Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for

the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
1
Answers
Skills check
1 a
y
4
3
2
1
–2
–3
–1
–4
A C F
D
E
0 x
–4 –3 –2 –1 2 1 3 5 4
B
b A(0, 2), B(1, 0), C(−1, 0), D(0, 0), E(2, 1),
F(−2, −2), G(3, −1), H(−1, 1)
2 a 4x + 3y = 4(4) + 3(6)
= 16 + 18
= 34
b z
2
− 3y = (−10)
2
− 3(6)
= 100 − 18
= 82
c y − z = 6 − (−10)
= 6 + 10
= 16
d
+ 2 5 x
yz
=
+
× ÷
2(4) 5
6 ( 10)
= −
+ 8 5
60
= −
13
60
3 a 3x − 6 = 6
3x = 12
x = 4
b 5x + 7 = −3
5x = −3 − 7 = −10
x = −2
c
2
x
+ 6 = 11
x + 12 = 22
x = 10
4 a
–1 1
y
x
1
2
4
3
–2
–3
–4
–1
2 4 3 –4 –3 –2 7 6 5
0
Functions
1
b
–1 1
y
x
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
2 4 3 –2 5
0
c
–1 –2 –3 1 2 3
y
–2
–4
0 x
2
4
6
5 a (x + 4)(x + 5) = x
2
+ 5x + 4x + 20
= x
2
+ 9x + 20
b (x − 1)(x − 3) = x
2
− 3x − x + 3
= x
2
− 4x + 3
c (x + 5)(x − 4) = x
2
− 4x + 5x − 20
= x
2
+ x − 20
Investigation – handshakes
Represents one person. Represents one
handshake
1 a
So 4 people require 6 handshakes.
b Number of people Number of handshakes
2 1
3 3
4 6
5 10
6 15
7 21
8 28
9 36
10 45
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
2
c y
0 x
2 4 6 8 10
5
15
25
35
45
Number of people
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

h
a
n
d
s
h
a
k
e
s
d H =
1
2
n (n – 1)
Exercise 1A
1 a Function. All x values are different
b Function. All x values are different
c Relation. The domain contains more
than one 4
d Relation. The domain contains two ones
e Relation. The domain contains two – 4s
and two –3s
f Function. All x values are different.
2 a The domain is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
The range is {0, 1, 2}
It is a function because the domain has
exactly one of each value.
b The domain is {–1, 0, 1, 2, 3}
The range is {–1, 0, 1, 2, 3}
It is a function because the domain has
exactly one of each value.
3 It is a function because the domain has exactly
one of each value.
Exercise 1B
1 a
y
x 0
Function. Crosses only once
b
y
x
0
Function. Crosses only once
c
y
–1
–2
0 x
–1 –2 1 2 3 4
2
3
4
1
Relation. Crosses twice
d
y
x
0
Function. Crosses only once
e y
–2
0
x
2 1
2
1
–1
Relation. Crosses twice
f
y
0 x
Function. Crosses only once
g y
–2
–1
1
0 x
2 1 3 5 4
2
Relation. Crosses twice
h
y
–1
–2
0
x
–1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3
2
3
1
Function. Crosses only once
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
3
i
y
–2
–1
0 x
–2 –1 2 1
2
1
Function. Crosses only once
2 a y = x
0
–2 2
y
x
2
1
3
–2
–1
1 3 –1
b y = x + 2
–2 4 2
y
x
2
–2
–1
1
3
1 3 –3 –1
0
c y = 2x – 3
–2 4 2
y
x
2
–2
–1
1
–3
1 3 –1
0
d y = 4
–2 2
y
x
2
5
4
3
1
–1
–2
–1 1 3
0
e Yes. A vertical line will only cross them once.
f No, vertical lines such as x = 3 are not functions.
3
y
x
2
3
1
–2
–1
–3
4 2 1 3 –2 –1
0
Not a function as a vertical line crosses the region
in many places
4 Manipulate the equation to make y the subject:
y x y x
2 2 2
4 4 = − = ± − ,
There are two possible values of y for any given x.
For example, When x = 1, y = 3, − 3. The same
value in the domain has two possible values in the
range. Therefore x
2
+ y
2
= 4 is not a function.
Exercise 1C
1 y = 0

x
f(x) = 3
x
y
4
2
18
6
8
10
12
14
16
1 0.5 0 –0.5 –1 1.5 2.5 2
2 y = 0, x = 0.

