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**Electric Machines & Power Systems
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**A New Approach to Economic Dispatching Using Load Bus Elimination Techniques
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Jawad Talaq

a

University of Bahrain Department of Electrical Engineering P.O. Box 32038, Bahrain Version of record first published: 30 Nov 2010.

To cite this article: Jawad Talaq (2000): A New Approach to Economic Dispatching Using Load Bus Elimination Techniques, Electric Machines & Power Systems, 28:8, 723-734 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07313560050082712

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The equal incremental cost criterion for economic dispatch was rst implemented by utilities due to its simplicity when transmission losses are neglected. The obtained model is a reduced model of the original system. Load admittances are then added to the bus admittance matrix and their respective buses are eliminated. 1 Introduction Economic dispatch is used in real time to allocate the total generation produced among all units in the power system in such a way as to minimize the operational cost. researchers concentrated in nding methods that can be implemented in real time and still meet the required accuracy in modeling transmission losses and penalty factors of units. From then.O. Box 32038. and hence led researchers to Manuscript received in nal form October 7. A comparison between the new approach and the penalty factors method has been made. Loads are rst modeled by their appropriate voltage-dependent models as load admittances. Address correspondence to Jawad Talaq. transmission losses could not be ignored and had to be included in the power balance equation. The process is repeated until convergence is achieved. however. and therefore the B-coe cients method had emerged. Newton Raphson method is used to calculate the angles and active generations of the reduced model while minimizing the operational cost. Transmission losses could have been modeled as a constant percentage of total system demand and the equal incremental cost criterion still could be implemented. This led researchers to nd suitable transmission loss models. transmission losses depend on the allocation of generation among units. 28:723–734. References [1–5] review recent advances in classic economic dispatch. 1999. With the developments of power systems. The admittance matrix is of the same order as the number of voltagecontrolled buses in the system. 2000 C opyright s c 2000 Taylor & Francis 0731-356X / 00 $12. The optimal power ow is an exact formulation of the network active and reactive power mismatches at all buses. It is shown that operational cost is improved and solution time is signi cantly reduced when compared to the penalty factors method of economic dispatch. The variables of the reduced model are the voltage-controlled buses’ angles and active power generations. The simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system. 723 .Electric Machines and Power Systems. Load bus voltages and angles of the original system are then calculated by a direct method and load admittances are modi ed. and the treatment of losses in the power balance equation needed to be improved.00 + .00 A New A pproach to Economic Dispatching Using Load Bus Elimination Techniques JAWAD TALAQ University of Bahrain Department of Electrical Engineering P. Bahrain Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 This paper presents a new technique to solving the economic dispatch problem based on a reduced order model of the original system.

active power generation is distributed among all generators in such a way as to minimize the total operational cost of all generators in the power system while meeting system demand and transmission losses. i i where 2 3 C i = a0i + a1i P i + a2i P i + a3i Pi ( 2) is a function of third order representing operational cost of generator i. and researchers are going on for further improvement that hopefully it can replace the economic dispatch in real time implementation. B 0 is a row vector. B is a square matrix. The Lagrangian function formulated in this case is: Á ! X X ( 1) L= C i + ¸ PD + PL o s s Pi . The B-coe cients are functions of the operating point of the power system but may be assumed constant for a certain range of operating points. @P i @P j ( 3) 3 T he Penalty Factors M ethod If transmission losses are included in equation ( 1). and B 00 is a constant. and ¸ is the Lagrangian multiplier associated with the power balance equation. Reference [6] contains a survey of the optimal power ow literature. Until then.724 Talaq further investigate the possibility of real time implementation. P L o s s is the transmission losses. Several methods . optimal power ow is used in power system planning. Transmission losses may be related to active generation through the familiar B-coe cients as follows: T PL o s s = P BP + B 0 P + B 00 . then the familiar equal incremental cost criterion for minimum operational cost is obtained: @C i @C j = = ¸. 2 T he Equal Incremental Cost Criterion Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 Traditionally. however. @P i @P j where P F i = 1=(1 @PL o s s =@P i ) ( 5) is the penalty factor of unit i. and further developments that can improve both operational cost and solution time should be encouraged. Now. P D is the total system demand. ( 6) where P is the active power generation vector. If transmission losses are ignored. Pi is the active generation of unit i. utilities still will rely on the classical economic dispatch for its simplicity. then the following criterion is obtained: @C i @C j ( 4) P Fi = P Fj = ¸.

