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No part of this PROJECT may be republished in any form whatsoever, electronic, or mechanical — without expressed written consent from the promoter, the company Etanolsa S.A., Antepara 1005 y Velez, Suite 3, Guayaquil, Ecuador, Telephones: (593)42422511 and (593)42433825, Cellular: (593)9499874 Disclaimer And/Or Legal Notices The information presented herein represents valuable and proprietary information for developing biofuel projects in Ecuador only under the patronage of Etanolsa S.A., Wellington Gallardo, President. Etanolsa S.A. is an Ecuadorian corporation exclusively engaged in developing agro-industrial projects to convert carbohydrates into ethanol and biodiesel in Ecuador, using sugarcane, cassava roots, agriculture waste of banana crops, and Jatropha Curcas as feedstock. The production and use of fuels using vegetable oils has been with man since the days of Rudolph Diesel when he first demonstrated biodiesel derived from peanut oil. Today’s world of Global Warming and Climate Change, high fuel prices, at this moment the barrel of oil is over US$150.00 dollars, and uncertain political realities has created a new and intensified interest in Biofuels. Etanolsa S.A. has been actively working in gathering fertile lands to develop the cultivation of jatropha curcas under the best geographically conditions, mainly in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, and also in the near future operating and maintaining jatropha nurseries and jatropha plantations throughout the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Upon maturity of the Jatropha seedlings and a successful harvest of the oil bearing seeds, we will process and refine the oil to produce biodiesel that can be used pure or mixed to create a biodiesel blend. The Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel can be used in a number of applications ranging from automotive fuel to electric generation using a diesel generator. Auto manufacturers like Mercedes and Daimler-Chrysler are already trial running cars on Jatropha biodiesel with great results. Aside from our large scale activities Etanolsa S.A. is actively involved in a number of local community based micro generation projects in the intercrop plantation. By enabling small local communities to get involved in various stages of the biodiesel process we are assisting them in growing towards economical independence and bringing the freedom and safety of a reliable power supply to areas that previously had none. We are ready to ensure sustained use of water supplies, land and natural resources, the development of biofuels must be planned, managed and maintained. Ecosystems and Rainforests through out the world, that are being destroyed for the sake of biofuels, must be stopped. Other major considerations are land competition for food vs. biofuel production, considerations on habitat destruction and animal species, availability of water, pollution of lands with fertilizers which can lead to soil erosion, safety of people who harvest phytoproducts for biofuel production and issues of developing large massive plants instead of small localized plants near the crops that will be used to manufacture biofuels. Our Executive Summary Bio-fuels, particularly bio-diesels are emerging to become cleaner options for meeting the ever increasing energy demand. Countries with tropical and subtropical climates like our case – The Coastal Region of Ecuador - can benefit from renewable energy resources such as Jatropha cultivation which has been identified clearly as an area for the initiation of major projects. Besides productively utilizing the lands, this agro based initiative is likely to be adaptable for the communities, because could ensure a good regular sustenance income.


Jatropha being a perennial crop it can be used for carbon capture and to alleviate soil degradation, desertification and deforestation. As any other crop, Jatropha plants absorb. nutrients from the soil. The oil from Jatropha seeds it can be used for production of soap, biopesticides and bio-diesel. Jatropha plants grow on medium and low fertility soils, and in low and high rainfall areas. Jatropha seeds have high oil content (35% to 50%). The plant can produce seeds between the 1st and 2nd years under very favorable conditions as it would take remarkably in our project. Seed production become stable after 4 to 5 years on soil fertility and rainfall as are the geographical/weather conditions of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. The plants will produce seeds during 40 years approximately. The oil from seeds can be transformed into bio-diesel through esterification. The by-products from bio-diesel are glycerine and press cake from oil extraction which can be used as biomass for combustion or as organic fertilizer. The Jatropha System creates a positive reciprocity between raw material / energy production and environment / food production; i.e. the more energy Jatropha hedges produce, the more food crops are protected from animals and erosion. Also additional income is created, mainly for women to do the harvesting of the seeds. Jatropha plant is not a Biodiesel miracle tree. It can be grown on poor soils, but marginal yields would be obtained in poor soils. All crops need fertile soils with adequate moisture to be productive. Biodiesel enterprises need constant supply of oil to amortize machinery, operation costs and make profit. Therefore, the equipment for Biodiesel elaboration should be versatile to process not only oil from Jatropha seeds which are harvested once or twice per year, according to our project. ABSTRACT : Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose, drought-resistant, biofuel tree originating from Central and South America, but now growing pantropic. The tree produces seeds containing 40-50% inedible oil, depending of the kind of technology to be applied, which is easily convertible into biodiesel. Our qualitative sustainability assessment, focusing on environmental impacts and strengthened by some socio-economic issues considered in this project, is highly favorable into Jatropha curcas cultivation. Preliminary lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are positive, but the GHG balance is expected to be much dependent on the type of land use which is converted to J. curcas. The cultivation intensity and the distance to markets are expected and considered -in our project- to have a significant impact on the GHG balance as well. Similar reasoning applies for the impact on soil, water, vegetation structure and biodiversity, although the latter will always depend on local circumstances. Next to biodiesel production, J. Curcas also hosts socio-economic development potential to be develop in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. The multipurpose character of the plant and the labor-intensive production chain are thought to be the main drivers for rural development. In order to achieve best results with respect to both environmental and socio-economic issues, decisions will be based on local environmental, economical, cultural and social characteristics. Biodiesel could be an important renewable and the best alternative to substitute for fossil fuels. And, in certain parts of the world, same as in Ecuador, governments and some corporations consider the jatropha plant, common in hot climates, one of the most promising sources of biodiesel. The biodiesel plants are going to be located in the lands of the rural communities of the Peninsula of Santa Elena , and their yield more than four times as much fuel per hectare as soybean, and more than ten times that of corn. But the commercial-scale cultivation of jatropha, which has not previously been grown in Ecuador as an energy crop, raises several significant challenges. This year, Etanolsa S.A. is promoting to cultivate 50,000 hectares of lands in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, representing an investment of US$20,000.oo per hectare, including the Biorefinery, the whole cultivation process and system to produce over 5,000,000 metric tons of jatropha seeds to generate 400 millions gallons of oil to mix wit ethanol and produce biodiesel that means all related issues involved in taking jatropha from seed to fuel filling station domestically and internationally.


The Etanolsa S.A.’s project is working among the rural Communities of Santa Elena, collaborating with international financial institutions to develop loan guarantees to fund and developing the complete biofuel project, including seed purchases; it’s also collaborating with insurers to back the farmers against potential losses. In addition, we are also promoting to educate the farmers on how to cultivate the plant and provide new jobs for thousands of people. So far, the project has gathered more than 50,000 hectares of land. The goal is to have 15,000 hectares under cultivation of jatropha curcas and sugarcane by May 2009 for the first plant, and there are a lot of enthusiasm among the farmers, private owners, and communities. By the end the end of 2010, we are planning to have a production facilities producing biodiesel from jatropha. Eventually, it aims to produce 80 million gallons of biodiesel annually per each plant or biorefinery.

The first refinery should be producing biodiesel in the Rural Communities of Santa Elena Province, by the end of 2010.

*This project can gainfully use more than 50,000 hectares for energy crops across the entire Peninsula of Santa Elena and help alleviate rural poverty by generating thousands of rural jobs and offering farmers an additional source of income. The 80,000 hectares we are planning to plant in Ecuador this year could generate up to 15,000 jobs among the rural communities.

Etanolsa S.A. is introducing a US$200 million investment/program to encourage biofuels development and production, and is also in the process of mandating the blending of biodiesel with vegetable diesel. A 5% blend is expected to be introduced shortly, rising to 20% by 2010. We are considering to promote the cultivation of jatropha and the oil extracted from its seeds is often used for soap, paint, cosmetics, and fuel for traditional oil lamps. Jatropha is also planted as fencing to prevent animals from grazing crops.

Cultivation of Jatropha curcas L (Family: Euphorbiaceae)
In the recent past, bio-diesel derived from plant species has been a major renewable source of energy. Among various plants Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata have been chosen as most potential species for varying situations. Between these two species Jatropha curcas is considered most potential not only to the growers but also to the processors and end users. To the rural society, the crop can create regular employment opportunities, as it provides never ending marketing potential. Due to potential demand and better marketing opportunities, cultivation of Jatropha appears very viable. Jatropha may not replace other important food crops since it is meant for flood free wastelands and unutilized fallow lands / less productive lands and in turn will not have a major impact on cropping pattern. Among the many species, which yield oil as a source of energy in the form of biodiesel, Jatropha curcas. has been identified as most suitable oil seed bearing plant due to its various favorable attributes like hardy nature, short gestation period, adaptability in a wide range agro-climatic conditions, high oil recovery and quality of oil etc. It can be planted on degraded lands through Joint Forest Management (JFM), farmer’s field boundaries, road sides, both sides railway track, fallow lands and as agro forestry crop. It grows up to a height of 5 m. and can be maintained to a desired height and shape by trimming and pruning. By Etanolsa S.A.’s Planning Commission, We has identified two species for mass production of seeds for biodiesel viz., Jatropha and Pongamia. Jatropha is suitable for upland while Pongamia found adaptive for both uplands as well as wetland conditions. Among these two species the following differences made Jatropha superior if otherwise the conditions are not unsuitable for it.


Some other advantages of Jatropha: 1. Environmental friendly biodiesel to combat the petroleum shortage 2 . Can cure the Environment Damages done due to petroleum. 3. jatropha cakes( residues ) can be used to produce grease, candel, fertilizer, medicines. 4 . needs only one ton of organic fertilizers per hectare per year, Refining crude jatropha oil into biodiesel produces glycerine. 5. which is in high demand as a raw material for a very wide range of cosmetic, medical and food products. Glycerine byproducts from biodiesel production offer a valuable additional income stream to refiners. once fully grown, it needs no additional maintenance. one crop can yield seeds for up to 50 years. 6. We are promoting the small farmers to come back to their fields and produce jatropha and depend again on agriculture under secure working and financial conditions, backed by an international agriculture trust where the farmers will place the land and the financiers will also place the funds to develop all their lands to produce biodiesel to exports. 7. Rural poverty and unemployment are widespread; the need for sustainable agricultural development remains great. 8. In Ecuador conditions can produce 12 tons of seeds per hectare, and gallons of biodisel can to extracted from it. TRANSPORTATION IN OUR PROJECT We consider very highly a key factor to develop our project of the biofuels industry with an increasing role in our nation’s energy supply as a cost-efficient, reliable and flexible collection and distribution network for our ethanol and biofuels. At Etanolsa S.A., our distribution strategy is designed to enable us to better meet the needs of our customers and optimize returns from market demand for domestic and international markets. Our distribution strategy begins with site selection where the plants, storage systems, and terminal of biofuels. Just as important as locating our facilities near abundant JC seeds supply, is choosing sites with direct access to transportation. Our biorefineries will be located in the Peninsula of Santa Elena and each biorefinery will have access to multiple highways, allowing us to reach the most favorable markets throughout the country and through the seaport terminal for international distribution managed by a contracted well-qualified international marketer that accounts with all strategic infrastructure to deliver on a timely basis the biofuels. Our distribution strategy is also focused on the most efficient movement of our product to those markets. Due to our production scale, we are able to utilize unit - tractor trucks systems – inside essentially in a perimeter of 50 miles from the storage systems to the terminal forming a “virtual pipeline” of 50 to 100 tractor trucks fleet delivering the biofuels nonstop from origination to destination.


Jatropha trees

Jatropha seeds

THE PLANT- PROFILE Jatropha curcas is the plant to be used to produce oil, it is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 50 years. Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 50%. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also insecticide. It is found to be growing in many parts of the country, rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate. Medically it is used for diseases like cancer, piles, snakebite, paralysis, dropsy etc. Jatropha grows wild in many areas of Ecuador and even thrives on infertile soil. A good crop can be obtained with little effort. Depending on soil quality and rainfall, oil can be extracted from the jatropha nuts from the first to five years when we will have a permanent and full yield per each plant . The annual nut yield ranges from 0.5 to 12 tons. The kernels consist of oil to about 50 percent; this can be transformed into biodiesel fuel through esterification. Jatropha Biodiesel Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. It is one of the best alternative cultivation to replace fossil fuels as the world’s primary transport energy source, because it is a renewable fuel that can replace


and this has been thriving around with more that 150 species it thrives in sub-tropical regions of the world and can be grown in areas of low rainfall and problematical sites. Jatropha is easy to establish.000 hectares of this area and bringing fresh private and international resources of US$200 Million dollars per plant. including the Peninsula of Santa Elena.petrodiesel in current internal combustion engines and can be transported and sold using the same today’s infrastructure which represent a huge investment of millions of dollars. Such lands have been for many years without financial supports to develop these lands although they account with one of the biggest investment in the constructions of Daule-Peripa system of damps. being a typical tropical zone with annual rainfall of 300-1000 mm. including the developing energy crops of 10. but it is believed to be Mexico and Central America. in the cosmetics industry. lay barren or under-utilized.000 hectares of non used and marginalized lands. It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average annual temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and tolerates slight frost ( Santa 6 . Being drought tolerant. It is a native of tropical America. This highly drought-resistant species is adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. we are going to work together with close relations with our Central Government to be included in Ecuador’s national biofuels program emphasizing jatropha production. Distribution and habitat It is still uncertain where the center of origin is. This investment has provided a substantial added value cost to these lands. The wood and fruit of Jatropha can be used for numerous purposes but for our project to produce biodiesel as a fuel. which can be used for manufacture of candles and soap. But on fertile lands the yields of seeds has a significant increase as is the case for the Biodiesel Projects of Santa Elena. Our project is to employ and implement more than 50. It has been introduced to Africa and Asia and is now cultivated world-wide. In the Santa Elena project this current distribution shows that introduction has been most successful in the drier regions of Ecuador. Ecuador has tremendous potential as a producer of jatropha biodiesel. and increased the potential agricultural value at this present historical moment.000 hectares in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. grows relatively quickly and is hardy. We are considering to cover more than 50. including 4 (four) supplementary damps located and affecting more than 200. The Jatropha curcas oil plant is a physic nut with multipurpose and drought resistant large shrub or small tree. for cooking and lighting by itself. The seeds of Jatropha contains (50% by weight) viscous oil. it can be used to reclaim eroded areas. be grown as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid/semi-arid areas.000 hectares per plant that would be suitable for growing jatropha. but I n our project will be used to extract oil to be converted into biodiesel. representing an important percent of the total national area.

