 Introduction.  Definition.  Route.  Causes.  Cycle of infection.  Prevention. • Primary :  Definition. Immunization . • • •      Children. Adult. Medical team.

Health education. Nutrition. Exercise. Personnel hygiene. Universal precautions .

• Secondary : Definition.

 

Early TTT. Prevent complication.

• Tertiary :  Rehabilitation .

Hepatitis :  Types .( A.B.C.E. G) Hepatitis C. • • • • • • Definition. S&S. Diagnosis. Complication. TTT. Medication .   •  Long acting. Short acting.

Health education.

Prevention :• • • Primary . Secondary. Tertiary .

These diseases affect people of all ages but more so children due to their exposure to environmental conditions that support the spread. They are among the major causes of illnesses.disease  Illness caused by specific microorganism  Infectious disease transmitted from one person to another is a medical condition or disease which by definition is noninfectious and non-transmissible among people. Communicable diseases are preventable base on interventions placed on various levels of transmission of the .Communicable diseases are diseases that are as a result of the causative organism spreading from one person to another or from animals to people. .

This can occur when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches. too.Person to person. in extreme circumstances. viruses or other germs from one person to another.   2. Germs in the vagina can be transmitted to the baby during birth. Being bitten or scratched by an infected animal can make you sick and.   3. can be fatal. you can acquire a toxoplasmosis infection by scooping your cat's litter box. The person who passes the germ may have no symptoms of the disease. A pregnant woman may pass germs that cause infectious diseases to her unborn baby. Some germs can pass through the placenta. coughs on or kisses someone who isn't infected. The most common way for infectious diseases to spread is through the direct transfer of bacteria. These germs can also spread through the exchange of body fluids from sexual contact or a blood transfusion. For example. • Three ways infectious diseases can be spread through direct contact are:   1. Handling animal waste can be hazardous.Animal to person. .Mother to unborn child. Direct contact: • An easy way to catch most infectious diseases is by coming in contact with a person or animal that has the infection. Pets can carry many germs. but may simply be a carrier.

is a bacterium present in or on certain foods — such as undercooked hamburger or unwashed fruits or vegetables. for example. Mosquitoes can carry the malaria parasite or West Nile virus. for example. coli. mouth or nose before washing your hands. Indirect contact : • Disease-causing organisms also can be passed by indirect contact. you may become infected. Many germs can linger on an inanimate object. doorknob or faucet handle. If you then touch your eyes. you can pick up the germs he or she left behind. • Food contamination : Another way disease-causing germs can infect you is through contaminated food and water.  Bacteria. E. lice or ticks — to move from host to host. such as strep throat. These carriers are known as vectors. When you touch a doorknob handled by someone ill with the flu or a cold. urinary tract infections and tuberculosis. . fleas. and deer ticks may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. • Insect bites : Some germs rely on insect carriers — such as mosquitoes. This mechanism of transmission allows germs to be spread to many people through a single source. such as a tabletop.

.  Fungi. such as ringworm and athlete's foot. Other parasites may be transmitted to humans from animal feces. 1-The Infectious Agent: -Any disease causing microorganism (pathogen). Viruses. Many skin diseases. Viruses cause a multitude of diseases — ranging from the common cold to AIDS.  Parasites. are caused by fungi. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system. Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite that is transmitted by a mosquito bite.

sexual contact A.The Portal of Exit: .mucous secretions West Nile Virus . nor virus -Blood exposures. e.stool SARS .  Examples of portals of exit: -Flu or cold . Mosquitoes and West Nile virus. hepatitis B and C -Vector -borne E.g. malaria .g.Route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir. e..a.Food/water/hands contaminated with stool from infected person. HIV. .2-The Reservoir: -Where a microorganism normally lives and reproduces 3 .g.k.The Route of Transmission (Spread) -the way the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host -:Methods of Transmission . blood-borne.droplet 4 .Unlikely methods of spread in courtroom 5 .The Portal of Entry:-Route through which the pathogen enters its new host 6 .The Susceptible Host :- .when the mosquito bites and feeds on the bird’s blood -Hepatitis A .

immunization forms one of the most important and cost effective strategies for the prevention of childhood sicknesses and disabilities and is thus a basic need for all children. Govt.or injury. illness . Defined as. The following schedule has been recommended by the Ministry of Health. of India and is one of the most widely followed by the child health care providers. preventive measure that forestall the onset of illness or injury during the pre pathogenesis period. NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE BENEFICIARY Infants AGE Birth 6 weeks 10weeks 14 weeks 9 months 18 months VACCINE BCG* and OPV** DPT&OPV DPT&OPV DPT&OPV Measles vaccine DPT&OPV(Booster dose) DT vaccine Tetanus toxoid Children 5 years 10years .-A person who can get sick when they are exposed to a disease causing pathogen A- Primary prevention: Definition:- Health status Health & without signs & symptoms of disease .