(9) (10) R ij in equations (9) and (10) are elements of the real part of the impedance matrix.e.. The aim here is to apply load modeling and load bus elimination techniques to the economic dispatch problem and treat transmission losses as an exact model. Consider both active and reactive power of loads as exponentially voltage dependent models having the following forms: PL = P0V a . Q 0 is the reactive power speci ed at nominal voltage. (15) 1 [P 0 V a V2 j Q 0 V b ]. (7) PL o s s = Re aV where Z is the bus impedance matrix and I is the bus current injection vector. Q L = Q 0 V b. Also we have This yields YL = * * 2 S L = V I L = YL V . Simplifying equation (7) yields PL o s s = N X N X i= 1 j = 1 [D ij (P i P j + Q i Q j ) + C ij (Q i P j P i Q j )]. sin±ij = then the following simpli ed equation is obtained [3]: @P L o s s =@Pi = 2 N X j=1 D ij P i . and N is the total number of buses in the system: Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 D ij = R ij cos(±ij )=Vi Vj . Bus elimination technique [8] has been applied to the power ow solution without considering the economic dispatch problem. (8) where P i and Q i are active and reactive power injections at bus i. a is the voltage dependent exponential constant of active power model. * SL = PL + j Q L . b is the voltage dependent exponential constant of reactive power model. One of these is the one described in [3]: (I* ZI). (12) (13) (14) where P0 is the active power speci ed at nominal voltage. C ij = R ij sin(±ij )=Vi Vj . if we assume that bus angle diŒ erences are small.A New Approach to Economic Dispatching 725 have been proposed to nd the B-coe cients by several authors. i. ~ 0. (16) . Furthermore. (11) 4 T he Proposed Technique Load modeling has been applied to the power ow solutions [7–8].

726 Talaq Equation (16) represents the load admittance model. (17) (18) where Y L = Y L0 + Y d (19) and Y d is a diagonal matrix containing the load admittance models described by equation (16). The complex power injections of the reduced model are * * * S G i = VG i I G i = VG i N G X j= 1 VG j Yij . (23) . Constant current model (a = b = 1 . Constant admittance load model (a = b = 2 . .0): YL = (P 0 j Q0 ) 2. The exponential constants of the load model usually are determined from eld tests. Solving equation (18) yields VL = and IG = Y R V G . however. three special cases may be obtained from equation (16): 1. The algorithm is capable of handling diŒ erent values of exponential constants for the diŒ erent buses. where YR = YG Y G L Y L 1 Y LG Y L 1 Y LG V G (20) (21) (22) is an admittance matrix of the same order as the number of voltage-controlled buses (NG ). The load buses are then eliminated to obtain a reduced model as follows: " " IL IG 0 IG # # = = " " Y L0 Y LG YGL YG Y L Y LG YGL YG #" #" VL VG VL VG # # .0): YL = 1 (P 0 V j Q0) The admittance matrix is modi ed by adding the load admittances to the diagonal elements that belong to load buses. Constant complex power model (a = b = 0 .0) : YL = 1 (P 0 V2 j Q0) Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 3.