villous inside. The seeds albumeneous. In conditions where continuous growth occurs. stamens 10 in two series. ovules solitary in each cell. flowering occurs throughout the year. with female flowers usually slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. or produce continuous flowering and fruiting under irrigated conditions if soil moisture and temperatures are good. Flowers unisexual. stigma bifid. direct sown plants after the second rainy season. and it will produce several crops during the year because the soil moisture will be good and temperatures are sufficiently high in the Peninsula of Santa Elena.Calyx as in male. elliptic or obvate. Fruits In our project JC fruits will be produced when the shrub is leafless. Female flowers. The nut is a violent purgative. Flower and seed setting Flowers: The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. carpets connate into a 3-celled ovary. 7 . outer five filaments free. bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries. Flowers are formed terminally. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. monoeceious. after two months of fruit setting.Elena’s lowest temperature is only 12 Celsius degrees). alternate to sub-opposite. ovoid oblong and black in color. The seeds mature about three months after flowering. The central flowers in the cyme or in its forks usually female. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow. After pollination fruit is usually a three chambered and schizocarpic capsule splitting into three one-seeded cocci. nearly equal. exceeding the calyx. Pollinationis by insect. connate. anthers dithecous erect. opening by longitudinal slit. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. peduncled paniculate cymes. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of ovoid fruits. shedding the leaves in the dry season. inner five filaments connate. Each fruit bears three seeds. Leaves It has large green to pale-green leaves. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to ellow. In permanently humid regions as is our case. A three. It is a diploid species with 2n=22 chromosomes. It may produce more than one crop during a year. The seeds contain 40-50 % oil. three-to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. hairy inside. The oil can be used in soap manufacture. The flowers are pollinated by insects especially honey bees.Calyx segments 5. Corolla Campanulate. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds mature. Flowering and fruiting habit The Jatropha trees are deciduous. after two to four months in our project. Early growth is fast and with good rainfall conditions nursery plants may bear fruits after the first rainy season. Male flowers. styles 3 connate at base. greenish yellow in terminal long. corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx lobes united. individually. Seeds resemble castor in seed shape. Flowering occurs during the wet season and two flowering peaks are often seen. labes 5. tesla crustaceous. each lobe bear inside a gland at the base. an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers. JC will be cultivated in a large-scale system where It will grow on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. but in our project will used it exclusively in conversion into biofuels blended with ethanol.

Differences are expressed in what is optimum rainfall as some readings say 600 mm and some say 800 mm while some areas in the Peninsula of Santa Elena report good crops with rainfall of 1000 mm.up to 2 years – and then grow again when rains occur again. And Likes heating and doing well in warmer areas such are the lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena and when chilly weather will drop its leaves and It can withstand light frost but not for prolonged periods which never happens in the Coastal Region of Ecuador with lowest temperature in 10 Celsius degrees during the dry season. but its strength as a crop comes from its ability to grow on even very poor and dry sites. The Santa Elena lands are cover by a good vegetable lay of nutrients. Quality of the soil It established that best for JC cultivation is in sandy well-drained soils.5 to 8. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species. Under irrigation 1 500 mm will be given by using the distribution water channels from the DaulePeripa Water Dumps System. The older the tree the better it will withstand. with sandy soil. 500 . sandy. The plant is undemanding in soil type and even does not require tillage. Lowest 12 c. Below 600 mm there is more or less no more production. But all soils to be used in Peninsula of Santa Elena will be well-drained and with permanent water irrigation either using our own deep water wells to be constructed along the Peninsula of Santa Elena or from the water secondary distribution channels constructed along the Daule-Peripa Damp System at a low water cost per cubic meter for our historical project that will change the social-economic infrastructure in the agriculture of Ecuador. On heavy soils. using organic fertilizer in order to obtain higher yield. but it can withstand very poor soils and grow in saline conditions All the actors in the Jatropha sector suggest.5. the Peninsula of Santa Elena has rainfall as low as 300 mm a year. anyway. but this depends on the local water condition in the ground. The yield results will be achieve according if we are going to be getting If it is with Irrigation or If it is without Irrigation. It will also stand for long periods without water . If Rainfall is 500-600 mm and Temperature is Avg. It grows almost everywhere. We are also considering in mega derivative biofuel project at large scale clearances the impact on soil quality to be long term mainly. so the JC is not limited by 8 . Soil type: The Peninsula of Santa Elena’s lands will be well-drained soils with good aeration. Highest 44 c. It can tolerate extremes of temperature but not the frost and water stagnation. We are sure that our Jatropha Cultivation in the Peninsula of Santa Elena will enable the quality improvement of the soil and acting as a binding agent to be substantiated in different Jatropha growing regions in the Coastal region of Ecuador. If the rising water table engulf the major root system and continues for a considerable period plant will die. root formation is reduced. but the Jatropha is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. It grows even in the cracks and crevices of rocks on all types of soil except one subjected to water inundation. It can thrive in poorest stony soils.Soil and climate: It is a tropical species and grows well in subtropical conditions. We expect one of the highest yield crops in our areas of virgin fertile lands covering more than 50..even on gravely. Irrigation Even Jatropha can handles dryness very well and it is possible to live almost entirely of humidity in the air. Below it the production depends on the local water condition in the ground. 500 . 32-35 c.600 mm of rainfall is the limit.000 hectares in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Although. Climate Although JC can withstand severe heat. acidic and alkaline soils having pH ranging from 5.600 mm of rainfall is the limit.

Once in ten years. Farmers development can serve many goals: economic development. As alternative it is Interesting the irrigation with wastewater. etc. evaluating and taking good care on near and long term impacts of depletion of ground water resources from the water damps system of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. we will have proper irrigation. Dry seed will normally germinate readily without pre-treatment. and energy efficiency information for farmers decision makers and staff it is one of our goals in the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement.this reason. country or region of the world where needed to manufacture Production Mini-Plants in series housed in portable containers. To cover all needs of farmers to industrialize their agricultural products in our inter-cropping cultivation system there about 700 kinds of different plants assembling by SCINET Corporation.5 tons of seed per hectare. Mean annual rainfall: 300-1000 mm or more. The terminal-growing twig is to be pinched to induce secondary branches. which will be between 10 and 12. clean air. We are contemplating. the list is as long as you wish to make it. selfsufficiency. Although it speeds up germination there is a risk of getting abnormal seed-lings.. that will not limit of the yield to fertilize the soil.5 m height or utmost 2 meters. we may get the full production of about 5-kg per plant. papaya. garlic. passion fruits. electrification. In order to respond to the 120. all of them being planned in ecologically fragile zones. So. Additional. because of the nutrients.000 requests of Miniplants per year from 240 countries. Canopy management (Pruning and trimming) To give a bushy shape the plant should be trimmed during the dry season up to 5 years including one pruning when the plants attains 1. SCiNet Corporation implemented a worldwide network of small Assembly plants to be installed in the location. Mean annual temperature: 20-28 deg. Likewise the secondary and tertiary branches are to be pinched or pruned at the end of first year to induce a minimum of 25 branches at the end of second year. These areas are affected by the best irrigation 9 . Biophysical limits The Peninsula of Santa Elena has an altitude: 0-700 m. etc. and providing a gateway to renewable energy.. Our future farming programs will have also to produce a Guide to Farmers Development. peppers. This will be useful to induce new growth and yield stabilization there on. melons. sovereignty and local economy. and also manage and coordinate the international development and operations for Production Mini-plants in mobile containers from SCINET CORPORATION. Dormancy and pretreatment Freshly harvested seeds show dormancy and after-ripening is necessary before the seeds can germinate. We are going to develop intercrop system to higher yields that will drive the use of large scale irrigation which will enable multiple harvests such watermelon. C. Outlining a process of strategic inter-cropping cultivation system for our farmers interested in improving their energy security. packed with information and resources to help the farmers take charge of their food crops in the future. citrus. The growth is quick and the plant will start yielding in about a year period. among the fruits and vegetable such as tomatoes. Even in the Egyptian desert they have a plantation with waste water irrigation Water usage : the critical component Jatropha can grow well in low rainfall regions as the lands in the Peninsula of Santa Elena and will be reverted with optimum yields on Jatropha with a higher level of water usage from the Water Damps System named Daule-Peripa. Thus. the plant may be cut leaving one foot height from ground level for rejuvenation. anions. Thus rising level of shortage of water and projections for further reduction will prove to be a major limiting factor in Jatropha production. we will remove the seed coat before sowing.

The possibility to return the press-cake (or part of it) to Jatropha fields is going to be carefully considered and apply for our all soil lands.water damps system in Ecuador with an investment made by Central Government totaling up to today US$2. When two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field. This comes up to 2. Twenty gram urea + 120 g SSP and 16 g MoP should be applied annually.3 Billions dollars to provide water for cultivations during the whole year. etc. In order to facilitate the harvesting. By evolving. for best result in yield It is recommended that 1 kg of farmyard manure/ plus 100 g of Neem waste for every seedling. herbs. On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants. Pruning Pruning – 1st prune The plants need to produce side shoots for maximum sprouting and maximum flowers and seed. Though. P and K should be applied. Jatropha can be combined with other suitable species comprising the agricultural. magnesium. horticultural. Cut the top off cleanly and cut top to produce 8 – 12 side branches. tomatoes. soil profile and prevailing agroclimatic conditions in an area. vegetables such red and green peppers. Besides it after transplantation and the establishment of the plant fertilizer such as N.5 tons organic fertilizer per hectare. this is called intercropping. promoting and adopting Jatropha based intercropping systems it is possible to improve the socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and to transform the National energy scenario and the ecological landscape. It is considered good practice. with a recommendation of 2. Picking We have developed the harvest methodology between wet and dry seed crush costing applicable has been compared. Inter-cropping Specific intolerance with other crops was not detected. economically profitable and socially acceptable agroforestry system. and Sulfur will be used.500 plants per hectare. pastoral and/or silvicultural components to result in an ecologically viable. We have obtained vast experienced among grain associations in other developing countries like Ecuador have been observed with Jatropha and are known to aid the plant’s growth under conditions where phosphate is limiting. it is suggested to keep the tree less than 2 meters. in our project in order to obtain the best yields by employing fertilizers containing small amounts of calcium. Use of fertilizer Although Jatropha is adapted to low fertility sites and alkaline soils. Between 90 and 120 Days top of all plants at 25 Cm. According to the topography. 10 .

However. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes that is happening in some zones of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Afterwards depending on soil type manuring @ 3-5 kg/plant along with and NPK should be applied near the crown following ring method before monsoon. Ecological Requirements Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere. In general application of super phosphate @ 150kg/ha and alternate with one dose of 20 : 11 . sandy and saline soils. it does not require supplementary irrigation if planted in onset of rain. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. Oil extraction from seeds will be carried out with a very short time storage and they will be immediately press for obtaining the best oil yields. even on gravelly. Storage and viability The seeds are orthodox and should be dried to low moisture content (5-7%) and stored in airtight containers. Jatropha curcas will be found in our tropics and subtropics zones. Jatropha is deciduous in nature and the fallen leaves during winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. because it likes heat. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants. Pinching the terminal is essential at six months age to induce laterals. When the seeds are dry they are separated from the fruits and cleaned. Application of GA @ 100-PPM spray induces early flowering and capsule development. According to our large-scale cultivation regarding climate. Here they are dried until all the fruits have opened. which improves the fertility of the soil. Processing and handling After collection the fruits are transported in open bags to the processing site. it an ideal place to growth them. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. and it will be perfectly adapted in our selected lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena in Ecuador. At room temperature the seeds can retain high viability for at least one year. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after harvest indicate innate (primary) dormancy. because of the high oil content the seeds cannot be expected to store for as long as most orthodox species. In our case seeds will be processed almost immediately getting at the right point of dryness to obtain the best oil yields. Manuring At the time of planting compost @ 2 kg /pit should be applied. Aftercare Two to three weeding are necessary. We are not going to expose the seeds to direct sun because it has a negative effect on seed viability and that seeds should be dried in the shade. which improves the fertility of the soil. But. The organic matter from fallen leaves enhances earthworm activity in the soil around the root zone of the plants. Because seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50%.Germplasm management Seeds are oily and will not be store for long. Light harrowing is beneficial during early growth stage. although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost which never happens in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks.

From 4rth year onwards 150 kg super phosphate should be added to the above dose. Well-developed plump seeds are selected for sowing. rainfall. With these management practices a yield around 15-20 kg of fruit per tree can be obtained even if the plants did not reach full maturity. 12 . Propagation: Jatropha is usually propagated on mass scale both by seed as well as stem cuttings. soil quality / condition. Flowering is less and delayed when grown in shady conditions. But pre-rooted cuttings in poly bags and then transplanted in the main field give better results. Seeds are dried for 4-5 days to reduce moisture level 10% before packing. Harvesting The flowering is induced in rainy season and bears fruits and matures in winter. Planting in field The land should be ploughed once or twice depending upon the nature of soil. refilled with top soil and organic manures (500 g FYM + 100 g Neem cake or Jatropha oil cake + 100 g super phosphate) and then planted. In hilly areas where ploughing is not possible. Before sowing. For commercial cultivation normally it is propagated by seeds. pits of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm is dug at required spacing. But economic yield starts from 3rd year-end. surface ploughing and pruning. On the side slope of embankment 2m x 2m is advisable. Weeding Standard cultural practices are timely weeding (4 times a year). The dried pods are collected and seeds are separated either manually or mechanically. Actual spacing will be determined based on end-use. Pods are collected when they are turned yellowish and after drying seeds are separated mechanically or manually. seeds are soaked in cow-dung solution for 12 hours and kept under the wet gunny bags for 12 hours. In sunny condition flowering is more and early (July – September). Our lands pf the Peninsula of Santa Elena enjoy hot and humid weather during most part of the year which is preferred for good germination of seed. Seeds or cuttings can be directly planted in main field. intercropping. However. Seedlings produce flowers 9 months after sowing.120 : 60 kg NPK/year from second year improves yield. Germinated seeds are sown in poly bags of 15 x 25 cm size filled with soil. for a fence. In direct planting system the seed/cuttings should be planted in the main field with onset of monsoon as a spacing of 3m x 2m. after clearing jungles. sand and farm yard manure in the ratio of 1:1:1 respectively.2% COC or by application of 1 % Bordeaux Mixture drenching. etc. Smaller spacing would be preferred if growing the plant as a hedgerow. humidity. Diseases Collar rot may be the problem in the beginning that can be controlled with 0. proper fertilization. or for soil conserving purposes. plants established through cuttings produce flowers from 6 months onwards.

