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No part of this PROJECT may be republished in any form whatsoever, electronic, or mechanical — without expressed written consent from the promoter, the company Etanolsa S.A., Antepara 1005 y Velez, Suite 3, Guayaquil, Ecuador, Telephones: (593)42422511 and (593)42433825, Cellular: (593)9499874 Disclaimer And/Or Legal Notices The information presented herein represents valuable and proprietary information for developing biofuel projects in Ecuador only under the patronage of Etanolsa S.A., Wellington Gallardo, President. Etanolsa S.A. is an Ecuadorian corporation exclusively engaged in developing agro-industrial projects to convert carbohydrates into ethanol and biodiesel in Ecuador, using sugarcane, cassava roots, agriculture waste of banana crops, and Jatropha Curcas as feedstock. The production and use of fuels using vegetable oils has been with man since the days of Rudolph Diesel when he first demonstrated biodiesel derived from peanut oil. Today’s world of Global Warming and Climate Change, high fuel prices, at this moment the barrel of oil is over US$150.00 dollars, and uncertain political realities has created a new and intensified interest in Biofuels. Etanolsa S.A. has been actively working in gathering fertile lands to develop the cultivation of jatropha curcas under the best geographically conditions, mainly in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, and also in the near future operating and maintaining jatropha nurseries and jatropha plantations throughout the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Upon maturity of the Jatropha seedlings and a successful harvest of the oil bearing seeds, we will process and refine the oil to produce biodiesel that can be used pure or mixed to create a biodiesel blend. The Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel can be used in a number of applications ranging from automotive fuel to electric generation using a diesel generator. Auto manufacturers like Mercedes and Daimler-Chrysler are already trial running cars on Jatropha biodiesel with great results. Aside from our large scale activities Etanolsa S.A. is actively involved in a number of local community based micro generation projects in the intercrop plantation. By enabling small local communities to get involved in various stages of the biodiesel process we are assisting them in growing towards economical independence and bringing the freedom and safety of a reliable power supply to areas that previously had none. We are ready to ensure sustained use of water supplies, land and natural resources, the development of biofuels must be planned, managed and maintained. Ecosystems and Rainforests through out the world, that are being destroyed for the sake of biofuels, must be stopped. Other major considerations are land competition for food vs. biofuel production, considerations on habitat destruction and animal species, availability of water, pollution of lands with fertilizers which can lead to soil erosion, safety of people who harvest phytoproducts for biofuel production and issues of developing large massive plants instead of small localized plants near the crops that will be used to manufacture biofuels. Our Executive Summary Bio-fuels, particularly bio-diesels are emerging to become cleaner options for meeting the ever increasing energy demand. Countries with tropical and subtropical climates like our case – The Coastal Region of Ecuador - can benefit from renewable energy resources such as Jatropha cultivation which has been identified clearly as an area for the initiation of major projects. Besides productively utilizing the lands, this agro based initiative is likely to be adaptable for the communities, because could ensure a good regular sustenance income.


Jatropha being a perennial crop it can be used for carbon capture and to alleviate soil degradation, desertification and deforestation. As any other crop, Jatropha plants absorb. nutrients from the soil. The oil from Jatropha seeds it can be used for production of soap, biopesticides and bio-diesel. Jatropha plants grow on medium and low fertility soils, and in low and high rainfall areas. Jatropha seeds have high oil content (35% to 50%). The plant can produce seeds between the 1st and 2nd years under very favorable conditions as it would take remarkably in our project. Seed production become stable after 4 to 5 years on soil fertility and rainfall as are the geographical/weather conditions of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. The plants will produce seeds during 40 years approximately. The oil from seeds can be transformed into bio-diesel through esterification. The by-products from bio-diesel are glycerine and press cake from oil extraction which can be used as biomass for combustion or as organic fertilizer. The Jatropha System creates a positive reciprocity between raw material / energy production and environment / food production; i.e. the more energy Jatropha hedges produce, the more food crops are protected from animals and erosion. Also additional income is created, mainly for women to do the harvesting of the seeds. Jatropha plant is not a Biodiesel miracle tree. It can be grown on poor soils, but marginal yields would be obtained in poor soils. All crops need fertile soils with adequate moisture to be productive. Biodiesel enterprises need constant supply of oil to amortize machinery, operation costs and make profit. Therefore, the equipment for Biodiesel elaboration should be versatile to process not only oil from Jatropha seeds which are harvested once or twice per year, according to our project. ABSTRACT : Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose, drought-resistant, biofuel tree originating from Central and South America, but now growing pantropic. The tree produces seeds containing 40-50% inedible oil, depending of the kind of technology to be applied, which is easily convertible into biodiesel. Our qualitative sustainability assessment, focusing on environmental impacts and strengthened by some socio-economic issues considered in this project, is highly favorable into Jatropha curcas cultivation. Preliminary lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are positive, but the GHG balance is expected to be much dependent on the type of land use which is converted to J. curcas. The cultivation intensity and the distance to markets are expected and considered -in our project- to have a significant impact on the GHG balance as well. Similar reasoning applies for the impact on soil, water, vegetation structure and biodiversity, although the latter will always depend on local circumstances. Next to biodiesel production, J. Curcas also hosts socio-economic development potential to be develop in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. The multipurpose character of the plant and the labor-intensive production chain are thought to be the main drivers for rural development. In order to achieve best results with respect to both environmental and socio-economic issues, decisions will be based on local environmental, economical, cultural and social characteristics. Biodiesel could be an important renewable and the best alternative to substitute for fossil fuels. And, in certain parts of the world, same as in Ecuador, governments and some corporations consider the jatropha plant, common in hot climates, one of the most promising sources of biodiesel. The biodiesel plants are going to be located in the lands of the rural communities of the Peninsula of Santa Elena , and their yield more than four times as much fuel per hectare as soybean, and more than ten times that of corn. But the commercial-scale cultivation of jatropha, which has not previously been grown in Ecuador as an energy crop, raises several significant challenges. This year, Etanolsa S.A. is promoting to cultivate 50,000 hectares of lands in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, representing an investment of US$20,000.oo per hectare, including the Biorefinery, the whole cultivation process and system to produce over 5,000,000 metric tons of jatropha seeds to generate 400 millions gallons of oil to mix wit ethanol and produce biodiesel that means all related issues involved in taking jatropha from seed to fuel filling station domestically and internationally.


The Etanolsa S.A.’s project is working among the rural Communities of Santa Elena, collaborating with international financial institutions to develop loan guarantees to fund and developing the complete biofuel project, including seed purchases; it’s also collaborating with insurers to back the farmers against potential losses. In addition, we are also promoting to educate the farmers on how to cultivate the plant and provide new jobs for thousands of people. So far, the project has gathered more than 50,000 hectares of land. The goal is to have 15,000 hectares under cultivation of jatropha curcas and sugarcane by May 2009 for the first plant, and there are a lot of enthusiasm among the farmers, private owners, and communities. By the end the end of 2010, we are planning to have a production facilities producing biodiesel from jatropha. Eventually, it aims to produce 80 million gallons of biodiesel annually per each plant or biorefinery.

The first refinery should be producing biodiesel in the Rural Communities of Santa Elena Province, by the end of 2010.

*This project can gainfully use more than 50,000 hectares for energy crops across the entire Peninsula of Santa Elena and help alleviate rural poverty by generating thousands of rural jobs and offering farmers an additional source of income. The 80,000 hectares we are planning to plant in Ecuador this year could generate up to 15,000 jobs among the rural communities.

Etanolsa S.A. is introducing a US$200 million investment/program to encourage biofuels development and production, and is also in the process of mandating the blending of biodiesel with vegetable diesel. A 5% blend is expected to be introduced shortly, rising to 20% by 2010. We are considering to promote the cultivation of jatropha and the oil extracted from its seeds is often used for soap, paint, cosmetics, and fuel for traditional oil lamps. Jatropha is also planted as fencing to prevent animals from grazing crops.

Cultivation of Jatropha curcas L (Family: Euphorbiaceae)
In the recent past, bio-diesel derived from plant species has been a major renewable source of energy. Among various plants Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata have been chosen as most potential species for varying situations. Between these two species Jatropha curcas is considered most potential not only to the growers but also to the processors and end users. To the rural society, the crop can create regular employment opportunities, as it provides never ending marketing potential. Due to potential demand and better marketing opportunities, cultivation of Jatropha appears very viable. Jatropha may not replace other important food crops since it is meant for flood free wastelands and unutilized fallow lands / less productive lands and in turn will not have a major impact on cropping pattern. Among the many species, which yield oil as a source of energy in the form of biodiesel, Jatropha curcas. has been identified as most suitable oil seed bearing plant due to its various favorable attributes like hardy nature, short gestation period, adaptability in a wide range agro-climatic conditions, high oil recovery and quality of oil etc. It can be planted on degraded lands through Joint Forest Management (JFM), farmer’s field boundaries, road sides, both sides railway track, fallow lands and as agro forestry crop. It grows up to a height of 5 m. and can be maintained to a desired height and shape by trimming and pruning. By Etanolsa S.A.’s Planning Commission, We has identified two species for mass production of seeds for biodiesel viz., Jatropha and Pongamia. Jatropha is suitable for upland while Pongamia found adaptive for both uplands as well as wetland conditions. Among these two species the following differences made Jatropha superior if otherwise the conditions are not unsuitable for it.


one crop can yield seeds for up to 50 years. 3. Environmental friendly biodiesel to combat the petroleum shortage 2 . jatropha cakes( residues ) can be used to produce grease. 8. Rural poverty and unemployment are widespread. 6. Just as important as locating our facilities near abundant JC seeds supply. reliable and flexible collection and distribution network for our ethanol and biofuels.A. allowing us to reach the most favorable markets throughout the country and through the seaport terminal for international distribution managed by a contracted well-qualified international marketer that accounts with all strategic infrastructure to deliver on a timely basis the biofuels. once fully grown. TRANSPORTATION IN OUR PROJECT We consider very highly a key factor to develop our project of the biofuels industry with an increasing role in our nation’s energy supply as a cost-efficient. Due to our production scale. and terminal of biofuels. our distribution strategy is designed to enable us to better meet the needs of our customers and optimize returns from market demand for domestic and international markets. At Etanolsa S. We are promoting the small farmers to come back to their fields and produce jatropha and depend again on agriculture under secure working and financial conditions.tractor trucks systems – inside essentially in a perimeter of 50 miles from the storage systems to the terminal forming a “virtual pipeline” of 50 to 100 tractor trucks fleet delivering the biofuels nonstop from origination to destination. medical and food products. needs only one ton of organic fertilizers per hectare per year. we are able to utilize unit . 4 . storage systems. 4 . it needs no additional maintenance. Our distribution strategy begins with site selection where the plants. 7. Our biorefineries will be located in the Peninsula of Santa Elena and each biorefinery will have access to multiple highways. is choosing sites with direct access to transportation.. 5. Can cure the Environment Damages done due to petroleum. In Ecuador conditions can produce 12 tons of seeds per hectare. Refining crude jatropha oil into biodiesel produces glycerine. the need for sustainable agricultural development remains great. which is in high demand as a raw material for a very wide range of cosmetic. fertilizer.Some other advantages of Jatropha: 1. and gallons of biodisel can to extracted from it. Our distribution strategy is also focused on the most efficient movement of our product to those markets. Glycerine byproducts from biodiesel production offer a valuable additional income stream to refiners. medicines. candel. backed by an international agriculture trust where the farmers will place the land and the financiers will also place the funds to develop all their lands to produce biodiesel to exports.

The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer. snakebite. Depending on soil quality and rainfall. It is one of the best alternative cultivation to replace fossil fuels as the world’s primary transport energy source. Jatropha grows wild in many areas of Ecuador and even thrives on infertile soil. oil can be extracted from the jatropha nuts from the first to five years when we will have a permanent and full yield per each plant . piles. producing seeds for 50 years. It is easy to establish. The kernels consist of oil to about 50 percent. growing well in marginal/poor soil. A good crop can be obtained with little effort.5 to 12 tons. Medically it is used for diseases like cancer.Jatropha trees Jatropha seeds THE PLANT. Jatropha Biodiesel Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. paralysis. The annual nut yield ranges from 0. oil contains also insecticide.PROFILE Jatropha curcas is the plant to be used to produce oil. rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate. it is a drought-resistant perennial. dropsy etc. Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 50%. It is found to be growing in many parts of the country. grows relatively quickly and lives. It burns with clear smoke-free flame. tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. because it is a renewable fuel that can replace 5 . this can be transformed into biodiesel fuel through esterification.

including the Peninsula of Santa Elena. including the developing energy crops of 10. we are going to work together with close relations with our Central Government to be included in Ecuador’s national biofuels program emphasizing jatropha production. Being drought tolerant. It is a native of tropical America.petrodiesel in current internal combustion engines and can be transported and sold using the same today’s infrastructure which represent a huge investment of millions of dollars. The seeds of Jatropha contains (50% by weight) viscous oil. JC will be cultivated in a large-scale 6 . for cooking and lighting by itself. grows relatively quickly and is hardy. and increased the potential agricultural value at this present historical moment. but I n our project will be used to extract oil to be converted into biodiesel. be grown as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid/semi-arid areas.000 hectares of this area and bringing fresh private and international resources of US$200 Million dollars per plant. representing an important percent of the total national area. Ecuador has tremendous potential as a producer of jatropha biodiesel. Distribution and habitat It is still uncertain where the center of origin is. in the cosmetics industry. The Jatropha curcas oil plant is a physic nut with multipurpose and drought resistant large shrub or small tree. and this has been thriving around with more that 150 species it thrives in sub-tropical regions of the world and can be grown in areas of low rainfall and problematical sites. it can be used to reclaim eroded areas.000 hectares per plant that would be suitable for growing jatropha. Our project is to employ and implement more than 50. But on fertile lands the yields of seeds has a significant increase as is the case for the Biodiesel Projects of Santa Elena. but it is believed to be Mexico and Central America.000 hectares in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. We are considering to cover more than 50. lay barren or under-utilized. This investment has provided a substantial added value cost to these lands. being a typical tropical zone with annual rainfall of 300-1000 mm. It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average annual temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and tolerates slight frost ( Santa Elena’s lowest temperature is only 12 Celsius degrees). including 4 (four) supplementary damps located and affecting more than 200. Such lands have been for many years without financial supports to develop these lands although they account with one of the biggest investment in the constructions of Daule-Peripa system of damps. The wood and fruit of Jatropha can be used for numerous purposes but for our project to produce biodiesel as a fuel. This highly drought-resistant species is adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. which can be used for manufacture of candles and soap.000 hectares of non used and marginalized lands. Jatropha is easy to establish. In the Santa Elena project this current distribution shows that introduction has been most successful in the drier regions of Ecuador. It has been introduced to Africa and Asia and is now cultivated world-wide.

In permanently humid regions as is our case. nearly equal. but in our project will used it exclusively in conversion into biofuels blended with ethanol. Male flowers. monoeceious. Flowering and fruiting habit The Jatropha trees are deciduous. corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx lobes united. bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries. stamens 10 in two series. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow. Leaves It has large green to pale-green leaves. The central flowers in the cyme or in its forks usually female. It may produce more than one crop during a year. labes 5. connate. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. anthers dithecous erect.. individually. villous inside. hairy inside.Calyx segments 5. tesla crustaceous. The oil can be used in soap manufacture. ovules solitary in each cell. A three. carpets connate into a 3-celled ovary. after two to four months in our project. elliptic or obvate. In conditions where continuous growth occurs. It can tolerate extremes of temperature but not the frost and water stagnation. ovoid oblong and black in color. Early growth is fast and with good rainfall conditions nursery plants may bear fruits after the first rainy season. Seeds resemble castor in seed shape. each lobe bear inside a gland at the base. after two months of fruit setting. The seeds albumeneous. opening by longitudinal slit.Calyx as in male. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. Each fruit bears three seeds. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to ellow. greenish yellow in terminal long. Flower and seed setting Flowers: The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. Flowering occurs during the wet season and two flowering peaks are often seen. Flowers are formed terminally. Soil and climate: It is a tropical species and grows well in subtropical conditions.system where It will grow on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. or produce continuous flowering and fruiting under irrigated conditions if soil moisture and temperatures are good. and it will produce several crops during the year because the soil moisture will be good and temperatures are sufficiently high in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Pollinationis by insect. peduncled paniculate cymes. outer five filaments free. flowering occurs throughout the year. It is a diploid species with 2n=22 chromosomes. The seeds mature about three months after flowering. It grows almost everywhere. Flowers unisexual. stigma bifid. shedding the leaves in the dry season. styles 3 connate at base. with female flowers usually slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. The nut is a violent purgative. The flowers are pollinated by insects especially honey bees. Female flowers. three-to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. alternate to sub-opposite.even on 7 . inner five filaments connate. an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers. Fruits In our project JC fruits will be produced when the shrub is leafless. exceeding the calyx. The seeds contain 40-50 % oil. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds mature. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of ovoid fruits. After pollination fruit is usually a three chambered and schizocarpic capsule splitting into three one-seeded cocci. direct sown plants after the second rainy season. Corolla Campanulate.

600 mm of rainfall is the limit. 32-35 c. using organic fertilizer in order to obtain higher yield. Although. The Santa Elena lands are cover by a good vegetable lay of nutrients. And Likes heating and doing well in warmer areas such are the lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena and when chilly weather will drop its leaves and It can withstand light frost but not for prolonged periods which never happens in the Coastal Region of Ecuador with lowest temperature in 10 Celsius degrees during the dry season. The yield results will be achieve according if we are going to be getting If it is with Irrigation or If it is without Irrigation. but it can withstand very poor soils and grow in saline conditions All the actors in the Jatropha sector suggest. acidic and alkaline soils having pH ranging from 5. 8 . Soil type: The Peninsula of Santa Elena’s lands will be well-drained soils with good aeration.5 tons of seed per hectare.5. But all soils to be used in Peninsula of Santa Elena will be well-drained and with permanent water irrigation either using our own deep water wells to be constructed along the Peninsula of Santa Elena or from the water secondary distribution channels constructed along the Daule-Peripa Damp System at a low water cost per cubic meter for our historical project that will change the social-economic infrastructure in the agriculture of Ecuador. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species. but its strength as a crop comes from its ability to grow on even very poor and dry sites. The plant is undemanding in soil type and even does not require tillage. It will also stand for long periods without water . so the JC is not limited by this reason. We expect one of the highest yield crops in our areas of virgin fertile lands covering more than 50. Under irrigation 1 500 mm will be given by using the distribution water channels from the DaulePeripa Water Dumps System. we will have proper irrigation. Additional.gravely. with sandy soil. the Peninsula of Santa Elena has rainfall as low as 300 mm a year. Quality of the soil It established that best for JC cultivation is in sandy well-drained soils. It grows even in the cracks and crevices of rocks on all types of soil except one subjected to water inundation. On heavy soils. Irrigation Even Jatropha can handles dryness very well and it is possible to live almost entirely of humidity in the air. we may get the full production of about 5-kg per plant.000 hectares in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. that will not limit of the yield to fertilize the soil.600 mm of rainfall is the limit. Lowest 12 c.up to 2 years – and then grow again when rains occur again. So. sandy. As alternative it is Interesting the irrigation with wastewater. It can thrive in poorest stony soils. Differences are expressed in what is optimum rainfall as some readings say 600 mm and some say 800 mm while some areas in the Peninsula of Santa Elena report good crops with rainfall of 1000 mm. Climate Although JC can withstand severe heat. Below it the production depends on the local water condition in the ground. We are also considering in mega derivative biofuel project at large scale clearances the impact on soil quality to be long term mainly. We are sure that our Jatropha Cultivation in the Peninsula of Santa Elena will enable the quality improvement of the soil and acting as a binding agent to be substantiated in different Jatropha growing regions in the Coastal region of Ecuador. but this depends on the local water condition in the ground. which will be between 10 and 12. The older the tree the better it will withstand. root formation is reduced. If Rainfall is 500-600 mm and Temperature is Avg. but the Jatropha is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. If the rising water table engulf the major root system and continues for a considerable period plant will die. 500 . Below 600 mm there is more or less no more production. 500 . Highest 44 c.5 to 8. anyway.