.16years Tetanus toxoid *At birth or at the time of DPT/OPV . Apregnant woman who had a shot 10 or more years earlier should get a booster during the second or third trimester. pertussis (Td/Tdap): a booster is needed every 10 years. DT=Diph & Tetanus vaccine.if missed early. diphtheria. ** dose called as Zero dose and can be given till 14 days of age . Adult Vaccinations You Need : • Tetanus. OPV =Oral Polio Vaccine. ABBREVIATIONS: BCG=Bacillus calmittee Guerin.Pertussis & Tetanus. Tdap should be given in place of Td for adults 19-64 years old who have never received Tdap in the past. DPT=Diphtheria.

A one-time booster is given five years later. diabetes. Adults need different vaccines depending on their health. or residents of nursing homes. or other indications including chronic liver disease. lifestyle. Most  . commonly given to college students living in dormitories or military recruits. and other indications including chronic heart or lung disease. and occupation. -Pneumococcal: given to adults 65 and older and adults with certain medical. occupational. sexually active adults who are not in a monogamous relationship. Travelers to some parts of the world or people with professions that bring them into contact with animals might need other vaccines. Pregnant women should not get this vaccine. lifestyle. . rubella (MMR): one or more doses given to adults with no evidence of immunity. and the CDC recommends vaccination throughout the flu season. yet adults are more likely to die from vaccine-preventable diseases than children. illegal drug use. -Measles.Meningococcal: one or more doses given to adults with certain medical or other indications. Zoster (shingles): one-dose vaccine for adults 50 and older. .Hepatitis A: two-dose series given to adults with certain medical.• • • • • • • • • Human papillomavirus (HPV): three-dose series given to females age 11-26 who haven't already received the vaccination. Pregnant women should not get this vaccine. -Influenza (flu): yearly vaccination given to adults 50 and older and any younger adults who would like to decrease their risk for infection. or other indications including chronic liver disease. This is also recommended for younger adults with certain medical. injection drug use. health care workers. Immunization Information For Adults:fewer adults are fully vaccinated compared with children. Be sure to ask your health care provider about which immunizations you need. occupational. The flu season can range from October to May. and health care workers. or other indications including cigarette smokers and residents of nursing homes. -Hepatitis B: three-dose series given to adults with certain medical. and health care workers. age. The vaccine is available as a flu shot and nasal spray flu vaccine. Varicella (chickenpox): two-dose series given to adults with no evidence of immunity to the chickenpox virus. mumps. occupational. lifestyle. Pregnant women should not get this vaccine. lifestyle.

and jaundice. and non-productive cough. chills. Seasonal (Flu): A common viral infection. often accompanied by vomiting. loss of appetite. loss of appetite. sore throat.   Measles: A viral disease with symptoms including fever.  Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type B): A disease caused by bacteria that can cause meningitis and severe swelling of the throat. Hepatitis B: A serious viral infection of the liver that can cause chronic liver disease. normally one of two virus types A and B. conjunctivitis "pink eye.   Hepatitis A: A viral infection of the liver that can cause fever. abdominal discomfort. aching muscles. Pertussis (Whooping cough): A serious bacterial infection that causes fever and uncontrolled bouts of coughing. bacteremia. headache. consult with your healthcare provider vaccine-preventable disease: Diphtheria: A serious disease caused by bacteria that release a poison into the person's body. including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). nausea. and dehydration. or meningitis.   Polio: A viral disease that can cause paralysis.   HPV (Human Papillomavirus): The most common sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus that infects the genital areas of men and women . loss of appetite. liver failure. and respiratory symptoms." and a rash.adults should receive a seasonal flu vaccineannually. cough. Rubella (German Measles): A viral disease that causes body rash. Influenza.   Mumps: A viral disease that causes swelling of the salivary glands. tiredness. 5 to 10% of cases are fatal. that causes abrupt onset of fever. Rotavirus: A virus that causes severe diarrhea. For more information about which vaccines are right for you. lethargy. runny nose.   Pneumonia: A serious bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia. and a rash. The pneumonia vaccine is also recommended annually for some adults. and low-grade fever. fever. dark urine. and liver cancer. Meningitis: A very serious bacterial disease that causes high fever. Other vaccinations may be necessary. fever. leading to blockage of the airway. mostly in babies and young children. About 9-12% of persons with meningococcal disease die.  .

