CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS
Diagram for local district heating plants and heating and power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
Diagram for heating and domestic hot and cold water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Heat emission from radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Conversion chart for radiators in one-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
Reduction of heat emission from radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Heat losses from uninsulated pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Pressure drops in steel pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Resistance in heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Sizes of steel pipes for heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Flow chart for thermostatic radiator valves in one-pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Flow chart for thermostatic radiator valves in two pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Flow chart for ∆p control valves for risers or circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Flow chart for control valves in heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Flow chart for control valves in district heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Flow chart for ∆p control valves in district heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Heat requirements for domestic hot water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Flow limiters for one-pipe circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Calculation of one-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Calculation of two-pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
SI-units, Greek alphabet, Physical properties for water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

161

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Diagram for local district heating plants connected to a heating and power plant.

Flue gas
cooler

Safety
valve
130 °C

Boiler

Safety
valve

70 °C

Accumulator

130 °C
70 °C

Exp. tank

Heat meter

Heat exchanger
Flue gas
cooler

Safety
valve
130 °C

Boiler

Safety
valve

70 °C

Accumulator

130 °C
70 °C

Exp. tank

Heat meter

Heat exchanger
130 °C
70 °C

Safety
valve
130 °C

Safety
valve
Boiler

Heating and
power plant

Flue gas
cooler
70 °C
130 °C
70 °C

Exp. tank
Heat exchanger

Local heating plant

162

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Accumulator

Heat meter

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Diagram for heating and domestic hot and cold water.

Flow meter
∆p - control

Domestic hot water
Expansion tank

Flowmeter

> 6 storeys

< 6 storeys

Domestic cold water

Control valve

90 °C
65 °C

Domestic hot water 60
Circulation
Domestic cold water

Heat meter

<6

>6 Storeys

120-70 °C

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

163

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Heat emission from radiators.

n = 1,3 troom = 20 oC tflow = 90 oC ∆t = 25 oC
∆t oC

25

16

20

Heat
emission

Two-pipe system with thermostatic
valves.
Measured 1 : tflow 75 oC, ∆t 8 oC
Heat requirement : 0,83, Q = 2,47
tflow 80 oC : 2 ∆t 16 oC, Q = 1,23
Every point along the horizontal line
0,83 gives the same heat emission.

30

40

12

1,2

90

4

1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6

3

5
6

1

8

70

2

6
60

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0

80

10

5
4

50

0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5 QQ

The influence of gravity forces on heat emission from a radiator in a twopipe system
For a correctly sized radiator 3 ( with manual radiator valve in a two-pipe
system ) the heat emission will increases only by 5% when the flow
increases by 23%, 4 , depending on gravity forces. The temperature drop
across the radiator however will decrease by 5 oC and that is significant,
because it reduces the capacity of the whole system all the way down to
the heating and power plant.

Resuls ∆t for one- and two - pipe circuits, and required pump capacity
when thermostatic valves utilize internal and external heat gains.
Point Heat
gain %
3
0
5
10
6
20

164

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Two-pipe circuit
Flow ∆t
Circuit resioC
stance %
%
100
25
100
66
33
44
47
39
22

Pump capacity %
100
29
10

One-pipe circuit
Flow ∆t Pump caoC pacity %
%
100 25 100
100 22,5 100
100 20 100

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Conversion chart for radiators in one-pipe circuits.

Fc
60

2,0

65

tflow oC
70

1,9
1,8
1,7

75
1,6
1,5

80

1,4
85

1,3
1,2

1

2

90

1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

∆t oC

Conversion chart for panel and section radiators in one-pipe circuits.
Enter the current tflow and temperature drop and find the conversion factor, Fc.
Multiply the heat requirement by Fc and select size of the radiator
according to the new value.
Example.
Calculated heat requirement: 1.230 W.
tflow : 82 oC, ∆t: 15 oC, 1
Fc = 1,16 2
Converted heat requirement: 1.230 x 1,16 = 1.427 W.
Formula for calculating Fc:

F=

[

t1 - tr

49,33 x ln

( )

t1 - t2

t2 - tr

]

n

Panel radiator
Section radiator
Convector

n
1,28
1,29
1,3 - 1,33

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

165

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Reduction of heat emission from radiators fixed in some type of enclosure

10 - 100 mm

30 - 100 mm

Alternative
openings

> 100 mm

a

No enclosure
0%

Shelf with
opening
0%

Shelf close to
the wall
10 -2%

Open fronted
recess with a
shelf
12 -6%

Encased with Encased with
grille in front small grille in
front. Not
> -15%
recommended.
> -30%

The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able to control it.