Likewise the secondary and tertiary branches are to be pinched or pruned at the end of first year to induce a minimum of 25 branches at the end of second year. SCiNet Corporation implemented a worldwide network of small Assembly plants to be installed in the location. citrus. Even in the Egyptian desert they have a plantation with waste water irrigation Water usage : the critical component Jatropha can grow well in low rainfall regions as the lands in the Peninsula of Santa Elena and will be reverted with optimum yields on Jatropha with a higher level of water usage from the Water Damps System named Daule-Peripa. packed with information and resources to help the farmers take charge of their food crops in the future. We are contemplating. and providing a gateway to renewable energy.000 requests of Miniplants per year from 240 countries. Our future farming programs will have also to produce a Guide to Farmers Development. Thus.. the plant may be cut leaving one foot height from ground level for rejuvenation. we will remove the seed coat before sowing. and energy efficiency information for farmers decision makers and staff it is one of our goals in the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. melons. clean air. This will be useful to induce new growth and yield stabilization there on. selfsufficiency. Once in ten years. Canopy management (Pruning and trimming) To give a bushy shape the plant should be trimmed during the dry season up to 5 years including one pruning when the plants attains 1. all of them being planned in ecologically fragile zones.3 Billions dollars to provide water for cultivations during the whole year. Thus rising level of shortage of water and projections for further reduction will prove to be a major limiting factor in Jatropha production.because of the nutrients. electrification. passion fruits. Mean annual rainfall: 300-1000 mm or more.. Farmers development can serve many goals: economic development. papaya. Outlining a process of strategic inter-cropping cultivation system for our farmers interested in improving their energy security. Dry seed will normally germinate readily without pre-treatment. C.5 m height or utmost 2 meters. Use of fertilizer 9 . among the fruits and vegetable such as tomatoes. evaluating and taking good care on near and long term impacts of depletion of ground water resources from the water damps system of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. These areas are affected by the best irrigation water damps system in Ecuador with an investment made by Central Government totaling up to today US$2. We are going to develop intercrop system to higher yields that will drive the use of large scale irrigation which will enable multiple harvests such watermelon. Although it speeds up germination there is a risk of getting abnormal seed-lings. country or region of the world where needed to manufacture Production Mini-Plants in series housed in portable containers. The terminal-growing twig is to be pinched to induce secondary branches. anions. Dormancy and pretreatment Freshly harvested seeds show dormancy and after-ripening is necessary before the seeds can germinate. etc. In order to respond to the 120. and also manage and coordinate the international development and operations for Production Mini-plants in mobile containers from SCINET CORPORATION. sovereignty and local economy. garlic. the list is as long as you wish to make it. peppers. Biophysical limits The Peninsula of Santa Elena has an altitude: 0-700 m. To cover all needs of farmers to industrialize their agricultural products in our inter-cropping cultivation system there about 700 kinds of different plants assembling by SCINET Corporation. etc. The growth is quick and the plant will start yielding in about a year period. Mean annual temperature: 20-28 deg.

vegetables such red and green peppers. High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after harvest indicate innate (primary) dormancy. It is considered good practice. Cut the top off cleanly and cut top to produce 8 – 12 side branches. soil profile and prevailing agroclimatic conditions in an area. in our project in order to obtain the best yields by employing fertilizers containing small amounts of calcium. We have obtained vast experienced among grain associations in other developing countries like Ecuador have been observed with Jatropha and are known to aid the plant’s growth under conditions where phosphate is limiting. with a recommendation of 2. Between 90 and 120 Days top of all plants at 25 Cm. When two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field. Though. According to the topography.Although Jatropha is adapted to low fertility sites and alkaline soils. Oil extraction from seeds will be carried out with a very short time storage and they will be immediately press for obtaining the best oil yields. Jatropha can be combined with other suitable species comprising the agricultural. herbs. Because seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50%. Twenty gram urea + 120 g SSP and 16 g MoP should be applied annually. On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants. economically profitable and socially acceptable agroforestry system. pastoral and/or silvicultural components to result in an ecologically viable.500 plants per hectare. etc. and Sulfur will be used. P and K should be applied. promoting and adopting Jatropha based intercropping systems it is possible to improve the socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and to transform the National energy scenario and the ecological landscape. it is suggested to keep the tree less than 2 meters. Picking We have developed the harvest methodology between wet and dry seed crush costing applicable has been compared. The possibility to return the press-cake (or part of it) to Jatropha fields is going to be carefully considered and apply for our all soil lands. 10 . Besides it after transplantation and the establishment of the plant fertilizer such as N. tomatoes.5 tons organic fertilizer per hectare. for best result in yield It is recommended that 1 kg of farmyard manure/ plus 100 g of Neem waste for every seedling. this is called intercropping. Inter-cropping Specific intolerance with other crops was not detected. By evolving. This comes up to 2. horticultural. In order to facilitate the harvesting. Pruning Pruning – 1st prune The plants need to produce side shoots for maximum sprouting and maximum flowers and seed. Germplasm management Seeds are oily and will not be store for long. magnesium.

According to our large-scale cultivation regarding climate. Diseases Collar rot may be the problem in the beginning that can be controlled with 0. although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost which never happens in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. However.2% COC or by application of 1 % Bordeaux Mixture drenching. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. which improves the fertility of the soil. 11 . Afterwards depending on soil type manuring @ 3-5 kg/plant along with and NPK should be applied near the crown following ring method before monsoon. But. because it likes heat. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. Here they are dried until all the fruits have opened. Jatropha curcas will be found in our tropics and subtropics zones. and it will be perfectly adapted in our selected lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena in Ecuador. Application of GA @ 100-PPM spray induces early flowering and capsule development. it does not require supplementary irrigation if planted in onset of rain. Storage and viability The seeds are orthodox and should be dried to low moisture content (5-7%) and stored in airtight containers. In general application of super phosphate @ 150kg/ha and alternate with one dose of 20 : 120 : 60 kg NPK/year from second year improves yield. because of the high oil content the seeds cannot be expected to store for as long as most orthodox species. The organic matter from fallen leaves enhances earthworm activity in the soil around the root zone of the plants.Processing and handling After collection the fruits are transported in open bags to the processing site. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. Jatropha is deciduous in nature and the fallen leaves during winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. Ecological Requirements Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere. Light harrowing is beneficial during early growth stage. it an ideal place to growth them. From 4rth year onwards 150 kg super phosphate should be added to the above dose. Aftercare Two to three weeding are necessary. Pinching the terminal is essential at six months age to induce laterals. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes that is happening in some zones of the Peninsula of Santa Elena. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants. We are not going to expose the seeds to direct sun because it has a negative effect on seed viability and that seeds should be dried in the shade. Manuring At the time of planting compost @ 2 kg /pit should be applied. When the seeds are dry they are separated from the fruits and cleaned. In our case seeds will be processed almost immediately getting at the right point of dryness to obtain the best oil yields. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. which improves the fertility of the soil. sandy and saline soils. At room temperature the seeds can retain high viability for at least one year. even on gravelly.

Seeds or cuttings can be directly planted in main field. However. With these management practices a yield around 15-20 kg of fruit per tree can be obtained even if the plants did not reach full maturity. Seeds are dried for 4-5 days to reduce moisture level 10% before packing.Planting in field The land should be ploughed once or twice depending upon the nature of soil. Before sowing. Germinated seeds are sown in poly bags of 15 x 25 cm size filled with soil. seeds are soaked in cow-dung solution for 12 hours and kept under the wet gunny bags for 12 hours. Propagation: Jatropha is usually propagated on mass scale both by seed as well as stem cuttings. Harvesting The flowering is induced in rainy season and bears fruits and matures in winter. Smaller spacing would be preferred if growing the plant as a hedgerow. Well-developed plump seeds are selected for sowing. But economic yield starts from 3rd year-end. It is a multipurpose shrub and is found throughout the tropics and is known by nearly 200 different names. surface ploughing and pruning. Our lands pf the Peninsula of Santa Elena enjoy hot and humid weather during most part of the year which is preferred for good germination of seed. But pre-rooted cuttings in poly bags and then transplanted in the main field give better results. pits of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm is dug at required spacing. indicating its occurrence in various countries. The dried pods are collected and seeds are separated either manually or mechanically. rainfall. proper fertilization. after clearing jungles. humidity. In sunny condition flowering is more and early (July – September). In hilly areas where ploughing is not possible. for a fence. Actual spacing will be determined based on end-use. Seedlings produce flowers 9 months after sowing. sand and farm yard manure in the ratio of 1:1:1 respectively. plants established through cuttings produce flowers from 6 months onwards. and belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. 12 . or for soil conserving purposes. For commercial cultivation normally it is propagated by seeds. Botanical description of Jatropha curcas Jatropha derived from the Greek word ‘Jatros’means ’Doctor’ and ‘trophe’ means ‘Nutrition’. On the side slope of embankment 2m x 2m is advisable. etc. intercropping. refilled with top soil and organic manures (500 g FYM + 100 g Neem cake or Jatropha oil cake + 100 g super phosphate) and then planted. Pods are collected when they are turned yellowish and after drying seeds are separated mechanically or manually. In direct planting system the seed/cuttings should be planted in the main field with onset of monsoon as a spacing of 3m x 2m. Flowering is less and delayed when grown in shady conditions. soil quality / condition. Weeding Standard cultural practices are timely weeding (4 times a year). Botanically this is known as Jatropha curcas L.

Plants from cuttings are not so resistant to drought. The cut branches sprout readily and grow rapidly which makes it suitable for fencing. watery. they might be attacked by cattle (they step on them. 2. Normally. the mountains of Western and Eastern Ghats and plains of South India. The best result is saplings from seeds (raised in a nursery in polybags. because they don‘t develop a taproot. The genus is cosmopolitan in distribution except in the arctic region. Seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50 % (Kobilke 1989). they are distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. which might accelerate this process. It is not necessary. we first develop the cutting in polybag like saplings and after certain time translate it. this is not important.Jatropha is a deciduous large shrub or small tree 3-5 m in height with smooth gray bark. latex when cut. they eat them. but in a situation of extended drought. Thus. Though Jatropha is reported to grow on marginal lands it is noted that it does need good quality land to give the level of yields which can make the project viable in the long term. These should be planted just before the rainy season. If we put the seeds directly into the soil. Up dated research on viability of Jatropha seeds shows a decrease due to term of storage. The leaves are green to pale green broad and glabrous. In our project we are going to pre-planting the JC in tree nurseries though can accelerate the development of trees substantially. when cut. depending on the ambient temperature. it grows between three and five meters in height. The leaves simple. It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark. the JC seeds are stored for 6 months in normal conditions. Planting through Cutting. because the repellant is not yet developed. but the plant itself will not develop a taproot. 3.5 meters. In our case the large-scale cultivation system the seeds are going to be process after they reach the right dryness point to extract all oil content in each seed for best result for the conversion into oil. but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favorable conditions but for harvest high yield effective proportion during the whole year we will be able to control the height no more than 3 meters high. Under normal circumstances. Plants should be in one plant to other in respect of better yield as follows: Distance between the plants of a row should be 2.4 months) to be imported from Central America. 13 . The Jatropha seeds are oily and do not store for long. Planting through Sapling. which reaches far into the depth of the soil. the most critical parameter in Jatropha production in developing economies. We will plant jatropha through: 1. angular. perhaps. about 3 . deeply palmatelly 3-5 lobed with long petiole. Ciliate glands usually represent the stipules. more or less. And There are no chemicals. The JC germination needs between 5 and 7 days. The venation is palmate. including Ecuador. Directly planting through seed. Six months storage will not effect the oil content. The plants from these saplings (cuttings) will develop faster and get seeds right away. which exudes watery and sticky latex. Land use patterns: a neglected domain and resource management and usage pattern is. Phyllotaxy is spiral. plants with taproot (elevated from seeds) are more resistant. which exudes a whitish colored. is its result are as good as plants precultivated from seeds. Normally.

d) obtaining fresh private funds to develop the full and complete biofuel project in Ecuador. harvesting. net balance of carbon dioxide savings depends on the amount of energy used for cultivating. In our project we have take good care by gathering the most appropriate lands to use the Jatropha Cultivation System with virgin lands have not been used. Our lands for jatropha cultivation has been evaluated against food or other productive uses of land in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Our project is the best alternative through developing the Biofuel Project whose main factors are: a) Covering more than 50. South East Asia and Africa have been varied leading to much debate on its viability. Increasing pressure from commerce to optimize yield per hectare have also tended to force food production off the best land to make way for Jatropha.3 Billions Dollars in Developing the Low Cuenca of Guayas with the biggest water damp system in Ecuador. but the numerous rural communities located along the Peninsula of Santa Elena have not received the necessary financial resources to cultivate proper farm products and still today all of them are facing the poverty with a lot of difficulties to live well. except with short cycle circles cultivation. in not significant extent for near 100 years. Although during the last 20 years the Central Government of Ecuador has invested during the last 20 years with more than US$2. GHG balance We are also ware in terms of best GHG balance the choice of the crop and the technology pathways play a key role as the one for Jatropha cultivation JC.Experiences in India. transporting and converting Jatropha into the plants. c) Contracting the best marketers of biofuel. 14 . It is also noted that production of Jatropha pressed into Straight Vegetable Oil allows for maximum carbon dioxide savings as compared to conversion into biodiesel which involves some chemical inputs. b) using the best international technology to produce ethanol and biodiesel. In our project It is essential to carry out a detailed LCA of all the pathways at planning stage itself to ensure sustainability. Additional.000 hectares of fertile lands.

300 a 1000 mm. etc.Biodiversity loss It is a reality that decrease in biodiversity is a natural fall out of biofuel crop production as is exemplified by experiences with Palm oil and Soy. PH 5 – 7. On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants. Asparagus racemosus. Kaempferia galanga. Resolutions to these issues are being sought through crop mixing. tomatoes. Inter-cropping is the best choice to specific intolerance with other crops was not detected.. Jatropha Cultivation Requirements Altitude 0-1000Meters. Deep Minimum 0. Some shade loving crops like Rouvolfia serpentina. vegetables such red and green peppers. Ventilated. rotation schemes. cucumber can be profitably grown under Jatropha for the first two years. large energy crop farms resort to monoculture cropping thus replacing valuable biodiversity. pumpkin. Vanilla can also be cultivated under it successfully.50m Soil Fertility Medium-Low Irrigation 500 mm. and scaling down the magnitude of cultivation. 15 . ash gourd. Tulsi and Smilax china etc and also short duration pulses like blackgram and vegetables like tomato. Patchouli –a shade loving aromatic herb could be a suitable intercrop for Jatropha plantation that gives first harvest of leaves after 4 months of planting. where large forested areas have been cleared for energy crops. Well Drained. Annual Average Temperature 20°C a 28°C Soil Type Sandy. 1200 mm. Besides. Precipitation 300 to 1800 mm. Homalomena aromatica. bitter gourd.

e) Soil. d) Houses (manager & vigil-keeper).4 8.6 3.1 6.00 to 0.) 16.0 0.Press Cake can be prepared for fertilizing soils or to be sold as fertilizer or bio-fuel (combustion). Check on water availability for irrigation. Jatropha Seed Content Estimate Product Crude protein Lipids (crude oil) Ash Neutral detergent fiber Acid detergent fiber Lignin acid detergent Gross energy (MJ/Kg.8 75.5 Shell 40% 4. Manure.1 85. c) Plantation.4 6. 16 .700 TO 16.) 15.1 30. particularly for lime/dolomite and superphosphate.735 Specific Weight 0. to determine soil suitability.2 1.996 Calorific Value Low (btu/lb. chemistry and fertilization requirements.978 TO 17. b) Irrigation Systems.0 PROPERTIES OF BIO-DIESEL Ignition Point 130 °C Sulphur (% of weight) 0.6 47.5 Meal 61.0024 Calorific Value High (btu/lb.8 0.6 56. considering 1 liter per second of water per hectare.3 18. • Add the solution alcohol-sodium to the oil heated at 60°C and mix gently. 2 to 5 months before planting. • Take out the bio-diesel and glycerine.5 1.) Mass 60% 25.890 Viscosity 40°C Bio-Diesel properties are similar to Conventional Diesel Formula for Experimental Elaboration of Biodiesel Jatropha Oil One Liter Alcohol Ethanol 95% Pure 200 millimeters Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda) Five Grams Procedures: • Mix the sodium hydroxide with the alcohol (ethanol) to dissolve the sodium hydroxide. • Leave the solution at rest until the biodiesel is in the upper part and glycerine at the bottom. And check for Check on electric energy availability for water pumping. Elaborate Plans of the Plantation including: a) Greenhouse.6 3.8 3. and Sand Storage.2 10.870 TO 0. • Wash the bio-diesel gently with water (aspersion) 2 or 3 times to eliminate the soapy part. First Step – Initial Operations Obtain soil samples.5 19.

minimum. If Bare Root Planting. Deep. Step Fourth . Manure 1/3 Seed High Quality 83 to 85% DM Poly-Bags 15 x 25 cm Seeds/Bag: 3 (replace unviable & death plants). i) Water Deposits. Disk Leveller/Disk or Spike Harrow at 25 cm. rocks. Digging Pits for Planting: 40x40x40 cm. 17 . below ground level.156 seedlings).25 kg. Pests & Disease Control. etc.f) Machinery & Equipment Storage.Plantation of Seedlings in the Fields Sowing at the Beginning of the 1st Rainy Season. Step Fifth . Keeps Roots Humid. Irrigation Immediately After Planting. Weeds. Sand 1/3. weeds. Seedlings Age: 30-45 days. Construction of the Aforementioned. of Manure Per Seedling./week) Third Step – Field’s Preparation Clean the Area (bushes.) Sub-Soil/Chisel Ploughing at 50 cm. Replacement of Unviable & Death Plants. Second Step – Greenhouse Fertile Soil 1/3.Conservation of the Plantation Manure 2. Avoid Excessive Humidity for Long Periods. Purchase Machinery and Contract Personnel under the legal status of the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement./Plant/Year. Seedling 5 cm. k) Wind & Solar Energy. Irrigation: 4 Times/Week (dry season) Irrigation: 2 Times/Week (rainy season) Germination: 6-10 Days Fertilization 17:17:17 (6 gr.5 Kg. minimum. Install the Irrigation System. Seedlings Per Hectare: 34 x 34 (1. Apply 20 gr. Humidity in Soil at Least 20 cm. Seed Dept: 2-3 cm Careful consideration to soil & seed management at sowing time. j) Water Harvesting. Apply 0. l) Fences. Per Plant of Fertilizer 20:120:60 Make the Drainage System. Irrigation every 7 days during the 1st dry season. Press the earth after planting to take air out. Irrigation every 14 days during the 2nd dry season. g) Office. h) Seeds & Chemicals Storage.