0 x
y
4
2
–2
–4
–6
–8
8
6
4 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 6 8
3 y = 0, x = –1.

0 x
y
4
2
–2
–4
–6
–8
8
6
4 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 6 8
4 y = 2, x = – 2.

0 x
y
4
2
–2
–4
–6
–8
8
6
2 1 –1 –2 –3 –5 –4 3 5 4
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
4
5 y = 2, x = 1.

0 x
y
4
2
–2
–4
–6
–8
8
6
4 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 6 8
6 y = 0, x = – 3, x = 3.

0 x
y
4
2
–2
–4
–6
–8
8
6
4 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 6 8
Exercise 1D
1 It is a function. Domain of {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10} has no value repeated.
Range {1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36, 45}.
2 Note that domain and range can be expressed in
many ways.
a Domain x x y y Range { : }, { : } −4 4 0 4 < ≤ ≤ ≤
b ÷ s s s s { : 1 5}, Range { : 0 4} Domain x x y y
c Domain x x y y { : }, { : } −1 1 0 1 < < ≤ < Range
d Domain x x y y { : }, { : } −2 2 3 4 ≥ ≥ ≥ > Range
e Domain x x y y { : }, { : } −5 5 3 4 ≤ ≤ − ≤ ≤ Range
f ÷· < < · ÷ < < { : }, Range { : 1 1} Domain x x y y
g
Domain x x y y { : }, { : } −2 2 2 2 ≤ ≤ − ≤ ≤ Range
h
÷· < < · ÷· < < · { : }, Range { : } Domain x x y y
i Domain x ∈ , x ≠ 1, Range y ∈ , y ≠ 0.
3 a
–2 8 4
y
y = 2x – 3
x
12
10
8
6
4
–4
–2
2
–8
–6
2 6 –1
0
Domain x ∈ , Range y ∈
b
y
x
–2 2 0 4
4
8
10
12
14
16
–4
y = x
2
Domain x ∈ , Range y ≥ 0
c y
a
0
x
–2 2
5
10
15
20
–4 –6
y = x
2
+ 5x + 6
Domain x ∈ , Range y ≥ – 0.25
d y
a
0
x
–1 1 2
5
–5
–10
10
–2
–15
y = x
3
– 4
Domain x ∈ , Range y ∈
e y
0 x
20 40 60 80 100
2
4
6
8
10
y = √x
Domain x ≥ 0, Range y ≥ 0
f
y
0
x
20 40 60 80 100
2
4
6
8
10
a
y = √4 – x
Domain x ≤ 4, Range y ≥ 0
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
5
g
–4 –8 4 8
y
x
4
8
–4
–8
0
y =
1
x
Domain x ∈ , x ≠ 0, Range y ∈ , y ≠ 0
h
1 –1 –2
1
y
x
3
2
4
6
8
5
7
2 0
y = e
x
Domain x ∈ , Range y > 0
i
y
x
4
8
–4
–6
–10
–2
2
6
10
–8
4 2 6 –4 –2 –6 –8
0
y =
1
x + 2
Domain x ∈ , x ≠ – 2, Range y ∈ , y ≠ 0
j
10 –10 20
y
x
4
2
6
10
8
–4
–6
–10
–2
–8
0
y =
x + 4
x – 2
Domain x ∈ , x ≠ 2, Range y ∈ , y ≠ 1
k
1 –3 –1 3
y
x
4
–4
–8
7 5
0
y =
x
2
– 9
x + 3
Domain x ∈ , x ≠ –3, Range y ∈ , y ≠ – 6
l
1 –3 –1 3
0.5
y
x
1
1.5
2
2 4 6 –5 –4 5 –2 0
y =
2
x
2
+ 1
Domain x ∈ , Range 0 < y ≤ 2
Exercise 1E
1 a i f (7) = 7 – 2 = 5
ii f (–3) = –3 – 2 = – 5
iii f (
1
2
) =
1
2
– 2 = –1
1
2

