Vi cent e Dobr or uka

ASPECTS OF LATE SECOND TEMPLE J EWI SH APOCALYPTI C: A
CROSS- CULTURAL COMPARI SON




DPhi l t hesi s


Theol ogy Facul t y
Uni ver si t y of Oxf or d


Super vi sor s: Chr i st opher Rowl and and Mar t i n Goodman

Oxf or d, December 2005





PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka
















To Cecí l i a, J ul i a and I sabel a,
wi t h l ove




He [ Ant hony] sai d t hat t he monk shoul d be known, i n hi s l i f e and
deeds, as bei ng a st r anger t o t he wor l d and a f r i end of t he angel s.
Pr i mi t i ve l i f e of S. Ant hony, 7

i i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


ABSTRACT

Among t he many di f f i cul t i es r ai sed by Second Templ e
J ewi sh apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e ( whi ch i ncl ude dat i ng and
or i gi nal l anguage of composi t i on among ot her i ssues) , one
t hat st ands out i s t he i nt er pr et at i on of t he many vi si onar y
epi sodes descr i bed. Do t hey r epor t genui ne, f i r st - hand
exper i ences on t he par t of t he wr i t er s, ar e t hey j ust a
l i t er ar y convent i on, or do t hey st and i n- bet ween t hose t wo
possi bi l i t i es ( i . e. do t he wr i t t en account s r ef l ect act ual
exper i ent i al pr act i ce even i f what we have i n t he account s
t hemsel ves i s mer e l i t er ar y ar t i f i ce) ?
The most i mpor t ant i ssue t o be r ai sed among al l t hese
di f f i cul t i es i s t hat al most al l apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e i s
pseudonymous - i . e. even i f we ar e f aci ng aut hent i c
r evel at or y exper i ences t hese cannot , by def i ni t i on, be
f i r st - per son account s even when t hey ost ensi bl y appear t o
be so. Pseudepi gr aphy poses a bar r i er her e but at t he same
t i me i t has been suggest ed by a number of schol ar s t hat
t hi s devi ce mi ght be r el at ed t o t he whol e vi si onar y
pr ocess, i mpl yi ng t hat t her e may be some myst i cal
i dent i f i cat i on bet ween act ual wr i t er and por t r ayed her o. I n
shor t , t he act ual wr i t er may bel i eve hi msel f t o have been
used as a channel f or communi cat i on whi ch woul d account f or
t he pseudonymous aut hor shi p of t he t ext s.
Such quest i ons cannot be answer ed by t he st udy of
apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e al one, si nce t he t ext s gi ve us no
evi dence r egar di ng t hi s i dent i f i cat i on, or r egar di ng t he
possi bi l i t i es of eval uat i on of t he vi si onar y exper i ences. A
di f f er ent met hod must be used t o t r y t o assess t he l i t er ar y
cor pus and t he above st at ed quest i ons i n a di f f er ent l i ght .

i i i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


To t hi s end, cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son can pr ovi de a
usef ul t ool i n deal i ng wi t h cases such as our s, wher e
evi dence i n t he sour ces t hemsel ves i s scar ce but when
phenomena appar ent l y si mi l ar can be compar ed. Gr eat car e
must be t aken not t o exagger at e t he possi bi l i t i es of cr oss-
cul t ur al compar i son so as t o f i nd exact l y what one want s t o
i n ar bi t r ar y f ashi on. Cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son can however
be ver y usef ul i n not i ng si mi l ar i t i es and di f f er ences i n
pseudonymous at t r i but i on of r el i gi ous t ext s.
I n t he case di scussed i n t hi s t hesi s, we ar e deal i ng i n
t he J ewi sh l i t er at ur e aut hor shi p i n whi ch a l at er aut hor
vi ewed hi msel f as i n some way i dent i f i ed wi t h a f i gur e of
t he past as he wr ot e, l eadi ng t o pseudepi gr aphy; I have
t her ef or e l ooked f or a sui t abl e, wel l - document ed moder n
count er par t t o r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy i n Ant i qui t y. The
exampl e chosen i s Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng ( al so known
as psychogr aphy) , a r el i gi ous pr act i ce at t he cor e of
Br azi l i an Kar deci st Spi r i t i sm. Thi s has pr oved i nsi ght f ul
due t o bot h t he ext er nal si mi l ar i t y of r el i gi ous
pseudepi gr aphy and t o t he abundant exampl es of pr epar at or y
ecst at i c pr act i ces f ound t her ei n.
I n Kar deci sm, aut hor shi p i s not r eal l y pseudonymous
si nce t he name of t he medi um who mechani cal l y wr ot e t he
t ext i s usual l y gi ven; st i l l t he cont ent s of t he t ext s ar e
ascr i bed t o peopl e ot her t han t he act ual wr i t er , i . e. t he
medi um. Among t hese, t he f i gur e of Fr anci sco “Chi co” Xavi er
st ands out as one who, at t he same t i me, had an enor mous
out put of t ext s ( mor e t han 400 books) .
The st udy of Kar deci st mat er i al on aut omat i c wr i t i ng,
and st udy of schol ar shi p on i t s pr obl ems, shed l i ght on a
number of i ssues, some r ei nf or ci ng t he i dea of act ual
i dent i f i cat i on on t he par t of apocal ypt i c wr i t er s, ot her s
poi nt i ng agai nst i t . Suppor t i ve of t he hypot hesi s of

i v
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy bei ng aki n t o Kar deci st
aut omat i c wr i t i ng ar e t he ef f ect s r epor t ed by t he
vi si onar i es - t i r edness, f ear , exhaust i on, t r embl i ng,
vi sual hal l uci nat i ons ar e al l st andar d i ssues i n J ewi sh
apocal ypses and i n t he r epor t s of Kar deci st medi ums. They
ar e ver y f r equent i n Chi co Xavi er , especi al l y i n hi s
ear l i er pr oduct i on ( as t i me passed he admi t t edl y l ear nt how
t o di sci pl i ne hi s f eel i ngs and devel opment of psychi c
abi l i t i es) . Di f f er ences i n st yl e ar e al so a common f eat ur e:
a t ext l i ke, say, 4Ezr a does not r esembl e i t s canoni cal
count er par t ( Ezr a) , nor do t ext s l i ke Há 2. 000 anos
at r ás. . . r esembl e a r epor t on t he l i f e of J esus such as
coul d be wr i t t en at t he t i me of hi s deat h, or even
cent ur i es af t er . Anachr oni sm i s t hus a common f eat ur e of
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy and Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng.
Mani pul at i on of spi r i t s and/ or possessi on by t hem ar e
pr act i ces t hat make Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng somet hi ng
ot her t han mer e convent i on and t est i f y t o t he si ncer i t y of
t he medi ums’ descr i pt i ons. I n ut i l i si ng t he Kar deci st
evi dence consi der at i on i s gi ven t o evi dence of si mi l ar
i deas f r om Lat e Ant i qui t y, speci f i cal l y Second Templ e
J udai sm. Far mor e common ar e negat i ve r ef er ences t o bel i ef
i n r ei ncar nat i on i n pat r i st i c aut hor s l i ke August i ne,
Or i gen or J er ome, but t hey ar e Chr i st i an, not J ewi sh,
aut hor s di scussi ng wi t h pagans i mbued wi t h speci f i cal l y
Pyt hagor ean i deas and i n a per i od much l at er t han t hat
ascr i bed t o most of t he apocal ypt i c out put . The mer e f act
t hat t hese aut hor s di scuss t he i ssue i s i ndi cat i ve t hat
peopl e hel d such bel i ef s and t hi s was a r i sk amongst t hose
t o whomt hey wr ot e as wel l .
As a r esul t of t hi s compar i son i t woul d appear t hat
t her e i s some evi dence t o consi der apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy as pot ent i al l y i nvol vi ng mani pul at i on of