If we put the seeds directly into the soil. they might be attacked by cattle (they step on them. because they don‘t develop a taproot. they eat them. latex when cut. Plants from cuttings are not so resistant to drought. more or less. plants with taproot (elevated from seeds) are more resistant. the JC seeds are stored for 6 months in normal conditions. These should be planted just before the rainy season. Thus. The venation is palmate. Ciliate glands usually represent the stipules. indicating its occurrence in various countries. Six months storage will not effect the oil content. which exudes a whitish colored. they are distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. The leaves are green to pale green broad and glabrous. We will plant jatropha through: 1. Seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50 % (Kobilke 1989). because the repellant is not yet developed. The leaves simple. It is a multipurpose shrub and is found throughout the tropics and is known by nearly 200 different names. deeply palmatelly 3-5 lobed with long petiole. this is not important. 3. Planting through Cutting. when cut. which exudes watery and sticky latex. about 3 . Botanically this is known as Jatropha curcas L. Normally. depending on the ambient temperature. but the plant itself will not develop a taproot. The genus is cosmopolitan in distribution except in the arctic region. angular. Under normal circumstances. it grows between three and five meters in height. The Jatropha seeds are oily and do not store for long. and belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Jatropha is a deciduous large shrub or small tree 3-5 m in height with smooth gray bark. but in a situation of extended drought. And 13 . Directly planting through seed. Plants should be in one plant to other in respect of better yield as follows: Distance between the plants of a row should be 2. The plants from these saplings (cuttings) will develop faster and get seeds right away. The cut branches sprout readily and grow rapidly which makes it suitable for fencing. Phyllotaxy is spiral. we first develop the cutting in polybag like saplings and after certain time translate it. The JC germination needs between 5 and 7 days. It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark.4 months) to be imported from Central America. In our case the large-scale cultivation system the seeds are going to be process after they reach the right dryness point to extract all oil content in each seed for best result for the conversion into oil. watery. 2. the mountains of Western and Eastern Ghats and plains of South India. The best result is saplings from seeds (raised in a nursery in polybags. which reaches far into the depth of the soil. Planting through Sapling. is its result are as good as plants precultivated from seeds. Up dated research on viability of Jatropha seeds shows a decrease due to term of storage. Normally. but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favorable conditions but for harvest high yield effective proportion during the whole year we will be able to control the height no more than 3 meters high.Botanical description of Jatropha curcas Jatropha derived from the Greek word ‘Jatros’means ’Doctor’ and ‘trophe’ means ‘Nutrition’.5 meters.

In our project we are going to pre-planting the JC in tree nurseries though can accelerate the development of trees substantially. but the numerous rural communities located along the Peninsula of Santa Elena have not received the necessary financial resources to cultivate proper farm products and still today all of them are facing the poverty with a lot of difficulties to live well.000 hectares of fertile lands. perhaps. b) using the best international technology to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Our lands for jatropha cultivation has been evaluated against food or other productive uses of land in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Though Jatropha is reported to grow on marginal lands it is noted that it does need good quality land to give the level of yields which can make the project viable in the long term. which might accelerate this process. including Ecuador. Increasing pressure from commerce to optimize yield per hectare have also tended to force food production off the best land to make way for Jatropha. Our project is the best alternative through developing the Biofuel Project whose main factors are: a) Covering more than 50. Although during the last 20 years the Central Government of Ecuador has invested during the last 20 years with more than US$2. harvesting. in not significant extent for near 100 years. In our project we have take good care by gathering the most appropriate lands to use the Jatropha Cultivation System with virgin lands have not been used. d) obtaining fresh private funds to develop the full and complete biofuel project in Ecuador. net balance of carbon dioxide savings depends on the amount of energy used for cultivating. It is also noted that production of Jatropha pressed into Straight Vegetable Oil allows for maximum carbon dioxide savings as compared to conversion into biodiesel which involves some chemical inputs. GHG balance We are also ware in terms of best GHG balance the choice of the crop and the technology pathways play a key role as the one for Jatropha cultivation JC. It is not necessary. Experiences in India. Land use patterns: a neglected domain and resource management and usage pattern is.There are no chemicals. Additional. c) Contracting the best marketers of biofuel.3 Billions Dollars in Developing the Low Cuenca of Guayas with the biggest water damp system in Ecuador. In our project It is essential to carry out a detailed LCA of all the pathways at planning stage itself to ensure sustainability. 14 . the most critical parameter in Jatropha production in developing economies. transporting and converting Jatropha into the plants. except with short cycle circles cultivation. South East Asia and Africa have been varied leading to much debate on its viability.

vegetables such red and green peppers. Annual Average Temperature 20°C a 28°C Soil Type Sandy. 300 a 1000 mm. Homalomena aromatica. Vanilla can also be cultivated under it successfully. Resolutions to these issues are being sought through crop mixing. rotation schemes. bitter gourd. tomatoes. Inter-cropping is the best choice to specific intolerance with other crops was not detected. Well Drained. PH 5 – 7. Asparagus racemosus. Kaempferia galanga. cucumber can be profitably grown under Jatropha for the first two years. Jatropha Cultivation Requirements Altitude 0-1000Meters. 15 .50m Soil Fertility Medium-Low Irrigation 500 mm. Tulsi and Smilax china etc and also short duration pulses like blackgram and vegetables like tomato. large energy crop farms resort to monoculture cropping thus replacing valuable biodiversity.Biodiversity loss It is a reality that decrease in biodiversity is a natural fall out of biofuel crop production as is exemplified by experiences with Palm oil and Soy.. and scaling down the magnitude of cultivation. pumpkin. etc. On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants. Besides. Deep Minimum 0. 1200 mm. Some shade loving crops like Rouvolfia serpentina. where large forested areas have been cleared for energy crops. Ventilated. ash gourd. Precipitation 300 to 1800 mm. Patchouli –a shade loving aromatic herb could be a suitable intercrop for Jatropha plantation that gives first harvest of leaves after 4 months of planting.

and Sand Storage.) 16.0024 Calorific Value High (btu/lb. c) Plantation. • Leave the solution at rest until the biodiesel is in the upper part and glycerine at the bottom. Elaborate Plans of the Plantation including: a) Greenhouse. • Wash the bio-diesel gently with water (aspersion) 2 or 3 times to eliminate the soapy part.5 19. to determine soil suitability. e) Soil.2 1.6 47. Manure.) 15.6 56.5 Shell 40% 4. • Add the solution alcohol-sodium to the oil heated at 60°C and mix gently. b) Irrigation Systems. First Step – Initial Operations Obtain soil samples. 2 to 5 months before planting.996 Calorific Value Low (btu/lb.Press Cake can be prepared for fertilizing soils or to be sold as fertilizer or bio-fuel (combustion). • Take out the bio-diesel and glycerine. particularly for lime/dolomite and superphosphate.700 TO 16. Check on water availability for irrigation.8 3.4 6.0 0.) Mass 60% 25.735 Specific Weight 0. chemistry and fertilization requirements.0 PROPERTIES OF BIO-DIESEL Ignition Point 130 °C Sulphur (% of weight) 0. 16 . And check for Check on electric energy availability for water pumping.1 30.6 3. considering 1 liter per second of water per hectare.1 6.2 10.5 Meal 61. d) Houses (manager & vigil-keeper).8 75.8 0.4 8.1 85.5 1.6 3.870 TO 0.3 18.00 to 0.890 Viscosity 40°C Bio-Diesel properties are similar to Conventional Diesel Formula for Experimental Elaboration of Biodiesel Jatropha Oil One Liter Alcohol Ethanol 95% Pure 200 millimeters Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda) Five Grams Procedures: • Mix the sodium hydroxide with the alcohol (ethanol) to dissolve the sodium hydroxide.978 TO 17. Jatropha Seed Content Estimate Product Crude protein Lipids (crude oil) Ash Neutral detergent fiber Acid detergent fiber Lignin acid detergent Gross energy (MJ/Kg.

5 Kg./week) Third Step – Field’s Preparation Clean the Area (bushes. Install the Irrigation System. minimum.f) Machinery & Equipment Storage. l) Fences. Step Fifth . Weeds. of Manure Per Seedling. Keeps Roots Humid. Per Plant of Fertilizer 20:120:60 Make the Drainage System. Press the earth after planting to take air out. 17 . Replacement of Unviable & Death Plants. Irrigation every 7 days during the 1st dry season. rocks. Disk Leveller/Disk or Spike Harrow at 25 cm. Step Fourth . Irrigation Immediately After Planting. Seed Dept: 2-3 cm Careful consideration to soil & seed management at sowing time. Pests & Disease Control. Seedlings Per Hectare: 34 x 34 (1. j) Water Harvesting./Plant/Year.) Sub-Soil/Chisel Ploughing at 50 cm. Avoid Excessive Humidity for Long Periods. i) Water Deposits. Irrigation every 14 days during the 2nd dry season. Seedlings Age: 30-45 days. k) Wind & Solar Energy.Plantation of Seedlings in the Fields Sowing at the Beginning of the 1st Rainy Season. Apply 20 gr. below ground level. Humidity in Soil at Least 20 cm. Irrigation: 4 Times/Week (dry season) Irrigation: 2 Times/Week (rainy season) Germination: 6-10 Days Fertilization 17:17:17 (6 gr.25 kg. Apply 0. minimum. Deep. Sand 1/3. Second Step – Greenhouse Fertile Soil 1/3. g) Office. etc. If Bare Root Planting. h) Seeds & Chemicals Storage. weeds. Purchase Machinery and Contract Personnel under the legal status of the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement.156 seedlings). Manure 1/3 Seed High Quality 83 to 85% DM Poly-Bags 15 x 25 cm Seeds/Bag: 3 (replace unviable & death plants). Digging Pits for Planting: 40x40x40 cm. Construction of the Aforementioned.Conservation of the Plantation Manure 2. Seedling 5 cm.

Our Jatropha Curcas project includes to consider in properly manner the following technical steps to assure the success of this energy crop cultivation system: • • • • Plantation Consulting Soil testing and audit Site Inspection / Assessment Nursery Establishment and Management 18 . expertise plantation management. thick branches. Weeds. The growth and yield of Jatropha is going to be improved through effective management practices during the whole life of this project during the next 50 years. Shallow Cultivation Yearly. • Stem straight.0 Kg. Pests & Disease Control. • 80% of oil is unsaturated. • Productive life: 40-50 years.750 a 1. long. to Rejuvenate.Fertilizer 20:120:60/Plant 40 gr. long & wide. at the beginning of the 2nd rainy period to induce lateral branch growing. Pruning at the beginning of the 3rd rainy season to induce bush formation in an umbrella pattern. • 1000 Seeds: 0. • Without leaves in drought & winter. approx. • Fruit: oval 40 mm. • Oleic & Linoleic mainly. • Seeds average width 10mm. • Oil in seeds: more than 40%. and good knowledge of understanding of the Jatropha Curcas plant. (7-11). Good Results will be Obtained when Jatropha is maintained properly. • Seeds: average long 18 mm. • Green leaves: 6-15 cm. 2nd & 3rd Years. • Seeds Color: black. Maintenance of the Irrigation System and Well. Nutrient Monitoring (soil & plant tissue). Plant Profile • Size: up to 6 or 8 meters high. • Plant without leaves remain latent. Bees housing maintenance and bee feeding when there are not enough flowers in the plantation. Dry Fruits Collection During the Dry Season. • Normally 5 roots in germinated seeds. thus. • One central root & 4 laterals in seed. • Branches contain whitish latex. CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY : THE PRODUCTIVE PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS The practices that will be undertaken by the Jatropha growers in the Coastal Region of Ecuador is going to be scientifically managed for better growth and production.(11-30). Our project is based in RELIABLE information to achieving good with funding resources. we are sure to perform at optimal productivity. Top Pruning at 35-45 cm. Irrigation every 14 days during the 3rd dry season. • Each fruit contains 2-3 seeds. • Do not stand cold or frost. Pruning at 10 Years Old to 1 m. approx.

The Jatropha Curcas plant is an ‘energy species’. predict its possible interactions with the environment and develop practices for industrial cultivation. biomass. In order to achieve maximum commercial performance. Weeding. logistical consideration and local legislation utilizing close relations with local authorities. These include agro-climatic conditions. Irrigation. Crop density. and requires a holistic view of certain key criteria for site selection. Genotype.GENERATIVE PROPAGATION-EFFECTING FACTORS • • • Direct seeding-Quality of seeds Seeding depth Date of sowing Transplantation of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • Poly bags-Type of pre-cultivation Length of pre-cultivation Age of pre-cultivation VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION (cuttings) • • • • • Direct planting-Right time Transplanting of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) Poly bags-Right size Right age Right strain Right source SUCCESSFULL PRECULTIVATION IS CHARACTERIZED BY-HIGH GERMINATION RATES OF SEEDS • • High sprouting rates of cuttings High survival rates 19 . Quality of the soil. running costs. Use of pesticide. availability of labor. but it needs to be domesticated as a ‘tree crop’ for widespread commercial cultivation and application. cashflow projections) Advanced Jatropha pruning / harvesting techniques Enhancing production in presently poorly producing plantations Management techniques to achieve highest percentage of oil recovery Location and assessment of profitable biofuel investment projects Development of Jatropha biofuel. Use of fertilizer.• • • • • • • Plantation Establishment and Management (including advanced pruning techniques) Financial Feasibility study (capital. and renewable energy strategies Knowing where to place our Jatropha project is critical. The key factors that could effect an influence the oil yield of Jatropha Curcas in the lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena are: Climate. it is crucial to understand the crop’s requirements. and Inter-cropping PROPAGATION METHODS.