Radiation from a radiator depending on the treatment of the
surface.
Material

Surface treatment

Steel, cast iron

Enamelled
Aluminium
166

a+40

Radiation %
100

Oil paint

100

Aluminium or
copper bronzes

75

Zinc white

101

Lead white

99

White

101

Matt green

96
8

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Acceptable
cabinet.
≈ -8 - 10%

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Heat losses from uninsulated horizontal pipe.
Heat emission
W/m pipe
400

DN/0

80/89 65/76

50/6
300
40
32

200

25

0

20
15
10
100

0
20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature above room temperature oC
For vertical pipe reduce by 20%
One-pipe above another reduce by 12%
Three pipes above each other reduce by 20%

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

167

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Pressure drop in steel pipes for heating installations.
m3/h

DN mm

l/s

200
150

3,0

150

100
70

125

50
40
30

100

20
15

80

20
15
2,0

5
4
3

l/h 1000
700
500
400
300

50

2
1,5

40

1

25

,5
,4
,3

20

,2
,15

,07

15
10

100

0,4

0,5

0,3

70

,05 ,07

5

7

,05
,04
,03
,02
,015
,01

0,2
m/s

50
40

0,1

0,15 0,2

0,3 0,4 0,5

10

15

30 40 50 mmWG/m

20

k = 0,00003 m
Density = 1.000 kg/m3

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

,7
1,0

,1

200
150

168

7

65

32
kPa/m

2
1,5

10
5
4
3

10
7

50
40
30

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

∆p for ζ values at differnt rates.
Symbol

Coefficient of resistance, ζ

The values for the coefficient of resistance for tees, elbows and bends.

Branch tee

1

Through tee

1

The pressure drop is calculated from:
∆p = ζ 0,5 ρ ν2 ,

Units

Elbow, smooth

0,2

Bend

1
ζ value

m/s
3
2
1,0

24
6

0,5
0,3
0,2
0,1
,01

,02 ,03 ,05

0,1

,2 ,3

,5

1
3

1

2 3 4 5 7 10
∆p kPa

Recommended portion of pipe losses for different systems or part of
systems.
Type of system
Unit
Friction %
Heating
Small buildings
50 - 60
Large buildings
60 - 70
Sub-stations
Primary and secondary side
20 - 30
Distribution pipe net work
Primary side
80 - 90

Sizes of steel pipes for heating systems. Working pressure 1,0 MPa (10 bar)
Nominal diameter External diameter Wall thickness Internal diameter
mm
inch
mm
mm
mm
8
1/4
13,50
2,25
9
10
3/8
17,00
2,25
12,5
15
1/2
21,25
2,75
15,75
20
3/4
26,75
2,75
21,25
25
1
33,50
3,25
27,00
32
1 1/4
42,25
3,25
35,75
40
1 1/2
48,00
3,50
41,00
50
2
60,00
3,50
53,00
65
2 1/2
75,50
3,75
68,00
80
3
88,50
4,00
80,50
100
4
114,00
4,00
106,00
125
5
140,00
4,50
131,00
150
6
165,00
4,50
156,00
8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

169

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for RTD-G 15, 20 and 25

RTD - G 15, 20 and 25
Valve size

l/h
1000
700
500

25

l/s
,3
,2

20

,1
,07
,05

15

300
200

,03
,02

100
70
50

,01

30

∆pvalve

0,1

170

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0

0,01

,02 ,03

,001

,002

,05 ,07 ,1

,004,006 0,01

2
,2

3 4 5
,3

7 10

,5 ,7 1

,02 ,03,04 ,06

0,1

20

kPa

2

mWG

,2

Bar

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for thermostatic valves in two-pipe system
RTD - N 15
Pre-set value

