# Math 143 Project: Parametric Equations

Andrew Manalastas & Sean Mitchell February 23, 2007 Dr. Linda Patton

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐ฌ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ป๐๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ณ๐๐๐ ๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ช๐๐๐๐ ๐พ๐๐๐ ๐ฝ = ๐ฅ
= acos 2๐+1 (๐) ๐ฆ = asin2๐+1 (๐) ๐๐๐๐ก: ๐๐ฆ ๐ ๐๐ก ๐๐ฅ 4 ๐

: ๐ ๐๐ฅ

= 2๐ + 1 acos 2k (๐) โ sin ๐ ๐๐ ๐๐ฆ = 2๐ + 1 asin2k (๐)( cos ๐) ๐๐ ๐๐ฆ
๐๐ฅ

= ๐๐ฆ

๐๐ 1 ๐๐ฅ ๐๐

= ๐๐ฆ
๐๐ฅ

2๐+1 asin 2k (๐)( cos ๐ ) 2๐+1 acos 2k ๐ โ sin ๐ ๐ 4

= tan ๐

2k ๐

โ1 tan ๐ ๐ 4

=

โ(tan 2๐ ๐ tan ๐

๏ผ ๐ท๐๐๐ ๐๐ก

= 2๐ =

โ tan 2๐ 4 ๐
tan ( 4 )

= โ tan2๐

= โ๐ ๐๐

๐ ๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ & ๐ฆ ๐๐๐ก๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ก ๐ ๐๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐: ๐๐ ๐ ๐ฆ2 โ ๐ฆ1 = ๐(๐ฅ2 โ ๐ฅ1 ) ๐ฆ๐๐๐ โ asin2๐+1 (๐) = โ1 ๐ฅ โ acos2๐+1 ๐ ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐ โ asin2๐+1 (๐) = โ๐ฅ + acos2๐+1 ๐ ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐ = โ๐ฅ + acos2๐+1 ๐ + asin2๐+1 (๐) ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐ = โ๐ฅ + acos
2๐+1 ๐

4

+ asin

2๐+1 ๐

4

1 ๐๐ฆ /๐๐ ๐๐ฅ

/๐๐ ๐๐ 2 ๐๐ฆ yields the ๐๐ฅ

= ๐๐ฆ

ร ๐๐

๐๐ฅ

= ๐๐ฆ

๐๐ฅ

. ๐
4

slope of the tangent line (m) at a given point. In this case, the point is .

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐

= โ๐ฅ + ๐

2 2

2๐+1

+ ๐ 2 2 2

2 2

2๐+1

2๐+1 ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐

= โ๐ฅ + 2๐ ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐

= โ๐ฅ + 2๐

1 โ๐ 2

2 ๐
๐

๏ผ ๐๐๐๐๐ = ๐ ๐ = โ๐ + ๐ ๐

โ๐

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐ฐ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ป๐๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ณ๐๐๐: ๐ฆ

โ ๐๐๐ก๐๐๐๐๐๐ก: ๐ฆ = ๐๐ฅ + ๐ ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐ = โ๐ฅ + ๐ 2 ๏ผ ๐ โ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐3
1 โ๐ 2 ๐
๐

= ๐ ๐

โ๐ ๐ฅ

โ ๐๐๐ก๐๐๐๐๐๐ก: ๐ฆ๐ก๐๐ = โ๐ฅ + ๐ 2 0 = โ๐ฅ + ๐ 2 ๐ฅ = ๐ 2 ๏ผ ๐ฟ โ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐4
1 2 โ๐

1 2 โ๐

1 2 โ๐

= ๐ ๐ ๐

๐

โ๐

It is important to recognize that from the ๐ฆ = ๐๐ฅ + ๐ equation, the y-intercept is b, which equals ๐ 2 2 โ๐ . 4 Another important fact to recognize is that since the slope of the tangent line is equal to negative one and that the square is centered about the origin, the y-intercept is the same distance from the origin as the x-intercept; therefore, they have the same value.
3

1

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐จ๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐บ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐บ๐ โ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ โ ๐ฐ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐: ๐ด๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐: ๐
๐ ๐ฆ