v
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


spi r i t s ( of dead past f i gur es such as Bar uch and Ezr a, but
al so of myt hi cal char act er s l i ke Enoch, who di d not di e but
was t aken up t o heaven) , si nce J osephus’ t est i mony -
not wi t hst andi ng i t s i nher ent pr obl ems - cl ear l y ascr i bes
t hi s bel i ef t o a maj or J ewi sh gr oup, t he Phar i sees. I t
shoul d be not ed t hat t he f act t hat r ei ncar nat i on was a
concept “i n t he ai r ” f or l at e Second Templ e J ews makes
pseudepi gr aphy ( whi ch may have i nvol ved t he wr i t er
i dent i f yi ng i n some way wi t h a f i gur e of t he past ) a vi abl e
pr oposi t i on, but no mor e t han t hat . I mmedi at e pr epar at or y
pr act i ces, on t he ot her hand, al t hough pl ent i f ul i n J ewi sh
apocal ypt i c descr i pt i ons, do not f or m par t of Kar deci st
t r ai ni ng and can, as such, be di smi ssed as non- mandat or y t o
per f or m aut omat i c wr i t i ng i nvol vi ng mani pul at i ng of
spi r i t s. Bot h shor t - and l ong- t er m pr epar at i ons ( i . e.
i mmedi at e pr act i ces and l i f e- l ong t r ai ni ng and absor pt i on
of doct r i ne) pl ay a ver y di f f er ent r ol e i n t he cases of
J ewi sh apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy and Kar deci st aut omat i c
wr i t i ng and t hi s i s an i ssue di scussed i n t he appendi x t o
t he t hesi s.
I t st ands out i n most apocal ypses t hat t he char act er s
under whose name t he r evel at i ons happened ar e descr i bed as
under goi ng pr epar at or y pr ocesses bef or e t he vi si ons occur .
Thi s evi dence may be adduced i n suppor t of t hi s t hesi s,
t her ef or e. These descr i pt i ons t ake a hi ghl y st er eot ypi cal
char act er ( e. g. t he sequence of f ast s i n 2Br ) but t hi s
st er eot ypi cal nat ur e does not mean, however , t hat t hey
coul d never have t aken pl ace. Such descr i pt i ons ar e ver y
much absent f r om Kar deci st usage, however . I t must al so be
st r essed t hat , si nce what changes i s cul t ur e and not
chemi st r y or physi ol ogy, t he same pr epar at or y pr act i ces can
l ead t o ver y di f f er ent r esul t s accor di ng t o t he ment al
t ool s t hat t he vi si onar y has at hi s/ her di sposal . Thus a

vi
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


Kar deci st medi um such as Chi co Xavi er sees t hi ngs t hat f i t
wel l i n hi s Kar deci st poi nt of vi ew, whi ch i ncl udes t he
mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s i n or der t o pr oduce coher ent t ext s
exhor t at i ve t o char i t y et c. , i n Kar deci st f ashi on. The same
r esul t cannot be expect ed f r om myst i cs i n soci et i es wher e
r ei ncar nat i on ( at t he cor e of Kar deci sm) or i nvoki ng of
spi r i t s ar e absent .
I n t he appendi x I di scuss pr epar at or y pr act i ces of
seer s as descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c t ext s.

vi i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I n concl udi ng t hi s t ext I must expr ess my deepest
gr at i t ude t o some of t he peopl e i nvol ved, wi t hout whomt hi s
essay woul d ever have been wr i t t en. Fi r st of al l t o Pr of .
Chr i st opher Rowl and f or t aki ng hi s t i me i n hel pi ng wi t h
f ocusi ng on t he essent i al s of t he r esear ch; t o Pr of . Mar t i n
Goodman, f or hi s cr i t i ci sm, at t ent i on t o det ai l and hel p on
t he over al l st r uct ur e and def i ni t i on of t he t heme, as wel l
as much needed suppor t i n t he cour se of t he ant ecedi ng MSt
degr ee. I must ext end my gr at i t ude t o Pr of . Tessa Raj ak and
Dr . Al i son Sal vesen f or encour agement and advi ce dur i ng t he
i ni t i al phases of t hi s wor k. Ver y speci al t hanks ar e due t o
Pr of s. J ohn J . Col l i ns and St eve Mason, bot h f or t hei r
per sonal suggest i ons as wel l as f or cont i nui ng f r i endshi p
and suppor t .
Br anden Mi l l er , Car l os August o Machado and Ghi nwa
Mamar i di scussed i nf or mal l y many of t he i deas her e
devel oped and Ada Er l i ch hel ped wi t h Hebr ew r ef er ences.
Fi ona Wi l kes, l i br ar i an of Wol f son Col l ege, di d mor e t han I
coul d possi bl y have asked f or as di d Andr é Zaghet t o, f r om
t he Feder ação Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a - FEB, i n Br así l i a, i n
sear chi ng, f i ndi ng and sendi ng many di f f i cul t and out - of -
pr i nt t ext s. I must al so t hank my mot her Ter esa Dobr or uka
f or sendi ng many Kar deci st t ext s t hat I woul d ot her wi se
have had a l ot of t r oubl e f i ndi ng. Fl ávi a Sat i ko Kobayashi
gave me hel p i n ext r emi s and wi t hout her ai d t he f i nal
deadl i nes woul d not have been met . Ray Shoul der deser ves a
ver y speci al pl ace i n t he acknowl edgement s due t o hi s hel p,
ki ndness and at t ent i on i n t he l ast r evi si ons. Mar i ana
Magal hães al so deser ves t he war mest t hanks f or t ur ni ng
J ungui an dr eams t r ue. Wol f son Col l ege was my home

vi i i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


t hr oughout t he per i od of doct or al st udi es, and i t pr oved t o
me a most congeni al and war m set t i ng: on mor e t han one
occasi on Wol f son pr ovi ded me wi t h hel p t hr ough di f f i cul t i es
of ever y sor t . Thanks ar e al so due t o CAPES –
Br así l i a/ Br azi l .
My wi f e Cecí l i a shar ed a gr eat par t of t he bur den t hat
t he r esear ch t ook on bot h of us, and st i l l we had t he gi f t s
of our daught er s J ul i a and I sabel a ami dst al l wor k – t hi s
was a bl essi ng i ndeed, so t hi s t hesi s i s dedi cat ed t o t he
t hr ee of t hem.