iv f (0) = 0 – 2 = – 2
v f (a) = a – 2
b i f (3) = 3(7) = 21
ii f (–3) = 3(–3) = – 9
iii f (
1
2
) = 3(
1
2
) = 1
1
2
iv f (0) = 3(0) = 0
v f (a) = 3(a) = 3a
c i f (7) =
1
4
7
4
7 × =
ii f (–3) =
1
4
3
4
3 × − = −
iii f (
1
2
) =
1
4
1
2
1
8
× =
iv f (0) =
1
4
0 0 × =
v f (a) =
1
4 4
× = a
a
d i f (7) = 2(7) + 5 = 19
ii f (–3) = 2(–3) + 5 = –1
iii f (
1
2
) = 2(
1
2
) + 5 = 6
iv f (0) = 2(0) + 5 = 5
v f (a) = 2(a) + 5 = 2a + 5
e i f (7) = 7
2
+ 2 = 51
ii f (–3) = (–3)
2
+ 2 = 11
iii f (
1
2
) = (
1
2
)
2
+ 2 = 2
1
4
iv f (0) = (0)
2
+ 2 = 2
v f (a) = (a)
2
+ 2 = a
2
+ 2
2 a f (–a) = (–a)
2
– 4 = a
2
– 4
b f (a + 5) = (a + 5)
2
– 4 = a
2
+ 10a + 25 – 4
= a
2
+ 10a + 21
c f (a – 1) = (a – 1)
2
– 4 = a
2
– 2a + 1 – 4
= a
2
– 2a – 3
d f (a
2
– 2) = (a
2
– 2)
2
– 4 = a
4
– 4a
2
+ 4 – 4
= a
4
– 4a
2
e f (5 – a) = (5 – a)
2
– 4 = 25 – 10a + a
2
– 4
= a
2
– 10a + 21
3 a g(x) = 3, so 4 x – 5 = 3
4 x = 8
x = 2
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
6
b h(x) = –15
7 – 2x = –15
–2x = –8
x = 4
c g(x) = h(x), so 4 x – 5 = 7 – 2x
4x + 2x = 7 + 5
6x = 12
x = 2
4 a h( ) − = =
− −
− 3
1
3 6
1
9
b x = 6, as the denominator is zero and h(x) is
undefined.
5 a f (5) = 5
3
= 125
b The volume of a cube of side 5
6 a i g( ) . 6 4 75
3 6 1
6 2
19
4
= = =
( ) +
( ) −
ii g( ) . − = = =
− ( ) +
− ( ) −


2 1 25
3 2 1
2 2
5
4
iii g( ) . 0 0 5
3 0 1
0 2
1
2
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
iv g −













+







− −
= = =
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
3
2
0
7
3
0
b i g( ) 1 4
3 1 1
1 2
4
1
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
ii g( . )
.
.
.
.
1 5 11
3 1 5 1
1 5 2
5 5
0 5
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
iii g( . )
.
.
.
.
1 9 67
3 1 9 1
1 9 2
6 7
0 1
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
iv g( . )
.
.
.
.
1 99 697
3 1 99 1
1 99 2
6 97
0 01
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
v g( . )
.
.
.
.
1 999 6997
3 1 999 1
1 999 2
6 997
0 001
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
vi g( . )
.
.
.
.
1 9999 69997
3 1 9999 1
1 9999 2
6 9997
0 0001
= = = −
( ) +
( ) − −
c The value of g(x) is getting increasingly
smaller as x approaches 2.
d 2 because the denominator equals zero when
x = 2. Division by zero is undefined.
e
4 8
y
f
x
10
20
–10
–20
12 16 –4 –8
0
There is a vertical asymptote at x = 2, as
x = 2 makes the denominator zero and
g(x) is undefined.
7 a The initial velocity occurs when t = 0.
V(0) = (0
2
– 9) ms
–1
= –9 ms
–1
b V(4) = (4
2
– 9) ms
–1
= 7 ms
-1
c V(10) = (10
2
– 9) ms
–1
= 91 ms
–1