l/h
500
300
200

l/s
,1
,07
,05

N
7 6
5
4

100
70
50

,03
,02

3
2

30
20

,01
,007
,005

1

,003
,002

10
7
5

,001

∆pvalve

3

Pre-set value
kv values

1

2

3 4 5 7 10

0,1

0,2

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1

0,01

,02

20 30 kPa

,04 ,06 0,1

2

3 mWG

,2

,3 Bar

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

N

0,04

0,08

0,12

0,20

0,27

0,36

0,45

0,60

RTD - N 20 - 25
Pre-set value

l/h
500

l/s

N

300
200

7

100
70
50

3 2

,1
,07
,05

6
5 4

,03
,02

1

30
20

,01
,007
,005

10
7
5

,003
,002
,001

3

∆pvalve

1

Pre-set value
kv values

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

7 10

20 30 kPa

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1
,04 ,06 0,1

2

3 mWG

,2

,3 Bar

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

N

0,10

0,15

0,17

0,25

0,32

0,41

0,62

0,83

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

171

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for ∆p control valves for riser or circuit in heating systems.

ASV-P, PV 15-40 and ASV-M 15-40
m3/h

kvs-value

l/s

20

5

10
7
5

3
2

10
6,3
4,0
2,5
1,6

3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,2

1

∆pvalve

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

0,3
0,2
0,1
,07
,05

0,1
1

1,0
0,7
0,5

7 10

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1
,04 ,06 0,1

20 30 40 60 80
2
,2

,03
kPa

3 4 5 7 8 mWG
,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 ,8

Bar

Working range:
ASV-P 10 kPa
ASV-PV 5 - 25 kPa.
Minimum available ∆p for good functioning: 8 kPa.
Example
Q: 300 l/h. ∆p riser: 7kPa. ∆p radiator including valve: 5 kPa.
∆p-control kv 1,6. ∆pvp = 3,4 kPa, 1
Necessary ∆p = 7+5+8 = 20 kPa.

172

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for control valves in heating systems.

m3/h

l/s

kvs-value

200

50
145

100

100
63
40
25
16
10

50
30
20
10
7
5

6,3
4,0
2,5
1,6
1,0
,63

3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5

,4

0,3
0,2

∆pvalve

0,1

1

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

10
7
5
3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,2
0,1
,07
,05

,03
20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa

7 10

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1

2

,04 ,06 0,1

Formulas.
∆p : bar. Q: m3/h. kv =

30
20

,2

Q
; ∆p =
√∆p

3 4 5

7 10 15 20 mWG

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

Q 2
; Q = kv
kv

( )

Bar

Q

√ ∆p ;

Q
Q 2
Q
∆p : kPa. Q: l/h. kv = 0,01
; ∆p = 0,01
; Q = 100x kv √ ∆p ;
kv
√∆p

(

)

Q
kv
Q
Q 2
∆p : kPa. Q: l/s. kv = 36
√∆p ; ∆p = 36 kv ; Q = 36 √ ∆p ;

( )

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

173

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for valves in district heating systems.

m3/h

l/s

kvs-value

200

50
145

100
50
30
20
10
7
5

100
63

30
20

40
25
16
10

10
7
5

3
2

6,3
4,0
2,5
1,6

1,0
0,7
0,5

1,0
,63
,4

0,3

∆pvalve

0,2
0,1

174

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

1

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

7 10

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1
,04 ,06 0,1

3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,2
0,1
,07
,05

,03
20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa
2
,2

3 4 5

7 10 15 20 mWG

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

Bar

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for ∆p control valves in district heating systems.

AVP 15 - 32
m3/h

kvs-value

l/s

20

5

10
7
5

3
2

10
6,3
4,0
2,5
1,6

3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,2

1

∆pvalve

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

0,3
0,2
0,1
,07
,05

0,1
1

1,0
0,7
0,5

7 10

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1
,04 ,06 0,1

20 30 40 60 80
2
,2

,03
kPa

3 4 5 7 8 mWG
,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 ,8

Bar

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

175

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow chart for ∆p control valves in district heating systems.

IVD-IVFS kvs 0,63 - 25,0 m3/h
AFP kvs 50 - 125 m3/h
m3/h

l/s

kvs-value

200

125
80

100
50

50

30
20

25
20 16
10

10
7
5

6,3
4,0
2,5
1,6
1,0
,63

3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,2

∆pvalve
176

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

30
20
10
7
5
3
2
1,0
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,2
0,1
,07
,05

0,3

0,1

50

1

2

0,1

0,2

0,01

,02

3 4 5

7 10

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1

,03
20 30 40 60 100 150 200 kPa
2

,04 ,06 0,1

,2

3 4 5

7 10 15 20 mWG

,3 ,4 ,5 ,7 1,0 1,5 2

Bar

∆p-regulator, working range:

IVD 5 - 50 and 20 - 250 kPa.
AFP 20 - 120 and 50 - 250 kPa

Maximum ∆p valve IVF kvs:

0,63 and 1,0 = 1.000 kPa
2,5 = 630 kPa
4,0 - 25 = 800 kPa

Maximum ∆p valve AFP:

1.200 kPa

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Heat requirement for hot water according to the Swedish Board of District Heating

Domestic hot water, Q L/s.