i x
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


CONTENTS

Abst r act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i

Acknowl edgment s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi i i

Abbr evi at i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi

Chapt er 1: I nt r oduct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. Nat ur e and pur pose of cr oss- cul t ur al st udi es i n Bi bl i cal
schol ar shi p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Ter mi nol ogy and def i ni t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. 1. Al t er ed st at es of consci ousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. 2. Ecst asy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. 3. Possessi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. 4. Aut omat i sms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2. 5. Hypnosi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng and ecst at i c pr act i ces i n r ecent
schol ar shi p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. The meani ng of pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. Out l i ne of schol ar shi p about l at e Second Templ e
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5. 1. The concept of cor por at e i dent i t y as appl i ed t o
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5. 2. Recent di scussi ons on apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy as
i dent i f i cat i on wi t h al l eged aut hor s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6. Why a cr oss- cul t ur al appr oach i s needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7. Consi der at i ons of met hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. Pr esent at i on of t he t hesi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49



x
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


PART ONE – CROSS- CULTURAL PARALLELS TO VI SI ONARY PROCESSES
I NVOLVI NG THE ASSUMPTI ON OF ANOTHER PERSON’ S AUTHORI AL
I DENTI TY

Chapt er 2: Aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n moder n- day Kar deci sm
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2. Br i ef i nt r oduct i on t o t he devel opment of Br azi l i an
Kar deci sm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2. 1. A sur vey of Kar deci st doct r i ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2. 2. Kar deci smi n Br azi l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3. Kar deci st pr epar at or y pr act i ces f or
aut omat i c wr i t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3. 1. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng and medi umshi p t r ai ni ng . . . . . . 66
3. 2. Pr epar at i on and meani ng of aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n
Br azi l i an Kar deci sm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3. 3. Genr e and per sonal i dent i t y of t he spi r i t ual aut hor
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4. Edi t or i al medi at i on of psychogr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5. Two moder n- day Kar deci st apocal ypses, and how t hei r
al l eged aut hor s ar e por t r ayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6. Summar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Chapt er 3: Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n t he l i ght of
schol ar shi p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as hypnot i c phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2. 1. Non- myst i cal aut omat i c wr i t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2. 2. Wr i t i ngs i n ot her l anguages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3. Mul t i pl e- per sonal i t y phenomena
and aut omat i c wr i t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as possessi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

xi
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


5. Past - l i ves t her apy, hypnosi s and i dent i t y wi t h past
char act er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
6. Summar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


PART TWO – APOCALYPTI C PSEUDEPI GRAPHY I N THE LI GHT OF THE
KARDECI ST MATERI AL

Chapt er 4: Rel evance of t he concept of r ei ncar nat i on, i t s
vi abi l i t y i n l at e Second Templ e J udai sm and evi dence f r om
Chr i st i an aut hor s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2. Why r ei ncar nat i on and mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s ar e an
i mpor t ant par t of t he ar gument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
3. Evi dence f or bel i ef i n r ei ncar nat i on i n Second Templ e
J udai sm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3. 1. Absence of t he i dea i n t he OT
and Rabbi ni c sour ces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
3. 2. Uses of t he concept i n J osephus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4. Summar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Chapt er 5: Aut hor shi p and spi r i t ual wr i t i ng i n Second
Templ e J ewi sh apocal ypt i c and r el at ed t ext s . . . . . . . . . . . 149
1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
2. Sur vey of chosen passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
2. 1. Ful l descr i pt i on of t he nar r at or ’ s i dent i t y . . . 153
2. 2. Ot her descr i pt i ons of t he
nar r at or ’ s i dent i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2. 3. Passages wi t h smal l er number of i ndi cat i ons . . . 164
2. 4. Al l eged 1st per son passages i n non- apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr apha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

xi i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


3. Aut hor shi p of apocal ypt i c t ext s and di vi ne
mani f est at i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
3. 1. Br i ef di scussi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
3. 2. Di vi ne i nt er f er ence mani f est i n t he t ext s . . . . . 170
4. Possi bl e evi dence f or aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n t hr ee
speci f i c anci ent cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
4. 1. Wr i t i ngs f r om a deceased pr ophet vi a human hands:
t he case of 2Chr 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
4. 2. Text s handed down di r ect l y f r om above: t he Book of
El chasai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
4. 3. Fr aud and sat i r e: wr i t t en i nst r uct i ons f or t he
Gr eek cr edul ous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5. Summar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Chapt er 6: Consi der at i ons on r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy i n
Ant i qui t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2. A sur vey of chosen names f or
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
3. Pseudepi gr aphy and f or ger y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
3. 1. Cent r al el ement s t o t he not i on of
l i t er ar y f or ger y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
3. 2. I nt ent i on of f r aud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
4. Anci ent t est i moni es r egar di ng i ndi vi dual cases of
r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
4. 1. Ter t ul l i an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
4. 2. Sal vi an of Mar sei l l es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
5. Psychi cal phenomena r el at ed t o pseudepi gr aphy . . . . . . 200
6. Aut hor i al ascr i bi ng, or t hodoxy and wi sdom. . . . . . . . . . 205
7. Summar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Chapt er 7: Concl usi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
1. Summar y and assessment of t he t hesi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

