidly growing canned-tomato industry in Italy. working with American tomato seeds. at which time a manufacturing plant was established in Milan.
7 and 57. of which 46. Not all the firms engaged in pulping tomatoes could be reached. respectively. Using these figures as a basis for calculation.44 per cent. however.8 per cent. dry waste. may be realized when it is learned that in Indiana alone L20.4 BULLETIN 632.000 tons of tomatoes are pulped annually.61 per cent dry skins. The quantity of fresh tomatoes used in the two experiments was 2.320 pounds and 5. .11 and 0. then passed into receptacles where they are cooked with steam. Delaware. stream of water under pressure. S. Italian-grown tomatoes contain 14.2 per cent skins.1 per cent is seeds and 53. Fresh tomatoes therefore contain the equivalent of 0. the amount of dry waste in this one State would be about 1. Pennsylvania. the waste amounts to 4. Detailed figures regarding the output of refuse were not available in each State. 5.9 per cent skins. to determine the percentage of seeds and skins. Iowa. The dry waste in these experiments contained 46. 1. New York. cent is water. The seeds and skins pasfi out and are discarded. In order to learn the approximate annual output of tomato refuse in the United States. Of this waste. or 624 tons of seeds and 732 tons of skins. respectively.7 per cent of Avet waste.35 per cent dry waste. The total quantity of tomato waste which accumulates annually in the lar season but also United States depends not only upon the pack of any particuupon the percentage of seeds contained in the The seed content varies with the variety of tomato. 73 per cent is seeds. which removes the pulp. results obtained from American-grown tomatoes. and New Jersey. 128-129). According to Street (16.3 and 42. the writer personally visited 21 of the Lai tomato-pulping firms. and afterward are transferred to a cyclone machine.13 per cent dry waste. therefore accurate information in regard to the total quantity used fresh tomatoes. fresh tomatoes contain L. and Maryland in the East. of which about 80 per After removing the greater portion of the water.95 per cent.8 per cent seeds and 58.3 per cent seeds and 50. p.43 and 5. which probably still contains some moisture. The results were as follows: Wet waste.7 per cent skins.344 pounds. These manufacturing concerns operate Largely in Indiana. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. U. The extent of the industry. and Ohio in the Middle West. Americangrown tomatoes contain on the average about 1. consisting of 49. Two experiments in different localities were made with Americangrown tomatoes which had been used for pulping purposes. By the cold process the washed tomatoes pass directly to the cyclone machine. Michigan.52 per cent dry seeds and 0. The dry waste a> it occurs in Italy is stated to contain about G6 per cent by weight of These percentages are considerably higher than the seeds (15).356 tons. Estimated from the figures given by Accomazzo (1). Applying the percentages previously mentioned.
000 tons. the tonnage will tend to increase each year.000 tons are pulped annually. A number of types of desiccators. which would yield approximately 3. A distinct advantage of the pressure . from which also the seeds and skins could be separated. passing the dried material through a and fans.000 tons of dry waste. This. this problem is handled skins.should be experienced in constructing a separator consisting of sieves and fans for the separation of the seeds from the skins. in which the material is kept in constant motion by means of horizontal conveyers. It is stated that about 10 tons of residue The final operation consists in can be dried in 24 hours. It has been suggested that a sugar-beet drier would machine supplied with a series of sieves the complete separation of the seeds handle the material efficiently. This dry waste would yield about 1. Two methods from seeds. or drier. 21-22). Xo great difficult}. annually could not be obtained. it is estimated that 275.800 tons of dry skins. of course. leaves a residual portion of the oil in the press cake. a conservative estimate would be about 300. p. to the increasing demand for tomato products. Adding to this the tonnage of culls. in Italy in the following manner: The wet seeds and skins are passed through a press to remove as much of the moisture as possible. DRYING THE WASTE MATERIAL AND SEPARATING THE SEEDS. how- ever. owing This tonnage. which results in from the skins. However. however. are manufactured in the United States which would be admirably suited for drying the wet waste. Heat is applied to the drier An by means of steam pipes or by forced air. They are then passed through a desiccator. since the value of the cake is enham-ed by the presence of some fat. would vary from year to year. The quantity of wet waste resulting annually would be about 16. Even with this type of machine a small percentage of oil remains in the press cake. of extraction are applicable for obtaining fatty oil is The pressure method The most is perhaps the simplest and most expeditious. or driers. supplemented by correspondence with other firms. But from the figures given by the firms visited. finally emerging from the machine in a dry condition. is not a total loss.000 tons.UTILIZATION OF WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND SKIXS.500 tons of dry seeds and 1. EXTRACTION OF TOMATO-SEED OIL. being well adapted to seeds containing a fairly high per- centage of oil. important problem in connection with the utilization of tomato waste is the drying of the mass and separating the seeds from the According to Shriver (14. The ex- peller type of press is perhaps the best adapted for seeds having comparatively low percentage of oil. careful manipulation of this proces-.