Pruning at the beginning of the 3rd rainy season to induce bush formation in an umbrella pattern. 2nd & 3rd Years. • Normally 5 roots in germinated seeds. CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY : THE PRODUCTIVE PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS The practices that will be undertaken by the Jatropha growers in the Coastal Region of Ecuador is going to be scientifically managed for better growth and production. • Green leaves: 6-15 cm. • Seeds average width 10mm. long & wide. and good knowledge of understanding of the Jatropha Curcas plant. Pests & Disease Control.(11-30). • Plant without leaves remain latent. Irrigation every 14 days during the 3rd dry season. at the beginning of the 2nd rainy period to induce lateral branch growing. • Seeds: average long 18 mm. • Productive life: 40-50 years. thick branches. • Oil in seeds: more than 40%. thus. (7-11). • Fruit: oval 40 mm. Bees housing maintenance and bee feeding when there are not enough flowers in the plantation. we are sure to perform at optimal productivity. • Each fruit contains 2-3 seeds. Our Jatropha Curcas project includes to consider in properly manner the following technical steps to assure the success of this energy crop cultivation system: • • • • Plantation Consulting Soil testing and audit Site Inspection / Assessment Nursery Establishment and Management 18 . Our project is based in RELIABLE information to achieving good with funding resources. Plant Profile • Size: up to 6 or 8 meters high. Good Results will be Obtained when Jatropha is maintained properly. • Branches contain whitish latex. Shallow Cultivation Yearly. • One central root & 4 laterals in seed. to Rejuvenate. • Oleic & Linoleic mainly. Weeds. • 1000 Seeds: 0. The growth and yield of Jatropha is going to be improved through effective management practices during the whole life of this project during the next 50 years. • Do not stand cold or frost.750 a 1.Fertilizer 20:120:60/Plant 40 gr. Maintenance of the Irrigation System and Well. • Stem straight. approx. long. expertise plantation management. Dry Fruits Collection During the Dry Season. Pruning at 10 Years Old to 1 m. • Seeds Color: black.0 Kg. Top Pruning at 35-45 cm. Nutrient Monitoring (soil & plant tissue). • 80% of oil is unsaturated. approx. • Without leaves in drought & winter.

but it needs to be domesticated as a ‘tree crop’ for widespread commercial cultivation and application. and requires a holistic view of certain key criteria for site selection. Weeding. Use of fertilizer. cashflow projections) Advanced Jatropha pruning / harvesting techniques Enhancing production in presently poorly producing plantations Management techniques to achieve highest percentage of oil recovery Location and assessment of profitable biofuel investment projects Development of Jatropha biofuel. Use of pesticide. logistical consideration and local legislation utilizing close relations with local authorities. Quality of the soil.GENERATIVE PROPAGATION-EFFECTING FACTORS • • • Direct seeding-Quality of seeds Seeding depth Date of sowing Transplantation of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • Poly bags-Type of pre-cultivation Length of pre-cultivation Age of pre-cultivation VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION (cuttings) • • • • • Direct planting-Right time Transplanting of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) Poly bags-Right size Right age Right strain Right source SUCCESSFULL PRECULTIVATION IS CHARACTERIZED BY-HIGH GERMINATION RATES OF SEEDS • • High sprouting rates of cuttings High survival rates 19 .• • • • • • • Plantation Establishment and Management (including advanced pruning techniques) Financial Feasibility study (capital. running costs. Genotype. predict its possible interactions with the environment and develop practices for industrial cultivation. The key factors that could effect an influence the oil yield of Jatropha Curcas in the lands of the Peninsula of Santa Elena are: Climate. availability of labor. and renewable energy strategies Knowing where to place our Jatropha project is critical. and Inter-cropping PROPAGATION METHODS. The Jatropha Curcas plant is an ‘energy species’. biomass. Crop density. In order to achieve maximum commercial performance. These include agro-climatic conditions. it is crucial to understand the crop’s requirements. Irrigation.

According to each zone to be employed.50 2 1. we are going to utilize direct seeding.25 5 1. after five years of growth. DRY Year -LOW -NORMAL -HIGH 1 0.50 3.25 8. are more successful than presoaking alone.00 1.00 3 4. Intervals of presoaking and drying. Use of fresh seeds improves germination.000 HAS.25 5. plants propagated by seeds are better.75 With irrigation : MT/HA IRRIGATED YEAR LOW NORMAL HIGH 1 0./KILOS 20 . For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production. Seeding collection will be implemented using generous labor force by employing thousands of people and eliminating poverty inside these regions. The seed shell splits. nutrients. the radicula emerges and 4 small peripheral roots are formed.25 2. directly planted cuttings are best.75 4 0.25 6. farming and harvesting are possible.00 1.00 2. Many different methods of establishment. the cotyledons wither and fall off.10 2.50 3 0. or partial removal of the testa. easily propagates the Jatropha transplanting of spontaneous wild plants and direct planting of cuttings. Without irrigation: MT/HA. With better rainfall conditions. Soon after development of the 1st leaves. pre-cultivation of seedlings.75 1.50 1. heat and the age of the plant and other. 10.5t/ha/year.00 12.90 1. CROP YIELD In our project “Yield” is a function of water. germination takes 10 days. Our seed should be collected when capsules split open. • Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of Maximum survival rates Intended utilization of the plantation For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control. Although not clearly specified.Basing the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and properties of the plant in field.25 0.40 2 0. this range in production may be attributable to low and high rainfall areas. Yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost. the plantations could also be established by direct seeding. yield.00 4 5. Further growth is sympodial.00 5.25 8.25 1.00 5 5.10 0.75 1.75 2. labor and finally cost per Mt Seed production ranges from about 2 tons per hectare per year to over 12. With good moisture conditions.50 Crop yield in kilos YEAR KILOS/HA.

.000 Kls. and 3 x 3 m. Jatropha Curcas has now arisen as a very good source of plant based biodiesel source.5 x 2.000-250. Rapid increase in the scarcity of fossil fuel has caused an eventual drive to find alternative and renewable sources of fuel from common vegetable oils like soybean.000 12.1 2 3 4 5 500 2. etc. with more than 32 percentange of oil content in its dicot seed with white cotyledons inside the dark brown colored testa. The oil which is obtained by crushing the Seeds of Jatropha Curcas. This is equivalent to crop densities of 2500.000-750. 1600 and 1111 plants/ha. The plant. which keeps of the cattle from it. oil from the seeds of the jatropha fruit has been converted to JC biodiesel.000 120.000 300.000.000 10.000.000-150. No.000 Harvesting can be done manually only. 300-750 Kls 300. 10. Crop density We are going to apply highly/tested recommend spacing for hedgerows or soil conservation of 15cm .000 Kls 30 Days/Kls.500 5.5 m.000. 2. DISTANCE OF 2MX2M BE KEPT FOR LARGE SCALE CULTIVATION In our project It appears not difficult to estimate the yield of a plant that is able to grow and the crops in very different zonal conditions along the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Curcas is one among the 175 members of the Jatropha genus. Thus there will be between 2.000 25.000-15. Recently.500 plants per hectare for a single hedgerow and double that when two rows are planted. which can be directly used in diesel engines.000. corn. respectively. It is in the field of Bio 21 .000.000. Men 1 Day 1 1.25cm x 15cm-25cm in one or two rows respectively and 2m x 10. Satisfactory planting widths are 2 x 2 m. it is mostly used as live fencing crop due to the toxic nature of this plant.000-750.000. In olden days.000 5.5m to 3m x 3mm for plantations.000 100.000 Kls 100.000-25. seeds and oil of this biodiesel crop are non-edible and it is considered to be poisonous to some degree.000 10-25 Kls.000 50.000. with the help of an expeller is then subjected to a process called as transesterification in which the triglycerides are converted into methyl esters to get the biodiesel and the by-products separately.

5 acres) in this cultivation project.000 1. 25.000 Tons 3. At $320 (US$) per ton. located near the Equator line. Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra. however.000 300. It is a reality that yield is a function of water.000. but one thing is very sure that we are going to sue our own with two crops during the whole year to extract oil to be converted into biodiesel. the yield per hectare per year is up to 24 tons of Jatropha seed with two crops during a year. We will establish many different methods of establishment.000.00 Tons 50.000 Has.the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. A tree can yield 10 gallons of oil.250.000. It can. soya and sunflower .000 Tons One ton of Jatropha Curcas seeds will produce up to 150 gallons of bio-diesel with proper management in this SEA-Santa Elena Agreement.000.000. 25.000 625. per hour. manage and harvest 5-8 hectares of Jatropha Curcas. yield.125. At same power output.Diesel fuel.000 625. 1.000. We account with the best conditions so yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost. Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. Biomass Green Mature 1 10 120 250 2. Fertilizer 22 .000 Has. labor and finally cost per metric ton.000 300. Trees Kg. farming and harvesting to be possible.000.500. palm. Once again we emphasize that Jatropha Curcas prefers temperatures averaging 20-28 degrees Celsius (68-85 degrees Farenheit). withstand a very light frost which causes it to lose all its leaves and may produce a sharp decline in seed yield but not this will not happen in Ecuador because our lowest temperature is 12 Celsius degrees in the Coastal Region of Ecuador.500 plants per hectare (2. cottonseed. through to its life of 100 years.000. rapeseed. please consider the following charts: Referring to the table. 120 kg of fertilizer grade oil cake and 250 kg of biomass as green manure per year.000 Tons(?) 625. In order to have a good idea about the yield of the JC seed.000 300. groundnut. 250. which contain over 50% oil. One person can professionally plant. Yield in Gallons per tree per year Nos. We are going to plant rates of Jatropha Curcas at 2. heat and the age of the plant and other elements as the quality of the vegetable layer of the soil to be cultivated with JC. 30kg of Jatropha Curcas fruit can be harvested per person. From year-3 it yields pods and production is a mature average of 160kG per tree per year from year-10.500/1Ha.000 Has. that Jatropha’s properties are the most exciting. nutrients.000.000 10. however.000 1. this will translate into Oil Gallons Kg.

000 96.000 150 /Gallons/Tons 3.0 Flash point (°C) 80 110 – 240 Cetane value 47. weight (15/40 °C) 0.000 50% Oil Yield Tons 6.000 360.400 96.000 Charts of conversion from kilos/seeds to tons and oil yield.000 600.000 30.000 108.000 240.304.608.000 100 Men/Kilos 24.0 Sulphur (%) 1.000 50% Oil Yield 1.000.000 460.000 960.200 48.000 360. including the production of oil and glycerin only.400.800 per year per hectare.000 1.84 .000 600.000 384.000 Hectares/men/Kilos 12.200.000 144. This means to generate US$10.000 4.400.000 20.000 384.1. or total sales of up to $4.000 2.2 0. Of potentially equal or greater value is the yield from Jatropha seeds of glycerin.000 Man/hour/harvest = 30 Kilos of Seeds Nos.608.000 hectares 50.13 Yield and Harvesting Chart : 1 Hectare = 2.000 46.85 0.000 Charts of Conversion from Kilos/Seeds to tons and oil Yield.000.000.000.sales of Jatropha crude oil of $5.000 38.000 240.600 36.0 2.000 480.000 40.8 Spec.000 480.000 96.41.000 960.000 Men/Kilos 240.8 51. This translates into glycerin sales of up to $1.6 . Up to 10% of Jatropha seeds are made up of glycerin.000 Second Crop Tons 12 120.000 4.000 3. cultivating 50.200.000. which sells for up to $2.000 hectares MEN/HOUR Hours/day Hours/week Hours/Month Hours/Year 10.6 . 120.000 Has.400.500 Plants Number Crops per Year : 2 Nos.000 Metric Tons 12.000 Metric Tons 2.000 720. Man/Hours 8 hours/day 40 Hours/Week Hours/Month Hours/Year 1 Man/Kilos 240 9.000 384.000 Men/Kilos 10.840.000 23 .000 per ton. 50.600.91 . 12 10.000.000 1.600 38.0 .800.0 39.000 9.608.000 men/kilos 2.120 per year per hectare.400 4.000.000 Total Tons 24 240.92 Solidifying point (°C) -14.000 480.000 4. cultivating 10.000 72.000 180.0. Hectares Yield/Ton/Seeds 1 Ha. Jatropha Oil in Comparison with Diesel Fuel Parameter Diesel Jatropha Oil Energy content (MJ/kg 42.608.400 per hectare per year.

000 960.000 23. Glicerin US$4. Glycerin is indeed a valuable by product at US$2. 20.800 US$48 Millions US$96 Millions US$144 Millions US$192 Millions US$240 Millions US$10.000 480.000 Metric.000/Tons. 50. US$4. 10.000.000 384.000 108.000 Has.000 Metric.000 30.000 per ton.000 144.000 40.000 480. Hectares 10% Total Glycerin Tons 1 Ha.000 tons of Jatropha crude oil would be produced per year.040.000 50.000 180.000 11.920.000 240.000 72.000/Tons.000 hectares with a yield of 24 tons per hectare per year with two crops and an oil content of 50% some 600.000.000.400 US$54 Millions US$108 Millions US$162 Millions US$216 Millions US$270 Millions Gallon US$2.000 JATROPHA GENERATE REVENUE PER YEAR/HECTARE Total production of Glycerin and Sales price Nos.000 US$1.000 US$2.000 23. tons.000 We are consider to cultivate 50. 150 /Gallons/ Tons 3.600 36.000. 20.000.000 24 .000 1.000.000 720.000. The glycerin content at 10% of the 1.000 30.000 24 240.50/ Biodiesel US$5.480.200 US$102 Millions US$204 Millions US$306 Millions US$408 Millions US$510 Millions Total 1 Ha.000. Has. tons would produce an additional 120.200.000 960.800 US$48 Millions US$96 Millions US$144 Millions US$192 Millions US$240 Millions Production of Biodiesel Gallons/Price and Glycerin Sales/Year Nos.000 40.000 Has. 10.

0250 1. Moreover.50-. Years Seeds Oil 35% BioDiesel Glycerin Co2 Capture Press Cake 1 to 2 .0 5 to 6 4.242 Plants 2.90 1..270 .200 Plants 2.000 Hectares) of the potential Jatropha growing regions in the Peninsula of Santa Elena will be planted with Jatropha according to our cultivation project.5– 3.00 3.00 4. financial models show that an assured supply of feed stock is required from a central area to ensure a viable project such is our case with more than 50.000 hectares of energy crops system.000.00-7.130 4.340 8.5 – 6.522.180 6.00-4.’s shares.664 Plants Jatropha farming could be an incredible contribution to economic development in Ecuador and for sure it will transform the social-economic infrastructure for the next 50 years to come with the carbohydrate era.40 1.84 0.5 – 5.06– 3.060– .0 3. The two main reasons to success in the source funding are: 1) Lands in our project are owned by small. Processing the crude oil into Bio Diesel on average in the Coastal region of Ecuador will add a further 15% to the sales value.00 2. This sales value excludes other byproducts of Jatropha.50 3.60–3.10-2.03– 2.0 11 to 30 9.40 0.50-8.127 Plants 208 Plants 6.45 2.60-1.40 1.034–.A.00 7 to 8 6.50 and with glycerin selling at $2.85 150-. This effectively assure land being used as own energy crops for our project with an investment of US$20. based on a Jatropha Biodiesel gallon of $1.20 0.80– 6. 2) Start up agriculture energy projects to produce biofuels are generally among the most available and feasible projects for which to obtain funding.0 5. Productivity Estimate Per Plant & Hectare Under Favorable Conditions Product Years Years Years Years Years Years Average Ha. medium and large rural farmers who will become partners in our project up to 15% of Etanolsa S.230 8.00 0.156 Plants 6.05-.000 hectares of fertile and mostly virgin lands along the Peninsula of Santa Elena.70– 1.280 .45 3 to 4 2.60-3. Thus.00-10.50 2.38 180-.0 1.In terms of annual revenues.80 . In our project we have overcome the difficulty for sourcing suitable financing.50 1.170 8.67– 1. if only 30% (50.17 2.90 1.00 5.55–1.00 2.000 per ton a total sales value of $510.000 millions per year would be generated./Kg.003-.10–0. Only when this is assured – as the SEA- 25 .035–.00 3.15– 3. including the construction of each Biorefinery and the development of 10.5 – 4.90 250-290 8.36 . and communities’ lands could be leased by the owners on a 20 years-term contract.0 9 to 10 7.5 – 2.000 per hectare.936 Plants 3.000.40 300 . US$200 Millions Dollars loan will be converted as added-value cost to our lands and soils.