xi i i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. Ar gument s suppor t i ve of act ual i dent i f i cat i on bet ween
mechani cal wr i t er and apocal ypt i c vi si onar y . . . . . . . . 212
2. 1. Ef f ect s descr i bed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
2. 2. Choosi ng of names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
2. 3. Par al l el s i n ot her i dent i f i cat i on- t ype myst i cal
exper i ences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
2. 4. Par al l el s i n ot her i dent i f i cat i on- t ype non- myst i cal
exper i ences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2. 5. Unmat chi ng st yl es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
3. Ar gument s agai nst act ual i dent i f i cat i on bet ween
mechani cal wr i t er and apocal ypt i c vi si onar y . . . . . . . . 223
3. 1. Uncer t ai nt y of t he essent i al l i nk, r ei ncar nat i on
and mani pul at i ng of t he dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
3. 2. Wei ght of st er eot ypi cal descr i pt i ons . . . . . . . . . . 225
3. 3. Weak evi dence pr ovi ded by si mi l ar hypnot i c- l i ke
descr i pt i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
3. 4. Uncer t ai nt y of OT passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
3. 5. Psychogr aphy i s never i nt ended as decept i on or
conf usi ng evi dence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
4. Fi nal r emar ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Appendi x: Vi si onar y pr act i ces i n Ol d Test ament and
pseudepi gr aphi cal apocal ypses and r el at ed t ext s . . . . . . . 235
1. Sur vey of chosen passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
2. Pr epar at or y pr ocesses f r omt he seer s’
poi nt of vi ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
2. 1. I nduct i on t echni ques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
2. 2. Sensor y det ai l s i n pr epar at or y t echni ques . . . . . 253
2. 3. St r ange behavi our and af t er - ef f ect s . . . . . . . . . . . 258
2. 4. Chemi cal i nduct i on of vi si onar y exper i ences . . . 267
2. 4. 1. The nat ur e of st or i es about chemi cal
i nducement i n 4Ezr a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

xi v
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. 4. 2. Per si an par al l el s r egar di ng chemi cal l y i nduced
al t er ed st at es of consci ousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
2. 4. 3. Concl usi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
3. Vi si onar y exper i ence, sel f - hypnosi s and pur i t y i n 3
Enoch and r el at ed l i t er at ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
4. The st udy of Scr i pt ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
4. 1. Vi si onar y exper i ence and mar t yr dom. . . . . . . . . . . . 308
4. 2. Vi si onar y exper i ence as sel f - cont r ol . . . . . . . . . . 310

BI BLI OGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

xv
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


LI ST OF ABBREVI ATI ONS

1En - Et hi opi c Book of Enoch
2Br - Syr i ac Apocal ypse of Bar uch
2En - Sl avoni c Book of Enoch
3Br - Gr eek Apocal ypse of Bar uch
3En - Hebr ew Book of Enoch
4Br - Four t h Book of Bar uch
4Ezr a - Four t h Book of Ezr a
AAASH - Act a Ant i qua Academi ae Sci ent i ar umHungar i cae
AI - Act a I r ani ca
AJ - J osephus, Ant i qui t at es J udai cor um
AJ CH - Amer i can J our nal of Cl i ni cal Hypnosi s
AJ CHH - Aust r al i an J our nal of Cl i ni cal Hypnot her apy and
Hypnosi s
AJ T - Amer i can J our nal of Theol ogy
AMI - Ar chäol ogi sche Mi t t ei l ungen aus I r an
AMWNE - HELLHOLM, Dani el ( ed. ) . Apocal ypt i ci sm i n t he
Medi t er r anean Wor l d and t he Near East : Pr oceedi ngs of t he
I nt er nat i onal Col l oqui um on Apocal ypt i ci sm, Uppsal a,
August 12- 17, 1979. Tübi ngen: Mohr , 1983.
ANF - ROBERTS, Al exander and DONALDSON, J ames ( eds. ) . The
Ant e- Ni cene Fat her s. Tr ansl at i ons of t he Wr i t i ngs of t he
Fat her s down t o A. D. 325. Edi nbur gh / Gr and Rapi ds: T & T
Cl ar k / Eer dmans, 1989.
ApAbr - Apocal ypse of Abr aham
ApEl - Copt i c Apocal ypse of El i j ah
ApMos - Apocal ypse of Moses
ApSed - Apocal ypse of Sedr ach
ASC - “al t er ed st at e of consci ousness”
ATR - Angl i can Theol ogi cal Revi ew
Bi b. - Bi bl i ca

xvi
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


BJ - J osephus, Bel l umJ udai cum
BJ P - Br i t i sh J our nal of Psychol ogy
BM - KARDEC, Al l an. O l i vr o dos médi uns ( The Book of
Medi ums) .
BN - Bi bl i sche Not i zen
BSOAS - Bul l et i n of t he School of Or i ent al and Af r i can
St udi es
CA - J osephus, Cont r a Api onem
CBQ - Cat hol i c Bi bl i cal Quar t er l y
DNS - Di seases of t he Ner vous Syst em
EA - Ex Audi t u
EI - Encycl opedi a of I sl am
EPS - Encycl opaedi a of Psychi c Sci ence
ET - Exposi t or y Ti mes
FE - Fol ha Espí r i t a
FPP - “f ant asy- pr one per sonal i t y”
Gr Ezr a - Gr eek Apocal ypse of Ezr a
HTR - Har var d Theol ogi cal Revi ew
I J CEH - I nt er nat i onal J our nal of Cl i ni cal and Exper i ment al
Hypnosi s
I nt . - I nt er pr et at i on
J AI H - J our nal of t he Amer i can I nst i t ut e of Hypnosi s
J AP - J our nal of Abnor mal Psychi at r y
J ASP - J our nal of Abnor mal and Soci al Psychol ogy
J ASPR - J our nal of t he Amer i can Soci et y f or Psychi cal
Resear ch
J BL - J our nal of Bi bl i cal Li t er at ur e
J CEH - J our nal of Cl i ni cal and Exper i ment al Hypnosi s
J GP - J our nal of Genet i c Psychol ogy
J HBS - J our nal of t he Hi st or y of t he Behavi or al Sci ences
J HS - J our nal of Hel l eni c St udi es
J MI - J our nal of Ment al I mager y
J NMD - J our nal of Ner vous and Ment al Di sease

xvi i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


J SP - J our nal f or t he St udy of t he Pseudepi gr apha
J SPR - J our nal of t he Soci et y f or Psychi cal Resear ch
J TD - J our nal of Tr auma and Di ssoci at i on
J TS - J our nal of Theol ogi cal St udi es
MI FAN - Memoi r es de l ’ I nst i t ut Fr ançai s d’ Af r i que Noi r e
Mnem. - Mnemosyne
NT- NovumTest ament um
NTP - SCHNEEMELCHER, Wi l hel m ( ed. ) . New Test ament Apocr ypha.
Vol . 2. London: Lut t er wor t h Pr ess, 1965.
NTS - New Test ament St udi es
OTP - CHARLESWORTH, J ames ( ed. ) . The Ol d Test ament
Pseudepi gr apha. New Yor k: Doubl eday, 2 vol umes. 1983-
1985;
PP - Pr of essi onal Psychol ogy: Resear ch and Pr act i ce
PQ - Psychoanal yt i cal Quar t er l y
PQS - Psychi at r i c Quar t er l y Suppl ement
PR - Psychol ogi cal Revi ew
PSPR - Pr oceedi ngs of t he Soci et y f or Psychi cal Resear ch
Pseud. I - VON FRI TZ, Kur t ( ed. ) . Pseudepi gr apha I : hui t
exposés sui vi s de di scussi ons. Vandouvr es- Genève:
Fondat i on Har dt , 1972.
PsyR. - Psychol ogy Revi ew
PT - “possessi onal t r ance”
RS - Rel i gi ão e soci edade
SBE - MÜLLER, Max ( ed. ) . The Sacr ed Books of t he East .
SJ T - Scot t i sh J our nal of Theol ogy
SR - Spi r i t i st Revi ew
T - “t r ance”
TB - Tyndal e Bul l et i n
Test 12 - Test ament of t he Twel ve Pat r i ar chs
Test Abr - Test ament of Abr aham
Th. - Themel i os