which is noninflammable and possesses a higher boiling point than any of the other solvent. cent. averaging ±1 per fatty. solvent for the extraction of fatty oil traction of soy-bean oil (11). The apparatus employed was the continuous-extraction type. U. slightly bitter taste.described in this bulletin. gasoline. Tin- principal solvents which ether. Either of the two methods mentioned may be used effectively in The solvent extraction the extraction of oil from tomato seeds. petroleum and carbon tetrachlorid. the smaller expense of operation. was practically the same. Continuous extractors and hydraulic presses are obtainable from American manufacturers of chemical and pharmaceutical machinery. No great difficulty is experienced. the solvents used being ether and carbon tetraThe yield of oil from the ground seeds with either solvent chlorid. This kind of apparatus minimizes the quantity of solvent used and prevents loss of the solvent during the operation. When terials the maximum the volatile-solvent percentage of oil is desired from certain mamethod of extraction serves best. Practically all the solvent may be recovered from the oil and residue and thus be availA practical example of the use of a volatile able for further use. DEPARTMENT OF AliKlCl'I. S. Oils obtained by the solvent extraction method are usually less pure than expressed oils. This procedure effected decolorization of the marked degree. Apparatus of the continuous-extraction type is usually employed. method and is in the better quality of the product obtained. The refined oil possessed a very pale yellowish color with bland fatty and agreeable nutlike taste and smell oil to a . tating careful handling and operation. and the higher yield of oil obtainable. however.TURE. The deodorized oil was then heated on a steam bath for about one hour with fullers earth (kaolin) and finally filtered while hot through filter paper. is The disadvantages the use of benzine in the exof the solvent method as compared with the advantages of the pressure method are largely offset by the lower cost of the apparatus.and hence is capable of effecting more complete recovery. may be employed are benzine.BULLETIN 632. slightly rancid odor and In refining the crude oil the objectionable odor was removed by passing steam through the oil until little or no odor was perceptible. Pressed oils usually contain less impurities and consequently are more readily effectively refined. The crude oil was pale greenish yellow in color with a fatty. in refining the oils thus obtained. Pressed oils also require refining. method was used for obtaining the samples in the experiment. necessi- method is in the inflammability of This trouble is largely overcome by the use of carbon tetrachlorid. A disadvantage of this many of the solvents. containing much coloring matter and other impurities extracted by the particular solvent employed.
The color.. oil from domestic Domestic Physical and chemical constants. 0.8 190. 138-139). tion. The specific gravity and index of refraction show changes due to the removal of impurities by the refining process. bitter. The determinations were made according to standard methods 17. owing to the removal of the free fatty acids. 117. « At 15° C. Percia- Crude. do Eke.922 1 c.920c 0.. while the more nearly to those of the crude oil of domestic remainder compare favorably in most cases with the oil. For purposes of comparison the properties of some of the tomato-seed oils of foreign origin are also included in the table.6. tomatolike. & 106. oil. nutlike.. 0.'.' Agreeable. odor.. as shown in Table I. . The acid value is materially lower than that of the crude oil. very pale vellow mass at -10" C. p. UTILIZATION Or WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND SKINS.9244. i Thick liquid at -9= C. Table I. refined domestic CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE OIL. 09216* 1.. low. 26. Foreign investigators.823. refined oil In addition to the chemical constants a further examination of the was made to determine its approximate composition. Turbid nous at 0' C: at yellow gelati- -rc mass Turbid at 2° C.. * At 25° C..4. Kochs z .2 per cent of insoluble 1 . Battaglia (4). a Determined according to standard methods At 24* C. The saponification and iodin values show similar differences due to the removal of impurities.:: i~i (9). Among the oils of foreign origin the properties reported by Bat- taglia correspond origin. Brownish red.3 1.8 108 KD (17). 1 Acid value Saponification value.4 Mai™"™"!" "Msie™ 114. 1S3.4694* ftmsio 1 4:7U<* 0020c . PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CRUDE AND THE REFINED 7 OILS. 8. Physical and chemical constants'1 of tomato-seed and foreign tomatoes.— .C 4730."!!!"" 1S9. Fatty. No soluble acids were found.. Some of the more common physical and chemical constants of the crude and the refined oils -were determined. like.. From Table process I may be noted the general effect of the refining upon the physical and chemical properties of the oil. and taste of the refined oil show much improvement over the same properties of the crude oil. but 96. slightly rancid.9. (12). solid. The congealing point of the refined oil has likewise changed.4. Specific gravity. *•*»*• Lsi).2 190. no bitter 1 aftertaste.