d The particle comes to rest when V(t) = 0.
t
2
– 9 = 0 ⇒ t
2
= 9 ⇒ t = 3s.
8 a f h
h h h
h
h h h
h
h
h
( ) 2 1
2 2
2 2
+ = = = =
+ ( ) + ( ) − + ( ) + + − −
b
( ) ( ) ( )) + + ÷ +
+ + ÷ ÷
+ = = = =
3 3
3 3
(3 ) 1
h h h
h h h h
h h h
f h
Exercise 1F
1 a f g D ( )( ) = + ( ) = 3 3 3 1 12
b f g D ( )( ) = + ( ) = 0 3 0 1 3
c f g D ( ) − ( ) = − + ( ) = − 6 3 6 1 15
d f g x x x D ( )( ) = + ( ) = + 3 1 3 3
e g f D ( )( ) = ( ) ( )
+ = 4 3 4 1 13
f g f D ( )( ) = ( ) ( )
+ = 5 3 5 1 16
g
g f D ( ) − ( ) = − ( ) ( )
+ = − 6 3 6 1 17
h g f x x x D ( )( ) = ( ) ( )
+ = + 3 1 3 1
i f h D ( )( ) = ( ) +
( )
= 2 3 2 2 18
2
j
h f D ( )( ) = ( ) ( )
+ = 2 3 2 2 38
2
k f h x x x D ( )( ) = ( ) +
( )
= + 3 2 3 6
2
2
l h f x x x D ( )( ) = ( ) ( )
+ = + 3 2 9 2
2
2
m g h D ( )( ) = ( ) +
( )
+ = 3 3 2 1 12
2
n h g D ( )( ) = + ( ) + = 3 3 1 2 18
2
o g h x x x D ( )( ) = ( ) +
( )
+ = +
2
2
2 1 3
p h g x x D ( )( ) = + ( ) + = 1 2
2
x
2
+ 2x + 3
2 a g f D ( )( ) = − ( ) −
( )
= 1 3 1 1 3
2
b g f t t t D ( )( ) = − ( ) −
( )
= − 3 1 4
2
2
c g f D ( )( ) = − ( ) −
( )
= − 4 3 4 1 12
2
d f g D ( )( ) = − ( ) ( )
− = − 3 3 3 1 1
2
e g f D ( )( ) = − ( ) −
( )
= − 3 3 3 1 5
2
f f g D ( ) − ( ) = − − ( ) ( )
− = 4 3 4 1 48
2
g f g x x D ( ) + ( ) = − + ( ) ( )
− = 1 3 1 1
2
(2 – x)
2
– 1
= (4 – 2x + x
2
) – 1 = 3 – 4x + x
2
h ( )( ) ( ) ( )
+ = ÷ + ÷ D
2
2 3 2 1 f g x x = (1 – x)
2
– 1
= (1 – 2x + x
2
) – 1 = x
2
– 2x
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
7
3 a f g x x D ( )( ) = + ( ) = 2
2
x
2
+ 4x + 4
b f g D ( )( ) = ( ) +
( )
= 3 3 2
2
25
4 a f g x x x D ( )( ) = +
( )
= + 5 1 5 5
2 2
b g f x x D ( )( ) = ( ) + = 5 1
2
25x
2
+ 1
5 a g h x x D ( )( ) = − ( ) + = 4 3
2
x
2
– 8x + 19
b h g x x D ( )( ) = +
( )
− =
2
3 4 x
2
– 1
c x
2
– 8x + 19 = x
2
– 1
–8x + 19 = –1
–8x = –18
x = 2.5
6 r s x x D ( )( ) = ( ) − =
2
4 x
2
– 4
Domain x ∈ , Range y ≥ – 4
Exercise 1G
1 The following have inverse functions. b, c.
a No inverse function. Horizontal line crosses
the graph twice.
y
0 x
–2 –1 1 2 –3 –5 –4
2
1
3
5
7
4
6
b Has an inverse function. Any horizontal line
crosses the graph once only.
1 2 3 4
1
–1
–3
–2
2
3
4
5
6
7
–2 –1 –3 –5 –4 –6
y
0 x
a
c Has an inverse function. Any horizontal line
crosses the graph once only.