xvi i i
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


TPAPA - Tr ansact i ons and Pr oceedi ngs of t he Amer i can
Phi l ol ogi cal Associ at i on
V - J osephus, Vi t a
ZDMG - Zei t schr i f t der Deut schen Mor genl ändi schen
Gesel l schaf t

xi x
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

CHAPTER 1 - I NTRODUCTI ON

The ai m and pur pose of t hi s t hesi s i s t o di scuss
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy as r el at ed t o a myst i c
exper i ence of possessi on; i n shor t , t o di scuss t he i dea
t hat t he pseudonymous aut hor shi p of most apocal ypses may be
i n some way r el at ed t o t he myst i cal exper i ences descr i bed
i n t hem.
Thi s i nt r oduct i on f ocuses on t hr ee mai n subj ect s,
namel y a t heor et i cal di scussi on of t he need f or t he cr oss-
cul t ur al anal ysi s such as t he one pr oposed ( as wel l as i t s
l i mi t at i ons) , some t hought s on t he t er mi nol ogy t o be used
her eaf t er as r el at ed t o t he psychol ogi cal pr ocesses
i nvol ved i n t he myst i cal phenomena t o be anal yzed and an
eval uat i on of schol ar shi p r el at ed t o t he t heme.
So i t i s my ai m t o deal wi t h t he st udy of
pseudepi gr aphi cal pr act i ces as r el at ed t o t he l i t er at ur e
above def i ned; onl y secondar i l y i s i t r el at ed t o t he t ext s
i n t hei r or i gi nal l anguage. I t i s not my i nt ent i on t o
engage i n t r ansl at i on f or i t s own sake: wher e necessar y
comment wi l l be gi ven by means of checki ng t r ansl at i ons
accept ed and r enown t hr oughout t he schol al y communi t y.
My i nt er est i n t he t opi c above r ose not so much as a
per sonal wi sh t o st udy t heor et i cal i ssues r el at ed t o
al t er ed st at es of consci ousness ( ASC, f r omnow onwar ds) but
mor e as a l ong- t er mdesi r e t o come cl oser t o t he peopl e who
pr oduced t hese t ext s. Al t hough t he l i t er ar y cor pus
pr eser ved i s bi g enough, we know ver y l i t t l e about t he
per sons behi nd t he t ext s and, by ext ensi on, of t he myst i cal
exper i ences t hat may l i e behi nd t he apocal ypses – even when
dat i ng i s r el at i vel y st r ai ght f or war d, as i t occur s i n t he
book of Dani el . Thi s can be par t of our gener al i gnor ance

1
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

about r eader s and books i n Ant i qui t y, but , i f pur sued as an
i ndependent t heme coul d l ead us t o a bet t er under st andi ng
of t he wor l d of J udai smi n l at e Second Templ e Per i od, and,
by ext ensi on, of t he wor l d J esus knew and wher e
Chr i st i ani t y was bor n.

2
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

1. Nat ur e and pur pose of cr oss- cul t ur al st udi es i n
Bi bl i cal schol ar shi p

A f i r st and maj or di f f i cul t y ar i ses i n def i ni ng whet her
t he ecst at i c pr act i ces descr i bed i n our sour ces ar e genui ne
pr ocesses or j ust l i t er ar y t opoi . I f t hi s coul d be def i ned
as t r ue or f al se wi t h any degr ee of cer t ai nt y, a bi g par t
of t he pr obl em di scussed i n t hi s t hesi s woul d be sol ved
bef or ehand; unf or t unat el y t he evi dence avai l abl e wi l l not
pr ovi de any def i ni t e answer .
Thus, i n t he absence of cont empor ar y and geneal ogi cal l y
l i nked evi dence t o suppor t any concl usi on r egar di ng t he
aut hent i ci t y of t he apocal ypt i ci st s’ pr act i ces, I pr opose
i nst ead t o t ur n t o a st r uct ur al appr oach – i . e. t he
i nvest i gat i on of si mi l ar pat t er ns of myst i cal behavi our i n
soci et i es non- di r ect l y r el at ed t o J udai sm of t he def i ned
per i od, but on whi ch we have enough cl ear i nf or mat i on t o
dr aw on par al l el s or di ver gences. Or put i n an even si mpl er
way, we shoul d t r y t o at t ai n some degr ee of gener al i zat i on
by means of compar i ng si mi l ar phenomena: t hi s can be done
r egar di ng hi st or i cal l y r el at ed soci et i es ( geneal ogi cal
appr oach, when di r ect bor r owi ng i s demonst r abl e) or non-
r el at ed ones ( st r uct ur al )
1
.
I n t hi s r espect , t he at t empt her e pr oposed i s not by
any means new: al r eady i n t he 19t h cent ur y Fr anz Boas coul d
t heor i ze on i t , al t hough wi t h a somewhat evol ut i oni st bi as
( due t o t he under l yi ng assumpt i on t hat , human soci et i es
havi ng devel oped ever ywher e wi t h so many common t r aces, t he
same et hni c phenomena woul d be obser ved ever ywher e wi t h

1
Wi l l i am A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt ( eds. ) . Reader i n Compar at i ve
Rel i gi on: An Ant hr opol ogi cal Appr oach. Evanst on: Row, Pet er son, 1958.
P. 4.

