2009 International Conference on Test and Measurement

Research about human face recognition technology
Chenggang Zhen
Network Administration Center North China Electric Power University Baoding,China zhengcg@163.com

Yingmei Su
College of Computer Science and Technology North China Electric Power University Baoding, China Suyingmei 1985@ 126.com The second stage is the identification phase of humancomputer interaction. Goldstion used geometrical features such as parameters to indicate a positive face images, the 21dimensional feature vector said the characteristics of human face, and design the identification system based on the representation Kaya and Kobayashi adopted statistical methods, using Euclidean distance to represent facial features. In general, such methods need to use some operator's knowledge, which had to be intervered by human beings. The third stage can be said to be the real face recognition stage, in recent years, with the development of highperformance computers, the face recognition method has made significant breakthroughs ,and have been made a variety of automatic identification system equipment at present domestic face recognition research started in the 80's, and many of our colleges universities and research institutes in the field of image processing and pattern recognition have a good research base, and actively carried out, basic research and application development including face recognition, including the human body based on biometric identification technology. We believe that in the near future, this field of research and product development work will be at the forefront of the world. In short, the face recognition technology has a very broad application prospects, automatic face recognition system in a variety of different applications in the field of people's lives is bound to have far-reaching effect. III. SOME TYPICAL METHODS OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FACE RECOGNITION

Abstract-Being different from other types of biological characteristics, the image of human face can be gained through a direct and natural way, besides, relatively speaking, the equipment of collecting human face is more economical and prevailing. Direct, friendly, convenient, not encroaching upon users' privacy, being a non-infringement identification technology face recognition technology can be accepted easily by the users. This article mainly aims at summarizing the human face recognition technology, and outlook the future of the development prospects.
Index Terms-Imagery authentication processing, identification



Face recognition is an important research topic in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition and has become a very active research in recent decades. It covers the content of many disciplines, and has a wide value of usage, particularly has extensive and specific purposes in an important area of social security institution. Because of its convenience in sampling and its recognition without contacting with the target it can be a very good use. However, human face is non-rigid, as time changes, in different light illumination, the face image is changed, and this which makes Face recognition extremely difficult. In short, the face recognition is still a challenging issue. It needs further research to find a suitable algorithm. II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FACE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGy

Research on face recognition has a long history, and even can be traced back to the 19th century. However, the early face recognition mainly reckons on a priori knowledge of certain people and can not free itself from human intervention. Until the appearance of high-speed, high-performance computer, the face recognition method makes a significant breakthrough. At present, most of researches focus on the positive face, its development can be divided into three main stages. The first stage is represented by Bertillon, Allen and Parke, who mainly worked on facial features which is necessary to face recognition In the Bertillon's system ,it used a simple statement contacting with a database of face networking, and achieved better recognition results. Allen designed an effective feature for face recognition, thus enhancing the face recognition rate. Parke carry out it in the computer, and produce a high quality grayscale model face. In this stage, the identify process almost entirely depend on the operator.

Face recognition is mainly based on those between different individuals differ, and for the same individual characteristics are relatively stable, the specific identification method with the characteristics of the form varies. At present, the face recognition methods on the still image have three main research directions: • Identification based on the statistics, including the characteristics of the face method and Hidden Markov Model (Hidden Markov Model) method; Identification based on the connection mechanism, including a general neural network methods and Elastic Graph Matching (Elastic Graph Matching) method.
An integrated approach or some other non-twodimensional gray-scale image processing method.

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A. Methods based on neural network Because of its inherent mechanism of paralleled computing and the overall storage of mode distribution, artificial neural network can be used for pattern recognition, further more, it is not affected by the mode of deformation .The method of the neural network for face recognition can train the image which have strong noise and part of defects, and the non-linear methods are sometimes more effective than the linear method. The earliest application of face recognition neural network, which is provided by the Kohonen, takes advantage of the associative of networks to memories people's face, when the input image has a lot of noise or part of the image is lost, it can recall the exact face. CNN used the correlation between one pixel and its adjacent pixel to do a certain robustness of the translation of image rotation and deformation, Gutta puts forward a mixture of face recognition classifier structure which combined tree classifier with RBF. Later, they carried out a survey based on the RBF neural network for part of the recognition of human faces, indicating that face recognition can be recognized effectively with part of human face. At present, most of the neural network models are based on BP network and its variations in practical applications of artificial neural networks, it is also the core of the former network and the best part of artificial neural network,which is showned in Figure 1.
M il T il

