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Goal-line technology

Introduction What it can do? What does it contain? How does it work? Applications (Tennis)

What is champions secret?

Start match by imagining you were 0-3 down
Your weaknesses Opponents strengths Umpiring errors



Passive system

Easy installation

What can Hawk-eye do?

Track the path of the ball Visualize path of the ball Third referee

What does Hawk-eye contain?

Tracking System
Camera Speed gun

Video Replay System

Tracking System
What does Tracking System do?
Speed of the ball Swing of the ball How much the ball bounced

Hawk-eye Camera

Speed gun

Video Replay System

How does it work?

Principle of Hawk-Eye

Camera calibration

Ball identification
What are we going to use? Shape, size, enough? What about shadow? Position of sun and previous position

Geometric algorithm
Simple case Cameras at ground

depth = r - rcos + x1 sin

Track and Predict

3D coordinates in time sequence Weirestrass Approximation

Cricket Tennis Snooker Football Military power Automobile industry

Other applications
Wheel alignment Track the enemy location E-2C aircraft


2D (x,y)

3D (x,y,z)

4D (x,y,z,t)

Bounce Mark


System Block Diagram

Image Data

Court line extraction

Extracted Lines

Camera PTZ Determination

Each Camera Image Plane Ball Tracking Camera Pose

2D Tracklet

3D Reconstruction

3D Tracks

Impact Point Determination

Linked 3D Tracks

Track Fitting

Complete Track

Main processes
Real Time Issues Camera calibration PTZ Determination Image Plane Ball Tracking 3D Reconstruction Impact Point Determination

Real Time Issues

Camera Calibration Camera Calibration Camera Calibration Camera Calibration Camera Calibration TCP/IP
3D Reconstitution




Camera calibration vs. PTZ

Image observations


Focal length Aspect ratio Optical center location Camera location

parameters Model-based tracking

3D Model Court lines

Camera attitude Focal length

Camera calibration
Radial distortions Piecewise linear approximation with various zooms Full resolution static image Court fully filling the field of view

PTZ Determination
Pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) motion measured on each frame before any subsequently extracted ball measurements Alpha-beta predictor is used to initiate the parameters Re-acquisition: binary subdivision search across the PTZ parameters

Image Plane Ball Tracking

LMR algorithm Closed boundaries Filtered on size and shape Candidate balls

Trajectory quality (length and movement) Acceptable tracks

Perspective projection Polynomial fit to predict Coordinates Stationary camera

3D Reconstruction
Pairs of overlap tracklets Triangulate 3 equally spaced points 2/3 candidate Partial Track

Compound Tracks

polynomial model

Partial Tracks

Impact Point Determination

Bounce Approximate join point Kalman Filter velocity directions positions



Half volley

New applications
Sports simulators Coaching system
Hawk-Eye ball tracking system Broadcast quality video High speed biomechanical analysis

Football Simulator
Measure speed and accuracy of their shots Shots replayed and analyzed in a video Images taken can upload to Facebook, Twitter and YouTube

References N.Owens. Hawk-Eye tennis system Graham Thomas. Sports TV Applications of Computer Vision

Thanks and Questions