25 0. germination takes 10 days.50 3 0.50 Crop yield in kilos YEAR KILOS/HA.00 12. after five years of growth. labor and finally cost per Mt Seed production ranges from about 2 tons per hectare per year to over 12. 10. we are going to utilize direct seeding. yield.50 2 1.10 0.75 1. heat and the age of the plant and other.25 8.00 4 5.50 3. Our seed should be collected when capsules split open. For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production. directly planted cuttings are best.25 6. The seed shell splits. Soon after development of the 1st leaves.5t/ha/year.25 1.50 1.90 1.00 2. are more successful than presoaking alone. With good moisture conditions.25 5. this range in production may be attributable to low and high rainfall areas.00 3 4. the cotyledons wither and fall off.75 1. Many different methods of establishment. plants propagated by seeds are better.40 2 0. Without irrigation: MT/HA. Use of fresh seeds improves germination. According to each zone to be employed. pre-cultivation of seedlings.00 5.10 2. farming and harvesting are possible. DRY Year -LOW -NORMAL -HIGH 1 0. Seeding collection will be implemented using generous labor force by employing thousands of people and eliminating poverty inside these regions.25 8./KILOS 20 .25 5 1. or partial removal of the testa. Intervals of presoaking and drying. the plantations could also be established by direct seeding.00 5 5.00 1. Yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost.75 4 0. nutrients. Although not clearly specified. the radicula emerges and 4 small peripheral roots are formed.75 With irrigation : MT/HA IRRIGATED YEAR LOW NORMAL HIGH 1 0.75 2.000 HAS. Further growth is sympodial. easily propagates the Jatropha transplanting of spontaneous wild plants and direct planting of cuttings.Basing the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and properties of the plant in field.25 2. • Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of Maximum survival rates Intended utilization of the plantation For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control. With better rainfall conditions.00 1. CROP YIELD In our project “Yield” is a function of water.

5 m. No.000 Kls 100.000 25.000-750. respectively.000-250.25cm x 15cm-25cm in one or two rows respectively and 2m x 1. with the help of an expeller is then subjected to a process called as transesterification in which the triglycerides are converted into methyl esters to get the biodiesel and the by-products separately.000-25. Crop density We are going to apply highly/tested recommend spacing for hedgerows or soil conservation of 15cm .000.000. This is equivalent to crop densities of 2500.000 300.000 Harvesting can be done manually only.500 5.000-750. etc. 10.000. which keeps of the cattle from it.000. 300-750 Kls 300. with more than 32 percentange of oil content in its dicot seed with white cotyledons inside the dark brown colored testa. It is in the field of Bio 21 . Rapid increase in the scarcity of fossil fuel has caused an eventual drive to find alternative and renewable sources of fuel from common vegetable oils like soybean.500 plants per hectare for a single hedgerow and double that when two rows are planted. Jatropha Curcas has now arisen as a very good source of plant based biodiesel source.000 120. corn.000 12.000.000. Men 1 Day 1 1. and 3 x 3 m. In olden days.000.1 2 3 4 5 500 2.000 100.000-150. it is mostly used as live fencing crop due to the toxic nature of this plant.000. 1600 and 1111 plants/ha.000-15.5m to 3m x 3mm for plantations. Recently.. The plant.000 Kls. Curcas is one among the 175 members of the Jatropha genus. DISTANCE OF 2MX2M BE KEPT FOR LARGE SCALE CULTIVATION In our project It appears not difficult to estimate the yield of a plant that is able to grow and the crops in very different zonal conditions along the Peninsula of Santa Elena.000 10-25 Kls.000 5.000 10. seeds and oil of this biodiesel crop are non-edible and it is considered to be poisonous to some degree. which can be directly used in diesel engines.000. Thus there will be between 2. Satisfactory planting widths are 2 x 2 m. 2.000 10.000 Kls 30 Days/Kls. The oil which is obtained by crushing the Seeds of Jatropha Curcas.000 50.5 x 2. oil from the seeds of the jatropha fruit has been converted to JC biodiesel.000.

however.000. From year-3 it yields pods and production is a mature average of 160kG per tree per year from year-10.500.00 Tons 50. Trees Kg.250.000 Has. 120 kg of fertilizer grade oil cake and 250 kg of biomass as green manure per year. It can. Yield in Gallons per tree per year Nos.000.000. At same power output. labor and finally cost per metric ton. We are going to plant rates of Jatropha Curcas at 2.000 625. yield. farming and harvesting to be possible. but one thing is very sure that we are going to sue our own with two crops during the whole year to extract oil to be converted into biodiesel. At $320 (US$) per ton. groundnut.000 10.the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. Fertilizer 22 . rapeseed.000 625. nutrients. the yield per hectare per year is up to 24 tons of Jatropha seed with two crops during a year.000 Tons(?) 625.Diesel fuel.000 300. withstand a very light frost which causes it to lose all its leaves and may produce a sharp decline in seed yield but not this will not happen in Ecuador because our lowest temperature is 12 Celsius degrees in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. which contain over 50% oil. Once again we emphasize that Jatropha Curcas prefers temperatures averaging 20-28 degrees Celsius (68-85 degrees Farenheit). manage and harvest 5-8 hectares of Jatropha Curcas.500/1Ha. A tree can yield 10 gallons of oil.000 Tons One ton of Jatropha Curcas seeds will produce up to 150 gallons of bio-diesel with proper management in this SEA-Santa Elena Agreement.000 Has.000 300. heat and the age of the plant and other elements as the quality of the vegetable layer of the soil to be cultivated with JC.000.000.000 Has. cottonseed. 30kg of Jatropha Curcas fruit can be harvested per person. that Jatropha’s properties are the most exciting.5 acres) in this cultivation project. please consider the following charts: Referring to the table. It is a reality that yield is a function of water. 25.000.000. One person can professionally plant. 250. through to its life of 100 years.000.000 1.000 1. soya and sunflower . In order to have a good idea about the yield of the JC seed. We account with the best conditions so yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost. Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra.500 plants per hectare (2. per hour. 1. We will establish many different methods of establishment. however. this will translate into Oil Gallons Kg.000 300.000 Tons 3. Biomass Green Mature 1 10 120 250 2. 25.125. located near the Equator line. Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. palm.000.

000 46.000.000 100 Men/Kilos 24. cultivating 10.000 hectares 50.000.000 360.400.000 384.000 4.000 4.000 38.000 Second Crop Tons 12 120.000 Man/hour/harvest = 30 Kilos of Seeds Nos.000.200 48. Hectares Yield/Ton/Seeds 1 Ha.000 480.000 Metric Tons 12.000 480.200.000 960.500 Plants Number Crops per Year : 2 Nos. cultivating 50. weight (15/40 °C) 0.2 0.000 384. 600. This means to generate US$10.000 144. Jatropha Oil in Comparison with Diesel Fuel Parameter Diesel Jatropha Oil Energy content (MJ/kg 42.8 51.000 Hectares/men/Kilos 12.000 180.000 23 . or total sales of up to $4.000 Has.000 1.400.400.000.92 Solidifying point (°C) -14.000.91 .000 9.000 960.000 600.000 240.0 39.600.000 1.000 Total Tons 24 240.200.304.000 96. Up to 10% of Jatropha seeds are made up of glycerin.000 4.000 240.000 50% Oil Yield Tons 6.608.000 men/kilos 2.1.000 2. including the production of oil and glycerin only.000 96.000 460.000.0.0 2.8 Spec.000 150 /Gallons/Tons 3.000 Charts of conversion from kilos/seeds to tons and oil yield.000 per ton.000 360.000 50.608.600 38.sales of Jatropha crude oil of $5.800.000 Charts of Conversion from Kilos/Seeds to tons and oil Yield.000.0 Sulphur (%) 1.0 .6 .000 30.600 36.000 Men/Kilos 2.800 per year per hectare.000 384.0 Flash point (°C) 80 110 – 240 Cetane value 47.41.000 10.000 480.000 192.0.000 hectares MEN/HOUR Hours/day Hours/week Hours/Month Hours/Year 10.080.000 720.608.45.840.000 20. which sells for up to $2.85 0. 120.6 . 12 10.000 3.608.13 Yield and Harvesting Chart : 1 Hectare = 2.84 .000.000 72.400 96. This translates into glycerin sales of up to $1.000 108.400 per hectare per year.000 Men/Kilos 240.000 Metric Tons 2.000. Of potentially equal or greater value is the yield from Jatropha seeds of glycerin.120 per year per hectare.000 40.400 4.000 50% Oil Yield 1. Man/Hours 8 hours/day 40 Hours/Week Hours/Month Hours/Year 1 Man/Kilos 240 9.

000.040.000 480.000 hectares with a yield of 24 tons per hectare per year with two crops and an oil content of 50% some 600.000 Metric.480.000 Has.000 JATROPHA GENERATE REVENUE PER YEAR/HECTARE Total production of Glycerin and Sales price Nos.000 Has.000. Glycerin is indeed a valuable by product at US$2.000 50.000 US$48 Millions US$96 Millions US$144 Millions US$192 Millions US$240 Millions Production of Biodiesel Gallons/Price and Glycerin Sales/Year Nos.000 US$2.800 US$48 Millions US$96 Millions US$144 Millions US$192 Millions US$240 Millions US$10.000 30.000 23.400 US$54 Millions US$108 Millions US$162 Millions US$216 Millions US$270 Millions Gallon US$2. Hectares 10% Total Glycerin Tons 1 Ha.000.000 tons of Jatropha crude oil would be produced per year.000 144. Glicerin US$4. 10.000 40.000 384. The glycerin content at 10% of the 1.200.000 960.000.000/Tons.000 480.000 23.000 1.000. 20.000. Has.000.000 per ton.000 30.000/Tons. 24 .000 180.920.000 240. US$4.520.000. tons would produce an additional 120. tons. 150 /Gallons/ Tons 3.000 We are consider to cultivate 50.000 108.000 720.200 US$102 Millions US$204 Millions US$306 Millions US$408 Millions US$510 Millions Total 1 Ha.000 40.000 960.50/ Biodiesel US$5.000. 1. 20.000.600 36.000 50.000.000 24 240.000 11.000 US$1.000 Metric.

20 0. medium and large rural farmers who will become partners in our project up to 15% of Etanolsa S.45 3 to 4 2.0 5.17 2.00-10. if only 30% (50.55–1. Only when this is assured – as the SEA- 25 .50 2.242 Plants 2.0 9 to 10 7.000 millions per year would be generated.80– 6. financial models show that an assured supply of feed stock is required from a central area to ensure a viable project such is our case with more than 50.5 – 6.06– 3.000. including the construction of each Biorefinery and the development of 10. Productivity Estimate Per Plant & Hectare Under Favorable Conditions Product Years Years Years Years Years Years Average Ha. Processing the crude oil into Bio Diesel on average in the Coastal region of Ecuador will add a further 15% to the sales value.230 8.0 3.50-8.000 hectares of fertile and mostly virgin lands along the Peninsula of Santa Elena.0 5 to 6 4.5– 3. Moreover. This sales value excludes other byproducts of Jatropha.38 180-.15– 3. based on a Jatropha Biodiesel gallon of $1.00 3.000 per ton a total sales value of $510.40 1.40 300 .90 1.0250 1.000 Hectares) of the potential Jatropha growing regions in the Peninsula of Santa Elena will be planted with Jatropha according to our cultivation project.A.50-.664 Plants Jatropha farming could be an incredible contribution to economic development in Ecuador and for sure it will transform the social-economic infrastructure for the next 50 years to come with the carbohydrate era.00 7 to 8 6.00 0.10–0.85 150-. 2) Start up agriculture energy projects to produce biofuels are generally among the most available and feasible projects for which to obtain funding.035–.280 .170 8. In our project we have overcome the difficulty for sourcing suitable financing.522.060– .80 .60–3.00 4.60-3.50 3.000 hectares of energy crops system.05-.50 1.40 0. US$200 Millions Dollars loan will be converted as added-value cost to our lands and soils.180 6.45 2. Years Seeds Oil 35% BioDiesel Glycerin Co2 Capture Press Cake 1 to 2 .270 .00 2.000 per hectare.67– 1.936 Plants 3.0 1.90 250-290 8.36 .200 Plants 2.40 1.84 0.130 4.70– 1. The two main reasons to success in the source funding are: 1) Lands in our project are owned by small.034–.10-2.’s shares.60-1.000./Kg. and communities’ lands could be leased by the owners on a 20 years-term contract.In terms of annual revenues.00 2. Thus.00 5.90 1. This effectively assure land being used as own energy crops for our project with an investment of US$20.003-.5 – 4.50 and with glycerin selling at $2..340 8.00 3.5 – 2.03– 2.0 11 to 30 9.156 Plants 6.127 Plants 208 Plants 6.00-7.5 – 5.00-4.

