# Jonathan Salcedo Chapter 1 – Sets

Intro:

A set is a collection of objects (customarily noted by uppercase letters, such as ) The objects that make up a set are called its elements (or members.) They are customarily noted by lowercase letters such as . If is an element of the set , then we write . If does not belong to then we write

1.1 Describing a Set: The set { } is the set consisting of the numbers 1, 2 and 3.

There is only one set that contains no elements, and it is called the empty set, or sometimes the null or void set. It is denoted by Ø. Often sets consist of those elements satisfying some condition or possessing some specified property. In such case we define such a set as { } or { } where we mean that S consists of all those elements satisfying some condition concerning . Special Sets: Symbol For the set of: Natural numbers (positive integers) Integers (All: +,-, and 0) Rational numbers Irrational numbers Real numbers + Positive real numbers Complex numbers

A real number that can be expressed in the form: , where rational number.

and

, is called a

A real number that is not rational is called irrational, they cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. It is also known that the real numbers with infinite nonrepeating decimal expansions are precisely the irrational numbers. A complex number is a number of the form , where , can be expressed as , or more simply as a. Hence, is a real number. Every real number is a complex number.

MATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematics

Jonathan Salcedo For a set S we write to denote the number of elements in S. The number |S| is also referred to as the cardinal number or cardinality of S. A set S is finite if for some nonnegative integer n. A set S is infinite if it is not finite. For the present, we will use the notation only for finite sets S. 1.2 Subsets: A set A is a subset of a set B if every element of A also belongs to be B. If A is a subset of B then we write A B. Note: and therefore, If a set C is not a subset of a set D, then we write C D. In a typical discussion of sets, we are ordinarily concerned with subsets of some specified set , called the universal set. If we are dealing only with integers, the universal set is If we are dealing only with real numbers, the universal set is In some cases may not even be a set of numbers. Some frequently encountered subsets of are the so-called “intervals ” For and the open interval is the set { For and , the closed interval { is the set } , }

but The interval is therefore { }. And thus, for we have . For and , the half-open or half-closed intervals and are defined as expected: { { and } }

MATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematics

Jonathan Salcedo For , the infinite intervals are defined as: { { { { The interval is the set .

}

} } }

Two sets A and B are equal, indicated by writing , if they have exactly the same elements. Also every element of A is in B and every element of B is in A. and If

, then there must be some element belonging to one of A and B but not to the other. but . If A is a proper subset of B then we

A set A is a proper subset of a set B if A write .

The set consisting of all subsets of a given set A is called the power set of A and is denoted by If A is any finite set, with elements say then has elements; that is,

for every finite set A. 1.3 Set Operations: The union of two sets A and B, denoted that is, { is the set of all elements belonging to A or B, }

and

The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to both A and B. It is denoted by In symbols, { }

For every two sets A and B it follows that belongs to both A and B. Since , then

. Suppose that and so

, then .

If two sets A and B have no elements in common, then disjoint.

and A and B are said to be

MATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematics

Jonathan Salcedo The difference of two sets A and B is defined as, {

}

Suppose we are considering a certain universal set U, that is, all sets being discussed are subsets of . For a set A, its complement is { } If If then then is sometimes called the relative complement of B in A. { }

The set difference

1.4 Indexed Collections of Sets The union is defined as, { }

Since it is often useful to consider the union of several sets, additional notation is needed. The union of sets is denoted by or ⋃ Thus, for an element { } belongs to at least one of

to belong to ⋃ , it is necessary that the sets .

There are instances when the union or intersection of a collection of sets cannot be described conveniently (or perhaps at all). For this reason we introduce a (nonempty) set I, called an index set, which is used as a mechanism for selecting those sets we want to consider. For example, for an index set I, suppose that there is a set Such a collection is called an indexed collection of sets. We define the union of the sets in { } by ⋃ { }

and the intersection of these sets by, ⋂ { } belongs to at least one of the sets in the if belongs to every set in the collection.

Hence an element belongs to ⋃ if collection { } ; while belongs to ⋂

MATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematics

Jonathan Salcedo 1.5 Partitions of Sets Recall that two sets are disjoint if their intersection is the empty set. A collection of subsets of a set A is called pairwise disjoint if every two distinct subsets that belong to are disjoint. { } { } { } { For example, let Then S is a pairwise disjoint collection of subsets of A since } { }

For a nonempty set , a collection of pairwise disjoint nonempty subsets of with the added property that every element of belongs to some subset in Such a collection is called a partition of . A partition of can also be defined as a collection of nonempty subsets of such that every element of belongs to exactly one subset in . Furthermore, a partition of can be defined as a collection of subsets A satisfying the three properties: (1) for every set (2) For every two sets (3) ⋃ either

can be partitioned into the set of even integers and the set of odd integers. can be partitioned into the set of positive real numbers, the set of negative real numbers and the set { } consisting of the number 0. In addition, can be partitioned into the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers. 1.6 Cartesian Products of Sets The ordered pair is a single element consisting of a pair of elements in which is the first element (or first coordinate) of the ordered pair and is the second element (or second coordinate). The Cartesian product of two sets A and B is the set consisting of all ordered pairs whose first coordinate belongs to A and whose second coordinate belongs to B. In other words, { } Example: If { { } and Then, { } }

MATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematics