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Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...

1
University
of Bremen
Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation
in CDMA Mobile Radio Systems for
Short Frame Transmission
Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation
in CDMA Mobile Radio Systems for
Short Frame Transmission
Introduction
Short description of turbo codes
Turbo-coded modulation
CDMA simulation model and simulation results
Conclusions
Volker Khn, University of Bremen, Germany
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
2
University
of Bremen
Introduction Introduction
Turbo codes reach near Shannon limit performance
Amazing results obtained with extremely large interleavers causing
tremendous transmission delays
Question 1: Are turbo codes with small interleavers still superior to
convolutional codes at a comparable decoding effort?
Wideband CDMA as multiplex technique for third generation mobile radio
systems (Europe: UMTS)
Question 2: Trade-off between Direct-Sequence spreading,
channel coding and modulation
Embedding turbo codes and turbo-coded modulation in a DS-CDMA system
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
3
University
of Bremen
Turbo Codes: Structure of Encoder and Decoder Turbo Codes: Structure of Encoder and Decoder
Encoder
u Parallel concatenation of constituent
codes
u Encoders connected through an
interleaver
u Conventional block interleaver with
N = 400 bits
u Optimization possible, but only small
gains expected due to short interleaver
Decoder
u D
1
and D
2
arranged serially
u Inner decoder D
1
and outer decoder D
2
u Decoding by Max-Log-MAP algorithm
u Best compromise between robustness,
performance and decoding effort
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
4
University
of Bremen
Turbo Codes: Constituent Codes Turbo Codes: Constituent Codes
Recursive, systematic convolutional codes
Parameter to be optimized: effective distance
Maximize weight of redundancy bits c
1
and c
2
for
input weight w = 2
Recursive generator polynomial has to be prime
Other polynomials should maximize Hamming
weight of redundancy bits for w = 2 sequences
Purpose:
u Comparison with convolutional codes
(constraint length L
c
= 9)
Approximately same decoding effort
d z
eff
+ 2 2
min
R
c
g P
R
c

1
2
23
8
35
8
1 0
0 1

_
,

R
c

1
4
23
8
35
8
25
8
1 1
1 0
1 1
0 1

_
,

R
c

2
3
23
8
35
8
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 1

_
,

Codes used in simulations


Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
5
University
of Bremen
Turbo-Coded Modulation: Transmitter Turbo-Coded Modulation: Transmitter
Demultiplexer collects n unpunctured code words c(k)
2n redundancy bits are punctured to m-n bits
m bits are mapped to one of 2
m
possible symbols (Gray coding)
Different error probabilities for bits u
j
Assign bits processed by inner decoder to most reliable u
j
Example:
8-PSK modulation: m = 3
Code rate R
c
= 2/3:
un = 2 info bits / symbol
um-n = 1 parity bit / symbol
2 information bits assigned
to most reliable bits u
1
and u
2
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
6
University
of Bremen
Turbo-Coded Modulation: Receiver Turbo-Coded Modulation: Receiver
Coherent detection and soft output
demodulation of received symbol x(l)
Reliability information for each bit u
j
of a symbol by optimal MAP algorithm:
{ }
{ }
{ }
( )
[ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
( )
L u
P u
P u
x s 2
x s 2
j
j
j
i
2
N
2
s u
i
2
N
2
s u
i
j
i
j

ln
1 x
0 x
ln
exp
exp
1
0

S
S
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
7
University
of Bremen
Soft-Output Demodulation: Pragmatic approach Soft-Output Demodulation: Pragmatic approach
Soft-output values show large symmetry
Pragmatic approach:
{ }
{ }
{ }
( ) { } { }
( )
L u
2a x j
2a x j
a a x x j
j



'

1
1
2 1
Im for 1
Re for 2
Im Re for 3
Re{x}
Im{x}
L
{
u
1
}
Re{x}
Im{x}
L
{
u
2
}
Im{x}
Re{x}
L
{
u
3
}
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
8
University
of Bremen
CDMA Simulation Model: Downlink with pilot signal CDMA Simulation Model: Downlink with pilot signal
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
9
University
of Bremen
Simulation Results: Comparison with convolutional codes Simulation Results: Comparison with convolutional codes
Approximately same bit error rates
for convolutional codes with rates
R
c
= 1/2 and R
c
= 1/4
Turbo code with R
c
= 1/4 has same
performance as CCs
Turbo code with R
c
= 1/2 loses
0.5 dB
Turbo-coded 8-PSK loses
approximately 1 dB
Turbo codes do not outperform CCs
in case of short interleavers and same
decoding costs
Only small differences between
R
c
= 1/2 and R
c
= 1/4
9 3 6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
E
b
/ N
0
TC, R
c
= 1/4
TC, R
c
= 2/3
CC, R
c
= 1/4
CC, R
c
= 1/2
TC, R
c
= 1/2
B
E
R
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
10
University
of Bremen
Simulation Results: Influence of channel estimation Simulation Results: Influence of channel estimation
Conventional channel estimation
via pilot signal
u Only small differences between
R
c
= 1/2 and R
c
= 1/4
u Loss of 4 dB in comparison to
perfectly known channel
Improved channel estimation by
averaging 10 estimated channel
coefficients
u Gain of 3 dB over conventional
estimation
u Gain of 1 dB for R
c
= 1/4 over
R
c
= 1/2
Accurate channel estimation
necessary in order to exploit
potential of powerful codes
9 0 3 6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
E
b
/ N
0
B
E
R
perfectly
known
averaged
non-averaged
R
c
= 1/4
R
c
= 1/2
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
11
University
of Bremen
Simulation Results: 10 additional users Simulation Results: 10 additional users
Loss of 1 dB due to additional users
for R
c
= 1/2 and R
c
= 1/4
Gap between R
c
= 1/2 and
R
c
= 1/4 slightly decreases due to
better interference suppression for
longer DS-spreading
Code with R
c
= 1/4 still superior to
R
c
= 1/2
Performance of turbo-coded 8-PSK
decreases dramatically
Coded modulation scheme as used
in this work is not suitable for CDMA
systems
3 6 12
E
b
/ N
0
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
R
c
= 1/4
R
c
= 1/2
R
c
= 2/3
9
B
E
R
add. users
no add. users
Volker Khn: Turbo Codes and Turbo-Coded Modulation in CDMA Mobile Radio ...
12
University
of Bremen
Conclusions Conclusions
Turbo codes are no longer superior to convolutional codes for short
interleavers and same decoding costs
Accurate channel estimation necessary in order to exploit high coding
gains
Pilot signal aided estimation with averaging gains 3 dB over
conventional estimation
Low rate coding with low DS-spreading is better than high rate coding
and high DS-spreading for coherent demodulation
Turbo-coded modulation is not suitable for an implementation in DS-
CDMA systems
Performance improvement for turbo-coded modulation due to
multiphase spreading sequences may be possible