The penalty factors. This yields the active power mismatches of the voltage-controlled buses D P i = Vi N G X j= 1 Vj [G ij cos(±ij ) + B ij sin(±ij ) ] Pi . s i . PV buses are converted to PQ buses if they violate their reactive generation limits. The last term of equation (25) is the sum of quadratic penalty functions imposed on active generation of units that exceed their maximum or minimum power limits and si is the penalty factor corresponding to each penalty function. Usually. the reactive power mismatch of the violated unit is introduced to the Lagrangian function together with its Lagrangian multiplier. IIC . The reactive power mismatches need not be included in the Lagrangian function if they do not violate their limits. and W is the Jacobian matrix. in power ow solutions. (24) The augmented Lagrangian function is formulated as follows: L= N G X i= 1 Ci + NG X i= 1 ¸pi D Pi + X1 s (P 2 i i P i lim ) . If a violating unit goes back to its operational range. D ¸p. 2 (25) Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 where C i is the operational cost of unit i as de ned in equation (2) and ¸pi is a Lagrangian multiplier associated with the active power mismatch of unit i. #T (26) (27) . f= @L @L @L . Instead. reactive generations of units are tested for violations. D x is the incremental variables vector. however. This adds two variables to the Lagrangian function: the voltage and the Lagrangian multiplier associated with the reactive power mismatch. D P ]T . @± @¸p @P JT 0 1 (28) (29) where f is a vector representing the rst derivatives of the Lagrangian function. its s i value is set to zero. Submatrix H contains the second derivatives of the Lagrangian function with respect to angles. . and submatrix J contains the rst derivatives of the active power mismatches with H W = 4J 0 2 3 0 1 5. then the reactive generation is set to the limit and the voltage is released. for the violating units are increased with iterations until variables are within acceptable tolerances. Taking the rst and second derivatives of the Lagrangian function with respect to the variables and applying Newton Raphson method yields the following matrix equations: f= " W × D x. D x = [D ±. and if one violates a limit.A New Approach to Economic Dispatching 727 where Yij are the elements of the reduced bus admittance matrix Y R and N G is the number of the voltage-controlled buses in the system. This technique is not implemented here because active generation of units that violate their reactive generation should still remain dispatchable.

IEEE 118 . @P 2 (30) (31) (32) Equation (26) is solved for D x using Newton’s method. Once voltage-controlled bus angles are computed. Equation (26) is solved again. IIC is a diagonal submatrix containing the second derivatives of the operational cost functions. A ow chart describing the implementation of the proposed algorithm is shown in Figure 1. Flow chart of the proposed algorithm. @±2 @( D P ) . T denotes the transpose: H= J= IIC = @2 ( D P ) . the penalty factors method. and the proposed method has been made for three diŒ erent exponential constants of load modeling. and the process is repeated until convergence is achieved. Load admittances are recalculated using equation (16). A comparison between the equal incremental cost criterion. 5 Results of Simulation The proposed algorithm has been tested on IEEE 118 bus test system using UNIXbased Mips Millennium Computer System. respect to angles.728 Talaq Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 Figure 1. @± @2 C . equation (20) is solved for load bus voltages and angles. and Y L of equation (22) is modi ed using equation (19).