Santa Elena Agreement will do - could out our growers be considered to supplement the main supply chain. Our cultivation JC projects are using fertile and virgin land to be used financially succeeds in developing our project. Good JC cultivation yields on our projects along the Peninsula of Santa Elena’s lands are highly likely to be obtained among fresh/private resources. Other uses of Jatropha curcas : A petrocrop, Whole plant-Roots-Leaves-LatexSeeds-Bark-Twig *Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation-*Used as ethno medicine-* Used as ethno medicine-*Resembles shellac-*Source of oil (30-40%) suitable as fuel for diesel engine-*Yields tannins (37%)-*Used as medicine *Promising live fence- -*Yield a dye used to give tan & brown*Used for making ink-*Useful as illuminants, lubricant, in soap and candle making- -*Used as Dataun (Herbal tooth brush)*useful as green manure- *Useful as botanical-*Used as ethno medicine-*Used as medicine both internally and externally- -*Young one cooked and eaten*useful in controlling sand drift *possess Alleopathic properties Important information about Jatropha oil extracted from seeds could be used in the vehicle It depends on the engine. If we have a diesel engine with a pre-combustion chamber, we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection, we have to modify the engine. The best is, to start the engine with diesel, then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot), and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes. Mobiles, Cars, trucks and other Diesel Engine can use as direct fuel Without Modify. Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars, trucks, busses), but you have to modify the diesel engine. You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a pre-combustion chamber without modification. Pre-combustion Chamber and Direct Injection are suitable for Bio-diesel : Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or pre-combustion chamber) directly. Since bio-diesel is a strong organic solvent, it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic, rubber). So you have to make sure, that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts. The JC cultivation project is going to be plant into a macro scale to achieve the following benefits: 1.increase an added value cost to the land price 2.To obtain a lower harvest cost, and processing 3.A higher-yield compare with other oil plant. 4.To reduce the biodiesel plant investing. 5.Obtain a much lower price than the fossil crude oil price. Which seems to be going to reach US$200 per barrel of oil in the middle-term future. The above factors indicates the excellent chances of obtaining biodiesel from JC about this future of green energy. Our project will assure the success without any obstacles in plantation of Jatropha Curcas (JC). The crucial key economic factor is the harvesting of the seeds that it takes about 1 hour to pick 30 kgs. seeds under normal conditions or better. In our project we cover the whole scope field or model and that is: where farmers are growing Jatropha, harvesting


the seeds and extracting the oil in our facilities logistically located in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. We will cultivate JC in our lands, then recollect the seeds, and finally convert them into oil, and in the final stage converted into Biodiesel to be marketed domestically and worldwide by expertise companies.

INTER-CROPPING TO BE APPLIED IN OUR ENERGY CROP CULTIVATION SYSTEM Our project contemplates the use of jatropha inter –cropping technology to obtain the best results from the land and soil conditions for the rural communities without diminishing the production of food among them. When two or more crops are growing simultaneously in the same field, this is called intercropping. Which is according to our topography, soil profile and prevailing agroclimatic conditions in our area in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, Jatropha can be combined with other suitable species comprising the agricultural, horticultural, herbs, pastoral and/or silvicultural components to result in an ecologically viable, economically profitable and socially acceptable agroforestry system. By evolving, promoting and adopting Jatropha based intercropping systems it is possible to improve the socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and to transform the national energy scenario and the ecological landscape. These are the social & economic advantages of multiple cropping systems: • • • • • • • • • Dependence on only crop is avoided. Less needs to import energy. Reduction in the outlay for fertilizers. There is much greater flexibility of the distribution of labor. Possible to recover investments in much less time. Availability of harvest over a much longer period of time. Can occupy much more labor. The farmer of little economic resources can produce a large variety of useful products. Promote a return to the land. Components can constitute a type of “savings” for the future.

• In our Historical project we will be tried, applied and developed some inter cropping systems for both wastelands and cultivable lands as outlined below: FOR WASTELANDS:

• •

Model (i) Hedgerows of Jatropha with tropical fruits such as passion fruits, melon, watermelons and mongoes Model (ii) Jatropha intercropped with grasses, tubers and vegetables Model (iii) Jatropha mixed with fruit trees Model (iv) Jatropha in mixed plantation with Teak and Subabul FOR CULTIVABLE LANDS On irrigated farmlands


In our project for this purpose Jatropha curcas is the ideal plant to give shade to shade loving plants and provide a base for the climbers. Selection of the climber is done according to the climatic condition of our regions. Mainly, the following climbers are common for every/region: ECONOMICS: JATROPHA BIODIESEL: OVERVIEW Although, the Biodiesel industry is still young and relatively small, so as it grows to a larger scale and when an infrastructure is being well-developed and to be carried out in this project, the costs of producing is declining against the demand and marketing biodiesel is increasing, mainly based in the low cost of production of JC oil in Ecuador, under US$1.00 per each gallon of biodiesel as the total net cost. As well as, in the new future new cost-saving technologies will likely be developed to help producers use energy more efficiently, increase conversion yields and convert cheaper feedstocks into high-quality biodiesel. However, in the longer term, the biggest challenge may be the ability of the feedstock supply to keep up with growing demand as we are considering very seriously in our project. As such the key to the future of Biodiesel is finding inexpensive feed stocks that can be grown by farmers on marginal agricultural land, and Jatropha is one of many plants that hold a great deal of promise. Jatropha proves to be a promising Bio Fuel plantation and could emerge as a major alternative to Diesel thus reducing our dependence on Oil imports and saving the precious Foreign Exchange besides providing the much needed Energy Security. Jatropha oil displacing conventional fossil fuel makes the project fully eligible as a CDM project, i.e. recipient of CO2 credits. COST BENEFITS SCENARIO Cost benefits scenario will depend on various factors such as seed yield, area of Production, its gestation period, and raw oil yield during various stages of bio-diesel production-plantation, extraction, and transesterification. Our integrated Jatropha Biodiesel Project has three stages: The first stage of the production process of bio-diesel from the seeds of Jatropha is the plantation stage. Extraction stage of bio-diesel production The final stage of bio-diesel production is the transesterification stage in which raw oil is transesterified to bio-diesel. The combination of three stages of bio-diesel production and the role of each player in these stages have to be objectively defined as they can affect the economics of bio-diesel production Therefore, we have carried out Economic analysis considering all above three stages as separate entities.

• • •



Description of the Jatropha System 4. (“This non-toxic variety of Jatropha could be a potential source 29 . A non-toxic variety exists in Mexico which is used for human consumption after roasting. which implies medicinal uses. or physic nut. With less than 600 mm it cannot grow except in special conditions like Dormancy is induced by fluctuations in rainfall and temperature/light. (JCL) is a tall bush or small tree (up to 5 m hight) and belongs to the euphorbia family.Description of the plant.. distribution. The economic evaluation of the Jatropha activities in this project in the Coastal Region of Ecuador are based on real data. trophé (food). In a hedge you may have branches without leaves and besides ones full of green leaves. The seed weight (per 1000) is about 727 g. It has fewer. which causes brown stains. this latest variety is the ones which is spread all over the world. masked by large white patches. which are very difficult to remove. Plants from cuttings develop only lateral roots. After pollination. 2.. Inflorescences are formed terminally on branches.3 Ecology Jatropha curcas is not a weed. The economic use of Jatropha oil as fuel (direct or as biodiesel) depends very much on the level of our rural labor costs. 2. to help mainly its potential to contribute to rural development by its utilization.This presentation is divided in 5 points: 1. has thick glabrous branchets. as well as on the price of diesel fuel domestic and international. The plant is planted as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads.Economic Aspects 5.Introductory remarks The project is well concerned in “the Jatropha System”. It grows well on marginal land with more than 250 mm of rainfall per year... with 5 to 7 shallow lobes. It has to be planted. and it withstands long drought periods. Pollination is by insects.Varieties There are 3 varieties.. because we focusing the international market worldwide. But not all trees respond simultaneously. The tree has a straight trunk and gray or reddish bark.4.. this are 1375 seeds per kg in the average. The life-span of the Jatropha curcas plant is more than 50 years. distribution. a trilocular ellipsoidal fruit is formed. Normally. The genus name Jatropha derives from the Greek jatrós (doctor). It has green leaves with a length and width of 6 to 15 cm. 2. but the selling cost of biodiesel gallon will given by the International Stock Market Exchange..Strategies to disseminate the know how of the Jatropha System1. The yield per ha seems to be the same. 1. The seeds are black and in the average 18 mm long and 10 mm wide ). It is not self propagating. ecology Jatropha curcas L.Description of the plant. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds are mature. In other countries the Jatropha activities also show positive economic results.. five roots are formed from seeds: one tap root and 4 lateral roots. The leaves are arranged alternately. Costa Rica. It does not contain Phorbol esters. because it is not browsed by animals. please see our Cash Flow of rural labor cost.1 Botanical description Jatropha curcas L. The branches contain a whitish latex. as far as soap making is concerned. 2. but larger fruits. gardens and fields.. The genus Jatropha contains approximately 170 known species.Introductory remarks 2. In our real case. ecology 3. Guatemala and Nicaragua. The plant is monoecious and flowers are unisexual.

Becker et al. are considered and shows. In this way the Jatropha System covers 4 main aspects of rural development: promotion of women (local soap production). but its utilization was limited to the use of the plant as protection hedge around homesteads and gardens. 30 . for lighting and cooking and as fuel in special diesel engines. In order to keep the Jatropha network alive. The most important economic aspect in our project it is the conversion of JC seeds into oil and at the final stage into biodiesel with a huge demand worldwide that it will last for the next 50 years to come.2 Possible Uses of the Jatropha Plant The Jatropha plant is used as a medicinal plant: The seeds against constipation. Jatropha is planted to demarcate the boundaries of fields and homesteads. that the production and sale of Jatropha oil as diesel substitute is economically feasible. As well as especially the medicinal property of the soap makes it interesting for the rural population. including workshops.. Publication of Jatropha information. The estimation including transport costs. By planting Jatropha hedges to protect gardens and fields against roaming animals. The seeds were not used. The SEA-Santa Elena Agreement and the Task Force Team of Etanolsa S. 3. Description of the Jatropha System 3. The latex / sap for wound healing. In Comore islands. including our labor salary of US$500 per month is fairly low to produce the oil at a good price below the biodiesel price at the pump. can be kept within the rural area or even within one village. the oil from the seeds can be used for soap production. 3. accompanied by some central seminars (capacity building). 4. in Papua New Guinea and in Uganda Jatropha plants are used as a support plant for vanilla. Jatropha plants are used as a source of shade for coffee plants (on Cuba).of oil for human consumption. Jatropha is planted in the form of hedges around gardens or fields to protect the crops against roaming animals like cattle or goats. And an important economic contribution of glycerin as a by-product of our process to the final stage of biodisel.. The Jatropha plant is already known by the population since a long time. regular workshops on zonal level should be held. erosion control (planting hedges).Economic Aspects This will be an example of a successful project in Ecuador. oil and soap). poverty reduction (protecting crops and selling seeds. storage etc.”. seminars and visits of different projects with different approaches and in a different socio-economic environment (capacity building). No centralized processing (like in the cotton industry) is necessary. energy supply for the household and stationary engines in rural areas. the promoter’s project have convinced men and women living in The Peninsula of Santa Elena and outside people looking for sources of jobs of the interesting economic potential of these 5 plants to produce biodiesel. 1999). etc. and thus all added value. Our project will include the creation of a Jatropha network for mutual support and exchange of know how. Using state-of-the-art technology from the JC cultivation system to the final stage of conversion of jatropha oil into biodiesel. and the seed cake can be a good protein source for humans as well as for livestock. The leaves as tea against malaria.1 The Jatropha System The Jatropha System is an integrated rural development approach. The obvious advantage of this “Jatropha System” is that all the processing procedure.A. Jatropha hedges are planted to reduce erosion caused by water and/or wind.

This would mean factoring the impact of competition for other land uses. Needless to say that biofuels are an inherent part of these processes. Looking for export / import possibilities on international markets will be handled and managed by Roy Wale’s companies. BEST PRACTICES FOR LONG-TERM JATROPHA DEVELOPMENT IN THE SANTA ELENA AGREEMENT Jatropha: in need of sustainability STANDARDS In the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement there are growing concerns about climate change. who has the best international knowledge to carry out all exports of ethanol and biodiesel worldwide with the necessary logistic infraestructure. energy security and rural development are key drivers pushing innovative solutions to an equitable socio economic model in developing economies such Ecuador. cuttings). Establishment of a seed bank to provide Jatropha projects / initiatives with high yield and / or non toxic seeds. processing and conversion into biodiesel. Our nation.Supply of tools & blueprints & contacts with experts. Selection of a pure line of the non toxic variety from Mexico (edible oil. Feedstocks for biofuel remain at the core of any biofuels venture. Jatropha has emerged as the focal point for the biofuel industry with rapid R&D investments flowing into its cultivation. there have been pressures on regulators and governments to set in place sustainable models for Jatropha cultivation and use as a biofuel feedstock. Selection of high oil yield Jatropha plants. The “Jatropha Promotion Center” to be created inside our territory will also identify research topics and coordinate the work on these topics by different organizations / universities and distribute the results. 31 . as other Nations that have embarked on a biofuel driven model for economic development need to evolve the right protocols and systems to plan and implement such initiatives in a sustainable manner to be used in our project. With growing emphasis on the sustainability of the biofuels value chain from feedstocks to consumer. such as production of food or other crops at the concept stage itself. Among all the oil bearing crops. press cake as animal feed). Ecuador. Such topics could be: Selection of high yield Jatropha plants (seeds.

etc. Though amenable to growing on marginal land. water management and cultivation practices need better understanding in light of reported variations in Jatropha practices in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. This topic is well-considered in the Soil Economy item further ahead. Leveraging Jatropha’s other beneficial qualities for improving rural economy is a facet which needs closer scrutiny with mega ventures being planned by Etanolsa S. including food. commercial pressure to maximize yields are 32 . in developing our economies. Our Jatropha projects is characterized by new agronomical and technological challenges posed by new production and conversion processes employed. Jatropha is yet to deliver on its promises. There are also claims of Jatropha assisting in preventing deforestation and desertification. It is essential to modify traditional approach of cost benefit analysis to develop better models for judging project profitability and sustainability. ecological and social dimensions at the planning and pre-project stages. in order to obtain all what we need for a good living. and GHG balance have been raised by leading multilateral agencies. This project considers the initiatives in developing a sustainable position in Jatropha production and the need for sustainability criteria to be developed for all large Jatropha biorefineries to be located in the Coastal region of Ecuador. and improving soil fertility. production complexities and ways to resolve them *Business models suitable for small and medium land holders to become as partners in this project *Environmental and social benefits inside our territory This project ensure sustainability standards for Jatropha projects to be develop in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Besides. soil. experiences across the developing world have been quite varied reflecting complexities in local practices. soil. educational materials. We also consider Economies of scale as all changes the economics of any energy crop based project and also bring about environmental impacts. water. water and climatic factors. However. land resource management. Primary issues favoring Jatropha over other crops are its non food nature. Jatropha production and its use need comprehensive sustainability criteria just as other food crops. reported ability to grow on marginal lands and the need for limited rainfall. corporations as also social organizations. wearing apparels. Our large Jatropha projects and their potential impact on land. But not only Jatropha but emergence of new rural business models and novel environmental and social models are related issues impacting the long term sustainability such as the use of a new currency of money of barter-bond and our own credit card system. particularly in developing our economy involve a detailed assessment of economic.A. medicines.There are three key issues concerning Jatropha in this project: *Plant agronomy demands. Though heralded as the most preferred non food crop.

It is equally critical to determine the suitability of each Jatropha type for the Coastal region of Ecuador covering more than 50.-Optimizing jatropha value chain processes 7.-Planting.Integrating socio economic perspectives into large projects b. It is evident that the choice of the crop and the technology pathways affects the carbon dioxide balance of crops grown for biofuels.-Socially and environmentally sound protocols 4. the early stage Jatropha projects would have attained maturity of 5-6 years. d. maturity periods. value added products Key factors driving sustainability criteria : Sustainability of biofuel feedstock production is not a given. our legal frame to carry out successfully these energy projects. In Ecuador our Jatropha projects is being planned with a variety of types of Jatropha plants. and rainfall requirements. Other developing sustainability criteria for Jatropha There are other key factors to be evaluated in our Jatropha project. inequities in land tenure and poorly implemented resettlement plans pose further challenges for sustainable Jatropha production. Jatropha projects are very location specific and it has been noted that experiences are not transferable across our own borders outside the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Options to funnel fuel revenues back into the community.-Carrying capacity of the land 6. These are: a.Leveraging carbon finance potential e.-Application and agronomy research on Jatropha Despite the potential qualities of Jatropha as a sustainable feed stock for biofuel there are specific issues pertaining to translating it into commercial and social benefits.. transporting and converting the plants. Critical sustainability components for Jatropha: Key issues determine the sustainability of such projects are: 1. Similarly pressure for irrigation to be intensified as also the accompanying impacts of indiscriminate extraction of ground water in fragile zones will have to be dealt with. yields.. The data collected from these projects will prove useful to assess the overall sustainability of Jatropha projects for the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. the most significant factor in ensuring sustainability lies in developing a correct model of our socio economic systems related to rural employment and economy. It is imperative to set in place properly designed value sharing 33 . Nett balance of carbon dioxide savings from Jatropha projects will depend on the amount of energy used for cultivating. Yet another aspect determining sustainability is to ensure the rights of indigenous people facing displacement from their habitats. resistance to drought and pests.-Policies synergizing with the needs of local area 5. Land use patterns Water usage Soil impacts GHG balance Biodiversity loss Social dimensions Social dimensions in Ecuador Perhaps.000 hectares of fertile and mostly virgin lands. with different oil content. conversion efficiencies. harvesting and processing 3.-Yields. harvesting.. and critical focus on the following factor form key criteria and need to be addressed. To assess this a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for different pathways needs will be carried out in our project..Creating local value chains c.Finance most products and services for local communities’ needs.-Adopting best practices in production systems 2.likely to result in best lands being appropriated for Jatropha. By end 2014.

Emergence of 2nd generation biofuels will impact the 1st generation fuel feed stocks and long term viability of Jatropha based projects will also need to be evaluated from a socio economic angle. protection against desertification.A. Environmental benefits need to be considered in our project as a new means of evaluation. reduced soil erosion.models in the initial stage itself. small and large land owners or concessionaries will become partner in our project with a 15% of the shares. yields will be higher on good quality soil and with sufficient watering than on marginal arid lands and low water usage. Optimizing economies of scale will alter the environmental impacts. maturity periods. resistance to drought 34 . there is often a lack of appropriate policy support to small-scale Jatropha development at the local level but not in our case because all Rural Communities. Each of these is defined by differences in oil content. Future challenges in mega Jatropha projects We are sure that developing sustainable Jatropha projects do pose challenges of varied nature and some critical ones are discussed below. and besides they will be contracted as our employees and workers by thousand under the legal figure of the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. yields. and a group of leader international companies to be contracted according to each specialized fields of its kind. In the case of Jatropha. mainly cover by the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Apparently traditional approach of cost benefit analysis needs a reassessment to evolve a comprehensive tool for determining project profitability and sustainability. In most Jatropha driven zones there exists a wide variety of Jatropha plants. In countries where Jatropha based biofuel could be produced. including increased productivity from intercropping and the creation of a better more humid microclimate. Once other benefits are integrated there is more likelihood of small scale projects on marginal lands being more economical. and availability of press cake which is also a good quality organic fertilizer. Developing sustainable economic models in Ecuador As Jatropha cultivation is practiced around the world and comprises a variety of business models ranging from small to large scale with involvement of smallholders. As discussed earlier economic viability will demand better quality land and higher water usage when based on traditional cost benefit analysis. Agronomic challenges Plant agronomy poses key challenges to the viability of Jatropha projects and key among them is the diversity in Jatropha types in each zones inside our territory. smaller and small-scale production to mega ventures as is our project which will the biggest of its kind in South America to be develop by Etanolsa S.