or from a previous employer. Check with your local pharmacy for more information. liver damage. yoghurt. You will need to know the doctor's name so that the company can tell you if that doctor has any patient records stored at his/her facility. you may be able to access his/her records by calling Gorewood Systems (333-9090). the high school or college you attended (if you graduated recently). Yellow Fever: A virus that causes fever. pasta. You can get a copy of your immunization records from your physician (or your former pediatrician for childhood immunizations). fish. noodles • vegetables. . nuts. cereals. legumes • fruit • milk. pain. If your physician has retired. in some cases. These foods provide the important nutrients the body needs . and. nausea. rice. poultry. Where to Get Vaccinated:Pharmacies :Pharmacists can give some vaccinations.The five food groups are: • bread. eggs. cheese • meat. Proof of Immunization Most employers and schools require proof that you are immunized. Eat enough food from each of the five food groups . you may contact one of the clinics listed here (who provide the vaccines listed below).To eat a healthy diet: 1. legumes. Adult Immunization Clinics :If your regular healthcare provider does not offer routine recommended adult immunizations.

AND TO PROVIDE ENERGY. noodles. and small amounts of the extra foods. cheese. TO REPAIR. moderate amounts of animal foods (milk. poultry. rice. meat. 2. 3. NUTRITION: THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE BODY TAKES IN AND USES FOOD. 4. yoghurt. week to week and at different times of the year. legumes and fruit).vegetables. fish. Choose different varieties of foods from within each of the five food groups from day to day. eggs) in the proportions shown by the Guide. CALORIES: UNITS OF HEAT THAT MEASURE THE ENERGY USED BY THE BODY AND ENERGY SUPPLIED TO THE BODY BY FOODS. Eat plenty of plant foods (bread. and margarines and oils. It provides you with the calories and nutrients your body needs for maximum energy and wellness. NUTRIENTS: SUBSTANCES IN FOODS THAT YOUR BODY NEEDS TO GROW.every day. . Drink plenty of water. cereal. Good nutrition enhances your quality of life and helps you prevent disease. pasta.

6 GROUPS OF NUTRIENTS: • • • • • • Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water .

through the school system for example. The education may be formal. A brief list of possible actions. particularly in young children. supplementary food. micronutrient supplements. related as appropriate to specific common diseases follows. and technologies such as for fermented and amylase-rich foods may be supplied as part of the services. Under a number of circumstances. This is applied principally through education programmes enabling mothers and carers to acquire and apply the necessary food resources and skills in an effective manner. B-Second prevention :- . but importantly includes information and counselling through health care workers.Dietary Management of Infection :Dietary management seeks to modify the course and outcome of infection by the improvement of food intake during disease and recovery.

-Example of secondary prevention include personal and clinical screening . or injury -Defined as. breast self examination the goal of such screening & exams is not to prevent the onset of the disease but rather to detect its presence during early pathogenesis.Health status -Disease . or dependency & prevent more sever pathogens. impairment. thus permitting early intervention or treatment and limiting disability. dependency. preventive measure aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis. Defined as. cholesterol . impairment . Hepatitis:   Viral disease Produces pathological changes in liver Three main hepatitis viruses     Hepatitis A (viral hepatitis) Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Hepatitis C (non-A/non-B hepatitis) Hepatitis non-ABC is a fourth class of hepatitis  Caused by infection with hepatitis D virus and newer hepatitis viruses  E and G . or an injury to limit disability . preventive measure that lead to early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease . illness . illness . C-Tertiary prevention: Health status Disability . exams such as blood pressure.

2 to 8 2 to 9 weeks. Infected mother to newborn. . 45 to 160 days. through close person-toperson contact or ingestion of contamina ted food and water. It only infects people with HBV. contaminat ed IV needles. This infection can lead to cirrhosis and cancer. weeks. contamina ted needles. Sexual contact with HDVinfected person. NOT easily spread through sex. Some people Hepatitis C (HCV) HCV is a virus that causes inflammati on of the liver. Adults may have light Even fewer acute cases seen than any Same as HBV. Sexual contact. Infected mother to newborn. Hepatitis D (HDV) HDV is a virus that causes inflammati on of the liver. Hepatitis B (HBV) HBV is a virus that causes inflammati on of the liver. Average 120 days. contamina ted needles. razors and tattoo/body piercing tools. Average 30 days. including tattoo/bod y piercing tools. seminal fluid.Types Hepatitis A (HAV) What is it? HAV is a virus that causes inflammati on of the liver. leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and cancer. Contact with infected blood. Same as HBV. Incubatio n period How is it spread? 15 to 50 days. 2 to 25 weeks. Symptom s May have none. Transmitted through fecal/oral route. Contact with infected blood. There is no chronic state. It is rare in the United States. Hepatitis E (HEV) HEV is a virus that causes inflammation of the liver. Outbreaks associated with contaminate d water supply in other countries. It does not lead to chronic disease. The virus can cause liver cell damage. vaginal secretions. Transmitte d by fecal/oral route. Contact with infected blood. Human bite. Average 7 to 9 weeks. May have none. Average 40 days.