of which 18 are dispatchable generators. 2. eliminated. The solution time has been considerably reduced to 9. operational cost is minimized while power mismatches are satis ed. The iteration counts shown in Table 1 refer to the required .12%) instead of 0. This is the rst major iteration. System demand assumed constant and units are dispatched followed by a normal power ow. The equal incremental cost criterion with losses: First. which is just comparable to the ordinary equal incremental cost criterion (8. Following are the four categories of simulation that have been compared with the proposed technique for each load modeling case: Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 1. solution time.80 seconds. This is obvious from Table 1. assuming constant system demand. Operating cost. The proposed technique consists of major and minor iterations.40 seconds). This is the rst major iteration.978881 pu (2. and 4. and transmission losses. but this will be on the expense of solution time.978824 pu (2.A New Approach to Economic Dispatching 729 bus test system consists of 54 voltage-controlled buses. In the proposed technique.980297 pu (1. 3.97% ) when the penalty factors method is used with two iterations. The operational cost for the constant complex power case of the equal incremental cost criterion is taken as basis for the comparison as shown in Table 1. when the penalty factors method is used with three iterations but solution time increased to 47. 4. and the system is reduced. This is the second major iteration. system demand. and iteration counts are shown in Table 1. and transmission losses. This is the second major iteration. followed by a normal power ow. The penalty factors method (three iterations): Same as in 3 above with another extra update of the B-coe cients. transmission losses are neglected and units are dispatched. operational cost has been reduced to 0. even with more updates of the B-coe cients. The process consists of only one major iteration. B-coe cients are calculated and units are redispatched through the penalty factors method followed by another power ow. The process is repeated for another major iteration by updating the B-coe cients. The equal incremental cost criterion without losses: Transmission losses are neglected in the power balance equation. System demand and transmission losses obtained from the rst major iteration are used in the power balance equation.70 seconds instead of 31. and the constant load admittance demand are shown in Tables 2. A major iteration refers to the loop in which loads are modeled. 3. Operational cost may be further reduced using the penalty factors method with more iterations to values comparable with that obtained by the proposed method.11% ). the constant complex power demand. This fact assures least operational cost solutions for the proposed technique compared to the penalty method. the constant current demand. This means that transmission losses are exactly modeled compared to the approximate models used for the penalty method. units are dispatched according to the equal incremental cost criterion and. The penalty factors method (two iterations): First. and units are redispatched followed by another power ow. followed by a normal power ow. Output generation for the three cases. Using the proposed approach.20 seconds. A minor iteration refers to each Newton’s iteration of the reduced model. assuming constant system demand. system demand. as operational cost has been reduced to 0.

2 Operating cost (pu) Sol.4.2.978824 9.9 37.Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 730 Table 1 IEEE 118 bus test system operating cost.7 0.988191 0.974109 0.978881 47.3.4.974061 51.7 4.993750 0.4 35.975325 0.4 6.7 . counts 6 6.2.4 18.2.4 6.0 Iter.3 8. counts 6 6.4.8 Equal incremental cost (no losses) Equal incremental cost (with losses) Penalty factors method (two iterations) Penalty factors method (three iterations) Proposed approach 0.7 9.4 6 Constant complex power load case Iter.3.969634 0.000012 12.5 6.8 54. time ( sec ) 11.3.987985 0.000000 8.2.4 6.3.8 Sol. time (sec) Talaq 1.4 6.4 6. solution time iteration counts Constant current load case Operating cost (pu) Iter.969594 Constant admittance load case Sol.0 15.5 6.4.980297 31.5.3 6.2 0.4 1.993872 0. counts 6 6.4.970686 0.2 0. time ( sec ) Operating cost (pu) 0.5.4.4.

746670 3.980862 0.979561 0.338265 Total output ( pu) 38.862407 3.237294 1.000000 1.000000 2.468353 0.788353 37.960674 0.000000 1.276003 3.940274 0.665509 2.000000 1.927559 1.000000 3.773667 0.007069 Penalty factor Output (pu) Penalty factor (with losses) (two iterations) (three iterations) Gen no Output (pu) Output (pu) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.060386 0.928873 0.000000 0.008374 1.898995 1.566501 2.000000 0.703315 2.000000 0.648308 3.008289 1.949162 0.000000 1.Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 Table 2 IEEE 118 bus test system economic dispatch results for the constant complex power load case Penalty factors method Proposed approach Output (pu) A New Approach to Economic Dispatching 2.215920 2.625525 2.198770 1.724451 3.052006 1.575372 2.018913 1.936635 0.501174 2.724727 1.040614 1.042669 1.425627 3.977559 0.556930 2.775624 2.921830 1.869217 3.000830 1.000000 0.000000 2.863007 3.945336 0.564251 2.513478 0.998249 1.964136 1.236255 0.753693 3.940489 0.537073 2.182206 3.944105 0.993083 1.731307 0.497523 1.000179 0.919261 2.737510 3.404727 38.818647 2.000000 0.000000 0.68 0.594663 2.000000 2.905124 1.000000 3.936016 0.913247 0.516013 3.020119 0.000000 1.7977263 731 Equal incremental cost ( no losses) Output ( pu) 2.423640 Losses (pu) 1.789004 3.637294 3.939073 0.630012 37.724726 1.000000 0.548163 2.137909 0.940169 0.931203 2.006544 2.907532 1.000000 1.000000 2.491929 3.361094 2.861620 3.000000 1.864411 1.966464 1.462407 1.976541 0.000000 2.743640 Total load (pu) .000000 3.915163 0.925968 1.000000 4.515780 3.686765 37.007192 0.431632 2.536044 0.929570 0.887783 1.642112 0.992414 1.978853 0.465838 0.845772 0.785838 36.646669 0.477726 0.300752 2.947706 0.685921 2.859776 2.530774 2.807982 1.