We have worked with the current government’s officals and authorities to obtain and issue the most appropriate policies to ensure that local households. Community based initiatives 35 . very few of these technologies have been extended for Jatropha. jatropha stoves and lamps. It is important to decide on minimum standards for large scale investments in Jatropha that are shared and agreed upon by all stakeholders. and communities receive the benefits of energy services from Jatropha based biodiesel development. Technological challenges Existing technological utilities for Jatropha needs closer attention. no systematic approaches to link these technologies to jatropha production have been negligible. It is critical to make the right choice of Jatropha type for any given region and assess its overall suitability to ensure long term sustainability. 2. It is essential to engage small farmers and producers in the policy formulation discussions.and pests. etc Pricing mechanism Incentives biofuels usage Favorable tax regimes Capacity building in executive bodies Guidelines for sustainable Jatropha projects A set of guidelines are suggested by our expertise for Jatropha projects for ensuring sustainability. Since Jatropha grows mostly in developing economies ensuring their rights becomes a key component. there is often a lack of appropriate policy support to small-scale Jatropha development at the local level. transformation Jatropha biofuel quality standards and testing Ensuring quality product Evolve guidelines for suitable available technology. Policy barriers In countries where Jatropha based biofuel could be produced. 3. However. These are: Feedstock production methods. our Jatropha projects has taken into account the ecological and sociological complexities involved in these large ventures. 1. Setting minimum standards Since the beginning several years ago. We have also consider several large scale investments in jatropha based biofuel plants and are in our budget of investment in accordance with our funds providers. businesses. including for further research on process technologies and design of equipment to scale up the Jatropha projects and by contracting the most advance companies in the world. These minimum standards are expected to protect local population and their environment for sure. However. Linking the production of these goods to the local production of Jatropha allows generation of regional value chains that expand employment opportunities. In our project we will contract with a leading company in the jatropha curcas field. we will achieve in our endeavor to successfully develop the Biofuel Project in the Coastal region of Ecuador. Developing local value chains A large variety of technologies makes use of Jatropha oil such as local diesel electricity generators that run on jatropha oil. as well as associated income and job opportunities. and rainfall requirements. Most technologies for biofuel have been based on rape seed or palm. logistics. Some key ones are discussed below. Policy support will need to consider a range of issues.

it is imperative to derive recommendations regarding best policy practices for specific Jatropha related development objectives. subsidies. quality standards) determine the profitability of specific Jatropha uses. Ecuador is not the exception as potential producer of energy products such as the biofuels we are for sure counting with the support and encouraging with the corresponding taxation. but become financially sustainable after this phase. as pellet to burn. Regulatory framework and Jatropha ventures The regulatory framework in different parts of the world (taxation. It is also essential to develop Jatropha projects by identifying carbon co-financing opportunities. Leveraging Jatropha Carbon Finance It is important to identify conditions afforestation and fossil fuel substitution with Jatropha oil may be included in carbon finance schemes. 4. The regulatory framework in different parts of the world determine the profitability of specific Jatropha uses. Potential for Jatroha cake as organic fertilizer. subsidies. This income is spent locally creating positive feed-backs for the local economy. 6. Ecuador is adopting a large variety of policies that provide a sound basis for future policy development to make the small farmers to go back from the big cities to their lands and encouraging to cultivate energy cultivation such as is the case for Jatropha.Social enterprises require some initial support during start-up. It is important to make existing decentralized Jatropha activities and grassroots enterprises fit for the market to allow their up-scaling. Currently. 7. It is critical to increase the profitability of Jatropha projects through improved. 5. Agronomy research on Jatropha (by-products) In comparison to other cash crops Jatropha has a huge untapped potential. industry and civil society. These frameworks will determine whether it is more profitable to export Jatropha or to sell it on the home market or whether to refine Jatropha oil into biodiesel or whether it is more profitable to use the oil to run diesel engines for off-grid energy services. Social enterprises at the community level offer income opportunities for those in desperate need. high-yielding Jatropha crops and through the sales of by-products based on Jatropha press Cake. quality standards. as fodder for animals is equally high. in close cooperation with partners in governments. is in the process of defining sustainability criteria and recommendations for decisionmakers in industry and governments that should help reduce the risks while the bioenergy market 36 . It is essential to understand how national policies impact on the profitability of Jatropha investments. At this moment the Central Government has issued an executive degree to exonerate of income taxes for the first 10 years of operation to all potential producers of energy biofuel products in Ecuador. Sustainability assurance system for growing Biofuel feedstocks In the International field UNEP. Based on this understanding.

scarce water resources. UNEP will provide the link between the technical findings of the RSB and the GBEP and other intergovernmental processes. In this context. To ensure sustained use of natural resources. land use and energy planning policies. Ecuador through our project is attempting to maximize their biofuel potential.. We are going to work with close relation to the respective government authorities through coherent and responsible policies and legislation. Including future contracting with international companies. in which small and medium size farmers will produce fuel for their own use or for community use. food versus fuel competition issues. We also include the important issues such as agricultural land competition. Ensuring participation of small farmers into large scale production through participatory concepts. Take into account the lifecycle benefits and costs of biofuel production as well as the global production potential. Participation of stakeholders is key to sustainable development and should be taken into account in policy formulation and development of policy instruments. and biofuel trade issues need closer attention.the lifecycle benefits and costs of biofuel production as well as the global production potential. Biofuel projects. Sustainability standards have to be developed tailored to Jatropha. and each regional zone and even location will need appropriate policies. the development of biofuel needs to be carefully planned and managed in our project. each one specialized in their respective industry and agricultural field. particularly in developing countries such Ecuador. Involvement of the local population to reduce social or environmental risks related to feedstock production. We are taking into account – in the SEA-Santa Elena Agreement . There is wellestablished biodiesel trade market can benefit both importing and exporting countries worldwide. The RSB process brings together a large variety of stakeholders to develop the criteria of sustainable biofuels production. biodiversity concerns. The economics of bioenergy production are site. soil erosion.continues to develop. CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY : THE PRODUCTIVE PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS The practices being undertaken by the Jatropha growers currently will need to be scientifically managed for better growth and production in our project. UNEP is working with the Roundtable of Sustainable Biofuels (RSB). Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel can bring many benefits for developing countries such Ecuador mainly by providing access to clean energy services. and SEA-Santa Elena Agreement. The growth and yield of Jatropha could be improved through effective management practices. particularly in developing countries such Ecuador’s case. based on general sustainability principles for bioenergy. capacity building. which are driven by Etanolsa S. 37 . These criteria need take into account and build on criteria used in existing national and commodity-based systems such is our project. Integration with agricultural. appear likely to produce and sustained benefits for a rural community and in addition to export biofuels to the national and international markets. technology transfer and technological development that are going to be needed to ensure that a part of the Coastal region of Ecuador with their growing energy needs can be met through sustainable production of Jatropha biofuels.A.and situation-specific. equity concerns of large versus small-scale biofuel development. Development of International set of standards to facilitate international trade. Different business models -small scale and large scale production. an initiative set up by the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne.

PROPAGATION METHODSGENERATIVE PROPAGATION-EFFECTING FACTORS • Direct seeding-Quality of seeds • Seding depth • Date of sowing Transplantation of precultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • Poly bags-Type of precultivation Length of precultivation Age of precultivation VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION(cuttings) • • Direct planting-Right time Transplanting of pre-cultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) • • • • Poly bags-Right size Right age Right strain Right source SUCCESSFULL PRECULTIVATION IS CHARACTERIZED BY-High germination rates of seeds • High sprouting rates of cuttings • High survival rates Basing the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and properties of the plant in field. • Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of Maximum survival rates Intended utilization of the plantation 38 .

plants propagated by seeds are better. Soon after development of the 1st leaves. lubricant. Direct seeding. hardy and require little care.For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control. or partial removal of the testa. the radicula emerges and 4 small peripheral roots are formed. The seed shell splits. With better rainfall conditions. in soap and candle making *Used as medicine both internally and externally Bark *Yields tannins (37%) Twig *Used as medicine *Used as Dataun (Herbal tooth brush) *Young one cooked and eaten For successful plantation we have developed Jatropha Production Technology for which our TOTAL CULTIVATION PACKAGE can be had. directly planted cuttings are best. Intervals of presoaking and drying. For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production. are more successful than presoaking alone. easily propagates the Jatropha transplanting of spontaneous wild plants and direct planting of cuttings. germination takes 10 days. the plantations could also be established by direct seeding. Jatropha as a plantation crop offers the following advantages: • Easy to establish. Seed should be collected when capsules split open. the cotyledons wither and fall off. Further growth is sympodial Uses of Jatropha curcas : A petrocrop Whole plant *Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation *Promising live fence *useful as green manure *useful in controlling sand drift *possess Allelopathic properties Roots • Used as ethnomedicine Leaves • Used as ethnomedicine *Yield a dye used to give tan & brown *Useful as botanical Latex *Resembles shellac *Used for making ink *Used as ethnomedicine Seeds *Source of oil (40-50%) suitable as fuel for diesel engine *Useful as illumitant. With good moisture conditions. pre-cultivation of seedlings. 39 . grows quickly. Use of fresh seeds improves germination.

oil extraction and nursery raising. To the rural society. Yield: There will be about 1675 plants /ha at 3m x 2m spacing. cultivation of Jatropha appears viable. de-shelling etc. It is suitable for preventing soil erosion including Jhum fallows. Jatropha is not a competitor of any crop rather it increases the yield.000 hectares of energy crop system with direct and indirect labor activities. The plant survives up to 50 years if root zone does not come in contact with rising water table and continues for longer time. Cultivation scope Due to potential demand and better marketing opportunities. which will be a boon to the farmers. The crop is suitable particularly for garden land situations yet less productive. Use of bio-diesel at the village level for operating oil engines for pumping water and operating small machinery are another good opportunity. We estimates that around 15. Reclamation of wasteland and degraded land is possible through its plantation.0000 people. where as indirectly this will help to save edible vegetable oil. Scope of Jobs for all Jatropha is economically viable not only to the growers but also to the processors and end users. The crop can easily be raised without any difficulty. lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment.000 workers and employees will be working in the 5 biorefineries and in developing 50. This will be a great boon to the development and enhancement of the quality of life of the rural women.000 hectares of mainly communities’ lands. Due to my corrhizal value in Jatropha roots it helps in getting phosphate from soil boon for acid soil. In Ecuador. the rural women can be engaged in all kinds of activities like raising seedlings. collection of seeds. The average productivity can be projected as follows: 40 . Besides the crop must not replace other important food crops and in turn will not have a major impact on cropping pattern. hence promoter of rural economy besides ensuring energy security. Grown up Jatropha from 6th year onwards yield 3-6 kg per plant under good management. and considering each of them as head member of each family (5 member each) that represents a total of 60. reaching highest crop yield upon maturity from 4th year. as it provides never ending marketing potential . no irrigation facilities. All parts of the shrub are used in traditional medicine and as raw material for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In fertile land it gives higher yields Plantation of Jatropha. The large scale cultivation of Jatropha curcas on wastelands with poor soils and low rainfall in drought prone areas could provide regular employment and could improve their living conditions by providing additional income. Generate net income for 40-55 years. Improves the soil fertility throughout their life cycle. Jatropha is not an alternative to agriculture or plantation but it is an addition to it. can be rural based. The use of Jatropha oil in the production of soap in rural areas gives direct benefit. Providing local jobs. Jatropha curcas will be found in the Peninsula of Santa Elena covering more than 50.• • • • • • • • • It can grow in poor soils. Economic life The economic life of Jatropha is 35-40 years. Jatropha adapts well to marginal lands as well as live fence. as farm animals do not browse it. the crop can create regular employment opportunities. Possesses medicinal as well as other multiple uses. in wastelands except flood prone and waterlogged areas.

000 kgs.000 30 KWH Rs.43 INR Live mid-market rates as of: March 04. 120 125 kg Rs. 6.00. 3.000 kilograms per hectare of Jatropha (2.0 – 5.5 41 . 2009 .Jatropha stacks up nicely compared with other feedstocks. LPG. coal and firewood.3. 3.0. which is an indication of ecological improvement of site.0 kgs. 180 3 day Rs. 885 1 t/hour cap Rs. The leaves provide plentiful organic matter and increase the microbial activity including earthworms.gcitrading.125 150 kg/ton Rs.439 USD United States Dollar 1 USD = 51. 5. 3.500 Year Per plant yield 0. Economics per hectare basis (Rs): 1000 INR Indian Rupee 1 INR = 0. Year to 6th. phosphorus and potassium finds very good organic fertilizers. 177. Year to 10th.226 gallons per hectare in Ecuador.500 kgs. 20/ton Rs. 45 3 day Rs. Year of planting 2nd.0 kgs. diesel.0194 USD = 194.3:14:00 PM EST 10000 INR Indian Rupee 1 INR = 0. Potential of wastelands developments. as soybeans and rapeseed have a relatively low oil yield compared with Jatropha — 375 kilograms per hectare for soybeans in the United States (280 gallons per acre) and 1.4439 USD United States Dollar 1 USD = 51.000 45 KWH Rs 225 600 kg/ton Rs.5 – 5. This no-conventional source of energy will help in removing regional imbalance in energy use by making energy available in a decentralized manner.00. 1. The protein content of Jatropha oil cake may be used as raw materials for plastic and synthetic fibers.000 kilograms per hectare of rapeseed in Europe (740 gallons per acre) to 3. 70. It is a crop with low capital investment.0 kgs. 20/ton Rs.50 6 day Rs. Generation employment and capital formation to increase nation’s income and quick greening of the country. 37.htm Jatropha for enrichment of soil The oil cake is rich in nitrogen.5-1. Year 7th. 6.43 INR http://www. unlimited employment potential in the rural areas.5 kgs Per hectare yield in kg 1500 kg.0194 USD = 19. 2. Year 3rd. short gestation period. As a non-conventional energy crop Jatropha oil is environmentally safe cost effective and renewable source of no conventional energy as a promising substitute to hydel power. kerosene. long productive period. 215 2 t/hour cap Rs. Potential for creation of productive assets boosting of village based industries. Jatropha Oil Extraction Cost Parameter Installation cost Power consumption Cost of power consumption Steam Cost of steam Man Power Cost of manpower Processing cost/ton Processing cost/ton Investment 1 t/day cap Rs. Year 4th.000 24 KWH Rs. 450/ton Rs.

• Providing local jobs. • Increasing use of inexpensive local resources rather than expensive external resources. including the production of biodiesel and ethanol.5 Rs.5 Rs.000 hectares in whole Peninsula of Santa Elena. 6. 222. as well as among farmers themselves regarding the boundaries of their fields. 45 Rs. the Jatropha System can provide direct financial benefits to the rural economy and their communities. • Increasing soil fertility by use of press-cake as fertilizer. 184 BIO DIESEL FROM WASTELANDS JATROPHA CURCAS CULTIVATION Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the Jatropha System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population in a selected country: Coastal region of Ecuador Poverty reduction By promoting the integrated utilization of the Jatropha plant. All owners or concessionaries of land could openly become part of this SEA-Santa Elena Agreement by placing their lands into the project and will receive the following benefits: • • Reducing crop losses caused by wandering livestock or wind damage. 7.5 Rs. where all 5 biofuel plants will be established for our Jatropha cultivation project. resulting in less work/irrigation water needed for local gardens. 42 . *To contract the most strategic international marketer to sell the ethanol and biodiesel under the best conditions in the international markets Because of its economic value our rural people will be planting new Jatropha hedges in a large extent with more than 50.Depreciation Total cost of Processing/ton Rs. *Adoption of the state-of-the-art technology to obtain the best yield from the JC crops to the gallons/per metric tons. • Reducing disputes between farmers and livestock owners regarding crop damage. *Complete financing from international sources to develop the full project from the preparation of lands to the conversion of oil into biodiesel. Increasing rainfall infiltration. lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment. 900 Rs.

We are learning more and more about the properties of Jatropha. FIGHTING DESERTIFICATION & CREATING WEALTH ELENA Jatropha curcas is a tough perennial tree could survive even in the desert. In Ecuador by employing and developing this cultivation project seems to be hopeful momentum towards increasing use of biofuels worldwide and replacing the traditional derivative fossil diesel. rapeseed. The selected area of the Peninsula of Santa Elena has been devastating by high right climate for growing Jatropha Precisely in our JC cultivation project It is in the field of Bio Diesel fuel our main focus. International Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra. At same power output. These potential problems include: 1) Jatropha oil is hydroscopic . at the same time as its beans could be refined for diesel fuel. cottonseed. vast appropriate lands to be cultivated. CHALLENGES TO JATROPHA’S COMMERCIAL VIABILITY There are still some inherent problems with Jatropha and research work is still required. the Jatropha system is characterized by the many positive ecological. the better for the environment and for food production. sales price according international stock exchange. that Jatropha’s properties are the most exciting. palm. groundnut. energetic and economic aspects which are attached with the commercial exploitation of the JC plants to be cultivated in the Coastal region of Ecuador. This will be well treated in our project level of deforestation during the last 50 years. To summarize.We are sure that the results of the Jatropha Cultivation Project to convert the seeds into Biodiesel using all factor in our benefits such the best technology. soya and sunflower . One issue that is quite clear is because Jatropha is high in acid. Over 60% of The Peninsula of Santa Elena’s land has the IN THE PENINSULA OF SANTA 43 . however. Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. it has the tendency to degrade quickly. including all facilities for our workers and employees to live under the best standards of living inside our territory. Resulting the more these JC plants are going to exploited.the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. and finally economic labor salaries will be successfully implemented into our own system. particularly if not handled properly through the supply chain. and could actually stabilize soil and combat desertification. huge good demand for biodiesel. enough international funds.absorbs water and needs nitrogen blanketing on steel tanks.