Vector Set, it has the relevance of statistics to identify the optimal vector which Meets the conditions of conjugate quadrature small samples in high-dimensional case, Yang for Foley-Sammon linear discriminate analysis and Jin's Uncorrelated linear discriminate analysis establishes a unified theoretical framework. In such a framework, the set of optimal discriminate vector calculated in essence only need to carry out in-dimensional space, it greatly improve the efficiency of the solution. And it reveals the best use of the vector sets to identify the nature of feature extraction, that is, a transformation first, and then do the second Fisher differential transform feature extraction. Furthermore, a specific method on the situation of small samples of high-dimensional linear discriminate analysis to achieve has been given, that is, the optimal linear combination of the differential method. The experimental results show that the method based on the algebraic features of the method is relatively successful. Then we use this method to conduct experiments, and compare the experimental results with the experimental results verify the good ORL face database, ORL face database consists of 40 individuals of 400 pictures whose dpi92 * 112 , 10 per person. Now select two people, as shown in Figure 2:




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Figure 2. ORL face image database people of2 of the 10 individuals face image


Input layer




Hidden layer


To "


Outp ut layer


Figure I. Neural network

BP network is used mainly for function approximation, pattern recognition, data compression and other area. B. Support Vector Machine SVM (Support Vector Machine, SVM) method is a new pattern recognition method developed on the basis of statistical learning theory. It is based on the method of structural risk minimization principle, Empirical Risk Minimization is based on artificial neural networks to solve some of the difficult problems, such as: model selection and cross-learning issue, non-linear and the dimension disaster problem, local minimum points to a large extent have been resolved.
C. Algebraic characterization

It has been proved in the experiment that the geometric characteristics of points used to extract face recognition, where a strong interference, as well as negative impact deformation as generated by the degradation of the test images can still achieve very good recognition results, so the method has a high adaptability for the face image that changed on size, rotation and displacement. At the same time, we have set up another face database, as shown in Figure 3:

Taking a face image as a matrix, or by doing a linear projection matrix transformation can be extracted face features of the algebra. Liu, Guo, based on Foley-Sammon transform, advanced the human face image to the best identify of the characteristics; and being different from F-S Identification of

Figure 3. collected test images

5 individuals are selected as samples, each of 10 maps, five as training, for testing 5. It is shown in figure 3. Experiments


using the algorithm to its own collection of pictures and ORL face image database were compared. The results show that the images we collected face database is not as good as the standard of effective image recognition, which is collected as a result of the picture is often accompanied by noise, but also by the effects of light interference and other factors will also affect the speed of identification.

has a high vector dimension, the computation will encounter problems. IV.

In this paper, several commonly methods used in face recognition has been recommended, and compared. How to explore new and innovative ways based on the existing methods is worth working in the future for further research. Face recognition is a very popular and lively research area, in this area, new ideas, methods will continue to emerge. Given the effective applications of identification methods in face recognition, future research will benefit from the further improve and perfect of face recognition; on the other hand, advanced study of face recognition will promote the development of identification methods and updating.
REFERENCES [1] Yang Changsheng, Tao Liang. Several machine learning methods in the performance of face recognition, Computer Engineering and Applications:2009,169-172. gongwen, Chen Li-hua, Shen Jianguo. Based on the geometric characteristics of a positive image of the face feature extraction.2005.09:61-63 Modem computer. Deniz 0, Castrillon M, Hernandez M. Face recogotion using independent component analysis and support vector machines.Pattern Recognition Leters.2003, 24 (13) :2153-2157. Zhang Xiaohua. CAS-PEAL large-scale Chinese face image database and its basic measure introduced. Journal of Computer-Aided Design and Graphics .2005.17 (1):9-17. Jiang He, Wang Jincheng, based on the projection of the Fast Face Location Dalian University of Technology, Graduate School of Network Journal of .2008. Wei P, Xiong Wei-qing, Wang Xiao-quan.A design and complement for face recognition [C] / / Proc of 2004 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics,2004:3666-3669. Pantie M, Rothkrantz L. Facial action recognition for facial exp ression analysis from static face images. IEEE Transactions on Systems.2004, 34 (3):1449-1431.

D. The method based on nuclear technology The idea of the methods based on nuclear technology is that The original characteristics of the sample space, is transformed through some form of non-linear mapping to a highdimensional or even infinite dimensional space, and (resort to) the "nuclear skills" in the new application of linear space analysis method. Since the new space in the direction of the linear feature space corresponds to the original non-linear direction, so the identification of nuclear-based analysis to identify the direction of the original feature space corresponds to the direction of the non-linear, kernel-based discriminate analysis is a primitive space method of nonlinear discriminate analysis. Vis-a-vis other non-linear method, the uniqueness and key of the method lies in that it subtly through the use of "kernel" carries out the inner product operation between samples, and then set nuclear-generated samples of the corresponding vector for the linear operator vector, without obtaining a sample of the original feature space after the nonlinear mapping of the form, making it superior to ordinary non-linear discriminate analysis method.
Non-linear methods have some weaknesses. The first is the geometric significance is not clear, after the nuclear transformation , we can not know what parameters of the sample has changed to ,there is no selection criteria to select the corresponding, but most of the time we can only adopt trial and experience to select the training parameters which is not suitable for large samples, after the nuclear transformation, the sample dimension equals to the number of training samples, if it is a large number of training samples and nuclear samples








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