Effect, P kW

2,5
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0
1 10
50
100
Number of apartments.

150

200

250

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

177

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow limiter, ASV-Q 15, Flow limiter, ASV-Q 20

3

∆p v kPa
20
30

m /h
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7

Set values
40

50

60

70

80
8
6,5

0,6

5

0,5

4

0,4
3

ASV-Q
15
20
25
32

Capacity l/h
100 - 800
200 - 1400
400 - 1600
500 - 2500

Set value
1-8
2 - 14
4 - 16
5 - 30

0,3


2

0,2
0,15
1
0,1
0,07
0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8
p v Bar

3

m /h
2,0

∆p v kPa
20
30

Set values
40

50

60

70

80
14
12

1,5

10
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6

8
6

0,5

4

0,4
0,3
2
0,2

0,2

178

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8
p v Bar

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Flow limiter, ASV-Q 25, Flow limiter, ASV-Q 32

3

m /h
2,0

Set values

∆p v kPa
30
40

50

60

70

80

1,7
1,5

16
14
12

1,2

10

1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7

8

6

0,6
0,5

4

0,4
0,3

3

m /h

0,4

∆p v kPa
30
40

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8
p v Bar

Set values
50

60

70

80

4,0
30
3,0

25
20

2,0

15

1,5

1,2

10

1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6

5

0,5
0,4
0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8
p v Bar

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

179

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Calculation of one-pipe system

5

1200

1200

1200

1200

4

3

2

1200

1200

1200

1,5 m

1200
0

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

3 x 12 = 36 m

1000

6

1

10 m
10

180

6m
9

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

6m
31 m
8
6

6m
7

1200
6m
5

6m
4

1200
6m
3

6m
2

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Calculation of one-pipe system

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

181

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Calculation of two-pipe system

1200

1200

1200

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

5

1200

4

1200

1200

3

2

1

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

7

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

8

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

9

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

10

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

11

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

12

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

13

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

14

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

15

1000

1000

1000

1000

1200

1200

1200

1200

16

1200

1200

1200

1200

3m
17

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

3m

6

31 m

182

1200
3m

1200

6m

6m

6m

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

Calculation of two-pipe system

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

183

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

SI-units.
Effect, P.
W
kcal/h

Pressure, p.
Pa
kPa

bar

mWG

1

0,85985

1

0,001

0,00001

0,0001

1,163

1

1.000

1

0,01

0,1

100.000

100

1

10

10.000

10

0,1

1

Flow, Q (ϕ).
l/s
m3/h

Temperature, t (θ).
Kelvin K
Celsius oC

1

3,6

0

-273,15

0,278

1

273,15

±0

373,15

100

Greek alphabet.
Αα

Ββ

Γγ

alfa

beta

gamma delta

∆δ

Εε

Ηη

Θθ

Ιτ

epsilon seta

Ζζ

eta

theta

iota

Ππ

Κκ

Λλ

Μµ

Νν

Ξξ

Οο

kappa

lamda

my

ny

xi

omikron pi

Ττ

Υυ

ϑϕ

Χχ

Ψψ

Ωω

tau

ypsilon phi

chi

psi

omega

Ρρ

Σσ

ro

sigma

Physical properties for water.

184

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

Temperature
υ oC

Pressure
p kPa

Density
ρ kg/m3

Isobaric heat
capacitivity
cp J/ (kg x K)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

1,3
43,26
98,54
170,11
261,36
375,97

999,84
999,70
998,205
995,65
992,2
998,14
983,21
977,78
971,80
965,33
958,35
951,0
943,1
934,8
926,1
916,9

4218
4192
4182
4178
4178
4181
4184
4190
4196
4205
4216
4245
4287
-

CHAPTER 8 • TECHNICAL DATA, FORMULAS AND CHARTS

8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS

185

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