y
0
x
2 1 3 5 4 6
2
3
1
d No inverse function. Horizontal line crosses
the graph more than once.
y
0
x
–2 –1 –3 –4 2 1 3 5 4
2
1
2 a
–4 –8 4 8
y
x
4
8
–4
–8
0
b
–4 –8 4 8
y
x
4
8
–4
–8
0
c
–4 –8 4 8
y
x
4
8
–4
–8
0
d
–4 –8 4 8
y
x
4
8
–4
–8
0
e
0
2 1 3
y
x
4
8
–4
4 –2 –1 –3 –4
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
8
f
2 1 3
y
x
4
6
2
–4
4 5 –2 –3 –1
0
Exercise 1H
1 a i g(1) = 2(1) – 4 = –2 and

( )( )
( ) ( ) ÷ +
÷ +
= = = D
2 1 4 4
2 4
2 2
1 1 f g
ii f ( ) − = =
− +
3
3 4
2
1
2
and
( )( )
÷ + | | | |
| |
\ . \ .
÷ = ÷ = ÷ =÷ D
3 4 1
2 2
3 2 4 2 4 3 g f
iii f g x x
x
D
( )( )
( ) − ( ) +
= =
2 4 4
2
iv g f x x
x
D
( )( )
+ ⎛





= − = 2 4
4
2
b they are inverses of each other
2 a x y
x y
y
f x
x
x
= −
+ =
=
=
+
+

3 1
1 3
1
3
1
3
1
( )
b x y
x y
x y
g x x
= −
+ =
+ =
= +

3
3
3
1 3
2
2
2
2 ( )
c x y
x y
x y
h x x
= +
− =
− =
= −

1
4
1
4
5
5
4 5
4 5
1
( )
( ) ( )
d x y
x y
x y
f x x
= −
+ =
+ ( ) =
= + ( )

3
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
3 ( )
e x
x
y
g x
y
y
x
x
= −
+ =
=
=
+
+

1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
( )
f x y
x y
y
y
h x
x
x
x
= +
− =
=
=
=




2 3
3 2
3
3
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
( )
g x
x y y
x xy y
x y xy
x y x
y
f x
y
y
x
x
x
x
=
+ =
+ =
= −
= −
=
=
+
( )



3
3
1
3
1
3
3
3
3 1
1
( )
( )
h x
x y y
x xy y
x y xy
x y x
y
f x
y
y
x
x
x
x
=
− =
− =
= +
= +
=
=

( )
+

2
5
5
2
5
5 2
5 2
5 2
5 2
1
( )
( )
++ 2
3 a x = 1 – y
y + x = 1
y = 1 – x
f
–1
(x) = 1 – x
b x = y
f
–1
(x) = x
c x =
1
y

xy = 1
y =
1
x
f
–1
(x) =
1
x
4 a f (x) = 6 – x
x = 6 – y
x – 6 = –y
6 – x = y
f
–1
(x) = 6 – x
f
–1
(5) = 6 – 5 = 1
b f (x) =
10
7 x +
x
y
y
f x
f
y
x
x
x
=
+ =
= −
= −
= − = −
+


10
7
10
10
10
10
5
7
7
7
5 7 5
1
1
( )
( )
c
f x
x
y
y
y
f x
x
y
x
x
x
x
( )
( )
=
=
− =
= +
= +
= +









