Role of RBI in Indian economy 1.

Issuer of currency Except for issuing one rupee notes and coins, RBI is the sole authority for the issue of currency in India. The Indian government issues one rupee notes and coins. Major currency is in the form of RBI notes, such as notes in the denominations of two, five, ten, twenty, fifty, one hundred, five hundred, and one thousand. Earlier, notes of higher denominations were also issued. But, these notes were demonetized to discourage users from indulging in blackmarket operations. RBI has two departments - the Issue department and Banking department. The issue department is dedicated to issuing currency. All the currency issued is the monetary liability of RBI that is backed by assets of equal value held by this department. Assets consist of gold,

coin, bullion, foreign securities, rupee coins, and the governments rupee securities. The
department acquires these assets whenever required by issuing currency. The conditions governing the composition of these assets determine the nature of the currency standard that prevails in India. The Banking department of RBI looks after the banking operations. It takes care of the currency in circulation and its withdrawal from circulation. Issuing new currency is known as expansion of currency and withdrawal of currency is known as contraction of currency. 2. Banker to the Government RBI acts as banker, both to the central government and state governments. It manages all the banking transactions of the government involving the receipt and payment of money. In addition, RBI remits exchange and performs other banking operations. RBI provides short-term credit to the central government. Such credit helps the government to meet any shortfalls in its receipts over its disbursements. RBI also provides short term credit to state governments as advances. RBI also manages all new issues of government loans, servicing the government debt

outstanding, and nurturing the market for governments securities. RBI advises the government
on banking and financial subjects, international finance, financing of five-year plans, mobilizing resources, and banking legislation. 3. Managing Government Securities Various financial institutions such as commercial banks are required by law to invest specified minimum proportions of their total assets/liabilities in government securities. RBI administers these investments of institutions. The other responsibilities of RBI regarding these securities are to ensure o Smooth functioning of the market o Readily available to potential buyers o Easily available in large numbers

Exchange Manager and Controller RBI manages exchange control.Undisturbed maturity-structure of interest rates because of excess or deficit supply o Not subject to quick and huge fluctuations o Reasonable liquidity of investments o Good reception of the new issues of government loans 4. RBI needs to ensure promotion of maximum output. whether of private or government accounts. Exchange control was first imposed on India in September 1939 when World War II started and continues till date. all foreign exchange receipts. . RBI also needs to meet the credit requirements of the rest of the banking system. whether on account of export earnings. Controller of Money Supply and Credit In a planned economy. Banker to Other Banks The role of RBI as a banker to other banks is as follows: o Holds some of the cash reserves of banks o Lends funds for short period o Provides centralized clearing and quick remittance facilities o RBI has the authority to statutorily ensure that the scheduled commercial banks deposit a stipulated ratio of their total net liabilities. To perform these functions effectively. and maintain price stability and a high rate of economic growth. This ratio is known as cash reserve ratio [CRR]. Most commercial banks are authorized dealers of RBI. However. or capital receipts. Exchange control was imposed on both receipts and payments of foreign exchange. and represents India as a member of the international Monetary Fund [IMF]. RBI has to regulate the claims of competing banks on money supply and credit. 5. investment earnings. RBI uses several control instruments such as o Open Market Operations o Changes in statutory reserve requirements for banks o Lending policies towards banks o Control over interest rate structure o Statutory liquidity ration of banks 6. must be sold to RBI either directly or through authorized dealers. the central bank plays an important role in controlling the paper currency system and inflationary tendency. banks can use these deposits to meet their temporary requirements for interbank clearing as the maintenance of CRR is calculated based on the average balance over a period. According to foreign exchange regulations.

In order to perform this function. collates and publishes data regularly. Monetary policy of India Monetary policy is the process by which monetary authority of a country. Other objectives of the monetary policy of India. Restriction of Inventories   Overfilling of stocks and products becoming outdated due to excess of stock often results is sickness of the unit. are:  Price Stability Price Stability implies promoting economic development with considerable emphasis on price stability. Publisher of Monetary Data and Other Data RBI maintains and provides all essential banking and other economic data. RBI collects.7. The centre of focus is to facilitate the environment which is favorable to the architecture that enables the developmental projects to run swiftly while also maintaining reasonable price stability. [1] In India. Promotion of Fixed Investment The aim here is to increase the productivity of investment by restraining non essential fixed investment. generally a central bank controls the supply of money in the economy by exercising its control over interest rates in order to maintain price stability and achieve high economic growth. is so designed as to maintain the price stability in the economy. formulating and critically evaluating the economic policies in India. and other periodic publications. annual report on currency and finance. To avoid this problem the central monetary authority . Users can avail this data in the weekly statements. the central monetary authority is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). as stated by RBI.  Controlled Expansion Of Bank Credit One of the important functions of RBI is the controlled expansion of bank credit and money supply with special attention to seasonal requirement for credit without affecting the output. the RBI monthly bulletin.

It is an independent objective of monetary policy. Desired Distribution of Credit  Monetary authority has control over the decisions regarding the allocation of credit to priority sector and small borrowers. to introduce new money market instruments etc. Reducing the Rigidity  RBI tries to bring about the flexibilities in the operations which provide a considerable autonomy. The main objective of this policy is to avoid over-stocking and idle money in the organization Promotion of Exports and Food Procurement Operations  Monetary policy pays special attention in order to boost exports and facilitate the trade. It tries to increase the efficiency in the financial system and tries to incorporate structural changes such as deregulating interest rates. It encourages more competitive environment and diversification. This policy decides over the specified percentage of credit that is to be allocated to priority sector and small borrowers.carries out this essential function of restricting the inventories. Equitable Distribution of Credit  The policy of Reserve Bank aims equitable distribution to all sectors of the economy and all social and economic class of people To Promote Efficiency  It is another essential aspect where the central banks pay a lot of attention. It maintains its control over financial system whenever and wherever necessary to maintain the discipline and prudence in operations of the financial system. . ease operational constraints in the credit delivery system.

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