556641 2.237294 1.186134 38.992396 1.000000 1.415044 2.676291 2.936200 0.947559 0.938106 1.540652 2.213966 0.042752 1.000000 1.726982 Total load (pu) 36.980996 0.585584 2.940290 0.771172 3.000000 0.007248 0.502359 0.936686 0.534594 2.483118 1.922487 1.681477 0.728309 3.473262 .606553 2.040387 1.502934 3.698033 3.514522 2.264115 3.000916 0.000000 3.198770 1.490652 2.949074 0.789341 36.Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 732 Table 3 IEEE 118 bus test system economic dispatch results for the constant current load case Penalty factors method Proposed approach Output (pu) Equal incremental cost (no losses) Output (pu) Penalty factor Output (pu) Penalty factor (with losses) (two iterations) (three iterations) Gen no Output ( pu) Output ( pu) Talaq 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 37.514735 Total output (pu) 38.060386 0.000000 1.000000 4.860466 3.288197 0.998497 1.000000 3.945412 0.637294 3.940232 0.000000 2.288125 2.480031 3.000000 2.000000 0.516013 3.799179 1.740770 2.977689 0.506134 1.000000 2.004543 0.000808 1.693776 2.916938 2.780144 36.910766 2.000000 1.853963 3.000000 1.939289 0.638166 0.655924 2.759700 0.915298 0.929654 0.028230 1.008321 1.000000 3.000000 0.966757 1.480817 36.000000 1.944129 0.962918 0.000000 2.755894 36.940612 0.864411 1.961432 0.300752 2.000000 0.979685 0.818647 2.928864 0.852101 2.553624 2.000000 1.294667 0.926302 1.626485 37.890394 1.717809 0.116378 0.629004 0.519818 2.993097 1.554360 2.854993 3.215920 2.736971 3.913326 0.304076 0.945675 1.648308 3.000000 2.322759 2.182206 3.008247 1.833876 3.512304 37.828636 0.014110 1.413588 3.000000 0.737329 3.000000 0.433876 1.200244 Losses (pu) 1.705317 1.006333 2.524167 0.910642 1.000000 0.978977 0.006763 2.874410 1.521934 2.891147 1.