2
4 3
2
4 3
2
2
1
4
2
1
4
2
4 3
4 3
3
3
1 ⎛⎛











= × =

= + f
1
5 3
1
4
2
5
1
4
17
5
17
20
( )
5 f x
x
x y y
xy x y
xy y x
y x x
x
x
y
y
( )
( )
( )
=
=
− = +
− = +
− = +
− = +
+

+

1
2
1
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
1 2 1
yy
f x
x
x
x
x
=
=
+

+


2 1
1
2 1
1
1
( )
6 x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
f (x) 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64
0
2
y
x
4
8
–4
4 –2
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
9
d f (x). Domain x ∈, Range y > 0
f
–1
(x). Domain x > 0, Range y ∈.
7 g(x) = x has domain x ≥ 0.
First, find g
–1
(x):
x = y , x ≥ 0
x
2
= y, x ≥ 0
g
–1
(x) = x
2
, x ≥ 0
The graph of g
–1
(x) is shown below.

y
x
g
–1
(x)
0
You can see that g
–1
(x) has domain x ≥ 0
range g
–1
(x) ≥ 0.
Now, the graph of f (x) = x
2
is shown below:
y
x
f(x)
0
You can see that f (x) has domain x ∈
range f (x) ≥ 0.
Hence, f (x) and g
–1
(x) are different.
8 Let f (x) = mx + c.
x = my + c
x – c = my
÷
x c
m m
= y
f
–1
(x) =
1
m
c
m
x −
For graphs of f(x) and f
−1
(x) to be perpendicular,
m
m
×
1
should be –1 but m
m
×
1
= 1.
Exercise 1I
1 a
4 2 6
y
x
4
6
2
8
–4
–2
8 –4 –2 –8 –6
0
b
2
4
y
x
4
6
–4
–2
0
–6
–4 –8 –2 2 6 8 –6
c
4 8 2 6
2
0
y
x
4
6
–4
–2
–4 –8 –2 –6
d
4 8 2 6
2
y
x
4
6
–4
–2
–4
0
–8 –2 –6
e
4 8
2
y
x
6
–4
–4
0
–8 10
f
4 8 2 6
2
y
x
4
8
6
10
–4
–2
–6
–4
0
–8
–8 –2 –6
g
10 15
2
y
x
4
6
–4
–2
–10
0
–15
2 g is a vertical translation of 2 units, so
g(x) = f (x) + 2.
h is is a vertical translation of – 4 units, so
h(x) = f (x) – 4.
q is a horizontal stretch of scale factor 2, so
q(x) = f (
1
2
x).
3 q is a horizontal translation of – 4 and a vertical
translation of –2, so q(x) = f (x + 4) – 2
r is a reflection in the x axis, so r(x) = –f (x).
s is a horizontal translation of – 4, so
s(x) = f (x + 4).
t is a horizontal translation of 2, so t(x) = f (x – 2).
4
2
2
y
f(x)
x
4
–2
–2 0 –4 –6
This is the graph of f (x). It has domain –4 ≤ x ≤ 2
It has range −2 ≤ f (x) ≤ 3
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
10
a 2f (x – 5) is a horizontal translation of 5,
followed by a vertical stretch of scale
factor 2.

4
4
y
x
2
6
8
–4
–2
–4
0
–8 2 6 8 –2 –6
f(x)
2f(x – 5)
2f (x – 5) has domain 1 ≤ x ≤ 7, and has range
–4 ≤ 2f (x – 5) ≤ 6.
b –f (2x) + 3 is a horizontal stretch of scale
factor
1
2
followed by reflection in the
x-axis, followed by a vertical translation of 3.