*Useful as botanical-*Used as ethno medicine-*Used as medicine both internally and externally. seeds under normal conditions or better.Obtain a much lower price than the fossil crude oil price.A higher-yield compare with other oil plant.increase an added value cost to the land price 2. 4.-*Yield a dye used to give tan & brown*Used for making ink-*Useful as illuminants. The crucial key economic factor is the harvesting of the seeds that it takes about 1 hour to pick 30 kgs. Other uses of Jatropha curcas : A petrocrop.-*Young one cooked and eaten*useful in controlling sand drift *possess Alleopathic properties Important information about Jatropha oil extracted from seeds could be used in the vehicle It depends on the engine. we have to modify the engine. rubber). If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection. and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or pre-combustion chamber) directly. Pre-combustion Chamber and Direct Injection are suitable for Bio-diesel : Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. The above factors indicates the excellent chances of obtaining biodiesel from JC about this future of green energy. Since bio-diesel is a strong organic solvent. then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot). it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic. lubricant.To obtain a lower harvest cost. The JC cultivation project is going to be plant into a macro scale to achieve the following benefits: 1.-*Used as Dataun (Herbal tooth brush)*useful as green manure.Santa Elena Agreement will do . Our cultivation JC projects are using fertile and virgin land to be used financially succeeds in developing our project. in soap and candle making. Which seems to be going to reach US$200 per barrel of oil in the middle-term future. that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts. we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). If we have a diesel engine with a pre-combustion chamber. 5. Cars. Our project will assure the success without any obstacles in plantation of Jatropha Curcas (JC). The best is.could out our growers be considered to supplement the main supply chain. So you have to make sure. harvesting 26 . trucks and other Diesel Engine can use as direct fuel Without Modify. and processing 3. Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars. trucks. Good JC cultivation yields on our projects along the Peninsula of Santa Elena’s lands are highly likely to be obtained among fresh/private resources. but you have to modify the diesel engine.To reduce the biodiesel plant investing. Mobiles. In our project we cover the whole scope field or model and that is: where farmers are growing Jatropha. You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a pre-combustion chamber without modification. busses). Whole plant-Roots-Leaves-LatexSeeds-Bark-Twig *Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation-*Used as ethno medicine-* Used as ethno medicine-*Resembles shellac-*Source of oil (30-40%) suitable as fuel for diesel engine-*Yields tannins (37%)-*Used as medicine *Promising live fence. to start the engine with diesel.

Jatropha can be combined with other suitable species comprising the agricultural. and finally convert them into oil. Can occupy much more labor. pastoral and/or silvicultural components to result in an ecologically viable. this is called intercropping. These are the social & economic advantages of multiple cropping systems: • • • • • • • • • Dependence on only crop is avoided. Reduction in the outlay for fertilizers. Less needs to import energy. Possible to recover investments in much less time. INTER-CROPPING TO BE APPLIED IN OUR ENERGY CROP CULTIVATION SYSTEM Our project contemplates the use of jatropha inter –cropping technology to obtain the best results from the land and soil conditions for the rural communities without diminishing the production of food among them. then recollect the seeds. promoting and adopting Jatropha based intercropping systems it is possible to improve the socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and to transform the national energy scenario and the ecological landscape. applied and developed some inter cropping systems for both wastelands and cultivable lands as outlined below: FOR WASTELANDS: • • • • • • Model (i) Hedgerows of Jatropha with tropical fruits such as passion fruits. We will cultivate JC in our lands. Which is according to our topography. The farmer of little economic resources can produce a large variety of useful products. and in the final stage converted into Biodiesel to be marketed domestically and worldwide by expertise companies. soil profile and prevailing agroclimatic conditions in our area in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Promote a return to the land. When two or more crops are growing simultaneously in the same field. herbs. Components can constitute a type of “savings” for the future. economically profitable and socially acceptable agroforestry system. • In our Historical project we will be tried. horticultural.the seeds and extracting the oil in our facilities logistically located in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. watermelons and mongoes Model (ii) Jatropha intercropped with grasses. There is much greater flexibility of the distribution of labor. By evolving. Availability of harvest over a much longer period of time. tubers and vegetables Model (iii) Jatropha mixed with fruit trees Model (iv) Jatropha in mixed plantation with Teak and Subabul FOR CULTIVABLE LANDS On irrigated farmlands 27 . melon.

in the new future new cost-saving technologies will likely be developed to help producers use energy more efficiently. and transesterification.In our project for this purpose Jatropha curcas is the ideal plant to give shade to shade loving plants and provide a base for the climbers. the biggest challenge may be the ability of the feedstock supply to keep up with growing demand as we are considering very seriously in our project. i. Jatropha proves to be a promising Bio Fuel plantation and could emerge as a major alternative to Diesel thus reducing our dependence on Oil imports and saving the precious Foreign Exchange besides providing the much needed Energy Security. Jatropha oil displacing conventional fossil fuel makes the project fully eligible as a CDM project. However. area of Production. Mainly. extraction. • • • ECONOMICS: FARMING ECONOMICS: EXTRACTION ECONOMICS: BIODIESEL 28 . As well as. we have carried out Economic analysis considering all above three stages as separate entities. Extraction stage of bio-diesel production The final stage of bio-diesel production is the transesterification stage in which raw oil is transesterified to bio-diesel. the Biodiesel industry is still young and relatively small. under US$1. the costs of producing is declining against the demand and marketing biodiesel is increasing. and raw oil yield during various stages of bio-diesel production-plantation. The combination of three stages of bio-diesel production and the role of each player in these stages have to be objectively defined as they can affect the economics of bio-diesel production Therefore. Selection of the climber is done according to the climatic condition of our regions.00 per each gallon of biodiesel as the total net cost. mainly based in the low cost of production of JC oil in Ecuador. As such the key to the future of Biodiesel is finding inexpensive feed stocks that can be grown by farmers on marginal agricultural land. the following climbers are common for every/region: ECONOMICS: JATROPHA BIODIESEL: OVERVIEW Although. recipient of CO2 credits. in the longer term. Our integrated Jatropha Biodiesel Project has three stages: The first stage of the production process of bio-diesel from the seeds of Jatropha is the plantation stage. COST BENEFITS SCENARIO Cost benefits scenario will depend on various factors such as seed yield. its gestation period. so as it grows to a larger scale and when an infrastructure is being well-developed and to be carried out in this project.e. and Jatropha is one of many plants that hold a great deal of promise. increase conversion yields and convert cheaper feedstocks into high-quality biodiesel.

. In our real case. It has to be planted. which causes brown stains. It does not contain Phorbol esters.. this are 1375 seeds per kg in the average. Guatemala and Nicaragua..Description of the Jatropha System 4.4.. After pollination.3 Ecology Jatropha curcas is not a weed. as far as soap making is concerned. 2. a trilocular ellipsoidal fruit is formed. It grows well on marginal land with more than 250 mm of rainfall per year. because we focusing the international market worldwide.Introductory remarks The project is well concerned in “the Jatropha System”. (“This non-toxic variety of Jatropha could be a potential source 29 .Strategies to disseminate the know how of the Jatropha System1. The seed weight (per 1000) is about 727 g..Description of the plant. Plants from cuttings develop only lateral roots. The yield per ha seems to be the same. and it withstands long drought periods. ecology Jatropha curcas L. because it is not browsed by animals. as well as on the price of diesel fuel domestic and international. five roots are formed from seeds: one tap root and 4 lateral roots. which are very difficult to remove. The genus name Jatropha derives from the Greek jatrós (doctor). A non-toxic variety exists in Mexico which is used for human consumption after roasting. With less than 600 mm it cannot grow except in special conditions like Dormancy is induced by fluctuations in rainfall and temperature/light.Description of the plant. The genus Jatropha contains approximately 170 known species. which implies medicinal uses. Pollination is by insects. or physic nut. with 5 to 7 shallow lobes. Normally. distribution. but larger fruits. In a hedge you may have branches without leaves and besides ones full of green leaves. distribution. masked by large white patches. (JCL) is a tall bush or small tree (up to 5 m hight) and belongs to the euphorbia family. Costa Rica.Varieties There are 3 varieties.Introductory remarks 2.. It has fewer. But not all trees respond simultaneously.. 2. In other countries the Jatropha activities also show positive economic results. The plant is planted as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads. 2.1 Botanical description Jatropha curcas L. The economic use of Jatropha oil as fuel (direct or as biodiesel) depends very much on the level of our rural labor costs. 1. The seeds are black and in the average 18 mm long and 10 mm wide ).. but the selling cost of biodiesel gallon will given by the International Stock Market Exchange. to help mainly its potential to contribute to rural development by its utilization. It is not self propagating. please see our Cash Flow of rural labor cost. trophé (food).. The economic evaluation of the Jatropha activities in this project in the Coastal Region of Ecuador are based on real data.Economic Aspects 5. 2. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds are mature. The leaves are arranged alternately. Inflorescences are formed terminally on branches. has thick glabrous branchets. It has green leaves with a length and width of 6 to 15 cm. this latest variety is the ones which is spread all over the world. The tree has a straight trunk and gray or reddish bark. ecology 3.This presentation is divided in 5 points: 1. gardens and fields. The branches contain a whitish latex. The plant is monoecious and flowers are unisexual. The life-span of the Jatropha curcas plant is more than 50 years.

The SEA-Santa Elena Agreement and the Task Force Team of Etanolsa S.A. etc. No centralized processing (like in the cotton industry) is necessary. In this way the Jatropha System covers 4 main aspects of rural development: promotion of women (local soap production). are considered and shows. regular workshops on zonal level should be held. that the production and sale of Jatropha oil as diesel substitute is economically feasible. As well as especially the medicinal property of the soap makes it interesting for the rural population. 4. The latex / sap for wound healing.”. the oil from the seeds can be used for soap production. and thus all added value. seminars and visits of different projects with different approaches and in a different socio-economic environment (capacity building). The obvious advantage of this “Jatropha System” is that all the processing procedure. erosion control (planting hedges).. Description of the Jatropha System 3. The Jatropha plant is already known by the population since a long time. The estimation including transport costs. 3. By planting Jatropha hedges to protect gardens and fields against roaming animals. 1999). Jatropha is planted to demarcate the boundaries of fields and homesteads. Jatropha hedges are planted to reduce erosion caused by water and/or wind. oil and soap). including our labor salary of US$500 per month is fairly low to produce the oil at a good price below the biodiesel price at the pump. Using state-of-the-art technology from the JC cultivation system to the final stage of conversion of jatropha oil into biodiesel. 30 . Becker et al.. can be kept within the rural area or even within one village. in Papua New Guinea and in Uganda Jatropha plants are used as a support plant for vanilla. Jatropha plants are used as a source of shade for coffee plants (on Cuba). including workshops.1 The Jatropha System The Jatropha System is an integrated rural development approach. The leaves as tea against malaria. storage etc.Economic Aspects This will be an example of a successful project in Ecuador. Our project will include the creation of a Jatropha network for mutual support and exchange of know how. Jatropha is planted in the form of hedges around gardens or fields to protect the crops against roaming animals like cattle or goats. And an important economic contribution of glycerin as a by-product of our process to the final stage of biodisel. The seeds were not used.of oil for human consumption. accompanied by some central seminars (capacity building). poverty reduction (protecting crops and selling seeds. In Comore islands. The most important economic aspect in our project it is the conversion of JC seeds into oil and at the final stage into biodiesel with a huge demand worldwide that it will last for the next 50 years to come. the promoter’s project have convinced men and women living in The Peninsula of Santa Elena and outside people looking for sources of jobs of the interesting economic potential of these 5 plants to produce biodiesel. for lighting and cooking and as fuel in special diesel engines. In order to keep the Jatropha network alive. Publication of Jatropha information. energy supply for the household and stationary engines in rural areas. and the seed cake can be a good protein source for humans as well as for livestock. but its utilization was limited to the use of the plant as protection hedge around homesteads and gardens.2 Possible Uses of the Jatropha Plant The Jatropha plant is used as a medicinal plant: The seeds against constipation. 3.

Needless to say that biofuels are an inherent part of these processes. press cake as animal feed). Ecuador. Such topics could be: Selection of high yield Jatropha plants (seeds. Establishment of a seed bank to provide Jatropha projects / initiatives with high yield and / or non toxic seeds. This would mean factoring the impact of competition for other land uses. cuttings). Looking for export / import possibilities on international markets will be handled and managed by Roy Wale’s companies. who has the best international knowledge to carry out all exports of ethanol and biodiesel worldwide with the necessary logistic infraestructure. Selection of high oil yield Jatropha plants. Feedstocks for biofuel remain at the core of any biofuels venture.Supply of tools & blueprints & contacts with experts. as other Nations that have embarked on a biofuel driven model for economic development need to evolve the right protocols and systems to plan and implement such initiatives in a sustainable manner to be used in our project. Among all the oil bearing crops. Selection of a pure line of the non toxic variety from Mexico (edible oil. Jatropha has emerged as the focal point for the biofuel industry with rapid R&D investments flowing into its cultivation. The “Jatropha Promotion Center” to be created inside our territory will also identify research topics and coordinate the work on these topics by different organizations / universities and distribute the results. such as production of food or other crops at the concept stage itself. With growing emphasis on the sustainability of the biofuels value chain from feedstocks to consumer. BEST PRACTICES FOR LONG-TERM JATROPHA DEVELOPMENT IN THE SANTA ELENA AGREEMENT Jatropha: in need of sustainability STANDARDS In the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement there are growing concerns about climate change. Our nation. processing and conversion into biodiesel. energy security and rural development are key drivers pushing innovative solutions to an equitable socio economic model in developing economies such Ecuador. there have been pressures on regulators and governments to set in place sustainable models for Jatropha cultivation and use as a biofuel feedstock. 31 .

A. Leveraging Jatropha’s other beneficial qualities for improving rural economy is a facet which needs closer scrutiny with mega ventures being planned by Etanolsa S. particularly in developing our economy involve a detailed assessment of economic. in developing our economies. Jatropha is yet to deliver on its promises. including food. medicines. This topic is well-considered in the Soil Economy item further ahead. in order to obtain all what we need for a good living. soil. However. etc. land resource management. Jatropha production and its use need comprehensive sustainability criteria just as other food crops. This project considers the initiatives in developing a sustainable position in Jatropha production and the need for sustainability criteria to be developed for all large Jatropha biorefineries to be located in the Coastal region of Ecuador. production complexities and ways to resolve them *Business models suitable for small and medium land holders to become as partners in this project *Environmental and social benefits inside our territory This project ensure sustainability standards for Jatropha projects to be develop in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. water and climatic factors. water management and cultivation practices need better understanding in light of reported variations in Jatropha practices in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. It is essential to modify traditional approach of cost benefit analysis to develop better models for judging project profitability and sustainability. ecological and social dimensions at the planning and pre-project stages. soil. and GHG balance have been raised by leading multilateral agencies. commercial pressure to maximize yields are 32 . Our Jatropha projects is characterized by new agronomical and technological challenges posed by new production and conversion processes employed. water. We also consider Economies of scale as all changes the economics of any energy crop based project and also bring about environmental impacts.There are three key issues concerning Jatropha in this project: *Plant agronomy demands. educational materials. But not only Jatropha but emergence of new rural business models and novel environmental and social models are related issues impacting the long term sustainability such as the use of a new currency of money of barter-bond and our own credit card system. There are also claims of Jatropha assisting in preventing deforestation and desertification. Primary issues favoring Jatropha over other crops are its non food nature. wearing apparels. Besides. reported ability to grow on marginal lands and the need for limited rainfall. and improving soil fertility. Our large Jatropha projects and their potential impact on land. corporations as also social organizations. experiences across the developing world have been quite varied reflecting complexities in local practices. Though amenable to growing on marginal land. Though heralded as the most preferred non food crop.