1 and 197. Liquid acids.2. PhySiCa n hemiCal irop erti^ ' Insoluble acids. Calculating from the neutralization value 204. p. U. sligtulv bitter. Table Table II.88 per cent and stearic acid 5. Because the palmitic and stearic acids exist in the oil as palmitin and stearin. In order to ascertain the approximate proportions of these two made according to the method suggested by Lewkowitsch (10.29 per cent of palmitic acid. Color Pale golden yellow. By this method. solid. tallowlike coming 0. since the molecular weight ular weight of the solid acids of these acids are 256 and 284. the mean molecwas found to be 275. The physical and chemical properties of the insoluble acids and the solid and liquid acids. the mean molecular weight of these solid acid-. By calculation. These insoluble acids were separated into the and liquid acids by means of the lead-ether method (17. and 09° C.4664. The glycerid palmitin contains 95. 1. 4. respectively. The solid acids.9013. respectively.")). a calculation was and of stearic acid 32. 515). it is necessary to reduce the above figures to terms of these glycerids. were determined with the results shown in solid acids were present. The mixed acids were found to consist of solid acids 17. 1.54 per cent and liquid acids 75. respectively.73 per cent of stearic acid. it is very probable that this is due to the presence of impurities.54 per cent of the original oil consists of solid acids.54 per cent of the oil. the oil therefore contains palmitic acid 11. v. it is found that . 204 19-' '-i 130. which melt when pure at 62° ('. The neutralization value 204 would indicate a mixture of these two acids. Since 17. Although the melting point of crude solid acids is considerably lower than either palmitic or stearic acids.8 acids in the mixed solid acids. probably and stearic acids with neutralization values of 219. S. Physical and chemical properties of insoluble. using as a basis 275. and liquid OOidt of tomato-seed oil. Snowy white.84 per cent. and the glycerid stearin contains !>5. This indicates the presence of palmitic and stearic acids. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.— 8 BULLETIN 632.5. 2o° C. Solid acids. the percentage of palmitic acid was found to be 67.G4 per cent. consist largely of palmitic comprising 17. II. Fatty. p. therefore. flaky Pale golden yellow partly solid.
4. 1. The liquid acids. Since by extracting with volatile solvents 22 per cent of the oil can be obtained. increase each year with the increased output of tomato products.2 per cent of linolein. Using the method of Lewkowitsch (10. 0. .67 per cent. The quantity of oil capable of being extracted from these seeds is readily ascertained. Estimating the annual output of dry tomato waste from the various pulping plants in the United States at 3.89 per cent of stearin. the total available quantity would be about 343 ton. 457).8 per cent of oleic acid and 43. which possesses an index of refraction of 1.76 per cent of linoleic acid. This quantity would.42. 198. The iodin value. therefore.2 per cent of linoleic acid. AVAILABLE QUANTITY OF THE OIL.9013 at 25 z C. 200. 130. possibly also indicates a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids with a preponderance of oleic acid. it is found that the oil contains approximately 43. of oleic and linoleic acids. p. These acids are contained in the oil in the form of the glycerids olein and linolein. for calculating the approximate proportions of oleic and linoleic acids present from the iodin value as a basis. Reducing these percentages of oleic and linoleic acids to terms of the original oil. possess properties which indicate the presence of oleic acid and possibly some linoleic acid. since the specific gravity of pure oleic acid is 0. The specific gravity of the liquid acids.89 per cent — unsaponifiable matter. 45 : per cent: linolein.07 per cent of oleic acid and 32.390 tons.7 and 95. that the oil consists approximately of 45 per cent of olein and 34. it was found that the liquid acids consist of 56. 12. while pure linoleic acid possesses an iodin value of 181. would indicate a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. and linoleic acid 0.annually. By calculation it is found. and pure linoleic acid. there would result from this waste 1.47 per cent: stearin. Some commercial oleic acids have idoin values as high as 100 to 110.9. The index of refraction corresponds closely with oleic acid.9206 at 14° C.893 at 25° C. v. which consists of 75. The neutralization value of 192-3 is somewhat lower than that of pure oleic acid.84 per cent of the oil.560 tons of dry seeds. the remaining portion consisting of free acids and 5.UTILIZATION OT WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND SKINS.2 per cent: palmitin. A summary of the results of the chemical examination of tomatoseed oil indicates the following approximate composition Olein. respectively. 34. however.47 per cent of palmitin and 5. which contain 95.84 per cent of liquid acids.4603 at 25° C. tomato-seed oil 9 contains 12. constituting 75.