jaundice. third dose between 6 and 18 months. men who have sex with men. dark urine. having sex with infected person or multiple partners. At birth. emergency responders .(pegintefer virals. IV drug users. Travelers to developing countries. dialysis patients. fatigue. HBV vaccine prevents HDV infection. Travelers to developing countries. Hepatitis E (HEV) Supportive. men who have sex with men and IV and non-IV Anyone who had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992. None. health care workers. other hepatitis.stools. IV drug users. on) along with the antiviral ribavirin. have mild flu-like symptoms. Two doses of vaccine. Interferon Interferon and anti. fatigue and fever. health care workers. healthcare workers. first dose at 12 months. Hepatitis B (HBV) Hepatitis C (HCV) Hepatitis D (HDV) Interferon. second dose 6 months later. dark urine. light stools. Hepatitis A (HAV) Treatmen t of chronic disease Vaccine No specific treatment. a second dose between 1 and 2 months. Who is at risk? Household or sexual contact with an infected person or living in an area with HAV outbreak. Infant born to infected mother. fever and jaundice (yellowing of the skin). dialysis patients. men who have sex with men. especially pregnant women. infants born to infected mother and having multiple IV drug users. None. . Otherwise same as HBV. infants born to infected mothers and those having sex with a HDV infected person.

Clean up spilled blood with bleach. Don't get a tattoo or body piercing. Don't inject street drugs. Don't get a tattoo or body piercing. Wear gloves when touching blood. Wash your hands with soap and water after going to the toilet. Don't inject street drugs. Get a hepatitis B vaccine to prevent HBV infection. Practice safe sex. Clean up infected blood with bleach and wear protective gloves. Don't share razors. such as changing tables. Avoid drinking or using potentially contaminate d water. . Preventio n Get a hepatitis A vaccine. household contacts of chronically infected persons and dialysis patients. Practice safe sex. Wash hands with soap and water after going to the toilet. toothbrush es or needles. Use household bleach to clean surfaces contamina ted with feces. Practice safe sex. Get a hepatitis B vaccine. sex partners. Practice safe sex.drug users. Don't share razors or toothbrush es. Take immune globulin within two weeks of exposure. Take immune globulin within two weeks of exposure.

• • Treatment:_The rationales for treatment of chronic hepatitis are to reduce inflammation. piercings and acupuncture performed with contaminated equipment. the highest response rates have been achieved with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. cirrhosis. unsafe blood products. unsafe sharps waste collection and disposal. tattoos. . _to decrease infectivity and control the spread of the disease. B-Secondary and tertiary prevention For people infected with the hepatitis C virus. A-Primary prevention . Genotype determinations influence treatment decisions. and • regular monitoring for early diagnosis of chronic liver disease. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.Prevention :There are no vaccine or immune globulin (IG) products available to prevent HCV infection. WHO recommends: education and counseling on options for care and treatment. use of illicit drugs and sharing of injection equipment. The risk of infection can be reduced by avoiding: • • • • • • • unnecessary and unsafe injections. • early and appropriate medical management including antiviral therapy if appropriate. immunization with the hepatitis A and B vaccines to prevent coinfection from these hepatitis viruses to protect their liver. _to prevent progression to fibrosis. and HCC through the eradication of the virus in chronically infected patients. unprotected sex with hepatitis C-infected people. sharing of sharp personal items that may be contaminated with infected blood. Combination therapy results in better treatment responses than monotherapy.

abnormal ALT levels over at least 6 months. HCV RNA detection. defined by the absence of detectable HCV RNA in the serum as shown by a qualitative HCV RNA assay with lower limit of detection of 50 IU/mL or less at 24 weeks after the end of treatment. *joint aches.Currently the best indicator of effective treatment is a sustained viral response. Interferon has been shown to normalize liver tests. Currently. *Thrombocytopenia * insomnia *abdominal pain. *back pain *fatigue *diarrhea. . fibrosis shown by liver biopsy). Interferon-a is given subcutaneously at doses of 3 million units 3 times a week for 24 months *Side effects of interferon therapy:* fever * Hematologic * leukopenia *Alopecia *Neuropsiachiatric * depression *Weight loss *vomiting. it is recommended for patients with compensated chronic hepatitis C (anti-HCV positivity. *dizziness *Allergic and anaphylactic reactions *Health education give to pt take interferon therapy: About side effect of the medication & important of control with it. improve hepatic inflammation and reduce viral replication in chronic hepatitis C and is considered the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. *nausea.

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