Leveraging carbon finance potential e.-Planting. Nett balance of carbon dioxide savings from Jatropha projects will depend on the amount of energy used for cultivating.. with different oil content. harvesting. It is equally critical to determine the suitability of each Jatropha type for the Coastal region of Ecuador covering more than 50.likely to result in best lands being appropriated for Jatropha. Jatropha projects are very location specific and it has been noted that experiences are not transferable across our own borders outside the Peninsula of Santa Elena.. resistance to drought and pests. and critical focus on the following factor form key criteria and need to be addressed.Integrating socio economic perspectives into large projects b. The data collected from these projects will prove useful to assess the overall sustainability of Jatropha projects for the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. conversion efficiencies. value added products Key factors driving sustainability criteria : Sustainability of biofuel feedstock production is not a given. harvesting and processing 3. In Ecuador our Jatropha projects is being planned with a variety of types of Jatropha plants. our legal frame to carry out successfully these energy projects.Creating local value chains c.-Yields. the most significant factor in ensuring sustainability lies in developing a correct model of our socio economic systems related to rural employment and economy. maturity periods. transporting and converting the plants.-Optimizing jatropha value chain processes 7. Similarly pressure for irrigation to be intensified as also the accompanying impacts of indiscriminate extraction of ground water in fragile zones will have to be dealt with. Options to funnel fuel revenues back into the community.. d. the early stage Jatropha projects would have attained maturity of 5-6 years. Other developing sustainability criteria for Jatropha There are other key factors to be evaluated in our Jatropha project. inequities in land tenure and poorly implemented resettlement plans pose further challenges for sustainable Jatropha production. yields.Finance most products and services for local communities’ needs.-Socially and environmentally sound protocols 4.. By end 2014.000 hectares of fertile and mostly virgin lands. and rainfall requirements.-Policies synergizing with the needs of local area 5. These are: a.-Application and agronomy research on Jatropha Despite the potential qualities of Jatropha as a sustainable feed stock for biofuel there are specific issues pertaining to translating it into commercial and social benefits. Yet another aspect determining sustainability is to ensure the rights of indigenous people facing displacement from their habitats.-Adopting best practices in production systems 2. It is evident that the choice of the crop and the technology pathways affects the carbon dioxide balance of crops grown for biofuels.-Carrying capacity of the land 6. Critical sustainability components for Jatropha: Key issues determine the sustainability of such projects are: 1. To assess this a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for different pathways needs will be carried out in our project. Land use patterns Water usage Soil impacts GHG balance Biodiversity loss Social dimensions Social dimensions in Ecuador Perhaps. It is imperative to set in place properly designed value sharing 33 .

and availability of press cake which is also a good quality organic fertilizer. Developing sustainable economic models in Ecuador As Jatropha cultivation is practiced around the world and comprises a variety of business models ranging from small to large scale with involvement of smallholders. In countries where Jatropha based biofuel could be produced. smaller and small-scale production to mega ventures as is our project which will the biggest of its kind in South America to be develop by Etanolsa S. Environmental benefits need to be considered in our project as a new means of evaluation. In most Jatropha driven zones there exists a wide variety of Jatropha plants. As discussed earlier economic viability will demand better quality land and higher water usage when based on traditional cost benefit analysis. Optimizing economies of scale will alter the environmental impacts. yields. Future challenges in mega Jatropha projects We are sure that developing sustainable Jatropha projects do pose challenges of varied nature and some critical ones are discussed below. including increased productivity from intercropping and the creation of a better more humid microclimate. there is often a lack of appropriate policy support to small-scale Jatropha development at the local level but not in our case because all Rural Communities. reduced soil erosion. and besides they will be contracted as our employees and workers by thousand under the legal figure of the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. Once other benefits are integrated there is more likelihood of small scale projects on marginal lands being more economical. Emergence of 2nd generation biofuels will impact the 1st generation fuel feed stocks and long term viability of Jatropha based projects will also need to be evaluated from a socio economic angle. Each of these is defined by differences in oil content. Agronomic challenges Plant agronomy poses key challenges to the viability of Jatropha projects and key among them is the diversity in Jatropha types in each zones inside our territory. and a group of leader international companies to be contracted according to each specialized fields of its kind. small and large land owners or concessionaries will become partner in our project with a 15% of the shares.models in the initial stage itself. maturity periods.A. In the case of Jatropha. mainly cover by the Peninsula of Santa Elena. resistance to drought 34 . Apparently traditional approach of cost benefit analysis needs a reassessment to evolve a comprehensive tool for determining project profitability and sustainability. yields will be higher on good quality soil and with sufficient watering than on marginal arid lands and low water usage. protection against desertification.

there is often a lack of appropriate policy support to small-scale Jatropha development at the local level. In our project we will contract with a leading company in the jatropha curcas field. Community based initiatives 35 . 2. However. Policy barriers In countries where Jatropha based biofuel could be produced. We have worked with the current government’s officals and authorities to obtain and issue the most appropriate policies to ensure that local households. 1. Developing local value chains A large variety of technologies makes use of Jatropha oil such as local diesel electricity generators that run on jatropha oil. as well as associated income and job opportunities. no systematic approaches to link these technologies to jatropha production have been negligible. our Jatropha projects has taken into account the ecological and sociological complexities involved in these large ventures.and pests. jatropha stoves and lamps. Linking the production of these goods to the local production of Jatropha allows generation of regional value chains that expand employment opportunities. Some key ones are discussed below. transformation Jatropha biofuel quality standards and testing Ensuring quality product Evolve guidelines for suitable available technology. It is essential to engage small farmers and producers in the policy formulation discussions. 3. businesses. including for further research on process technologies and design of equipment to scale up the Jatropha projects and by contracting the most advance companies in the world. It is important to decide on minimum standards for large scale investments in Jatropha that are shared and agreed upon by all stakeholders. Policy support will need to consider a range of issues. logistics. Setting minimum standards Since the beginning several years ago. Most technologies for biofuel have been based on rape seed or palm. However. very few of these technologies have been extended for Jatropha. We have also consider several large scale investments in jatropha based biofuel plants and are in our budget of investment in accordance with our funds providers. Technological challenges Existing technological utilities for Jatropha needs closer attention. and communities receive the benefits of energy services from Jatropha based biodiesel development. These are: Feedstock production methods. These minimum standards are expected to protect local population and their environment for sure. we will achieve in our endeavor to successfully develop the Biofuel Project in the Coastal region of Ecuador. and rainfall requirements. etc Pricing mechanism Incentives biofuels usage Favorable tax regimes Capacity building in executive bodies Guidelines for sustainable Jatropha projects A set of guidelines are suggested by our expertise for Jatropha projects for ensuring sustainability. Since Jatropha grows mostly in developing economies ensuring their rights becomes a key component. It is critical to make the right choice of Jatropha type for any given region and assess its overall suitability to ensure long term sustainability.

At this moment the Central Government has issued an executive degree to exonerate of income taxes for the first 10 years of operation to all potential producers of energy biofuel products in Ecuador. Ecuador is adopting a large variety of policies that provide a sound basis for future policy development to make the small farmers to go back from the big cities to their lands and encouraging to cultivate energy cultivation such as is the case for Jatropha. is in the process of defining sustainability criteria and recommendations for decisionmakers in industry and governments that should help reduce the risks while the bioenergy market 36 . Sustainability assurance system for growing Biofuel feedstocks In the International field UNEP. as fodder for animals is equally high. subsidies. It is important to make existing decentralized Jatropha activities and grassroots enterprises fit for the market to allow their up-scaling. subsidies. Agronomy research on Jatropha (by-products) In comparison to other cash crops Jatropha has a huge untapped potential. Regulatory framework and Jatropha ventures The regulatory framework in different parts of the world (taxation. industry and civil society. quality standards. This income is spent locally creating positive feed-backs for the local economy. 7. Potential for Jatroha cake as organic fertilizer. high-yielding Jatropha crops and through the sales of by-products based on Jatropha press Cake. Ecuador is not the exception as potential producer of energy products such as the biofuels we are for sure counting with the support and encouraging with the corresponding taxation. It is essential to understand how national policies impact on the profitability of Jatropha investments. The regulatory framework in different parts of the world determine the profitability of specific Jatropha uses. Based on this understanding. in close cooperation with partners in governments. as pellet to burn. These frameworks will determine whether it is more profitable to export Jatropha or to sell it on the home market or whether to refine Jatropha oil into biodiesel or whether it is more profitable to use the oil to run diesel engines for off-grid energy services. 5. 4. Currently. quality standards) determine the profitability of specific Jatropha uses.Social enterprises require some initial support during start-up. It is critical to increase the profitability of Jatropha projects through improved. It is also essential to develop Jatropha projects by identifying carbon co-financing opportunities. it is imperative to derive recommendations regarding best policy practices for specific Jatropha related development objectives. Leveraging Jatropha Carbon Finance It is important to identify conditions afforestation and fossil fuel substitution with Jatropha oil may be included in carbon finance schemes. but become financially sustainable after this phase. Social enterprises at the community level offer income opportunities for those in desperate need. 6.

To ensure sustained use of natural resources. We also include the important issues such as agricultural land competition. Development of International set of standards to facilitate international trade. the development of biofuel needs to be carefully planned and managed in our project. soil erosion. Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel can bring many benefits for developing countries such Ecuador mainly by providing access to clean energy services. based on general sustainability principles for bioenergy. scarce water resources. Including future contracting with international companies.. UNEP is working with the Roundtable of Sustainable Biofuels (RSB). Ensuring participation of small farmers into large scale production through participatory concepts. particularly in developing countries such Ecuador. and biofuel trade issues need closer attention. We are going to work with close relation to the respective government authorities through coherent and responsible policies and legislation. Ecuador through our project is attempting to maximize their biofuel potential.A. and SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. equity concerns of large versus small-scale biofuel development.and situation-specific. capacity building.the lifecycle benefits and costs of biofuel production as well as the global production potential. Participation of stakeholders is key to sustainable development and should be taken into account in policy formulation and development of policy instruments. particularly in developing countries such Ecuador’s case. There is wellestablished biodiesel trade market can benefit both importing and exporting countries worldwide. UNEP will provide the link between the technical findings of the RSB and the GBEP and other intergovernmental processes.continues to develop. The RSB process brings together a large variety of stakeholders to develop the criteria of sustainable biofuels production. and each regional zone and even location will need appropriate policies. an initiative set up by the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne. Biofuel projects. Different business models -small scale and large scale production. The growth and yield of Jatropha could be improved through effective management practices. The economics of bioenergy production are site. CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY : THE PRODUCTIVE PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS The practices being undertaken by the Jatropha growers currently will need to be scientifically managed for better growth and production in our project. We are taking into account – in the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement . Take into account the lifecycle benefits and costs of biofuel production as well as the global production potential. Involvement of the local population to reduce social or environmental risks related to feedstock production. biodiversity concerns. Sustainability standards have to be developed tailored to Jatropha. In this context. each one specialized in their respective industry and agricultural field. These criteria need take into account and build on criteria used in existing national and commodity-based systems such is our project. which are driven by Etanolsa S. food versus fuel competition issues. technology transfer and technological development that are going to be needed to ensure that a part of the Coastal region of Ecuador with their growing energy needs can be met through sustainable production of Jatropha biofuels. appear likely to produce and sustained benefits for a rural community and in addition to export biofuels to the national and international markets. land use and energy planning policies. in which small and medium size farmers will produce fuel for their own use or for community use. 37 . Integration with agricultural.

• Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of Maximum survival rates Intended utilization of the plantation 38 .PROPAGATION METHODSGENERATIVE PROPAGATION-EFFECTING FACTORS • Direct seeding-Quality of seeds • Seding depth • Date of sowing Transplantation of precultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • Poly bags-Type of precultivation Length of precultivation Age of precultivation VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION(cuttings) • • Direct planting-Right time Transplanting of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • • Poly bags-Right size Right age Right strain Right source SUCCESSFULL PRECULTIVATION IS CHARACTERIZED BY-High germination rates of seeds • High sprouting rates of cuttings • High survival rates Basing the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and properties of the plant in field.

the plantations could also be established by direct seeding. Seed should be collected when capsules split open. easily propagates the Jatropha transplanting of spontaneous wild plants and direct planting of cuttings. For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production. plants propagated by seeds are better. in soap and candle making *Used as medicine both internally and externally Bark *Yields tannins (37%) Twig *Used as medicine *Used as Dataun (Herbal tooth brush) *Young one cooked and eaten For successful plantation we have developed Jatropha Production Technology for which our TOTAL CULTIVATION PACKAGE can be had. Jatropha as a plantation crop offers the following advantages: • Easy to establish.For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control. Further growth is sympodial Uses of Jatropha curcas : A petrocrop Whole plant *Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation *Promising live fence *useful as green manure *useful in controlling sand drift *possess Allelopathic properties Roots • Used as ethnomedicine Leaves • Used as ethnomedicine *Yield a dye used to give tan & brown *Useful as botanical Latex *Resembles shellac *Used for making ink *Used as ethnomedicine Seeds *Source of oil (40-50%) suitable as fuel for diesel engine *Useful as illumitant. Use of fresh seeds improves germination. Intervals of presoaking and drying. the radicula emerges and 4 small peripheral roots are formed. The seed shell splits. germination takes 10 days. With better rainfall conditions. With good moisture conditions. Soon after development of the 1st leaves. 39 . or partial removal of the testa. are more successful than presoaking alone. hardy and require little care. the cotyledons wither and fall off. directly planted cuttings are best. lubricant. pre-cultivation of seedlings. grows quickly. Direct seeding.