๐๐ฅ =
1 2

1 โ๐ ๐ 2 2

0

โ๐ฅ + ๐ 2
1 2

โ๐ ๐๐ฅ

=

โ๐ฅ 2 2 1 2 โ๐

+ ๐ 2
2

โ๐ ๐ฅ

1 โ๐ ๐ 2 2

0

=

โ ๐ 2

2

+ โ 0 โ 2
2 ๐

2

1 โ๐ 2 ๐

2

1 โ๐ 2

+ ๐ 0
2

2

1 2 โ๐

=

โ ๐ 2

1 โ๐ 2

2 ๐
2

+ ๐

2

1 2 โ๐

2

=

โ 2๐2 2

1 4

+ ๐

2

1 2 โ๐

2

=

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

โ๐

2

1 4 ๐

+ 2๐

2

1 4 ๐

=

๏ผ= ๐

๐ ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐ด๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ ๐๐ : By symmetry, area of the entire square = 4 ร (๐ด๐๐๐ ๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐)

๏ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ = 4 ร ๐2

1 ๐ 4

๏ผ ๐จ๐๐๐๐บ๐๐๐๐๐ 5 = ๐๐๐ ๐

๐ ๐

5

Although this area problem is intended to be solved using calculus and the method of integration, the area can be derived more easily using basic geometry as demonstrated on the next page.

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐จ๐๐๐

๐๐ ๐บ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐บ๐ โ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ โ ๐ฎ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐: ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐๐ ๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ ๐๐ฆ ๐๐ฆ๐๐๐๐ก๐๐ฆ = 4 ร ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐ : ๏ ๐ด๐๐๐๐ ๐๐ข๐๐๐ = 4 ร
1 2 ๐๐

๏ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ = 2๐๐

๏ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ = 2๐ฅ 2 ๏ ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐ = ๐ 2
1 โ ๐ 2

2

๏ผ ๐จ๐๐๐๐บ๐๐๐๐๐ 6 = ๐๐๐ ๐

๐ ๐

6

We see from the picture that the area of the triangle is ยฝ ๐๐. Since one triangle is ยผ of a square, the formula for the square is four times the area of the triangle, which is 2๐๐ or equivalently 2๐ฅ 2 . With this information, it is obvious to start with the area of the triangle. The distance โxโ from the origin to the x-intercept yields the total length of the base of the triangle, which we see is the value of the x-intercept. Using this value for x, the area of the square is computed by plugging x into the equation 2๐ฅ 2 .

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐ฌ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐

: ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ก๐๐ ๐๐ข๐๐ฃ๐ ๐ถ ๐๐  ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 . To define 2๐2 we first show the graph7 of the asteroid having vertices of the asteroid occur at a distance โaโ from the origin. By symmetry, connecting all four vertices by straight lines forms a second square that is symmetrical about the origin. ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐ ๐๐ ๐ก๐๐๐  ๐ ๐๐ข๐๐๐ ๐๐  ๐๐๐ฃ๐๐ ๐๐ฆ ๐ก๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐ "๐๐" ๐๐ ๐ฅ 2 . To find the length of one side of the square surrounding the asteroid, we must look at the graph and see the edge length can be found by using the Pythagorean Theorem. Defining the length of one side to be x and using the Pythagorean Theorem, we get: ๏ ๐ฅ = ๏ ๐ฅ = ๐2 + ๐2 2๐2

๏ผ ๐ = ๐ ๐ Plugging this value back into the formula for the area of the square, we get: ๐ด๐๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐
2

= ๐ 2

2

๏ผ ๐จ๐๐๐๐บ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ = ๐๐๐ Therefore, 2๐2 is a square that encompasses the asteroid.
7

When graph is used in this explanation, it is referring to the graph immediately following the conclusion to this problem. All references to f(x), g(x), and h(x) can be seen and illustrated in the graph for clarification.

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

The inequality: ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 states that the total area of the square inside the asteroid is less than or equal to the total area of the asteroid and the total area of the asteroid is less than or equal to the total area of the square surrounding the asteroid. In order to prove the inequality: ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 , we must make an argument that shows the output of each function falls within the inequality given, meaning that for a set value of x, the output of y for ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 . In this case, the functions that represent ๐๐ ๐๐๐ 2๐2 are the lines of their sides defined as ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐๐ ๐ ๐ฅ , ๐๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐ก๐๐ฃ๐๐๐ฆ. Since the entire graph is symmetrical about the origin, we will focus on one quadrant to prove this argument.