3
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

mi nor di f f er ences i n shape)
2
. However , besi des t he dubi ous
assumpt i on t hat t he above shoul d be t r ue, we ar e not
deal i ng wi t h t he same et hni c phenomena her e, but r at her
t r yi ng t o obser ve i f si mi l ar psychol ogi cal pr ocesses ar e at
wor k and coul d t hus pr ovi de us wi t h i nsi ght s r egar di ng
Second Templ e myst i cs. Obvi ousl y, si nce t hi s i s not a wor k
on psychol ogy, i t shoul d pr ovi de onl y some t ool s t o hel p
anal ysi s i n i ndi vi dual ar eas, namel y t hose wher e speci f i c
di f f er ences must not be ascr i bed t o di f f er ent cul t ur al
backgr ounds bet ween i ndi vi dual s or gr oups. Besi des, as Boas
al r eady knew, i t woul d be r eal l y unwi se t o ascr i be
i dent i cal consequences t o si mi l ar causes when deal i ng wi t h
cul t ur al mat er i al
3
; t her e ar e many cases of non- r el at ed
soci et i es whi ch di spl ay t he same condi t i ons f or t he r i si ng
of pr ophet i c or apocal ypt i c movement s, and nonet hel ess such
movement s woul d not t ake pl ace i n some of t hem
4
.
I mpor t ant moder n cr oss- cul t ur al compar i sons i n t he
st udy of r el i gi ons i ncl ude t hose of J ohn Asht on, who used
i t r egar di ng Paul ’ s “shamani st i c” f eat ur es
5
, and Thomas
Over hol t , who t r i ed t he same t hi ng i n or der t o under st and
pr ophet i sm i n par al l el t o Nat i ve Amer i can r el i gi ons
6
, t o
name but t wo f amous exampl es. I n t he case of Paul i t can
st i l l be ar gued t hat shamani sm coul d be echoed t o hi m vi a
Gr eek f i r st - hand knowl edge ( i . e. t he “st r uct ur al ” appr oach
coul d l ead t o a “geneal ogi cal ” l i nk) ; evi dent l y t he same

2
Fr anz Boas. “The l i mi t at i ons of t he compar at i ve met hod of
Ant hr opol ogy” ( 1896) i n: Fr anz Boas. Race, Language and Cul t ur e.
Chi cago: Uni ver si t y of Chi cago Pr ess, 1982.
3
I dempp. 273- 275.
4
Rober t Wi l son. “The pr obl ems of descr i bi ng and def i ni ng apocal ypt i c
di scour se” i n: Semei a 2, 1981.
5
The Rel i gi on of Paul t he Apost l e. New Haven / London: Yal e Uni ver si t y
Pr ess, 2000.
6
Thomas Over hol t . Pr ophecy i n Cr oss- Cul t ur al Per spect i ve: A Sour cebook
f or Bi bl i cal Resear cher s. At l ant a: Schol ar s Pr ess, 1986. Thi s pr oved
t o be a ver y i mpor t ant wor k, especi al l y r egar di ng met hodol ogi cal
consi der at i ons.

4
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

cannot be sai d of Amer i can nat i ve cul t s. West on La Bar r e
di d t he same t hi ng usi ng t he Si oux’ Ghost Dance r el i gi on as
a model f or under st andi ng Chr i st i ani t y
7
.
Per haps t he most f amous r ecent at t empt t o el uci dat e
anci ent ment al pr ocesses by means of cr oss- cul t ur al
pr ocesses i s t hat of Mi l man Par r y compar i ng Ser bi an or al
epi c composi t i ons i n t he begi nni ng of t he 20t h cent ur y t o
Homer i c poet r y; al t hough chal l enged i n mor e r ecent t i mes i t
was a not ewor t hy ef f or t i n a f i el d wher e, l i ke our s,
i nt er nal evi dence had l ong yi el ded what ever coul d be
consi der ed usef ul t o el uci dat e psychol ogi cal ( i n t hi s case,
mnemoni cal ) pr ocesses
8
. A l ong l i st of si mi l ar wor ks coul d
be pr oduced her e but t hi s woul d t ake us f ar away f r om our
obj ect of st udy
9
.
The mai n i dea under l yi ng al l cr oss- cul t ur al st udi es
l i ke t he ones ment i oned above ( and al so t hi s t hesi s) i s
t hat si mi l ar soci al , hi st or i cal or economi cal ci r cumst ances
shoul d pr oduce si mi l ar but not i dent i cal r esul t s, as sai d
above: t hi s means t hat , whi l e t her e ar e many gaps i n our
under st andi ng of , say, peasant J udaea i n t he f i r st - cent ur y,
t hese coul d be at l east par t i al l y f i l l ed by means of
compar i son wi t h ot her bet t er - known, mor e r ecent ( or even

7
An ef f or t whi ch came t o t he somewhat cur i ous concl usi on t hat
“Chr i st i ani t y i s t he st i l l cogni t i vel y t r oubl ed and i mper f ect l y mel ded
Hel l eni st i c ‘ ghost dances’ of t he Hel l eni c and Semi t i c peopl es cr ushed
by Rome”. The Ghost Dance: Or i gi ns of Rel i gi on. London: Al l en and
Unwi n, 1972. P. 254.
8
AdamPar r y ( ed. ) The Maki ng of Homer i c Ver se: The Col l ect ed Paper s of
Mi l man Par r y. Oxf or d: Oxf or d Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1987; Moses Fi nl ey. The
Wor l d of Odysseus. London: Chat t o & Wi ndus, 1956.
9
Mi r cea El i ade. Pat t er ns i n Compar at i ve Rel i gi on: London: Sheed &
War d, 1958; Adol f Dei smann. Li ght f r om t he Anci ent East : t he New
Test ament I l l ust r at ed by Recent l y Di scover ed Text s of t he Gr aeco- Roman
Wor l d. London: Hodder and St ought on, 1927. Not ewor t hy ar e al so Kei t h
Thomas’ use of ant hr opol ogy t o st udy Engl i sh wi t chcr af t i n t he t i me of
Ref or mat i on and Tessa Raj ak’ s compar i son of pol i t i cal upheaval i n
f i r st - cent ur y J udaea wi t h t he Engl i sh Revol ut i on. I t shoul d be not ed
t hat ant hr opol ogi st s of t en go t he ot her way r ound, i . e. t ur ni ng t o
Bi bl i cal st udi es i n or der t o under st and t hei r own obj ect s ( cf . Rober t
Cul l ey, “Ant hr opol ogy and t he Ol d Test ament : an i nt r oduct or y comment ”
i n: Semei a 21, 1981) .