• • • • • • • • • It can grow in poor soils. Use of bio-diesel at the village level for operating oil engines for pumping water and operating small machinery are another good opportunity. cultivation of Jatropha appears viable. as farm animals do not browse it. Jatropha curcas will be found in the Peninsula of Santa Elena covering more than 50. This will be a great boon to the development and enhancement of the quality of life of the rural women. The crop is suitable particularly for garden land situations yet less productive. Possesses medicinal as well as other multiple uses. Scope of Jobs for all Jatropha is economically viable not only to the growers but also to the processors and end users. Economic life The economic life of Jatropha is 35-40 years. Providing local jobs. Yield: There will be about 1675 plants /ha at 3m x 2m spacing. To the rural society. The plant survives up to 50 years if root zone does not come in contact with rising water table and continues for longer time. where as indirectly this will help to save edible vegetable oil. Jatropha is not a competitor of any crop rather it increases the yield. Jatropha is not an alternative to agriculture or plantation but it is an addition to it.000 hectares of mainly communities’ lands. reaching highest crop yield upon maturity from 4th year. In Ecuador. In fertile land it gives higher yields Plantation of Jatropha. collection of seeds. Jatropha adapts well to marginal lands as well as live fence. de-shelling etc. Due to my corrhizal value in Jatropha roots it helps in getting phosphate from soil boon for acid soil. Besides the crop must not replace other important food crops and in turn will not have a major impact on cropping pattern. oil extraction and nursery raising. no irrigation facilities. All parts of the shrub are used in traditional medicine and as raw material for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It is suitable for preventing soil erosion including Jhum fallows. The average productivity can be projected as follows: 40 . can be rural based. We estimates that around 15. The use of Jatropha oil in the production of soap in rural areas gives direct benefit. hence promoter of rural economy besides ensuring energy security.000 workers and employees will be working in the 5 biorefineries and in developing 50. lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment.000 hectares of energy crop system with direct and indirect labor activities. The crop can easily be raised without any difficulty. which will be a boon to the farmers. Reclamation of wasteland and degraded land is possible through its plantation. Grown up Jatropha from 6th year onwards yield 3-6 kg per plant under good management. the crop can create regular employment opportunities. and considering each of them as head member of each family (5 member each) that represents a total of 60.0000 people. Improves the soil fertility throughout their life cycle. as it provides never ending marketing potential . Cultivation scope Due to potential demand and better marketing opportunities. in wastelands except flood prone and waterlogged areas. Generate net income for 40-55 years. the rural women can be engaged in all kinds of activities like raising seedlings. The large scale cultivation of Jatropha curcas on wastelands with poor soils and low rainfall in drought prone areas could provide regular employment and could improve their living conditions by providing additional income.

3:14:00 PM EST 10000 INR Indian Rupee 1 INR = 0. Generation employment and capital formation to increase nation’s income and quick greening of the country. This no-conventional source of energy will help in removing regional imbalance in energy use by making energy available in a decentralized manner. unlimited employment potential in the rural areas. phosphorus and potassium finds very good organic fertilizers.000 kilograms per hectare of rapeseed in Europe (740 gallons per acre) to 3.5 kgs Per hectare yield in kg 1500 kg. Year 4th. 5. kerosene. 177.4439 USD United States Dollar 1 USD = 51.000 kilograms per hectare of Jatropha (2.00. 1.Jatropha stacks up nicely compared with other feedstocks. short gestation period.3.125 150 kg/ton Rs.000 24 KWH Rs. The protein content of Jatropha oil cake may be used as raw materials for plastic and synthetic fibers. Year 3rd. 450/ton Rs.5-1.000 45 KWH Rs 225 600 kg/ton Rs.0 – 5. 180 3 day Rs. LPG. Year of planting 2nd.43 INR http://www.00. coal and firewood. Jatropha Oil Extraction Cost Parameter Installation cost Power consumption Cost of power consumption Steam Cost of steam Man Power Cost of manpower Processing cost/ton Processing cost/ton Investment 1 t/day cap Rs. Year Per plant yield 0.500 kgs. which is an indication of ecological improvement of site.000 kgs.0 kgs.0194 USD = 19. long productive period.43 INR Live mid-market rates as of: March 04. 20/ton Rs.50 6 day Rs. Year to 6th. 885 1 t/hour cap Rs. 20/ton Rs.226 gallons per hectare in Ecuador. 6.0194 USD = 194.gcitrading.5 – 5. As a non-conventional energy crop Jatropha oil is environmentally safe cost effective and renewable source of no conventional energy as a promising substitute to hydel power.0. Year to 10th. The leaves provide plentiful organic matter and increase the microbial activity including earthworms. as soybeans and rapeseed have a relatively low oil yield compared with Jatropha — 375 kilograms per hectare for soybeans in the United States (280 gallons per acre) and 1. Potential of wastelands developments. 3.0 kgs. Economics per hectare basis (Rs): 1000 INR Indian Rupee 1 INR = 0. 215 2 t/hour cap Rs.htm Jatropha for enrichment of soil The oil cake is rich in nitrogen.5 41 .500 kgs. 120 125 kg Rs. 45 3 day Rs.000 30 KWH Rs. Year 7th.439 USD United States Dollar 1 USD = 51. 6. 2. diesel. 2009 . Potential for creation of productive assets boosting of village based industries. 3.0 kgs. 70. 3. It is a crop with low capital investment.

All owners or concessionaries of land could openly become part of this SEA-Santa Elena Agreement by placing their lands into the project and will receive the following benefits: • • Reducing crop losses caused by wandering livestock or wind damage.5 Rs. the Jatropha System can provide direct financial benefits to the rural economy and their communities. *Complete financing from international sources to develop the full project from the preparation of lands to the conversion of oil into biodiesel. 7. lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment. • Reducing disputes between farmers and livestock owners regarding crop damage.5 Rs. including the production of biodiesel and ethanol.5 Rs. • Increasing soil fertility by use of press-cake as fertilizer. resulting in less work/irrigation water needed for local gardens. 222. • Increasing use of inexpensive local resources rather than expensive external resources.000 hectares in whole Peninsula of Santa Elena. Increasing rainfall infiltration. as well as among farmers themselves regarding the boundaries of their fields. 6.Depreciation Total cost of Processing/ton Rs. *Adoption of the state-of-the-art technology to obtain the best yield from the JC crops to the gallons/per metric tons. where all 5 biofuel plants will be established for our Jatropha cultivation project. • Providing local jobs. *To contract the most strategic international marketer to sell the ethanol and biodiesel under the best conditions in the international markets Because of its economic value our rural people will be planting new Jatropha hedges in a large extent with more than 50. 900 Rs. 45 Rs. 184 BIO DIESEL FROM WASTELANDS JATROPHA CURCAS CULTIVATION Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the Jatropha System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population in a selected country: Coastal region of Ecuador Poverty reduction By promoting the integrated utilization of the Jatropha plant. 42 .

In Ecuador by employing and developing this cultivation project seems to be hopeful momentum towards increasing use of biofuels worldwide and replacing the traditional derivative fossil diesel. that Jatropha’s properties are the most exciting. energetic and economic aspects which are attached with the commercial exploitation of the JC plants to be cultivated in the Coastal region of Ecuador. and finally economic labor salaries will be successfully implemented into our own system. Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. it has the tendency to degrade quickly. however. At same power output. the better for the environment and for food production.the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. FIGHTING DESERTIFICATION & CREATING WEALTH ELENA Jatropha curcas is a tough perennial tree could survive even in the desert. Resulting the more these JC plants are going to exploited. at the same time as its beans could be refined for diesel fuel. This will be well treated in our project level of deforestation during the last 50 years. cottonseed. groundnut. rapeseed. sales price according international stock exchange. the Jatropha system is characterized by the many positive ecological. International Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra.absorbs water and needs nitrogen blanketing on steel tanks. One issue that is quite clear is because Jatropha is high in acid.We are sure that the results of the Jatropha Cultivation Project to convert the seeds into Biodiesel using all factor in our benefits such the best technology. The selected area of the Peninsula of Santa Elena has been devastating by high right climate for growing Jatropha Precisely in our JC cultivation project It is in the field of Bio Diesel fuel our main focus. These potential problems include: 1) Jatropha oil is hydroscopic . Over 60% of The Peninsula of Santa Elena’s land has the IN THE PENINSULA OF SANTA 43 . vast appropriate lands to be cultivated. palm. huge good demand for biodiesel. CHALLENGES TO JATROPHA’S COMMERCIAL VIABILITY There are still some inherent problems with Jatropha and research work is still required. and could actually stabilize soil and combat desertification. soya and sunflower . particularly if not handled properly through the supply chain. To summarize. including all facilities for our workers and employees to live under the best standards of living inside our territory. enough international funds. We are learning more and more about the properties of Jatropha.

and hence deserves specific attention Jatropha can help to increase rural incomes. The degumming may well be more of a problem than making biodiesel. Exposure to air and moisture must be minimized . It is just a tree that has enough credentials. There are various trees that are suitable for bio-diesel production.hence the need for nitrogen blanketing on the tanks. Sustainability Jatropha cultivation is a valuable multi-purpose crop to alleviate soil degradation. Jatropha must be regarded as a sure inclusion and the foundation around which a good plan can be built if for nothing but its pure hardiness and stress handling ability. That is why many developing countries has been nominated JC cultivation as ideal plant for biodiesel. 3) The range of fatty acids present in the various seeds will differ but the oil and biodiesel that is produced must be acceptable. this assumes that that oil is fully degummed. JC cultivation as energy crop that produces biofuels and holds particular promise for sustainable development and a sustainable environment. which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-diesel. Breaking the cycle of poverty 44 . for soap production and climatic protection. Even in the U. Alternative feedstock in our project The emerging industry worldwide is facing a lack of feedstock supplies and rising crude palm oil /soy oil prices and also the debate of crops for food versus fuel and needs initiatives in crop cultivation technologies and competitive sourcing of appropriate feedstock . Out of all these trees. desertification and deforestation. The free fatty acid must not increase above 2% according to our expertise. However. In the warm humid atmosphere in countries the degradation of seeds can be rapid. easy to sustain and can produce greater yields. the oil needs to be kept in storage conditions that prevent undue degradation. Our technological contractors are fully specialized to overcome this important issue. rural communities. Jatropha has been selected as the one and other intercropping food crops.2) Right from the time of expelling. Carbon Savings Biodiesel produced from jatropha is one of the most promising solutions for tackling the growing carbon emissions from transport. small farmers and finally large farmers. men. seed storage is a problem. self-sustainability and alleviate poverty for women. 4) Seeds degrade as soon as they are picked and so careful storage and handling is required. elderly. It can as well help to increase income from plantations and agro-industries.K.all of which can alter the biofuel economics. Our technology will be implemented to prevent degradation. As such the greatest challenges to the widespread deployment and use of biofuels is developing a dedicated energy crops that are cost-effective.

or even light. Farmers need to know that there is going to be a good domestic and international market for what we will produce as energy crops. education and other services for their neediest citizens inside our territory. new jobs and new markets.A. Our project at regional level. Since the two-thirds of the people in the developing world who derive their incomes from agriculture and Jatropha based biodiesel as the Santa Elena project has enormous potential to change their situation for the better and poverty can be broken by Jatropha Cultivation as this dedicated crop has a huge potential for replication world -wide. producing more biofuels will reduce energy expenditures and allow our nation to put more of their resources into health. and in addition of 15% of participation in the shares of our promoting company. In our project more than 15. but the rural farmers still need to get comfortable with the idea that diesel fuel can be “harvested. 38 of which are net importers and 25 of which import all of their oil. We – in Etanolsa S. covering more than 50.” but they understand one thing very clearly that they can use Jatropha plants as a source of their main earnings to live under very reasonable standard of living as the one offered in our SEA-Santa Elena Agreement with good salaries. leaves approximately 2 billion people worldwide without reliable energy sources.Consider that oil priced is too high per barrel has had a disproportionate impact on the poorest countries. At the same time. the high cost and Inaccessibility of fossil fuels. heat. At the community level. basic communication. For developing countries.’s Task Team . without refrigeration. a source of sickness and a source of human suffering. Developing countries consume roughly twice as much oil per dollar of GDP as the United States All the while. climate change and world’s energy policies are a source of oppression.000 hectares of fertile lands along the Peninsula of Santa Elena. In our project bio-diesel will be “cultivated Ecuador as other developing countries have the potential to be a leading world producer of diesel. then.000 head member of families will employed for all stages of JC cultivation including into its conversion of Biodiesel to be marketed domestically and worldwide and other derivative sub-products will an enormous impact on benefits of all our people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. farmers that produce dedicated energy crops can grow their incomes and grow their own supply of affordable and reliable energy backed by our international project by means of investing US$200 Millions per Biofuel plant and 15. producing more biofuels will generate new industries.000 hectares.are very keen to 45 . improving the livelihood of many more. new technologies.

developing and establishing the correct process. Etanolsa S. . and it has seeds with up to 50% oil content. especially the south west It was learned that three kilos of jatropha seeds can produce one liter of bio-diesel fuel. each mature tree produces about four kilograms of seed per year during the first 4 years. we are creating new sources of income for the rural farmers. deploy and commission Non-food vegetable oil refining and design and construct biodiesel plants Jatropha plant . Here are some facts and figures about Jatropha relating to its growth as an oil product:Jatropha grows well on low fertility soils however increased yields can be obtained using a fertilizer containing small amounts of magnesium. processing them and finally producing biodiesel. It can be grown in very poor soils actually generating top soil as it goes. We will contract the best companies specialized in each stage of the process who are fully equipped with Technical knowledge and plant science expertise. root and bark could also have potential for numerous other industrial and pharmaceutical uses Because of its growing requirements this tree could easily be growing in the south. The leaves.The cost of 2500 jatropha saplings (enough for one hectare) in Ecuador is around or equivalent 46 . can be derived. profitability and sustainability of commercial production of Jatropha oil crop worldwide. and calcium.Jatropha prefers alkaline soils. design and Create Fuel Farms. The byproducts of the bio-diesel processing plant are nitrogen-rich press cake and glycerin. . promoting sustainable farming for biodiesel production and looking for international research findings and on-hand field experiences in respect of various technical.Jatropha is excellent at preventing soil erosion. is seen by many to be the perfect biodiesel crop.Jatropha needs at least 250mm of rain annually to thrive however it can survive three years of drought by dropping its leaves. a gasoline additive. the project’s promoter Task Team is happy and proudly presents its commitment to exploring. This processed oil can then be used in diesel engines after minor modifications. Our plant will be cultivating these energy-producing plants.Jatropha can be intercropped with many cash crops such as coffee. . which can be extracted easily for further processing (transesterification) and refinement. sulphur. On average. process engineering and operational expertise to plan. crushing refining and use of Bio Diesel from seed oil. is drought and pest resilient.Biodiesel and so much more The seeds of the Jatropha contain high percentages (40%-50%) of oil. fruits and vegetables with the Jatropha offering both fertilizer and protection against livestock. agronomical/silvicultural aspects of plantations of Jatropha and we will contract the best expert companies that have resulted in significant improvements in knowledge and technical background related to Productivity. It reportedly can also produce oil from which ethanol. workers and employees to make our own biodiesel. To avoid engine modifications the bio-diesel can also be blended with convention-al diesel. . .build that confidence and promote Jatropha cultivation by assisting in the whole process from planting. which are said to have good commercial value as fertilizer and as a base for soap and cosmetics respectively. and the leaves it drops act as a wonderful soil enriching mulch. buying the seeds for refining and providing the refining technology to enable growers. We’ve been privileged to represent Etanolsa as the Task Team. procedures and systems for growing. Jatropha curcas in particular under the respective international off take contracts. sugar.A.

