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Aravindh Krishnamoorthy

ST Ericsson (India) Private Limited Bangalore, India 560 037 aravindh.k@stericsson.com

AbstractIn this paper we present a method for matrix inversion based on Cholesky decomposition with reduced number of operations by avoiding computation of intermediate results; further, we use fixed point simulations to compare the numerical accuracy of the method.

Deepak Menon

ST Ericsson (India) Private Limited Bangalore, India 560 037 deepak.menon@stericsson.com

Keywords-matrix, inversion, Cholesky, LDL.

I.

INTRODUCTION Note that since older values of aii aren't required for computing newer elements, they may be overwritten by the value of rii, hence, the algorithm may be performed in-place using the same memory for matrices A and R. Cholesky decomposition is of order and requires operations. Matrix inversion based on Cholesky decomposition is numerically stable for well conditioned matrices. If , with is the linear system with variables, and satisfies the requirement for Cholesky decomposition, we can rewrite the linear system as

Matrix inversion techniques based on Cholesky decomposition and the related LDL decomposition are efficient techniques widely used for inversion of positivedefinite/symmetric matrices across multiple fields. Existing matrix inversion algorithms based on Cholesky decomposition use either equation solving [3] or triangular matrix operations [4] with most efficient implementation requiring operations. In this paper we propose an inversion algorithm which reduces the number of operations by 16-17% compared to the existing algorithms by avoiding computation of some known intermediate results. In section 2 of this paper we review the Cholesky and LDL decomposition techniques, and discuss solutions to linear systems based on them. In section 3 we review the existing matrix inversion techniques, and how they may be extended to non-Hermitian matrices. In section 4 we discuss the proposed matrix inversion method. II. CHOLESKY DECOMPOSITION

By letting

and ... (2) These equations are solved using backward-substitution and require operations each for the solution. A. LDL Decomposition If is a symmetric matrix, LDL decomposition factorises it into a lower triangular matrix, a diagonal matrix and conjugate transpose of the lower triangular matrix [5].

If is a positive-definite Hermitian matrix, Cholesky decomposition factorises it into a lower triangular matrix and its conjugate transpose [3], [5] & [6].

as

In a software implementation the upper triangular matrix is preferred as operations are row-wise and compatible with C programming language. The elements of Diagonal elements: , are given as follows.

as

, and follows.

is computed as

Where is the ith column of the identity matrix of order . Once is computed, is computed as Upper triangular elements, i.e. :

When efficiently implemented, equation solving requires and matrix multiplication requires . The total number of matrix multiplication including the Cholesky decomposition is [4]. C. Non-Hermitian Matrices Cholesky (or LDL) decomposition may be used for nonHermitian matrices by creating an intermediate Hermitian matrix as follows: For an arbitrary matrix , we may construct a Hermitian matrix as . Once the inverse of A is found using Cholesky (or LDL) decomposition, we may find as . This method requires a matrix transposition operation for finding and matrix multiplication to find .

When efficiently implemented, the complexity of the LDL decomposition is same as Cholesky decomposition. If , with is the linear system with variables, and satisfies the requirement for LDL decomposition, we can rewrite the linear system as

By letting

and ... (4) These equations are solved using backward-substitution and when efficiently implemented, require operations each for the solution. III. EXISTING TECHNIQUES , Where is the ith column of the identity matrix of order [3]. This equation may be solved using either Cholesky or LDL based method as described above depending on the properties of . In either case since is Hermitian, it is sufficient to solve for upper (or lower) half of and update the other half with the complex conjugate values as for . Solving for the upper half of the matrix requires two triangular matrix solutions with multiply operations each. The total number of multiply operations including the decomposition is . B. Triangular Matrix Operations If , we may find the inverse of using Cholesky decomposition, we have and

IV.

PROPOSED METHOD

The proposed method is a modification to the Equation Solving method described in section III., where the first equation solution (1, 3) is avoided. The method as applicable to Cholesky decomposition and LDL decomposition are described below. A. Using Cholesky Decomposition If and such that , we have

By letting

Let , for ; we note that the inverse of the lower triangular matrix is lower triangular, and the diagonal entries of are the reciprocals of diagonal entries of Therefore, the matrix B is lower triangular, with diagonal elements as reciprocals of the diagonal elements of . Now, given these properties, we construct a matrix that such

This implies:

V.

CONCLUSION

We note that the matrix is the correct solution to upper diagonal elements of the matrix , i.e. , we do not compute B and instead use backward substitution to solve for using the equation , given: We solve only for triangle elements.) such that (upper

We presented a method for matrix inversion based on Cholesky decomposition with reduced number of operations by avoiding computation of intermediate results. The number of operations for the methods is summarised in figure 1. The results of fixed point simulations are in figure 2.

OPERATIONS

where needed.

Equation solving requires multiply operations, the total number of multiply operations for matrix inverse including Cholesky decomposition is . B. Using LDL Decomposition If and such that

, we have

FIGURE 1: Table summarising the number of operations for the methods described in the paper.

By letting

, for as

. We note that the matrix is the correct solution to upper diagonal elements of the matrix , i.e. , we do not compute and instead use backward substitution to solve for as in Cholesky decomposition. Equation solving requires multiply operations, the total number of multiply operations for matrix inverse including LDL decomposition is . C. Numerical Accuracy Fixed point simulations indicate that the proposed method has a good numerically accuracy. From figure 2 we may note that the proposed method has the lowest average norm error compared to other methods described in this paper.

FIGURE 2: Fixed point error analysis of various techniques described in the paper.

REFERENCES

[1] Happonen, A.; Piirainen, O.; Burian, A: "GSM channel estimator using a fixed-point matrix inversion algorithm" IEEE International Symposium on Signals, Circuits and Systems, 2005, pp 119-122 Vol. 1. Lei Ma; Dickson, K.; McAllister, J.; McCanny, J.; Sellathurai, M: "Reduced-complexity MSGR-based matrix inversion" IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems, 2008. SiPS 2008, pp 124-128. Gilbert W. Stewart: "Afternotes on numerical analysis", SIAM, 1996. Burian, A.; Takala, J.; Ylinen, M: "A fixed-point implementation of matrix inversion using Cholesky decomposition" Proceedings of the 46th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2003, pp 1431-1434 Vol. 3. David S. Watkins: "Fundamentals of Matrix Computations", Second Edition, Wiley, 2002. William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P. Flannery: "Numerical Recipes, The Art of Scientific Computing ", Third Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

[2]

[3] [4]

[5] [6]

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