123).. 0. 6. 8 1. to 130. p. 4715 mass 191 at -10. pale yellow solid " 188. S. 2). however. Lewkowitseh (10. and nondrying. 149-150). comparing favorably with olive..4768 The similarity of tomato-seed oil to the commercial oils given in Table III indicates the classification of this oil. 121 to 124 to 115 Sesame. sesame. v. coconut. soy-bean. oil Table III.. tomato-seed oil possibly falls into the semidrying class. On account of their drying properties some are employed extensively in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. a comparison is given in Table III of some of the more important properties of a number of oils of commerce belonging in the same class with tomatoseed oil (10.. A. Well-refined tomato-seed oil peanut.924 to 0. 0. 9260. Tomato-seed oil.. sesame. 100. and corn oils. cottonseed.. An . Lewkowitseh p. of the Office of Home Economics. of refraction Turbid at —2. p.. Physical and chemical properties of tomato-seed important oils of commerce. Saponification value. +15 to + 8. showed that the oil possesses a coefficient of digestibiLity of 97. In order that the nature of tomato-seed oil may be better understood. 0..9213 -10 -20.930.. should be equally useful and applicable to the same purposes as these oils of commerce.922 to 0.. 6 to 194. - 4 toto 103 112 1. almond. semidrying. OIL. The oils mentioned in connection with tomato-seed oil are applied commercially in a number of ways.6 114. walnut. (10. As edible oils they are highly prized. is therefore to be recommended for culinary purposes. bordering.2 b 1.927.4722 witsch (10. Index Iodin value.. Holmes.. 173). with properties similar to cottonseed. to determine its digestibility. 9 to 116. p. 131-132). 188 to 193. 9 187. U. As a salad oil it should prove very satisfactory. 9203 to 0. very nearly on the nondrying class. and brazil-nut oils. 6 to 192. while others find important application as soap stock. to 196.4728 1 (10.— BULLETIN 5 6 4 10 rJ32. Corn. 0. 190. Specific gravity at 15° C Congealing point (°C).. Experiments conducted with tomato-seed oil by Dr. D. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. U. USES AND VALUE OF THE Classifying fatty oils as drying. Department of Agriculture. experiment to determine its saponifying properties was conducted in order to obtain information regarding its possible use By cold saponification with caustic soda and subseas soap stock. The edible quality of the oil suggests also its possible hydrogenation and application as a margarine oil. 9 1. and several Oils. S.
7 4.9 29.3 18.0 11. commerce would necessarily depend upon it could be applied and to the demand From the results of the investigation. constitutes the meal.6 37.0 an. Protein.64 6. Feeding stuff. p. free extract. sticky film. The value of the oil in the particular use to which in general for fatty oils. If combined with oils rich in palmitin or stearin.2 36. Constituents ("per cent).0 9. sesame-oil cake. Owing to the present threatened shortage of oils for the manufacture of soaps and glycerine the utilization of tomato-seed oil as a soap stock asserts itself. 7.8 10.11 10. S 34. it ranks with sunflower seedcake. being considerably higher than palm-nut cake and some- . Experiments to determine the drying properties of the oil showed that 16 days were required to form a soft.3 *. XitrosenMoisture. Table IV. a soap of good texture with excellent lathering qualities was produced. rape seedcake. Composition of tomato-seed meal as compared with various commercial stock feeds. The residue remaining after extracting the oil from the seeds meal as stock feed is approximate composition of The results are shown in the meal.8 37.— UTILIZATION OF WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND SKINS.10 27. Ether extract. it appears that it should prove a valuable addition to the edible or condimental oils now in use. Fiber.1 10.n 36.4 21. The nature of the film as well as the time of drying could in all probability be improved and hastened by the addition of siccatives or driers to the oil.2 10.3 In moisture and ash content. It appears. UTILIZATION FOR STOCK FEEDING. satisfactory toilet soap doubtless could be prepared. and linseed meal.3 22.3 24. In protein content. In order to ascertain the Table IT. a careful analysis was made.9 5. TOMATO-SEED MEAL. together with analyses of some commercial stock feeds as given by Henry and Morrison (7. the tomato-seed meal compares favorably with the other feed stuffs.8 4.8 21.6 4. therefore.3 9.5 16. Likewise it should find an important place among the much-needed soap oils of commerce. 11 quent salting and pressing. Ash. cottonseed meal. 631r-636).7 35.6 7.9 6.8 31. that the oil possesses a certain value as a paint or varnish oil. utilization of this The suggested.0 39.