. the by-product of Jatropha Curcas’ transesterification process can be used to make a wide range of products including high quality paper.2.The transport costs of shipping 1 ton of jatropha from Ecuador to Pacific Rim of USA is US$________. . . 47 . . embalming fluid. a biproduct of biodiesel refinement.2-2. toothpaste.91%+ of the oil can be extracted with cold pressing. .One hectare of jatropha plantation yields US$5. pipe joint cement. . cosmetics.Biodiesel costs around US$0.Jatropha trees are productive for up to 40-50 years in Ecuador. cough medicine and as a moistening agent in tobacco.the UK’s biggest biodiesel company: . . . but in our project they will earn more than US$500 per month. In addition to bio-diesel production. .to US$100 .Each jatropha seedling should be given a 2m x 2m area to grow into.The average Ecuadorian agricultural worker earns less than $200 per month.Glycerin. The remaining oil can be used to make skin friendly soap.The oil pressed from 4kg of seeds is needed to make 1 liter of biodiesel. This can be composted and used as a high grade nitrogen rich organic fertilizer (green manure). . . . can be sold in India for around US$2. The following stats come from D1 Oils . -After the first five years.Crushing 1 ton of Jatropha seeds costs around $40.1 hectare should yield around 2. .800/ year in Ecuador.5kg of beans . .One job is created for each 4 hectares of jatropha plantation.Jatropha oil burns with a clear smokeless flame About Jatropha Curcas Jatropha Curcas is a non edible oil crop predominately used to produce bio-diesel. including oil and glycerin.90 per gallon to grow and refine in Ecuador.8 tons of oil. soap.The cost of 1kg of jatropha seeds in Ecuador is around or equivalent to . .Jatropha seedlings yield seeds in the first year after plantation.Jatropha oil can be used as a kerosene substitute for heating and lamps. the typical annual yield of a jatropha tree is 3.1 hectare should yield around 24 tons of seeds per year with two crops.Press cake (seedcake) is left after the oil is pressed from the seeds.1 ton of (the leftovers after pressing) can be sold for $100. .Filtered jatropha oil can be used as is in many diesel vehicles (as SVO) with only small modifications required to the engine. .000 per ton.20% of seedlings planted will not survive. . energy pellets.500 trees can be planted per hectare.

far exceeding industry average Have selected genetics from plants that have produced over 10 Tonnes of Oil per Hectare. soil nutrient and adequate moisture our seeds will achieve the following yields planted at 2. (10 . while producing seed for up to 40 years Be freshly harvested and professionally packed & shipped Exceed guaranteed 90% germination rate Produce fruit with high oil content (60%) . The uptake of other nutrients essential for plant growth is also facilitated by mycorrhizae. Jatropha Biodiesel – plant based biofuel from seeds.10-12kg/tree Year 5 .500 plants/Ha : • • • • • Year 1 .3kg/tree Year 2 . and it has the ability to convert normally unavailable forms of Phosphorous to forms available for plant uptake. The Jatropha Curcas is a drought resistant oleaginous bushy shrub/tree belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common 48 . per Year.15kgs per tree at maturity) Projected growth rates of our high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds In our project we are going to use the correct growing procedures.9kg/tree Year 4 .Jatropha Curcas Seeds & Seedlings Our Superior high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds and seedlings will: • • • • • • Reach first harvest within 7 months with full production in their 4th year Have a life-span of 50 years.6kg/tree Year 3 .10-15kg/tree Achieving Outstanding Jatropha Curcas production Jatropoha Curcas plants inoculated with MYCORRHIZAE will likely survive stressful conditions and give higher yields since the Funghi increases the volume of roots hence increasing drought tolerance of plants by facilitating the transport of moisture to and within the root system.

000.000 Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source.000 3.500 1.000 300. Jatropha Curcas grows like a small tree or shrub with 2 – 8 meters high and has large green leaves with three to five lobes. The Jatropha Curcas plant grows like a small tree or shrub and has a long lifetime of 40-50 years.000 60.vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn. Physically. The plant doesn’t take much water to survive and requires minimal of water source equivalent to 250 mm of annual rainfall.500. Jatropha Curcas is a long term crop.500.000. The plantation can be grown in waste lands and requires a minimum maintenance and when compared to other crops.000 52.000 75. The following chart shows the process of converting the jatropha oil into biodiesel: 49 .000 500. where other common plantation crops cannot be grown. which enables us to grow jatropha curcas plantations marginal land or even in arid regions.500 kilograms of waste biomass. Hectares Oil Gallons Waste Biomass Kilos 1 500 3. which currently found in huge densities in the Asian and African countries. which starts providing its effective harvest after 18 – 24 months depending upon the soil and the climatic conditions. Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel – by the process of transesterification. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3. Jatropha curcas is grows well in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions.000 210. The scientific name of Jatropha Curcas is Jatropha Curcas L and its origin is believed to be Central America.000.000 15. Even when Jatropha adapts with lower temperatures it cannot withstand a frost and grows well at 20-32 deg mean annual temperature and its ideal altitude ranges from 0 to 500 m.

functional fluids. Intercropping can be done with various food crops and won’t compete.thus can be grown in arid regions and will grow well on marginal lands. The Jatropha cake left after oil extraction is an excellent organic fertilizer and can also be burnt for power generation. it has a long life. It can stop land degradation and reverse deforestation. producer gas.Advantages of Jatropha – as a promising biofuel crop. 50 . There is a lot of potential to use these cakes for production of biogas. These cakes contain proteins and carbohydrates as major constituents and several bioactive compounds as minor constituents. increases with the commercial usage of by-products like jatropha cakes and glycerol generated during the process of oil extraction. poly ether polyols. Once grown. which can be used for making unsaturated polyster resins. The efficiency and profitability of the jatropha curcas bio-fuel industry.. about 40-50 years and needs very minimal maintenance when compared to other crops. Biproducts of Jatropha – additional products from the crop. briquettes and several products like surfactants and lubricants.only about 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year . The by-product glycerol can be used for production of Propylene Glycol. Jatropha Curcas needs very less amount of water for survival . cosmetics and toiletries flavor.

Jatropha can yield up to 10 times the amount of oil as other sources of biodiesel. you can contact us with your processing requirements in terms of liters/day Jatropha Oil Fields – tomorrow’s oil source. Unlike soybeans. tubers. the enthusiasm for initiating today’s jatropha curcas plantations which will be tomorrow’s oil fields have increased among the large and small scale farmers which can also make use poor lands with minimal water sources. Jatropha Curcas Trees have a lifespan of up to 40-50 years. Finally. The biodiesel unit consists of an expeller and a transesterifier reactor. Liquid phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol can result in the formation of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol for manufacture of polyster fibre and synthetic cloth. medicinal plants. The oil is extracted from the jatropha curcas seeds with the help of an oil expeller and then converted into biodiesel with the help of a chemical process called transesterification. canola and many other agricultural sources of biodiesel. including non-arable. Jatropha Curcas grows on a wide range of land types. lasting up to 50 years without replanting. its expansion doesn’t compete with traditional food production. which can be grown in variable conditions with little water or fertilizer. If there are new machineries that need biodiesel with special specifications unit. and special polymers. Jatropha is a perennial. Also. Biodiesel Unit – oil extraction and conversion machinery. composites novel polysters solvents. Jatropha can be cultivated on arid and semi arid non-agricultural land. Jatropha can be intercropped with various crops including vegetables. because jatropha isn’t edible and grows on land unsuitable for foods crops. on a per acre basis . With apparent shortcomings of other renewable fuels sources. marginal and waste land. The byproducts like jatropha curcas cake (portion of the seed left over after extraction of the seed’s oil) is full of nitrogen compounds making it an excellent organic fertilizer. After 4 or 5 51 . Jatropha Curcas is hardy drought resistant and grows well in tropical and subtropical regions in a band around the earth between latitudes 30 degrees north and south of the Equator. could be used to produce a barrel of fuel for around $43. Several automotive companies have found their vehicles successively running over the pure biodiesel. This means growing Jatropha never has to compete with growing food.Propanediol produced from glycerol has a number of applications in laminates. and need not compete with vital food crops for good agricultural land. Further. which can be then blended or directly used in diesel engines. The first stage to establish Jatropha Cultivation System will be to buy the necessary tonnage of seeds available in bulk quantities from the international market to fit our needs for our large scale projects to install and construct 5 biofefineries to be develop in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. Biodiesel unit with the expeller and the transesterifier are available with various processing capacities. less than the cost of sugar cane-based ethanol ($45 per barrel) or corn-based ethanol ($83 per barrel). Jatropha Plantation – tomorrow’s oil fields. Analysis of the bioenergy market suggests that jatropha.

A real alternative for transportation and energy production. Our project will help and increase in a significant way Ecuador’s economic development and in the energy demand.000. and South East Asia. Once it’s planted it grows and produces nuts that contain oil within a few years.500 kilograms of waste biomass. large and inexpensive rural workforce to develop alternative energy options. We will also count with the best transesterification machineries that is used convert Jatropha oil to biodiesel that is viable for industrial use in our project.000 500. Its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn. Thus enables us – SEA-The Santa Elena Agreement . Jatropha is bush that grows in the warm regions of the world as it is sensitive to colder climates.000 Biodiesel from vegetable oils – alternate to fossil Waste Biomass Kilos 3. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. 52 . We are going to use the most efficient. Hectares Oil Gallons 1 500 1. In fact.000 50. reliable and durable expeller available in the international markets. from despair to respect and unemployment to business owners and partners in our project to be developed in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source.000. These large oil expeller will be used to crush jatropha curcas seeds in single pressing operation whereas it is used as final press for other seeds/ nuts up to 500 tons in an hour with the help of the electrical motor. Since the plants are toxic they have also been used to plant hedges and to keep animals out of areas of land. Africa. It’s been used locally for production of oil that was used in local village based industries for soap production.000. which benefits four main aspects of development and secure a sustainable way of life for thousands of people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador.years of treatment with this “cake” the soil of this originally non-agricultural land will be suitable for planting food crops or trees for reforestation to help considerable agriculture in Ecuador.000 175.000 35. it was distributed by Portuguese sailors from Mexico and South America over a hundred years ago to places such as India. Jatropha in Rural – creating new opportunities. Jatropha has been grown in developing countries for many years.500.000 25. leads to understanding that clean renewable energy technologies are to be widely introduced.000 fuels. Our Jatropha curcas plantation systems have the ability to lift many people from poverty to financial independence. It is a real matter that conventional energy sources are the major cause of climate change. Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters). commonly referred to as “biodiesel” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel utilize the large tracts of cheap barren land.000.500 3. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3.000 5.000 10. Jatropha Machinery – oil extraction and conversion. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. and produces these annually for up to 50 years.

Since bio-diesel is a strong organic solvent. High Price for derivative fossil crude oil. President of Etanolsa S. we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). Guayaquil. to start the engine with diesel. This means It Can Be Use Direct As Fuel With Mobile. trucks. harvesting the seeds and extracting the oil. Gallardo. Then It is sure possible to plant and develop jatropha biodiesel biorefineries in Ecuador in macro scale as is the case of our project under the following conditions: 1. We visualize a model. The best is. and processing 3. Yes. biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Then in our final stage converting jathropa oil into biodiesel to be sold domestically and internationally with a sustainable demand that will last for at least 50 years. Economic harvest cost. Or Other Diesel Engine Without to be Modified. it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic..Besides being a renewable and domestic resource. All depends on the engine. Further explanation and application with Which Diesel Engine Is Suitable For Bio Diesel Precombustion Chamber Or Direct Injection. where farmers are growing Jatropha. We are sure that there is no obstacles in the plantation of Jatropha system. and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes. We are ready to go into the new era of carbohydrates. If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection. High-yield compare with other plant. 5. 4. we have to modify the engine. busses). rubber). Ecuador 53 .000 gallons per year per plant for diesel engines that can also be run on unmodified vegetable oil like jatropha curcas bio-diesel. Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. So you have to make sure. You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a pre-combustion chamber without modification. but you have to modify the diesel engine. Our biodiesel will be manufactured at an industrial scale near a production of 80.A. then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot). Car. Availability of funds for biodiesel plant investing. Prepare by Wellington G. that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts. Good land price 2. Even we Can extract the Jatropha oil from seeds and directly used in the vehicle. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or pre-combustion chamber) directly. Based on the above premises there are excellent chances for this future on green energy such as the biodiesel to be produce in our 5 biorefineries to be installed and established in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. This fuel is an environmentally-friendly alternative to the higher emission petroleum diesel used in large transport vehicles and some cars and trucks. definitely Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars. If we have a diesel engine with a pre-combustion chamber. Pure Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel which runs in any unmodified diesel engine.

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