K. Out of all these trees. Jatropha must be regarded as a sure inclusion and the foundation around which a good plan can be built if for nothing but its pure hardiness and stress handling ability. Sustainability Jatropha cultivation is a valuable multi-purpose crop to alleviate soil degradation. men. Our technology will be implemented to prevent degradation.all of which can alter the biofuel economics. desertification and deforestation. In the warm humid atmosphere in countries the degradation of seeds can be rapid. The degumming may well be more of a problem than making biodiesel. Breaking the cycle of poverty 44 . Even in the U. The free fatty acid must not increase above 2% according to our expertise. JC cultivation as energy crop that produces biofuels and holds particular promise for sustainable development and a sustainable environment. Alternative feedstock in our project The emerging industry worldwide is facing a lack of feedstock supplies and rising crude palm oil /soy oil prices and also the debate of crops for food versus fuel and needs initiatives in crop cultivation technologies and competitive sourcing of appropriate feedstock . rural communities. for soap production and climatic protection. 4) Seeds degrade as soon as they are picked and so careful storage and handling is required. Exposure to air and moisture must be minimized . As such the greatest challenges to the widespread deployment and use of biofuels is developing a dedicated energy crops that are cost-effective. and hence deserves specific attention Jatropha can help to increase rural incomes. small farmers and finally large farmers. It is just a tree that has enough credentials. Jatropha has been selected as the one and other intercropping food crops. Carbon Savings Biodiesel produced from jatropha is one of the most promising solutions for tackling the growing carbon emissions from transport. seed storage is a problem. That is why many developing countries has been nominated JC cultivation as ideal plant for biodiesel. self-sustainability and alleviate poverty for women. the oil needs to be kept in storage conditions that prevent undue degradation. this assumes that that oil is fully degummed. easy to sustain and can produce greater yields. which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-diesel.hence the need for nitrogen blanketing on the tanks. elderly. Our technological contractors are fully specialized to overcome this important issue.2) Right from the time of expelling. 3) The range of fatty acids present in the various seeds will differ but the oil and biodiesel that is produced must be acceptable. There are various trees that are suitable for bio-diesel production. However. It can as well help to increase income from plantations and agro-industries.

covering more than 50. For developing countries.” but they understand one thing very clearly that they can use Jatropha plants as a source of their main earnings to live under very reasonable standard of living as the one offered in our SEA-Santa Elena Agreement with good salaries. Farmers need to know that there is going to be a good domestic and international market for what we will produce as energy crops. education and other services for their neediest citizens inside our territory.Consider that oil priced is too high per barrel has had a disproportionate impact on the poorest countries. new technologies. farmers that produce dedicated energy crops can grow their incomes and grow their own supply of affordable and reliable energy backed by our international project by means of investing US$200 Millions per Biofuel plant and 15. Developing countries consume roughly twice as much oil per dollar of GDP as the United States All the while. producing more biofuels will reduce energy expenditures and allow our nation to put more of their resources into health. improving the livelihood of many more.’s Task Team .000 hectares. In our project bio-diesel will be “cultivated Ecuador as other developing countries have the potential to be a leading world producer of diesel. Our project at regional level.A. climate change and world’s energy policies are a source of oppression. but the rural farmers still need to get comfortable with the idea that diesel fuel can be “harvested. new jobs and new markets. a source of sickness and a source of human suffering. the high cost and Inaccessibility of fossil fuels. without refrigeration.are very keen to build that confidence and promote Jatropha cultivation by assisting in the whole process from 45 . At the community level. basic communication. leaves approximately 2 billion people worldwide without reliable energy sources.000 head member of families will employed for all stages of JC cultivation including into its conversion of Biodiesel to be marketed domestically and worldwide and other derivative sub-products will an enormous impact on benefits of all our people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. heat. In our project more than 15. 38 of which are net importers and 25 of which import all of their oil. At the same time. and in addition of 15% of participation in the shares of our promoting company.000 hectares of fertile lands along the Peninsula of Santa Elena. then. We – in Etanolsa S. producing more biofuels will generate new industries. or even light. Since the two-thirds of the people in the developing world who derive their incomes from agriculture and Jatropha based biodiesel as the Santa Elena project has enormous potential to change their situation for the better and poverty can be broken by Jatropha Cultivation as this dedicated crop has a huge potential for replication world -wide.

is seen by many to be the perfect biodiesel crop. sugar. each mature tree produces about four kilograms of seed per year during the first 4 years. procedures and systems for growing. deploy and commission Non-food vegetable oil refining and design and construct biodiesel plants Jatropha plant . can be derived. especially the south west It was learned that three kilos of jatropha seeds can produce one liter of bio-diesel fuel. . promoting sustainable farming for biodiesel production and looking for international research findings and on-hand field experiences in respect of various technical. which are said to have good commercial value as fertilizer and as a base for soap and cosmetics respectively.Jatropha is excellent at preventing soil erosion. and it has seeds with up to 50% oil content. is drought and pest resilient.A.The cost of 2500 jatropha saplings (enough for one hectare) in Ecuador is around or equivalent to US$100 46 . design and Create Fuel Farms. sulphur. we are creating new sources of income for the rural farmers. The byproducts of the bio-diesel processing plant are nitrogen-rich press cake and glycerin.Biodiesel and so much more The seeds of the Jatropha contain high percentages (40%-50%) of oil. profitability and sustainability of commercial production of Jatropha oil crop worldwide.Jatropha can be intercropped with many cash crops such as coffee. agronomical/silvicultural aspects of plantations of Jatropha and we will contract the best expert companies that have resulted in significant improvements in knowledge and technical background related to Productivity. fruits and vegetables with the Jatropha offering both fertilizer and protection against livestock. .Jatropha needs at least 250mm of rain annually to thrive however it can survive three years of drought by dropping its leaves. It can be grown in very poor soils actually generating top soil as it goes. buying the seeds for refining and providing the refining technology to enable growers. . On average. Here are some facts and figures about Jatropha relating to its growth as an oil product:Jatropha grows well on low fertility soils however increased yields can be obtained using a fertilizer containing small amounts of magnesium. crushing refining and use of Bio Diesel from seed oil. Our plant will be cultivating these energy-producing plants. The leaves. We’ve been privileged to represent Etanolsa as the Task Team. process engineering and operational expertise to plan. developing and establishing the correct process. It reportedly can also produce oil from which ethanol. This processed oil can then be used in diesel engines after minor modifications. . We will contract the best companies specialized in each stage of the process who are fully equipped with Technical knowledge and plant science expertise. the project’s promoter Task Team is happy and proudly presents its commitment to exploring. root and bark could also have potential for numerous other industrial and pharmaceutical uses Because of its growing requirements this tree could easily be growing in the south. a gasoline additive. workers and employees to make our own biodiesel. which can be extracted easily for further processing (transesterification) and refinement.Jatropha prefers alkaline soils. and calcium.planting. Etanolsa S. Jatropha curcas in particular under the respective international off take contracts. To avoid engine modifications the bio-diesel can also be blended with convention-al diesel. processing them and finally producing biodiesel. . and the leaves it drops act as a wonderful soil enriching mulch.

1 hectare should yield around 24 tons of seeds per year with two crops. embalming fluid.90 per gallon to grow and refine in Ecuador. cough medicine and as a moistening agent in tobacco. The following stats come from D1 Oils .2-2.000 per ton.Filtered jatropha oil can be used as is in many diesel vehicles (as SVO) with only small modifications required to the engine. .Jatropha oil can be used as a kerosene substitute for heating and lamps.5kg of beans .. energy pellets. can be sold in India for around US$2.Biodiesel costs around US$0. . .8 tons of oil. .The average Ecuadorian agricultural worker earns less than $200 per month. including oil and glycerin. The remaining oil can be used to make skin friendly soap. a biproduct of biodiesel refinement.20% of seedlings planted will not survive.1 ton of (the leftovers after pressing) can be sold for $100. the typical annual yield of a jatropha tree is 3. . the by-product of Jatropha Curcas’ transesterification process can be used to make a wide range of products including high quality paper.One job is created for each 4 hectares of jatropha plantation. . . .Crushing 1 ton of Jatropha seeds costs around $40. pipe joint cement. This can be composted and used as a high grade nitrogen rich organic fertilizer (green manure).Press cake (seedcake) is left after the oil is pressed from the seeds. toothpaste.2.Glycerin. . .1 hectare should yield around 2.The oil pressed from 4kg of seeds is needed to make 1 liter of biodiesel.Jatropha seedlings yield seeds in the first year after plantation.Each jatropha seedling should be given a 2m x 2m area to grow into. .800/ year in Ecuador.The cost of 1kg of jatropha seeds in Ecuador is around or equivalent to .500 trees can be planted per hectare. . but in our project they will earn more than US$500 per month. -After the first five years.Jatropha oil burns with a clear smokeless flame About Jatropha Curcas Jatropha Curcas is a non edible oil crop predominately used to produce bio-diesel.Jatropha trees are productive for up to 40-50 years in Ecuador. 47 . . In addition to bio-diesel production. . . . soap. . cosmetics.One hectare of jatropha plantation yields US$5.The transport costs of shipping 1 ton of jatropha from Ecuador to Pacific Rim of USA is US$________.the UK’s biggest biodiesel company: . .91%+ of the oil can be extracted with cold pressing.

15kgs per tree at maturity) Projected growth rates of our high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds In our project we are going to use the correct growing procedures. soil nutrient and adequate moisture our seeds will achieve the following yields planted at 2.500 plants/Ha : • • • • • Year 1 . Jatropha Biodiesel – plant based biofuel from seeds. while producing seed for up to 40 years Be freshly harvested and professionally packed & shipped Exceed guaranteed 90% germination rate Produce fruit with high oil content (60%) .9kg/tree Year 4 . The uptake of other nutrients essential for plant growth is also facilitated by mycorrhizae.10-12kg/tree Year 5 .6kg/tree Year 3 . (10 . and it has the ability to convert normally unavailable forms of Phosphorous to forms available for plant uptake.far exceeding industry average Have selected genetics from plants that have produced over 10 Tonnes of Oil per Hectare. The Jatropha Curcas is a drought resistant oleaginous bushy shrub/tree belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common 48 .3kg/tree Year 2 .Jatropha Curcas Seeds & Seedlings Our Superior high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds and seedlings will: • • • • • • Reach first harvest within 7 months with full production in their 4th year Have a life-span of 50 years. per Year.10-15kg/tree Achieving Outstanding Jatropha Curcas production Jatropoha Curcas plants inoculated with MYCORRHIZAE will likely survive stressful conditions and give higher yields since the Funghi increases the volume of roots hence increasing drought tolerance of plants by facilitating the transport of moisture to and within the root system.

Jatropha Curcas is a long term crop.000 3. Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel – by the process of transesterification.000. The plantation can be grown in waste lands and requires a minimum maintenance and when compared to other crops. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3.000 500. The Jatropha Curcas plant grows like a small tree or shrub and has a long lifetime of 40-50 years.000 52.500. which enables us to grow jatropha curcas plantations marginal land or even in arid regions.000 60.000.000 300.000 15. The following chart shows the process of converting the jatropha oil into biodiesel: 49 . Physically. Even when Jatropha adapts with lower temperatures it cannot withstand a frost and grows well at 20-32 deg mean annual temperature and its ideal altitude ranges from 0 to 500 m. The plant doesn’t take much water to survive and requires minimal of water source equivalent to 250 mm of annual rainfall. The scientific name of Jatropha Curcas is Jatropha Curcas L and its origin is believed to be Central America. where other common plantation crops cannot be grown. which currently found in huge densities in the Asian and African countries. Hectares Oil Gallons Waste Biomass Kilos 1 500 3.500 1.000.000 Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source.500 kilograms of waste biomass. Jatropha Curcas grows like a small tree or shrub with 2 – 8 meters high and has large green leaves with three to five lobes. Jatropha curcas is grows well in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. which starts providing its effective harvest after 18 – 24 months depending upon the soil and the climatic conditions.vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn.500.000 75.000 210.

Advantages of Jatropha – as a promising biofuel crop. functional fluids.only about 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year .. The by-product glycerol can be used for production of Propylene Glycol. The Jatropha cake left after oil extraction is an excellent organic fertilizer and can also be burnt for power generation. These cakes contain proteins and carbohydrates as major constituents and several bioactive compounds as minor constituents. There is a lot of potential to use these cakes for production of biogas. Intercropping can be done with various food crops and won’t compete. It can stop land degradation and reverse deforestation. about 40-50 years and needs very minimal maintenance when compared to other crops. 50 . increases with the commercial usage of by-products like jatropha cakes and glycerol generated during the process of oil extraction. Jatropha Curcas needs very less amount of water for survival . briquettes and several products like surfactants and lubricants. producer gas. Biproducts of Jatropha – additional products from the crop. it has a long life.thus can be grown in arid regions and will grow well on marginal lands. poly ether polyols. which can be used for making unsaturated polyster resins. The efficiency and profitability of the jatropha curcas bio-fuel industry. cosmetics and toiletries flavor. Once grown.

Biodiesel Unit – oil extraction and conversion machinery. With apparent shortcomings of other renewable fuels sources. the enthusiasm for initiating today’s jatropha curcas plantations which will be tomorrow’s oil fields have increased among the large and small scale farmers which can also make use poor lands with minimal water sources. Biodiesel unit with the expeller and the transesterifier are available with various processing capacities. Also.Jatropha can yield up to 10 times the amount of oil as other sources of biodiesel. Jatropha can be intercropped with various crops including vegetables. on a per acre basis .Propanediol produced from glycerol has a number of applications in laminates. and need not compete with vital food crops for good agricultural land. medicinal plants. marginal and waste land. Finally. which can be then blended or directly used in diesel engines. The biodiesel unit consists of an expeller and a transesterifier reactor. Several automotive companies have found their vehicles successively running over the pure biodiesel. Jatropha Curcas grows on a wide range of land types. composites novel polysters solvents. After 4 or 5 51 . which can be grown in variable conditions with little water or fertilizer. Further. less than the cost of sugar cane-based ethanol ($45 per barrel) or corn-based ethanol ($83 per barrel). canola and many other agricultural sources of biodiesel. Jatropha Plantation – tomorrow’s oil fields. could be used to produce a barrel of fuel for around $43. lasting up to 50 years without replanting. its expansion doesn’t compete with traditional food production. Jatropha is a perennial. Jatropha Curcas Trees have a lifespan of up to 40-50 years. and special polymers. Liquid phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol can result in the formation of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol for manufacture of polyster fibre and synthetic cloth. Jatropha can be cultivated on arid and semi arid non-agricultural land. Jatropha Curcas is hardy drought resistant and grows well in tropical and subtropical regions in a band around the earth between latitudes 30 degrees north and south of the Equator. The oil is extracted from the jatropha curcas seeds with the help of an oil expeller and then converted into biodiesel with the help of a chemical process called transesterification. The first stage to establish Jatropha Cultivation System will be to buy the necessary tonnage of seeds available in bulk quantities from the international market to fit our needs for our large scale projects to install and construct 5 biofefineries to be develop in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. tubers. Unlike soybeans. If there are new machineries that need biodiesel with special specifications unit. including non-arable. The byproducts like jatropha curcas cake (portion of the seed left over after extraction of the seed’s oil) is full of nitrogen compounds making it an excellent organic fertilizer. because jatropha isn’t edible and grows on land unsuitable for foods crops. you can contact us with your processing requirements in terms of liters/day Jatropha Oil Fields – tomorrow’s oil source. This means growing Jatropha never has to compete with growing food. Analysis of the bioenergy market suggests that jatropha.

We are going to use the most efficient. reliable and durable expeller available in the international markets. commonly referred to as “biodiesel” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel utilize the large tracts of cheap barren land. Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters).000. Jatropha has been grown in developing countries for many years. These large oil expeller will be used to crush jatropha curcas seeds in single pressing operation whereas it is used as final press for other seeds/ nuts up to 500 tons in an hour with the help of the electrical motor. Our project will help and increase in a significant way Ecuador’s economic development and in the energy demand. Jatropha is bush that grows in the warm regions of the world as it is sensitive to colder climates.500. In fact. We will also count with the best transesterification machineries that is used convert Jatropha oil to biodiesel that is viable for industrial use in our project.years of treatment with this “cake” the soil of this originally non-agricultural land will be suitable for planting food crops or trees for reforestation to help considerable agriculture in Ecuador. Jatropha in Rural – creating new opportunities. and produces these annually for up to 50 years. Thus enables us – SEA-The Santa Elena Agreement . A real alternative for transportation and energy production. It is a real matter that conventional energy sources are the major cause of climate change. large and inexpensive rural workforce to develop alternative energy options. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. and South East Asia.000 Biodiesel from vegetable oils – alternate to fossil Waste Biomass Kilos 3. Once it’s planted it grows and produces nuts that contain oil within a few years.000. Its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn.500 kilograms of waste biomass.000. It’s been used locally for production of oil that was used in local village based industries for soap production. leads to understanding that clean renewable energy technologies are to be widely introduced.000 25. which benefits four main aspects of development and secure a sustainable way of life for thousands of people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source.000 35. it was distributed by Portuguese sailors from Mexico and South America over a hundred years ago to places such as India.000 fuels. 52 . Our Jatropha curcas plantation systems have the ability to lift many people from poverty to financial independence.000 10.000 500.500 3. Hectares Oil Gallons 1 500 1.000 175. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. Since the plants are toxic they have also been used to plant hedges and to keep animals out of areas of land.000 5. Africa. Jatropha Machinery – oil extraction and conversion.000 50. from despair to respect and unemployment to business owners and partners in our project to be developed in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3.

that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts. rubber). harvesting the seeds and extracting the oil.e. Central hypothesis: The Jatropha System creates a positive reciprocity between raw material / energy production and environment / food production. busses).000 gallons per year per plant for diesel engines that can also be run on unmodified vegetable oil like jatropha curcas bio-diesel. Then It is sure possible to plant and develop jatropha biodiesel biorefineries in Ecuador in macro scale as is the case of our project under the following conditions: 1. You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a pre-combustion chamber without modification. and processing 3. Also additional income is created. High-yield compare with other plant. i. All depends on the engine. 5. We are ready to go into the new era of carbohydrates. definitely Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars. but you have to modify the diesel engine. we have to modify the engine. This means It Can Be Use Direct As Fuel With Mobile. Yes. The best is. 4. the more food crops are protected from animals and erosion. Our biodiesel will be manufactured at an industrial scale near a production of 80. we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). Good land price 2. We visualize a model. We are sure that there is no obstacles in the plantation of Jatropha system. If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection. This fuel is an environmentally-friendly alternative to the higher emission petroleum diesel used in large transport vehicles and some cars and trucks. it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic. Further explanation and application with Which Diesel Engine Is Suitable For Bio Diesel Precombustion Chamber Or Direct Injection. The Jatropha System 53 . Then in our final stage converting jathropa oil into biodiesel to be sold domestically and internationally with a sustainable demand that will last for at least 50 years. to start the engine with diesel. Economic harvest cost. So you have to make sure. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or pre-combustion chamber) directly. Since bio-diesel is a strong organic solvent. Availability of funds for biodiesel plant investing. the more energy Jatropha hedges produce. and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes. where farmers are growing Jatropha. High Price for derivative fossil crude oil. biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Or Other Diesel Engine Without to be Modified. trucks. Even we Can extract the Jatropha oil from seeds and directly used in the vehicle. Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot). mainly for women.Besides being a renewable and domestic resource. Car. Pure Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel which runs in any unmodified diesel engine. If we have a diesel engine with a pre-combustion chamber. Based on the above premises there are excellent chances for this future on green energy such as the biodiesel to be produce in our 5 biorefineries to be installed and established in the Coastal Region of Ecuador.