Proof for ๐(๐) โฅ ๐(๐): We will start with the side of the outside square by the function ๐(๐ฅ) representing its line: From part two and three, we found the slope of the tangent line (๐(๐ฅ)) for the inside square to be -1. This allows us to deduct that the slope of the line representing one side of the outside square to be -1 through the properties of parallel lines. And since the yintercept is (0, a), the equation of the line is: ๏ผ ๐(๐) = โ๐ + ๐ To prove that ๐ ๐ฅ โฅ ๐(๐ฅ), we compare the output of the two lines: ๐(๐ฅ) = โ๐ฅ + ๐ 2 ๐(๐ฅ) = โ๐ฅ + ๐
1 2 โ๐

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

By looking at the two functions, we know that ๏ผ ๐(๐) โฅ ๐(๐) ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ โฅ ๐. Because we are told to assume k is an integer โฅ 2, we know for certain that the graph of ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐  ๐๐๐ค๐๐ฆ๐  ๐๐๐๐ฃ๐ ๐ ๐ฅ , ๐ ๐๐ก๐๐ ๐๐ฆ๐๐๐ ๐ก๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ข๐๐๐๐ก๐ฆ ๐๐๐ ๐(๐ฅ) โฅ ๐(๐ฅ) ๐๐๐ ๐๐ฃ๐๐๐ฆ ๐ฃ๐๐๐ข๐ ๐ฅ. From this, we can conclude that: ๏ผ ๐ ๐ โฅ ๐ ๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ โค ๐ โค ๐ ๐
๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐ โฅ ๐
๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐

This means that for every 0 โค ๐ฅ โค ๐, the graph of the outside square is always above the inside square; therefore, the area of the outside square 2๐2 is always greater than the area of the inside square (๐๐ ).

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

At this point, we have proven the first part of the inequality ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 in that ๐(๐ฅ) โค ๐ ๐ฅ . The next step would be to show that the curve, defined as ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐  ๐๐๐๐ฃ๐ ๐ ๐ฅ .

Proof for ๐  ๐ฑ โฅ ๐ ๐ฑ : We take the second derivative ๐
2 ๐ฆ ๐๐ฅ 2

at to show the curve is concave
4 ๐

upwards at the point of tangency between the inside square and the outside square: ๐ ๐๐ฆ ๐ ๐ฆ ๐๐ ๐๐ฅ = ๐๐ฅ ๐๐ฅ 2 ๐๐ก
2 ๐

๐๐ฆ ๐ โ tan2๐ ๐ = = ๐๐ ๐๐ฅ ๐๐ tan ๐ (tan ๐) ๐ ๐ (โtan2๐ ๐) โ (tan ๐)(โ tan2๐ ๐) ๐๐ ๐๐ = 2 ๐ tan

(tan ๐) โ2๐ tan2๐โ1 ๐ (sec 2 ๐) โ (sec 2 ๐)(โ tan2๐ ๐) tan2 ๐ ๐๐ฅ

= 2๐ + 1 acos2k (๐) โ sin ๐ ๐๐ก

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐

๐๐ฆ ๐ ๐ฆ ๐๐ ๐๐ฅ = = ๐๐ฅ ๐๐ฅ 2 ๐๐ก
2

(tan ๐) โ2๐ tan2๐โ1 ๐ (sec 2 ๐) โ (sec 2 ๐)(โ tan2๐ ๐) tan2 ๐
2๐ + 1 acos2k (๐) โ sin ๐

=

(tan ๐) 2๐ tan2๐โ1 ๐ (sec 2 ๐) โ (sec 2 ๐)(โtan2๐ ๐) = tan2 ๐ 2๐ + 1 acos2k (๐) โ sin ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐ 2๐ tan2๐โ1 (sec 2 ) โ (sec 2 )(โ tan2๐ ) 4 4 4 4 4 = ๐ ๐ ๐ (tan2 ) 2๐ + 1 acos2k โ sin 4 4 4 โ๐๐ + ๐ ๐๐ + ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐

tan

โ ๐ ๐

> 0 ๐๐ ๐

๐๐๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ ๐ ๐

This indicates that the curve ๐(๐ฅ) is upwards at .
4

By using the Concavity Test, this proves that the curve ๐(๐ฅ) is always above ๐ ๐ฅ , satisfying the inequality for ๐ ๐ฅ โฅ ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐๐ ๐๐ฃ๐๐๐ฆ ๐ฃ๐๐๐ข๐ ๐ฅ.

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

From this we can conclude that: ๐ ๐ โฅ ๐ ๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ โค ๐ โค ๐ ๐
๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐ โฅ ๐
๐ ๐

(๐)๐๐

This means that for every 0 โค ๐ฅ โค ๐, the graph of the asteroid is always above the inside square; therefore, the area of the asteroid (Area(C)) is always greater than the area of the inside square (๐๐ ).