near Naples. what lower than cottonseed meal. In view of the use to which the dried skins are applied in Italy by incorporating them with the meal.32 per 100 pounds. this would increase the total available quantity to about 3. may be stated that in Italy. however. This feed for cattle is sold at prices ranging. from $1. being lower. The seedcake after the oil is expressed is sold at $1. Later.49 per 100 pounds. Italy. there would remain as a by-product about 1. and lower than in palm-nut.12 BULLETIN 632. SUMMARY. is higher than in such meals as cottonseed. From the results of the analysis and the comparison with standard stock feeds it would appear that tomato-seed meal possesses properIn this connection it ties of considerable value for stock feeding. the ether extract does not enter into consideration. than that of palm-nut cake.800 tons of tomato skins. After extracting the oil from the estimated quantity of tomato seeds which accumulate annually. Aguet (2) has reported a factory in operation at San Giovanni a Teduccio. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. according to quality. which represents the residual fat left in the cake. The crude-fiber content is relatively high as compared with the other feeds. from the dried skins mixed with molasses and the meal from the extracted seeds. A number of grades of stock feed under the name " Nutritivo " are manufactured by a firm at Milan.000 tons. and linseed cake. AVAILABLE QUANTITY OF THE MEAL. The content of nitrogen-free extract. sunflower. Shriver (14. where the utilization of tomato residues is in practical operation.32 to $1. S. The meal from seed expressed by hydraulic pressure would contain from 5 to 7 per cent ether extract. U. experiments with the meal or cake have demonstrated its value as a feed for stock. stating that it is richer than flaxseed cake in protein and fat and is superior to it in its influence upon the weight and lacteal secretion of the cows. In addition to this large quantity of meal there would also be available about 1. The foregoing investigation shows that the vast quantities of tomato refuse accumulating each year at tomato-pulping factories can .200 tons of the meal. Since the tomato-seed meal which was subjected to analysis was from ether-extracted seeds. for the industrial manufacture of tomato seedcake. consisting largely of carbohydrates. and sesame. 21-23) describes the manufacture of stock feed from the dried tomato waste after the extraction of the oil. Scarpitti (13) conducted extensive investigations with the seedcake as a feed for milch cows. p. Feeding trials conducted at the Royal Higher School of Agriculture at Portici with milch cows showed tomato seedcake to be equal in food value to linseed cake. rape-seed.
suggested as an economic measure of both agricultural and industrial importance that the utilization . namely. fixed oil 13 and meal. and the utility of the meal for this purpose should therefore be assured. and of this material be considered. The reduction of this waste material to oil and meal could be handled most logically by establishing reducing plants at some central point in each of these sections. As the demand for tomato products increases. the quantity of this waste it is material will also increase. In view therefore of the threatened shortage of fatty oils and in the interest of food conservation. A cooperative plan of manufacture would perhaps be the most feasible and effective method for establishing the industry upon a practical basis. namely.UTILIZATION OF WASTE TOMATO SEEDS AND SKINS. each of which oil its may be made commercially oil useful. tomato refuse may be considered as an available source for the manufacture of oil and oil cake. The accumulation of tomato residues occurs principally in two sections of the United States. The or as a soap from the seeds should find ready disposal as an edible oil. By proper treatment it can be made useful as a drying oil for pamt and varnish purposes. the Xorth-Central States lying east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio Eivers and the Xorth Atlantic States. as shown by the experiments made to determine applicability to these purposes. where the crude material could be collected with the least expense for transportation and handling. be reduced to two products. The meal has been shown by analysis and comparison with other meals to possess valuable qualities as stock feed.
Makers Syracuse N. Y. JUL 21.Gaylord Bros. 190* . PAT.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 012 822 267 .
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