4
4
y
x
2
6
8
–4
–2
–4
0
–8 6 8 –2 –6
f(x)
–f(2x) + 3
–f (2x) + 3 has domain –2 ≤ x ≤ 1, and has
range 0 ≤ y ≤ 5.
5 a f (x + 1) is a horizontal translation of f (x) by
–1 units.
y
–2
–4
0
x
–2 –4 2 4
2
4
A
1
g
f
b f (x) + 1 is a vertical translation of
f (x) by +1 unit.
y
–2
–4
0
x
–2 –4 2 4
2
4
A
1
A g
f
c f (–x) is a reflection of f (x) in the y-axis.
y
–2
–4
0 x
–2 –4 2 4
2
4
A
1
A
g
f
d 2f (x) is a vertical stretch of f (x) by scale factor 2.
y
–2
–4
0 x
–2 –4 2 4
2
4
A
1
A
g
f
e f (x – 2) + 3 is a horizontal translation of f (x) by
2 units, followed by a vertical translation of 3
units.
y
–2
–4
0 x
–2 –4 –8 2 4 6 8 10
2
4
6
A
1
A
g
f
6 a Reflection in the x-axis.
b Horizontal translation of 3 units.
c A vertical stretch of scale factor 2 followed by
a reflection in the x-axis and then a vertical
translation of 5 units.
7
2
0
4 1 3
2
y
x
a
b
1
3
5
4
–2 –4 –1 –3
g(x) is a horizontal translation of f (x) by –3 units,
followed by a vertical translation of –2 units.
Review exercise
1 a g(a – 2) = 4(a – 2) –5 = 4a – 8 – 5
= 4a – 13.
b h x
x
x
x
x
1
1 1
1 1
2
− = =
( )
+ − ( )
− −

( )
2 a f (x – 3) = 2(x – 3)
2
– 3(x – 3) + 1
= 2x
2
– 12x + 18 – 3x + 9 + 1
= 2x
2
– 15x + 28
b f g x x x x D ( )( ) = −
( )
+ = − + = − + 2 1 7 2 2 7 2 9
2 2 2

Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
11
3 a f x
x
x y
x y
y
f x
x
y
x
x
( )
( )
=
=
= +
− =
=
=
+
+



3 17
2
3 17
2
2 17
3
2 17
3
2 3 17
2 17 3
1
b
g x x
x y
x y
y
y
g x
x
x
x
( )
( )
= +
= +
− =
=
=
=




2 3
2 3
3 2
3
3
3
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
4 f x x
x y
x y
x y
x y
( )
( )
= −
= −
+ =
− + =
− − =



1
5
1
5
1
5
1
1
1
5 1
5 5
f x x

= − −
1
5 5 ( )
0
2
y
x
4
–2
–4
–6
2 4 –2 –4 6 –6
6
(0,–1)
f
5 a f x x
x y
x y
y
f x
x
x
( )
( )
= +
= +
− =
=
=



3 5
3 5
5 3
5
3
5
3
1
b
÷
= +
= +
= +
÷ =
= ÷
3
3
3
3
1 3
( ) 2
2
2
2
( ) 2
f x x
x y
x y
x y
f x x
6 Reflect each graph in the line y = x
a
0
2 4
2
y
x
4
–2
–4
–2
(0,–1)
f
b
1 –1
1
y
x
–1
–3
–2
2
4
3
2
0
7 a Domain x ∈,Range y ≥ 0
b Domain x ∈, x ≠ 3, Range y ∈, y ≠ 0
8 a Reflect in the y-axis. f (x) = –x
Vertical stretch scale factor 2. f (x) = –2x
Horizontal stretch scale factor
1
3
. f (x) = –2(3x)
Translate 3 units left. f (x) = –2(3x + 3)
Translate 2 units up. f (x) = –2(3x + 3) + 2
Expand and simplify. f (x) = –6x – 4 = –2(3x +2)
b Reflect in the x axis. f (x) = – (x
2
)
Stretch vertically by scale factor
1
4
.
f x
x
( ) = − ( )
1
4
2
Stretch horizontally scale factor 3. f x x ( ) = −