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

At this point, we have proven the second part of the inequality ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 in that ๐(๐ฅ) โฅ ๐ ๐ฅ . The last step would be to show that the curve, defined as ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐  ๐๐๐๐๐ค ๐ ๐ฅ . We know that the x and y-coordinates of the curve ๐(๐ฅ) are defined by ๐ฅ = acos 2๐+1 ๐ ๐๐๐ ๐ฆ = asin2๐+1 ๐ From the graph, we see that the x-coordinate for ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐๐ ๐ ๐ฅ are the same, but that the y-coordinate for h(x) is defined as ๐ โ acos 2๐+1 ๐ To compare the output of the two functions, we must do it in terms of ๐ because removing the parameter for ๐(๐ฅ) is difficult.

Proof for ๐ ๐ โฅ ๐(๐): ๐ โ acos 2๐+1 ๐ โฅ asin2๐+1 ๐ (๐ โ acos 2๐+1 ๐) โ (asin2๐+1 ๐) โฅ 0 ๐ 1 โ cos2๐+1 ๐ + sin2๐+1 ๐ โฅ0

1 โ cos2๐+1 ๐ + sin2๐+1 ๐ โฅ 0 cos2๐+1 ๐ + sin2๐+1 ๐ โค 1 Since: cos ๐ โค 1 cos2๐+1 ๐ โค 1 Similarly: sin2๐+1 ๐ โค 1

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

Therefore: cos2๐+1 ๐ + sin2๐+1 ๐ โค (cos2 ๐ + sin2 ๐ = 1) ๐(1 โ cos2๐+1 ๐ โ sin2๐+1 ๐) โฅ 0 ๐ โ ๐๐๐จ๐ฌ ๐๐+๐ ๐ฝ โฅ ๐๐ฌ๐ข๐ง๐๐+๐ ๐ฝ Since ๐ โ acos 2๐+1 ๐ corresponds to the y-coordinate of h(x), and asin2๐+1 ๐ corresponds to the y-coordinate of g(x), this proves that ๐ ๐ฅ ๐๐  ๐๐๐ค๐๐ฆ๐  ๐๐๐๐ฃ๐ ๐ ๐ฅ . From this we can conclude that: ๐ ๐ โฅ ๐ ๐ ๐๐๐ ๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ โค ๐ โค ๐ ๐
๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐ โฅ ๐
๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐

This means that for every 0 โค ๐ฅ โค ๐, the graph of the outer square is always above the asteroid; therefore, the area of the outer square 2๐2 is greater than the area of the asteroid (Area(C)).

Conclusion: The inequality ๐๐ โค ๐ด๐๐๐ ๐ถ โค 2๐2 is true because ๐(๐) โค ๐(๐) โค ๐(๐) for all x.

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell

Extra Credit:
The area Sk gives a lower bound approximation for the asteroid of Area(C). To find an upper bound approximation we need a value B, that is greater than Area(C), but less than the area 2a2, since 2a2 is much bigger than Area(C) when k is a large number. Looking at the graph8 we can divide a section of the asteroid into two equal triangles and a rectangle, giving an upper bound area B defined as: ๐ฉ = ๐ ๐๐จ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐ + ๐จ๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ด๐ก๐๐๐๐๐๐๐

= ๐ด๐ก๐๐๐๐๐๐๐ =

1 ๐๐ 2 ๐๐๐๐  2๐+1 2 2 ๐ ๐
2๐+1

1 ๐ ๐ โ ๐๐ ๐๐2๐+1 2 4 2 2 ๐ ๐
2๐+1 ๐

4

1 = ๐ โ ๐ 2 ๐ ๐ = ๐ ๐ ๐ ๐๐

+๐ ๐๐

+๐

โ ๐๐

8

When graph is used in this explanation, it is referring to the graph immediately following the conclusion to this problem. All references to the triangles and rectangle can be seen and illustrated in the graph for clarification.

Math 143 -04 Dr. Linda Patton

Calculus 3 Project

Andrew Manalastas Sean Mitchell ๐ด๐๐๐๐ก๐๐๐๐๐

= ๐๐ ๐ด๐๐๐๐ก๐๐๐๐๐ = ๐๐๐๐  2๐+1 2 2
2๐+1 ๐

4 ๐ ๐๐ ๐๐

2๐+1 2 2
2๐+1 ๐

4

= ๐

= ๐๐ ๐

๐ ๐๐

+๐

Plugging in the area of the triangle and the area of the rectangle back into the original equation we get:

1 2 ๐ต = 4(2 โ ๐ 2 = 4 ๐2 2 2

2 2

2๐+1

โ ๐2 2 2 ๐ ๐

2 2

4๐+2

+ ๐2 2 2

2 2
4๐+2

4๐+2

2๐+1

4๐+2

โ ๐2

+ ๐2 ๐๐
+๐

= ๐๐๐