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Phonology: the sound patterns of language The pronunciation of morphemes The t is silent as in harlow Knowledge of phonology determines how

w we pronounce words and parts of words 1. The pronunciation of plurals The examples: dog / dogs, fox/foxes A : cab, cad, bag, love, etc B : cap, cat, back, cuff, etc C : bus, bush, buzz, match, etc D : child, ox, mouse, sheep, etc 2. Additional examples of allomorphs The examples: go/went, sing/sang A : grab [grabbed], hug [hugged] B : reap [reaped], poke [ poked] C : gloat [gloated] raid [raided] The phonological units of language In the physical world the nave speaker and hearer actualize and are sensitive to sounds, but what they feel themselves to be pronouncing and hearing are phonemes 1. Vowel Nasalization in English as an illustration of allophones The examples: Bin [bin] bead [bid] 2. Allophones of /t/ The examples : tick [ thik ] stick [stik] 3. Minimal Pairs in ASL 4. Complementary distribution The examples : distribution of oral and nasal vowel in English syllables In final before before Position nasal consonants oral consonants Oral vowels yes no yes Nasal vowels no yes no Distinctive features of phonemes a. Feature values b. Nondistinctive features c. Phonemic patterns may vary across languages d. Natural classes of speech sounds e. Feature specifications for American English Consonants and vowels

The rules of phonology a) Assimilation rules This rule specifies the class of sounds [Vowels] Phonetic change [change phonetic oral vowels to Phonetic nasal vowels] Phonological environment [before nasal consonants within the same syllable] b) Dissimilation rules c) Feature Changing rules d) Segment insertion and deletion rules e) Movement (metathesis) rules f) From one to many and from many to one g) The function of phonological rules h) Slips of the tongue : Evidence for phonological rules Prosodic phonology I. Syllable structure II. Word stress III. Sentence and phrase stress IV. Intonation Sequential constraints of phonemes All languages have constraints on the permitted sequences of phonemes. Although different languages have different constraint. Just spoken language has sequences of sounds that are not permitted in the language, so sing languages have forbidden combinations of features. They differ from one sign language to another, just as the constraints on sounds and sound sequences differ from one spoken language to another LEXICAL GAPS A possible word contains phonemes in sequences that obey the phonotactic constraints of the language. An actual, occurring word is the union of a possible word with a meaning. Possible words without meaning are something nonsense word and are also referred to as accidental gaps in the lexicon or lexical gaps.

Why do phonological rules exist? Many phonologists believe that phonological rule exist to ensure that the surface or phonetic forms of words do not violate phonotactic constraints. If underlying forms remained unmodified, they would often violate the phonotactics of the language.

A general constraint in English a) Obstruent sequences may not differ with respect to their voice feature at the end of a word b) Sequences of obstruents that differ at most with respect to voicing are not permitted within English words. Phonological analysis : Discovering phonemes