5
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

cont empor ar y) soci et i es. A good exampl e woul d be t he
ar t i cl e by Shi mon Appl ebaum wher e t he aut hor t r i es t o
devel op hi s i nsi ght s i nt o t he economi c si t uat i on of f i r st -
cent ur y J udaea l ooki ng at Br azi l i an mi l l enar i an movement s
f r om t he begi nni ng of t he 20t h cent ur y
10
. By l ooki ng at
what we know wi t h mor e det ai l , and by means of est abl i shi ng
r easonabl e par al l el s, we may come t o know mor e about a
t heme shr ouded i n doubt such as t he pur poses and nat ur e of
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy i n l at e Second Templ e J udai sm
11
.
One must be on guar d, however , agai nst sel ect i ve
descr i pt i on chosen i n t he sour ces t o be eval uat ed – unl ess
one i s t o f or ce t he evi dence i nt o pr e- ar r anged schemes and
t hen f i nd, sur pr i si ngl y, t hat bot h ends do i ndeed meet
12
.
On t he ot her hand, a gr eat deal of r ecent schol ar shi p on
t he subj ect , st i l l i ndebt ed t o f or m- cr i t i cal st udi es
( r emar kabl e i n mor e t han one aspect , i t must be sai d) comes
t o a dead- end i n many t hemes ( e. g. t he r el at i onshi p bet ween
ecst at i c means and r at i onal cont ent i n cl assi cal pr ophecy,
or bet ween pr ophet s and soci et y)
13
; cr oss- cul t ur al st udi es
shoul d, i n my vi ew, onl y be used i n t he absence of mor e
compl et e dat a t o al l ow concl usi ons of t he “geneal ogi cal ”
t ype.
The cr oss- cul t ur al anal ysi s pr oposed her e r egar ds t he
possi bi l i t y t hat pseudonymous aut hor shi p be somet hi ng el se
ot her t han mer e f r aud or st yl i st i c devi ce and, as such,
under st andabl e i n t he l i ght of t he cont empor ar y, appar ent l y

10
“J osephus and t he economi c causes of t he J ewi sh War ” i n: Loui s
Fel dman and Gohei Hat a ( eds. ) . J osephus, t he Bi bl e, and Hi st or y:
Det r oi t : Wayne St at e Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1989. P. 257.
11
Such i s t he expl i ci t i nt ent i on of Wi l son i n Pr ophecy and Soci et y i n
Anci ent I sr ael . Phi l adel phi a: For t r ess Pr ess, 1980, whi l e st udyi ng
anot her “eni gmat i c” subj ect , t he r el at i on bet ween pr ophecy and soci et y
i n Anci ent I sr ael .
12
Br uce Met zger . “Consi der at i ons of met hodol ogy i n t he st udy of t he
myst er y r el i gi ons and ear l y Chr i st i ani t y”, HTR 48, 1955. Pp. 8- 9.
13
Wi l son, “Pr ophecy and ecst asy: a r eexami nat i on”, p. 322 f f .

6
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

si mi l ar phenomenon of Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng
( psychogr aphy) .

7
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

2. Ter mi nol ogy and def i ni t i ons

Si nce most of t he t er ms used i n t he di scussi on of t he
phenomena come or i gi nal l y f r om t he f i el d of psychol ogi cal
st udi es, a br i ef summar y of def i ni t i ons, t er ms and concept s
shoul d be gi ven her e.

2. 1. Al t er ed st at es of consci ousness
“Al t er ed st at e of consci ousness” i s a br oad t er m whi ch
compr i ses al l t he st at es of mi nd di scussed i n t hi s wor k and
goes f ar beyond ( i . e. ASCs ar e al so t o be f ound i n non-
r el i gi ous envi r onment s, or i n subj ect s not i nvol ved wi t h
r el i gi ous exper i ence) . On t he ot her hand, when t he schol ar
comes t o deal wi t h speci f i c t er mi nol ogy ( such as “t r ance”,
“ecst asy”, “possessi on” and so on) t her e i s no agr eement
bet ween t he speci al i st s as t o t hei r meani ng; t he l i st of
possi bl e def i ni t i ons f or t hese t er ms woul d be endl ess. I
have t r i ed t o of f er oper at i ve def i ni t i ons t hat ar e, of
cour se, based on t he speci f i c l i t er at ur e but at t he same
t i me avoi di ng cont r over si es t hat ar e, f or our pur poses,
unnecessar y.
A usef ul st ar t i ng poi nt f or a def i ni t i on of ASC i s
pr oposed by Ludwi g - an ASC ( of whi ch ecst asy i s but a
par t i cul ar case) can be def i ned as any st at e t hat i s
i nduced by physi ol ogi cal , psychol ogi cal or phar macol ogi cal
agent s; t hey ar e al so st at es of mi nd t hat can be i dent i f i ed
by t he sel f or by an ext er nal obser ver r epr esent i ng a cl ear
devi at i on i n t er ms of t he subj ect i ve exper i ence of t he
psychol ogi cal wor ki ng as r el at ed t o gener al nor ms, di ct at ed
by t he subj ect i ve exper i ence of t hi s same i ndi vi dual whi l e

8
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

awake
14
. Thi s i s a ver y br oad def i ni t i on; mor e st r i ct l y,
t he ecst at i c phenomenon can be under st ood as an al t er at i on
of man’ s ment al act i vi t y, wi t h r el evant consequences f or
hi s i nt er pr et at i on of sel f and r eal i t y
15
. I n shor t , ASCs
compr i se al l t he phenomena descr i bed bel ow and ar e not
necessar i l y r el at ed t o r el i gi ous exper i ence – act i vi t i es as
di f f er ent as oi l pai nt i ng and r adar oper at i ng have been
l i nked t o ASCs by i t s par t i ci pant s.

2. 2. Ecst asy
A moder n def i ni t i on of “ecst asy” pr ovi ded by a r ecent
wor k i s t hat i t i s, “st r i ct l y, a t r ancel i ke st at e of
pr of ound emot i onal i t y i n whi ch awar eness i s l i mi t ed t o t he
obj ect of cont empl at i on. Al so l oosel y used t o r ef er t o any
exal t ed st at e of emot i on”
16
. I n an ext ensi on of i t s meani ng
i n Gr eek, “ecst asy” def i nes a f r ame of mi nd wher e t he sel f
i s no l onger conf i ned t o i t s physi cal l i mi t at i ons ( t hi s
bei ng a r equi r ed condi t i on f or ot her wor l dl y j our neys such
as t he one descr i bed on 3En)
17
. By compar i son “t r ance”, t o
whi ch i t i s r el at ed, can be def i ned as “a st at e of pr of ound
absor pt i on f r equent l y accompani ed by vocal and mot or
aut omat i sms t hat i n some cont ext s ar e i nt er pr et ed as si gns
of spi r i t possessi on”
18
.

2. 3. Possessi on
“Possessi on”, i n cont r ast t o al l ot her t er ms def i ned
her e, i s not a psychol ogi cal or cl i ni cal t er m i n or i gi n,
but r at her a cul t ur al expl anat i on gi ven t o an ASC, namel y

14
Ar nol d Ludwi g. “Al t er ed st at es of consci ousness” i n: Char l es Tar t
( ed. ) . Al t er ed St at es of Consci ousness. San Fr anci sco: Har per , 1990.
15
I d. i bi d.
16
Davi d Wul f f . Psychol ogy of Rel i gi on: Cl assi c and Cont empor ar y Vi ews.
New Yor k: Chi chest er / Wi l ey, 1991. G- 8.
17
Hol m, op. ci t . p. 7.
18
Wul f f , op. ci t . G- 30.