040164 1.359466 733 Equal incremental cost (no losses) Output (pu) 2.000000 3.000000 3.852280 3.634488 0.647095 2.993328 Losses (pu) 1.846782 3.198770 1.944140 0.399605 2.772540 36.940295 0.950152 0.688615 1.006101 1.006467 Penalty factor Output (pu) Penalty factor (with losses) (two iterations) (three iterations) Gen no Output ( pu) Output ( pu) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.308327 Total output (pu) 37.509556 2.998701 1.000000 0.355209 37.480749 2.966801 1.928447 1.468611 3.000000 1.979073 0.979806 0.001548 0.000000 0.215920 2.940715 0.000000 2.000000 1.648308 3.407321 1.939476 0.667481 2.462075 3.844777 2.684980 2.294067 36.982682 37.708939 2.000775 1.940282 0.807321 3.007282 0.915414 0.673446 3.193220 0.894889 1.781589 36.577113 2.722288 3.006120 2.490715 3.549524 2.300752 2.000000 1.122172 0.533597 2.000000 1.926598 1.992387 1.237294 1.923077 1.359093 37.936360 0.000000 1.541589 2.790022 1.728589 3.676597 0.913389 0.766963 36.754576 3.711393 Total load (pu) 36.000000 0.507786 1.874375 1.008272 1.491959 0.253050 3.141055 0.945471 0.623178 37.993111 1.864411 1.469567 1.Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 Table 4 IEEE 118 bus test system economic dispatch results for the constant admittance load case Penalty factors method Proposed approach Output (pu) A New Approach to Economic Dispatching 2.000000 2.000000 0.000000 1.516013 3.981126 0.182206 3.010645 1.990097 0.967014 1.000000 1.902705 2.000000 2.042779 1.928848 0.861717 1.513945 2.513128 0.000000 0.008208 1.276055 2.534761 2.060386 0.000000 2.705114 0.948981 0.977788 0.936725 0.000000 0.962103 0.883650 1.281930 .719733 3.947413 0.302682 1.000000 4.131633 0.000000 3.812663 0.588889 2.637294 3.903661 2.096512 0.746629 0.000000 0.818647 2.929722 0.000000 2.847502 3.612813 0.

. Vol. 3.. 1977. and Satoh. and Chuko. The technique uses a reduced order model of the original system. H. Studies: Form of Model EŒ ects. “ Modeling and Elimination of Load Buses in Power Flow Solutions. No. For the constant current load model. H. Vol. ature.” IEEE Trans. “ A Survey of the Optimal Power Flow Liter[7] El-Hawary. pp. 1987. The reduced order model is obtained by eliminating all load buses from the system after being modeled appropriately. [2] Aoki.. “ Optimal Power Dispatch: A Comprehensive Survey. on Power Appt. and Syst. 134. No. T. pp. 841–854. on Power App.. The required Newton’s iterations for this case are 6.46% ) of the penalty factors method.. and Galiana..” IEEE [3] Wenyuan.” IEEE Trans.. C. Y. pp. 968–972. H. For the constant complex power case. Electric Power Systems Research. 3. Vol. No. M. PAS-96. The variables of the model are the voltage-controlled buses angles and active generation. 6 Conclusions Downloaded by [Tripura University] at 02:06 22 February 2013 A new technique to solving the economic dispatch problem has been proposed. and 2. 1423–1431. “ Incorporation of Load Models in Load Flow [8] Talaq. 3. the solution time. J. E. C.. 2. No.” IEEE Trans. pp.” [4] Lin. on Power Syst. on Power Syst. 10. Trans.. B. F... Part C.. No. pp. 1. is lowest (4. 2.. 5. pp. 173–181. as expected. L. L. 3. E. Vol. 1985. 1995. S. 2.” IEE Proceedings. it took seven major iterations for the proposed approach solution. K. 1154–1158. “ New Algorithms for Classic Economic Dispatch. 6.. The solution time has also been considerably reduced. 1987. “ A Review of Recent Advances in Economic [6] Huneault.975325 (2. on Power Syst. D.. Hong.59%) compared to 0. the reduction in operational cost is 0.974061 (2... “ Real-Time Economic Dispatch. For the constant admittance load model case. pp.” IEEE Trans. 6. Y. The eŒ ect of diŒ erent load modeling on generator active generation and operational cost has been studied. H. . “ An On-Line Economic Power Dispatch Method W ith Security. pp.. Dispatch. 1991. on Power Syst. References [1] Happ.. A comparison between the proposed technique and the classic economic dispatch has been made. No. and Rahman. Vol. and Dias. G. 2. Vol. 4. 1248–1259. 9. 27–30. IEEE Trans.734 Talaq Newton’s iterations for each major iteration. C..0 seconds) because there is no need for updating load admittances as they are constants. PAS-103. 1984.” [5] Chowdhury. 762–770. Vol. and Syst. Results of the simulation on IEEE 118 bus test system shows that improvement in operational cost and solution time is achieved by using the proposed technique. 1990. M.

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