The oil can be used as fuel in pre-combustion chamber diesel engines and as lubrificant. Though purgative. The latex was strongly inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus (Tewari and Shukla. pounded leaves are applied near horses' eyes to repel flies. -The Oil Extraction can be done with hand. 1981). unpublished. soap. (1981) conclude that it has strong molluscicidal activity. The oil has been used for illumination. Ashes of the burned root are used as a salt substitute (Morton. In South Sudan. the nuts are sometimes roasted and dangerously eaten. These are simple machines. piscicide. Agaceta et al. It produces small seeds which contain more than 30 % of a nonedible oil. 1962). 1982). press-cake and the sediment of oil purification. Nuts can be strung on grass and burned like candlenuts (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk. "the young leaves may be safely eaten. copy Honge oil tree or Pongamia pinnata copy Pongam tree or Pongamia pinnata (L. Euphorbiaceae Physic nut. 1962). Bark used as a fish poison (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk. Duke and Wain (1981) list it for homicide. The oil contains also an insecticide. Socio-economic impacts of the exploitation of the Jatropha curcas plant are very complex: Women promotion Erosion ontrol Income generation Renewable energies 3-dimensional visualisation of this system – The Plant « Jatropha curcas L. and raticide as well. said to counteract the peculiar smell. 1983. Uses Folk Medicine Chemistry Toxicity Description Germplasm Distribution Ecology Cultivation Harvesting Yields and Economics Energy Biotic Factors References Uses According to Ochse (1980). steamed or stewed. by Purdue University copy Other oil / fuel plants: Diesel tree or Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. In India. Duke. the seed as well as the fruit is used as a contraceptive (List and Horhammer. Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect. candles.) is a shrub or small tree which is planted in tropical and subtropical countries as a living fence to protect gardens and fields from animals.» Photos of the Jatropha plant Keeping JCL plant in office--Description of Jatropha curcas L." They are favored for cooking with goat meat. and making Turkey red oil. 1969– 54 . the oil and the sediment can be used for soap production and the press cake is a good organic fertilizer. which can be operated on village level and built within the country. Purging nut Source: James A.) copy Jatropha fact sheet Botanical Description Varieties Seed Analysis of Different Origins Genetic of Plants of Different Origins NonToxic Varieties Flowering and Fruit Development Distribution of Jatropha curcas Geographical Distribution Climatic and Soil Conditions Yield Jatropha curcas L. adulteration of olive oil. Handbook of Energy Crops.The Plant (Jatropha curcas L.or engine driven expellers. The Products are oil.

paralysis. cyanosis. 33. Homeopathically used for cold sweats.6 g H2O. rheumatism. 1980). styptic. Leaves contain isovitexin and vitexin. I said to her. dyspepsia.. oleic-. burns. including jatropham and jatrophone. Cubans apply the latex to toothache. 1979). Leaves. dermatitis. From the drug (nut?) saccharose.5 g ash (Duke and Atchley. depurative. Otherwise used for eczema. protein. she handed the dish to me filled with some nuts. 1984). the seed oil emetic. and stigmast-5-ene-3 b.. hemostat. diarrhea. leg cramps. stigmasterol. stachyose. diarrhea. 1984). 1969–1979). myristic-. tetanus. Colombians drink the leaf decoction for venereal disease (Morton. and yellow fever (Duke and Wain. and stearic-acids are also reported (Perry. my dream was: this old lady came to me in my sleep with a dish in her hands. eczema. hemorrhoids. purgative. glucose. 1962). 1980. gonorrhea. ascites. and Wadsworth (1974) list the species as a honey plant. Chemistry Per 100 g. Leaves are regarded as antiparasitic. convulsions. purgative. 1981). 1969–1979). raffinose. Depression and 55 . We received a letter from the Medicial Research Center of the University of the West Indies shortly after the death of Jamacian singer Robert Morley. vermifuge. stomachache. 1981). narcotic. Bahamans drink the decoction for heartburn. cramps. dysentery. anasorca. diuretic. and an oil. physic nut is a folk remedy for alopecia. cough. Toxicity The poisoning is irritant. why I am revealing this . 1962). colic. rubefacient. scabies. cicatrizant.5 g fiber." She said to me. "This is the cure for cancer. gout. linoleic-. Folk Medicine According to Hartwell. ringworm. Little. antiseptic. b-sitosterol. are reported from other species of Jatropha (Duke and Ayensu. 38. carbuncles. Diarrhea and nausea continue but are not usually serious. neuralgia. erysipelas. emetic. Duke and Ayensu. fructose. palmitic-. "PHYSIC NUTS. and campesterol. inflammation. applied to scabies. sores. incontinence. laxative. and skin ailments (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk. Panamanians for jaundice. Latex applied topically to bee and wasp stings (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk. 18. 1981). 1962). dropsy. arachidic-. hernia. anodyne. and vulnerary. Guatemalans place heated leaves on the breast as a lactagogue. Seed is viewed as aperient. Mauritians massage ascitic limbs with the oil. fever. paralysis. contain a-amyrin. Cameroon natives apply the leaf decoction in arthritis (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk. parturition. 1983). and scabies (Perry.2 g protein. Colombians and Costa Ricans apply the latex to burns. Barbadians use the leaf tea for marasmus. "What were those?" She did not answer. Costa Ricans poultice leaves onto erysipelas and splenosis. Venezuelans take the root decoction for dysentery (Morton. Seeds are used also for dropsy. yaws. sciatica. pleurisy. stigmast-5-ene-3-b. also applied to hard tumors (Hartwell. which show antileukemic activity. largely of oleicand linoleic-acids (List and Horhammer. ulcers. List and Horhammer. 15.0 g fat. I said to her. jaundice. tumors. rubefacient for paralysis." We found this Jamaican dream rather interesting. syphilis. galactose. 1967–1971). and 4. for skin ailments.1979). the extracts are used in folk remedies for cancer. with acute abdominal pain and nausea about 1/2 hour following ingestion. "I just want you to know that this is not because of Bob Morley's illness. curcasin. 1981. Woodbury. the seed is reported to contain 6. Reported to be abortifacient.5 g total carbohydrate. 7-a-diol. 7-keto-b-sitosterol. uterosis. lactagogue. rash. Root is used in decoction as a mouthwash for bleeding gums and toothache. pneumonia. ringworm. Four anti-tumor compounds. Sap stains linen and can be used for marking (Mitchell and Rook. thrush. whitlows. 1980). 7 b-diol (Morton. collapse. rheumatism. Latex used to dress sores and ulcers and inflamed tongues (Perry. and ulcers.

5°C (mean of 45 cases = 25. 1982). 5 united at the base only. the species is almost pantropical now. Bark. the petioles 2. 3 to 5-lobed in outline. with a milky or yellowish rufescent exudate.000 hl (Gaydou. They calculate that such yields could produce the equivalent of 2. 270 kg coke-like char. fruit.g. alternate but apically crowded. physic nut. 56 . Energy The clear oil expressed from the seed has been used for illumination and lubricating. and Salvador (Holm et al. these ca 2 x 1 cm (Morton. they have ca 10.100–2. seeds might be harvested all at once. Male flowers many with 10 stamens. 2. Cultivation Grows readily. Description Shrub or tree to 6 m. the seeds are harvested as needed. India. natural gas.2). with elliptic 3-celled.8 to 23.5–7. basally cordate. For energy purposes. (2n = 22) Distribution Though native to America. Little et al. 40 kg "gasoil leger" (light fuel oil).5 cm long.5–4 cm long. widely planted as a medicinal plant which soon tends to establish itself. leaf. Seeds contain the dangerous toxalbumin curcin.3) and annual temperature of 18. In Madagascar. and wood are all reported to contain HCN (Watt and BreyerBrandwijk. leaving the oil cake for biomass or manure. the active medicinal compounds might be extracted from the seed. triovulate ovary with 3 spreading bifurcate stigmata. It is listed. sepals 5. et al. Harvesting For medicinal purposes.000 ha of purging nut. seed yields approach 6–8 MT/ha with ca 37% oil.800 liters fuel oil/ha (see table under Energy). each producing ca 24 hl oil/ha for a potential production of 240. 1979). Honduras. mahafalensis. is reported to tolerate Slope.. or cvs thereof. and more recently has been suggested for energetic purposes. from cuttings or seeds. broadly deltoid. yellowish. ovate. Yields and Economics According to Gaydou et al (1982). Female flowers borne singly. as a weed in Brazil. root. bellshaped. all or two of which commonly have an oblong black seed. Four to five seed are said to have caused death. 40 kg regular fuel oil. one ton of nuts yielding 70 kg refined petroleum. rendering them potentially fatally toxic. with equal energetic promise. before or after the oil. Panama. Puerto Rico. acute to acuminate. Germplasm Reported from the Central and South American Centers of Diversity.8 dm (mean of 60 cases = 14. with spreading branches and stubby twigs. 34 kg dry tar/pitch/rosin. Flowers several to many in greenish cymes. e. Jamaica. 6–35 cm broad. Fiji.collapse may occur. 6–40 cm long. 1977. 1962). and 200 kg ammoniacal water. finally drying and splitting into 3 valves. especially in children. 1974). physic nut is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4. but the roasted seed is said to be nearly innocuous.. Two seeds are strong purgative. There is an endemic species in Madagascars J. Leaves deciduous. 5 united into a column. Cuttings strike root so easily that the plant can be used as an energy-producing living fence post. Ecology Ranging from Tropical Very Dry to Moist through Subtropical Thorn to Wet Forest Life Zones. Capsules.0 to 28.

200–2.020 Energetic equivalent kwh/ha 33. 10. have our oil needs met and save the two thirds.000.1000 crores per year for 20 years and we should become selfsufficient forever in oil. If the farmer collected the seeds free from his land.000.000 625.500/Ha. 57 . 1.000 Tons Kg. Do we have the land? Sure! Currently about 100 million hectares are lying waste in India.50 per kilo.900–37.000 Has.000–25. the cost was Rs.000 300.800–2. had it milled and sold the oil cake at Rs. If the power and fertilizer needs are met by Honge.000.400 17..18 a liter today. "We are mindlessly increasing food grain production without caring to see how the poor would buy them. Cost? About Rs. ".3 per kG.20.3. both liquid and solid.creosote.000 Has.600–4. Fertilizer 120 300.100– 0 Kg.000 25.600 Yield per tree per year Nos.800 1.000 1.00 Tons 3.000 Tons 1.900 6. The potential to drive the rural economy. Biomass Green Mature 250 625.000 1.9 per liter and if he bought the ready oil from the market it was Rs.700 2.500. the cost of oil to him was Rs.4 per liter.000. [The cost of diesel is Rs. Our oil bill is $6 billion a year. (1982) compare several possible energy species with potential to grow in Malagasy. Oil palm was considered energetically most promising.000.250. make it autonomous and put some cash in its pockets was obvious.Shrinivasa. Trees Oil Gallons 1 2. 50. 10 25. renewably. In a startling study. That it is why food rots and people go hungry.000 Tons Quick economics: A liter of Honge was equivalent in performance to a liter of diesel.000 Has.000 250.125.450 1.000 625. etc." says Dr..000 11.000.500 16. villages would have cash surpluses.000.] If he bought the seeds at Rs. In fact the opportunity is enormous for the country's macro-economy too. Gaydou et al. Crop production MT/ha 18–20 6–8 4–6 35 3–5 6 Elaeis guineensis Jatropha curcas Aleurites fordii Saccharum officinarum Ricinus communis Manihot eaculenta Fuel production/ha 3.000 2.300–18.30 million hectare equivalent [planted for biodiesels] can completely replace the current use of fossil fuels. we can put a third of that cash in the hands of rural Indians.700 19.000 300.800–26.

0933-6116224 dim_kohli@rediffmail. The Sayari expeller has been developed by FAKT consulting engineers Dietz. Mali. INDIA +91-0512-2367333.S. produced in different countries around the world Tanzania. Therefore it was designed out of iron sheets instead of cast iron to limit the eight of the heaviest parts to 40 kg. and in Zimbabwe by POPA. Zambia - Krupp Elastomertechnik 58 . Zimbabwe. Sardar Engineering Co 77/148-A-1. Latouche Road Komet Expellers of IBGMonforts -Sayari (Sundhara) Oil Expeller. 0941-5056183.. clicking on the logo leads you to the website of the producer (if existing or known). U. Zarrate for the use in Nepal. Morogoro.Oil Expellers for Jatropha Seeds Different oil expellers for Jatropha seed are build in many countries. Harare (see addresses) M. It is nowe built in Tanzania by VYAHUMU Trust. Metzler.P.Kohli (Partner). Clicking on the picture shows you more details of the expellers.

-TäbyPressen from Sweden In Kenya and USA .Small Scale Oil Seed Production Value-Added & Processing download the guide as pdf-file -TINYECH MILL TINY OIL 59 .

Ltd. India. Phone: 91-11-26371201 / 26371202 / 26371203 60 . New Delhi-110020.133. D . Okhla Industrial Area. Appartment 2.Ltd 4th Floor. Phase . Building 4 Jiankangyuan.. Jiankang Rd. General Trading Co..Anyang. China Tel: (86) 372 5953961 Fax: (86) 372 5965148 e-mail: -United Oil Mill Machinery & Spares internet: Kwang Korea description of expellers-OIL PRESS EQUIPMENT from China Xu Wenjie.

Prospectus Prospectus German Type 70 |--. Oil press: NEW Oilpress and kits for older TäbyPress to get 2 screw press in the same oil press and many other new develop. unprocessed vegetable oil Oil-press manufactured in Sweden by Skeppsta Maskin Ltd Type 20 |--Prospectus Type 40a |--.umas-india. Fairs Filter manufactured in Sweden by Skeppsta Maskin Ltd Type F70S Prospectus TäbyPress Oil-press on the internet.Prospectus Oilpress in comparison Test of seed result Watch Guard SMS Retail dealer of oilpress Plant Example Oilplant sediment hopper VIDEO Oilpress Conversions Diesel Engine motors. Fendt 820 Tractor Variogreentec. GRAINES DE TOURNESOL. RAPSSAAT. PEANUT. ARACHIDE. POPPY. at the Agritechnica 2007 that runs on rapeseed oil ex works. COPRA. SONNENBLUMENKERNE. MOUTARDE. HEMP. SUNFLOWER E-mail: umas@vsnl. Jan Greger Persson Nordvestjysk Folkecenter för Vedvarende Energi Fresh Hemp Foods Ltd 61 .Prospectus Type Double |--. POMEGRANATE etc.Prospectus To see prospectus get PDF Type 55 |--. COLZA. COTTON SEED.Fax: 91-11-26371200 Website: www. see also the list of presses of the "Journey to Forever Website" SCREW PRESSES FOR COLD PRESSING. CHANVRE. Deutz tractor engines to run on raw. SESAME SEED. MUSTARD SEED. GROUND-NUTS. SENF. VEGETABLE OIL PROCESSING RAPESEED. JOJOBA.Prospectus Type 90 |--. FLAXSEED.

Viskosity meter self made 62 .osel. Reatil dealers of lin-seed-oil Order Cultivation Cultivation Lin-seed Tips att förhindra lindning Rikslinkonsulent Sven-Erik Larsson Rape-seed Rape-seed cake Groing of rape-seed RME Manual making biodiesel in a sprayer. drums. etc Advantages *Type 55 Bauer . Type70 and Type90 Terms of sales Guarantee Currency Converter Price to USD and other Retail dealers Suggestion of oil-epressning More tips Video Type 40aMPG VideoType 90 MPG VIDEO Rolf Hellberg på Öland Leonardo da Vinci Elexi Oil OY HALNER GÅRD Herrgårn´s . silos. Address of add.aspx Lin-seed oil manufactured in Sweden by Bengt Jonsson Lin-seed oil Lin-seed oil health foods oil Lin-seed -cake Lin-seed-oil paint Lin-seed-bun.Produkter High Barn Oil UK Claes Lindholm Ås institutet Virestadgården Nordic Farmimpex Welcome to the Four Leaf Group of Companies Alavuden Finland http://www.Example Oilplant sediment.

Other Translation "NEW" kit for older Type55 to get 2 screw press in the same oil press. rybs. COTTON SEED. solros på uttagen areal med bidrag. Manufactured by concentrating on reliability. * Extruded meal. LINSEED. POPPY. Forum about (SVO) Rape-oil to dieselengine. SENF. tractor oil. GRAINES DE TOURNESOL. etc Drawing of conversion Växthuseffekten Links to conversion to (SVO) raw straight rape-oil. FLAXSEED. Pflanzenöl. Coming soon for sale. SONNENBLUMENKERNE. MUSTARD SEED. hemp seed oil.Conversion of diesel-engine to rape-oil Conversion Rape-Therm4 Data of rape-oil FAQ History of Diselengine Address of add. HEMP. SESAME SEED. RME. COLZA. perfect for Feed or Fuel * Operate 24/7 * Simple operation * OIL-PRESS. MOUTARDE. JOJOBA etc. ARACHIDE. Rapsöl. easy serviceability. health food. GROUNDNUTS. simple power supply and a low price. PEANUT. Screw presses for cold pressing. Burners Burners Conversion to rapeoil in your own cookers and burner Skeppsta Maskin Ltd Skeppsta Maskin Ltd Lathe Harden Test of harden Termal injection Used Machines Used Machines Fair Exhibition Fair Exhibition Närkes Energiförening Närkes Energiförening Jordbruksverket Fakta om svenskt jordbruk Pressmeddelande . CHANVRE. durability. RAPESEED. The ideal press for everybody who intends to produce oil. biodiesel.You can choose different models of presses. low weight. edible oil. SUNFLOWER SEED. burners.arkiv Odla raps. RAPSSAAT. chain saw oil. silos. 63 . drums. Reformkost etc.

-25 .8 .489.2.32 . -5 . ECO-Tuning of diesel-engine. car and tractor.84 Barrel Length mm -1020 mm Width mm -350 mm Height without filling hopper mm -300 mm Weight press kg -64 kg Weight electric cabinet kg -27kg.11 litre / hour 1. unpacked. Electric cabinet (L*W*H) mm -500x300x500 Frequency converter -Yes Type 55 Price ex works Örebro. Dealers Plant Terms of sales Advantages *Type 55 Bauer .36 kg /44-79.-230/240 volt 1 phase 16Amp 50/60Hz Plugged into a socket outlet. Electric motor MT eady to use with the touch of a button.37% Capacity kg seed / hour approx: -20 .2 Pound seed/hour Oilproduktion 12 month 8760 hour In a year oil production: Translate to gallon-43 .5 Kw Power supply: Type 55 with Bauer or Varmec RCV 252 gearbox and Moeller 322 inverter. Type70 and Type90 Guarantee 64 .78 m3 / 270. Capacity litres: approx Dependent on the condition of the seed.47 000:-SEK USD DM EURO Price Sparepart press-screw 3 kg-3500:-SEK USD DM EURO Price Sparepart presstube 2 kg-1300:-SEK USD DM EURO Moms tillkommer på alla priser i Sverige 25%Sparepart list. . Sweden. Type 55 Prospectus Eng Oilpress-comparison To get Acrobat Reader for PDF Exchange the presscrew is very easy look at : Picture1 Picture2 Seed cookie guard Currency Converter Price to USD and other. Manual.904 Gallon seed / hour Test of seed result.Motor Kw 3 phase -1. Extraction % OIL: approx Dependent on the condition of the seed. Rape-oil for diesel-engine.