1
4
1
3
2
Translate 5 units right.
| |
÷
|
\ .
= ÷
2
1 1
4 3
( ) 5 f x x
Translate 1 unit down.
| |
÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ÷
2
1 1
4 3
( ) 5 1 f x x
9 a The graph of an inverse function is the
reflection of the graph of the original function
in the line y = x.
b Graph a line with a y-intercept of 3 and slope
of 2. Draw the line y = x. To graph its inverse,
sketch the mirror image of the original line.
–4 8 4
y
y = 2x + 3
y = x
x
8
6
4
–4
–2
2
–8
–6
2 6 –6 –8 –2
0
y = x –
1
2
3
2
10 a g (0) = 3(0) –2 = –2
b f g D ( )( ) = − ( ) + = − + = − 0 2 2 3 16 3 13
3
c f x x
x y
x y
y
f x
x
x
( ) = +
= +
− =
=
=

( )


2 3
2 3
3 2
3
3
3
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
11 a f (–x) is a reflection of f (x) in the line x = 0.

2
0
1
2
y
x
4
3
1
5
–2 –4 –3 –1
b g(x) =
1
2
f (x – 1) describes the transformation:
Horizontal translation by 1 unit, followed by
vertical stretch, scale factor
1
2
. so P is (4, 1)
12 a ( f
°
g) (x) = 3(x + 2) = 3x + 6
b f
–1
(x) =
x
3
and g
–1
(x) = x – 2
f
–1
(12) =
12
3
= 4
g
–1
(12) = 12 – 2 = 10
f
–1
(12) + g
–1
(12) = 4 + 10
f
–1
(12) + g
–1
(12) = 14
13 a (h
°
g) (x) =
3 2 1
2 1 2
( ) x
x

− ( ) −
=
6 3
2 3
x
x


b
6 3
2 3
1
2
0
6 3 0
6 3
x
x
x
x
x


=
− =
=
=
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
12
Review exercise
1 Domain: x ≥ – 2 Range: y > 0
2
2
0
4 1 3
y
x
4
2
6
10
8
12
14
16
–4
–2
–2 –4 –1 –3
Domain: x ∈ Range: y ≥ – 4
3 y
–4
–6
–2
–8
0 x
–2 –3 –5 –1 –4 –6 2 1
4
2
6
10
8
12
Domain: x ∈, x ≠ – 2 Range: y ∈, y ≠ 0
4 a
y
–2
–6
–8
–4
0
x
–1 –2 –3 1 2
2
4
8
6
b x-intercept –1.5, y-intercept 3.
5 a
y
0 x
–2 –4 –6 2 4 6
2
4
6
b 0
c Domain: x ∈, x ≠ 0. Range: y > 0.
6 a x = –2, y = 2.
b
y
–4
–8
0 x
f
–4 –8 –12 4 8 12
4
8
12
16
c (2.5, 0), (0, –2.5)
7 a
–1 –2 –3 1 2 3
y
–2
–4
–6
0 x
2
4
6
b ± 2
8 a f (x) = x
3
− 3
x = y
3
− 3
x + 3 = y
3

y = x +3
3
f
−1
(x) = x +3
3
b y
–2
–4
0 x
–2 –4 –6 2 4 6
2
4
6
c 1.67
9
–10
y
0
x
x = –1
y = –1
–2 –1 –3 –5 –4 2 1
10
20
Worked solutions: Chapter 1 © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute
WORKED SOLUTIONS
13
10 a f (x) = 3x − 2
x = 3y − 2
x + 2 = 3y
y =
x + 2
3
f
−1
(x) =
x + 2
3
b ( g
–1

°
f ) (x) = (3x − 2) + 3 = 3x + 1
c f g
x x

( )
− + −
= =
1
3 2
3
1
3
D
( )
d f g x g f x
− −
( )
( )
( )
( ) =
1 1
D D , so

x
x

= +
1
3
3 1

x x
x x
x
x
− = +
− = +
=
=


1 3 3 1
1 9 3
8 4
1
2
( )
e
y
y = 3
x = 3
–4
–2
0 x
–4 –2 –6 4 2 6 8
4
2
6
10
8
12
f x = 3, y = 3

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