We reserve the right to make changes to technical data and design without prior notifications. Manual starting is required after a power failure. price. the file has 440 kb. Skeppsta Maskin AB manufactured also oil-cleaning filterTäbyFilter Type F70 S2-1 Request an offer. frö Försäljningsvillkor Fördelar för TäbyPressen Typ 55 . dunkar. so it will take some time to be charged) » soap production version without photos » oil as lubrication oil » drilling oil » cosmetics » analysis of fatty acids » analysis of oil press cake: organic fertilizer Leaves: tea against malaria. and date of delivery. Diesel Conversion Kit The price do not include V. Motor protection. Startwarmthcollar. (Value-added tax) Gear drive in oil bath for continuous operation. Hardened steel in press tools. Tillsatser. Interchangeable nozzles. Skeppsta Maskin AB Bengt Jonsson Täby Skeppsta S-705 94 ÖREBRO SWEDEN Tel: +46-19 22 80 05 Fax: +46-19 22 80 05 Products of the exploitation of the Jatropha plant Seeds-» insecticides and molluscicides » traditional medicin against constipation » lighting » production of oil Deshelled seeds-» traditional soap production from ponded almond Oil-» natural oil as diesel substitute (Project in Mali) » as fuel for cooking stoves » as fuel for lighting » natural oil as diesel substitute in high tech motors (Elsbett) » natural oil as diesel substitute in high tech motors (Vereinigte Werkstätten) » biodiesel production » oil-methyl-ester as diesel substitute (Project in Nicaragua) » soap production (this is an original document. 90Bauer Garantivillkor Frökakevakt som stoppar om något går fel Raps diesel konvertering SVO SVO Straight Vegetable Oil . Prepared for oxygenfree pressing. Automatic cut-out if press screw overheats.A. massage at luxation 65 .T. levtid. 70. freight. frakt.BRANDSÄKERHET VID OLJEPRESSNING Broschyr Svensk Adresser kontakter. silos. tools and instruction manual supplied. Begär pris .

the more food crops are protected from animals and erosion. The Jatropha plant is used as a living fence around gardens and fields.2 l per kg of seeds Production: 1 kg seeds per meter of hedge per year Existence of Jatropha in Mali: about 10.000 km protection hedges Insecticidal and molluscicidal factors in the seeds Poverty Reduction Creation of income in rural areas through use of Jatropha oil as fuel and as raw material for soap production Sale of Jatropha seeds Improvement of rural income Reduction of cash drain from rural to urban areas Protection of food crops against gazing animals Renewable Energy Production und use of Jatropha oil as fuel in stationary engines Plant oil engines Substitution of diesel by Jatropha oil 66 . too soft. Promotion of Women Improvement of the working conditions of women (grain-mills) and income (soap production) through utilization of the Jatropha plant Facilitation of soap production Strengthening of economic independency of women Payment of milling costs through Jatropha seed sales Erosion Control Erosion control through planting of Jatropha hedges and stabilizing small dams …………………………………………… Living fences Improvement of soil fertiliy Improved fallow Reduction of wind and water erosion Increase of hedge length in expectation of economic profit Jatropha curcas L. no reported use Trunk: no use as firewood. mainly for women. small boxes for cheese Integrated Utilization of the Jatropha Plant Central hypothesis: The Jatropha System creates a positive correlation between energy production and food production i. the more energy Jatropha hedges produce.Liquid: desinfection of childrens mouth infections. e. high content of water. Also additional income is created. since it is not consumed by animals Yield of oil: 0. stop bleeding seed hulls: waste product.

The Jatropha website supports the direct use of plant oil as fuel (SVO = straight vegetable oil). as one usually does. You can use both. fresh cow dung or already fermented g for 100 seeds from Tanzania (Cape Verde type) Seeds from Mali (left) and Nicaragua (right). Biogas using Jatropha presscake: JCL oil cake is a very good substrate for biogas production because of its high protein and mineral content.0 mm Belice 813 g 18. You should mix it with the cow dung and water.8 mm Mali (non toxic seeds from Mexico) 542 g production in rural areas Rural mechanization Analysis of seeds of different origin Weight seeds of 1000 Origin Length of 1 seed (av. 67 .000 ccm) very dry seeds of Cape Verde 70 g for 100 seeds = 440 grams type 630 seeds for 1 liter 1 liter (1. so the bacteries can adapt themselves to the new composition of the substrate.000 ccm) of selected seeds for planting 549 grams 67. size of seeds see below Biodiesel: Please contact the website www. of 20) Nicaragua 878 g 20.journeytoforever.2 mm see photos of the non toxic plants Tanzania 682 g 16. You should start with small quantities of presscake. There you find a lot of biodiesel information: http://www. You just add the press cake to the cow manure with which you feed your biogas digestor.8 mm Seed density: 1 liter (1.journeytoforever.html The Jatropha website does not promote biodiesel production. The latter is richer is biogas bacteria. so that it can flow easily into the digestor.

addresses: The Lister type engines can be used with pure plant oil. Reference 96. They produce the engines normally in 3 qualities. which was used in an emulsion of different compounds. without any modification. the white latex serves as a desinfectant of mouth infections of small children. But the better quality you can only order at the factory. the leaves are used against malaria and for massage of luxations.jatropha. 68 . it also stops bleeding. The soap of Jatropha oil is supposed to be effective agains buttons. Engines for Jatropha oil.Jatropha. Reference 86. when we used it directly on the plants (the plants showed burning effects because of the oil properties). Reference 98. Test were carried out at TMW-engine factory in Germany and showed that pure Jatropha oil can be used as lubrication oil during 400 running hours in a slow turning diesel engine (Indian Lister type). The best ones seem to be the "Fieldmarshal" engines of the company P. All these Lister type engines are produced in Rajkot. it is. e-mail unknown. in Cap Verde Islands it grows well with only 250 mm of rain.Climatic conditions: Jatropha needs a minimum of 600 mm of rainfall.Box 1003. Diesels Ltd. Fax: +91 281-87406. but the air is very humid (cloud milking for rain harvesting at some places). like neuodermitis. India. See lamps and cookers! Lubrication oil : Is it possible to use Jatropha oil as lubrication oil? Yes. It does not resist to water logging.2-1 Pesticide: Some publications show the oil to be a good general pesticide. Rajkot-360 003. It is not frost resistant. If this is so why people are not using it more? It seems to be quite difficult to make a good formulation of the oil to applicate it to legumes. P.O. But the technical realization of plant oil lamps and plant oil cookers is not very simple. Ratnadass of ICRISAT Bamako was working with an extract (phorbol esters) of the oil. More details are in the Jatropha website: www. Household / domestic energy: Why did'nt you ever looked at Jatropha oil as a source of domestic energy in an African household.13 Medicinal properties: What are the medical properties of the Jatropha plant? Since botanically Jatropha is an Euphorbiaceae and very closely related to the castor plant. The exact limit depends much on the local humidity conditions. Or special local conditions like high water table.2 Rainfall: Will Jatropha grow and produce seeds in a region of 500mm rain? The limit of growth for Jatropha is between 600 and 500 mm of rainfall. Pone: +91 28187401(-2-3-4). lamps and cookers).org. It can survive long drought periods of 7 or 8 months. i. Our tests were negative. e. the oil is used to treat some scin diseases. because of the different combustion properties of the plant oil versus those of petrol (plant oil doesn't evaporate) We propose the use of Jatropha oil a domestic energy (see www. it also has similar properties: its seeds are used against constipation. AJI Industrial Estate. etc. India.

one has 3.8 kg of seeds per running meter of a hedge was found. farmers have protected their gardens with hedges of Jatropha curcas.0. DaimlerChrysler in India calculates with 2. which is not eaten by animals and thus 69 . It is published by the Africa Region’s Knowledge and Learning Center as part of an evolving IK partnership between the World Bank. until a creamy consistence is achieved (like mayonaise). Jatropha Oil in Comparison with Diesel Fuel Parameter Diesel Energy content (MJ/kg 42.0.worldbank. It does not resist to water logging.0 . During stirring the oil. With a hand press this will give you about 660 liters of oil.0 110 . It can survive long drought periods of 7 or 8 months. If one plants these hedges on a hectare with a distance of 3 meters.640 kg of seeds. just at the southern edge of the Sahara desert.6 . in Europe that may take up to a week).org/afr/ik/ default. And a production of 2.8 Sulphur (%) 1. development institutions and multilateral organizations.84 .Soap production: How is Jatropha soap made? The composition used in Mali is as follows (calculated for 1 litre of oil): 1 l of oil.45.500 kg of seeds per hectare The yield depends very much on the soil and the rainfall and the origin of the plants. It also grows well in rainfall areas of 2000 mm and more. 1/2 l of water. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the World Bank Group or its partners in this initiative.92 2.8 0. the water-NaOH solution is mixed with the oil. NGOs. For generations.htm Using the Indigenous Knowledge of Jatropha The use of Jatropha curcas oil as raw material and fuel Mali is a landlocked country in the middle of West Africa.13 IK Notes reports periodically on Indigenous Knowledge (IK) initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the Region. etc.0 0.0 Flash point (°C) 80 Cetane value 47.6 . There are not yet high yield varieties identified. 150 g of pure NaOH (sodium hydroxyd) dissolved in the water.85 Solidifying point (°C) -14.1.2 Jatropha Oil 39.91 . where the soap hardens (in tropical countries over night.240 51.6 m) and old hedges gave 2 kg per running meter. or physic nut. Yield: The yield of hedges was measured in Mali and an average of 0.0 Spec. weight (15/40 °C) 0. communities. After hardening the soap is taken out of the form and may be cut into pieces. A webpage on IK is available at www. The country’s average annual rainfall ranges from 200 mm in the north to 1200 mm in the south. High (5 .300 meters.10 Water requirements: Jatropha needs a minimum of 600 mm of rainfall. A modern industrial expeller will give you about 825 liters. This is poured into a form. Or special local conditions like high water table.41. Reference 94.

living up to 50 years and growing on marginal soils.17 l [1]. which are common. If carefully planted. Jatropha curcas is generally wellknown among the populations of Mali and has long been recognized as a plant of many uses. the Jatropha system promotes four main aspects of development. Jatropha seeds contain about 35% of non-edible oil. The average length of these hedges. These dikes effectively slow surface runoff during intensive downpours.000 liters of oil per year. The high-quality oil extracted by engine driven expellers or by manual Bielenberg-ram-presses or the sediment of the oil purification process may be used for larger scale soap making in rural areas. The press cake which remains after oil extraction by the expellers is a very good organic fertilizer. with a maximum of up to 40 km per village [2].700. if planted parallel to slopes to fix small earth or stone dams. the latter specifically for women [4]. giving local women the chance to gain additional income and thus strengthen their economic position.protects the food crops as a living fence. anchoring the soil like miniature dikes or earthen bunds. As far back as at the end of the 1930’s the oil’s potential as a fuel source was also recognized [3]. The press-cake as another extraction byproduct can be used as a high-grade organic fertilizer. Traditionally the seeds were harvested by women and used for medical treatments and local soap production. they also reduce wind erosion and. Currently. This has great 70 . economic. in those areas of Mali where they are most prevalent.000 km of Jatropha hedges with a growth rate of 2. with mineral composition comparable to that of chicken manure.8 kg per meter of hedge per year. Mali has about 10. Thus. The plant’s roots grow close to the ground surface. which represents a potential of 1. A close relative to the castor plant. which combine to help assure a sustainable way of life for village farmers and the land that supports them: • Erosion control and soil improvement • Promotion of women • Poverty reduction • Renewable energy Erosion control and soil improvement Jatropha “living fences” in Mali not only control unwanted animal access to the fields. it is a drought-resistant perennial. with an oil yield of 0. This system focuses not simply on the use of Jatropha oil as fuel. and income-generating effects. its oil has the same medical properties. is between 2 and 15 km per village. but rather on the use of this oil as a crucial element to activate a circular system combining ecologic. A member of the Euphorbiaceae family. they help control water erosion. It worked to combine the above mentioned and other factors into the « Jatropha System ». The production of seeds is about 0. The Jatropha Project itself started 1993 and ended in 1997. thus causing more water to penetrate into the soil and boosting harvests. Currently. it can be used to substitute for the “gazoil” mixture used in the Indian type diesel engines that drive grain mills and water pumps in rural areas of Mali. Jatropha hedges not only protect gardens from hungry livestock but also reduce damage and erosion from wind and water. Jatropha curcas is a plant of Latin American origin which is now widespread throughout arid and semiarid tropical regions of the world.000 km per year. The Jatropha activities were initiated in Mali in 1987 by German Technical Assistance (GTZ) in the framework of a renewable energy program.

500 FCFA = 1 US$): Description Quantity Unity Price per Amount unity US$ in US$ Inputs Seeds (give 3 l of oil with handpress) 12 kg 0. The Malian cotton-growing company. The traditional soap-making process is very labor-intensive. some of this cash outflow from the village can be stopped. 10 t/a. latex to stop bleeding and against infections. uses Jatropha hedges to assure a program of improved fallow: the cotton fields are protected with Jatropha hedges to keep out cattle. When Jatropha oil is used. since soils there are rapidly depleted of humus and chemical fertilizers are very expensive. producing small amounts of relatively poor-quality soap.31 Price per kg of soap 0.48 Profit per kg of soap 0.15 4. 1 h soap production) 5 h 0.20 Total revenues 4. these grainmills need external resources of fuel. either alone or in combination with other local plant oils such as shea butter.value for agriculture in the Sahelian countries. Traditionally.5 kg 1.20 Caustic soda 0.27 White soap 28 pieces (170 g) 0.43 Profit per liter of oil 0. leaves against malaria) and for soap production.89 Poverty reduction By promoting the integrated utilization of the Jatropha plant.2 1. Some details of the economy of soap production with the means of the Bielenberg hand press are shown in the following table (prices in US$. the Jatropha System can provide direct financial benefits to the rural economy.03 0.04 Revenues Press-cake 9 kg 0. spare parts and maintenance.-) US$/kg 0. Consequently. By using locally produced Jatropha oil as fuel and lubrication oil.00 Depreciation/maintenance (5 years. 240.60 Labor (4 h for pressing.02 0.47 Net Profit 1. lubrication oil. Promotion of women Many government and non-government organizations provide rural Malian women with engine-driven grainmills to ease their work of food preparation. increasing their possibilities of earning income with local resources. while the fields are sown with legumes to improve soil fertility. larger amounts of a more refined soap are produced.1 1.2 0. To illustrate this with a rough 71 .24 Total expenses 3. the introduction of such a grainmill tends to lead to an impoverishment of the village because of the cash required both to buy and to transport these external resources to the village. rural women used Jatropha curcas for medicine (seeds as a laxative. However. The women can easily sell this soap in local markets and nearby towns. CMDT (Compagnie Malienne de Développement Textile).

which represents 12 tons of seeds.430 Total US$3. including the entrepreneur. In Kita. amounts to 3. assume the average village of the pilot area has 15 km of Jatropha hedges. a profit in the range of cotton farming is within reach. Because of its economic value the rural people are planting new Jatropha hedges in a large extent. • Increasing soil fertility by use of presscake as fertilizer.60 = • 600 kg of sediment for 0. see table above). resulting in less work/irrigation water needed for local gardens. the cash income for the village population.63 0 If these figures are extrapolated to Jatropha plantations.03 = • 2. one of the pilot regions of the Jatropha project.400 liters of oil for 0.20 US$1.000 • profit of the entrepreneur US$1.200 • 5. • Reducing disputes between farmers and livestock owners regarding crop damage.800 US$ of cash income when the oil is extracted and the products are sold: • 9.10 US$1. as well as among farmers themselves regarding the boundaries of their fields.000 kg of press-cake for 0. • Increasing rainfall infiltration.440 US$90 US$1.calculation.000 kg of seeds for 0.80 0 If we take the real example of an entrepreneur in a small village near Bamako. the average length of hedges went up from 5 km to 15 km in the last 8 years. • Providing local jobs. lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to cities to find employment.15 = Total US$ US$270 US$1. These 12 tons of seeds may generate 1. Renewable energy 72 .630 US$: • 12. who buys the seeds for soap production and hires people for the production process (extraction with Bielenberg ram press.000 hours of labor for 0. soap production. • Increasing use of inexpensive local resources rather than expensive external resources. The “Jatropha System” also helps reduce poverty by: • Reducing crop losses caused by wandering livestock or wind damage.

Because Jatropha oil can be produced inexpensively [7]. In equivalent terms. provided that a fairly cautious approach is taken by the technical advisory team. thus eliminating the need for gazoil even better results than gazoil because of its high oxygen content [5]. energetic and economic aspects which are attached with the commercial exploitation of this plant. Because of this. Above all. the energy needed to produce Jatropha oil in mechanical presses amounts to about 10% of the oil obtained. Different research centers are working on it. care must be taken to ensure that women retain their traditional responsibilities for harvesting and processing the seeds. the efforts already being made in Mali to derive value from oil-bearing plants can be taken as representative and used to elaborate a “concept for production and use of plant oils as fuel” that is valid for the Sahel region as a whole. at maximal load conditions the Jatropha oil. Conclusions The results of the Jatropha Project to date show that the chances of this system being successfully implemented are high. Even more important than the price is the possibility of local energy production. These inexpensive precombustion chamber diesel engines of Indian origin require only the addition of a fuel filter to be able to run on pure Jatropha oil. 73 .In the rural areas in Mali. Furthermore. the Jatropha system is characterized by the many positive ecological. The technology for using natural pure Jatropha oil as substitute for paraffin oil for lamps and cookers is not yet available. the better for the environment and for food production. To summarize. The more this plant is exploited. Mali is a typical Sahelian country. because of the periodic unavailability of gazoil in the rural areas caused by lack of road access during rainy season. Based on tests conducted by the Jatropha Project. Furthermore. the oil can also be successfully used as a lubricant in these engines[6]. Lister-type engines are used to drive grainmills and waterpumps. and even for other African countries. it can also be sold at prices lower than gazoil’s official price at the petrol stations. its large geographic expanse and climatic variations mirror the ecological conditions found throughout the Sahel.

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