9
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t o a ki nd of t r ance ( “possessi onal t r ance” or si mpl y PT)
19
.
Much of cont empor ar y di scussi on on t he subj ect i s owed t o
t he except i onal wor k of Oest er r ei ch, whi ch however goes
f ur t her i n t r yi ng t o pr ovi de expl anat i ons f or t he
phenomenon
20
. As a st ar t i ng poi nt i t must be sai d t hat
“possessi on” i s a cul t ur al expl anat i on gi ven t o a
di ssoci at i ve st at e, whi ch i s expl ai ned by means of a human,
ani mal or super nat ur al ent i t y ent er i ng t he body of t he
possessed and t aki ng hol d, i n par t or whol e, of hi s / her
mi nd.

2. 4. Aut omat i sms
Fi nal l y, a l ast keywor d f or our i nvest i gat i on i s
“aut omat i sm” ( of whi ch t he phenomena t o be anal yzed i n
chapt er 1 ar e but a par t i cul ar case) , whi ch const i t ut es, i n
a psychol ogi st ’ s vi ew, “act i ons t hat ar e car r i ed out
wi t hout awar eness or at l east wi t hout t he at t ent i on t hat i s
usual l y r equi r ed f or t hei r successf ul per f or mance”
21
. Not
ever y aut omat i sm i s as spect acul ar as aut omat i c wr i t i ng: a
gr eat deal of aut omat i c act i vi t y i s car r i ed out by ever y
per son on a cont i nuous basi s, wi t hout any myst i cal
i mpl i cat i on
22
.

19
Er i ka Bour gui gnon ( ed. ) Rel i gi on, Al t er ed St at es of Consci ousness
and Soci al Change. Col umbus: Ohi o St at e Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1973. P. 13.
20
Possessi on, Demoni acal and Ot her : Among Pr i mi t i ve Races i n
Ant i qui t y, t he Mi ddl e Ages, and Moder n Ti mes. Seacaucus: Uni ver si t y
Books, 1966. P. 65 f f . Oest er r ei ch’ s gr oundbr eaki ng book i s r emar kabl e,
among ot her t hi ngs, f or not di smi ssi ng possessi onal phenomena as f al se
but r at her as havi ng an obj ect i ve expl anat i on ( al t hough not spi r i t ual
causes) .
21
Wul f f , op. ci t . G- 3.
22
Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t . 45. A ver y common var i at i on of t hi s phenomenon
woul d be t he “i nt er nal voi ce” t hat keeps a di al ogue wi t h ever y per son
as i f i t wer e a di st i nct par t of t he sel f or even a di f f er ent per son.

10
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

Si nce aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s al so a di ssoci at i ve
phenomenon, i t has accor di ngl y been r el at ed t o possessi on
and t o mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es by schol ar s
23
.

2. 5. Hypnosi s
Al t hough t her e i s no unani mous concl usi on among
schol ar s about t he r ol e pl ayed by hypnosi s i n possessi on,
di ssoci at i on and aut omat i c wr i t i ng, t he maj or i t y of
schol ar s woul d l i nk bot h i ssues. A br i ef def i ni t i on of
hypnosi s can ci r cumscr i be i t as an ASC char act er i zed by
cer t ai n physi ol ogi cal at t r i but es ( such as l ower bl ood
pr essur e, i ncr ease i n suggest i bi l i t y and enhanced access t o
unconsci ous f eel i ngs and i deas)
24
. “Hypnot i c phenomena can
be descr i bed as nat ur al behavi or al and exper i ent i al
mani f est at i ons of t he t r ance st at e”
25
.
The way hypnosi s has been r egar ded as sci ent i f i cal l y
accept abl e or di smi ssed as char l at ani sm has swung back and
f or t h over t he l ast cent ur i es. I t must be sai d, however ,
t hat i t s cl i ni cal appl i cat i ons ( and by ext ensi on, i t s
cr edi bi l i t y i n ot her sect or s of i nvest i gat i on) have had an
ever - gr owi ng use si nce t he huge exper i ment al and
t heor et i cal wor k of Er i ckson i n t he 1930’ s. But whi l e
psychol ogi st s of f er f i ne wor ki ng def i ni t i ons of hypnosi s,
when we come t o compar i son bet ween cl i ni cal uses and
Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng si mi l ar i t i es cease.

23
E. g. Ani t a Mühl . “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as an i ndi cat i on of t he
f undament al f act or s under l yi ng t he per sonal i t y”, J AP 17, 1922; Phi l i p
L. Har r i man. “The exper i ment al pr oduct i on of some phenomena r el at ed t o
t he mul t i pl e per sonal i t y”, J ASP 37, 1942; Br i an Ear l e and Fr eder i ck W.
Theye, “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as a psychi at r i c pr obl em”, PQS 42( 2) , 1968.
24
J ohn Edget t e and J anet - Sasson Edget t e. The Handbook of Hypnot i c
Phenomena i n Psychot her apy. Phi l adel phi a: Br unner / Mazel , I nc, 1995.
Pp. 3- 4.
25
I dem, p. 12.

11
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

3. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng and ecst at i c pr act i ces i n
r ecent schol ar shi p

Aut omat i c wr i t i ng can t hus be consi der ed a par t i cul ar
ecst at i c st at e ( an ASC) whose mai n char act er i st i c i s t he
out put of a wr i t t en r ecor d of some ki nd, whet her of
myst i cal nat ur e or not ; onl y t he f or mer i nt er est s us her e.
One must al so bear i n mi nd t he ext r eme var i et y and
geogr aphi cal di st r i but i on of ASCs t hr oughout t he wor l d;
evi dent l y, t he f unct i on t hey f ul f i l l i nsi de each soci et y
( not t o ment i on how t hey ar e deal t wi t h by i ndi vi dual s)
var i es i mmensel y
26
. Thi s assur es us t hat we ar e deal i ng
wi t h compar abl e phenomena, but by no means enf or ces t hat
t hey ar e i dent i cal i n f or mor cont ent .
I n t hi s r espect t he ant hr opol ogi cal or soci ol ogi cal
appr oach t o t he vi si onar y exper i ences depi ct ed i s mor e
mi ndf ul of t he subj ect s i nvol ved t han t he psychol ogi cal /
psychi at r i c appr oaches, whi ch ar e of t en pl ai nl y
evol ut i onar y or gr ossl y schemat i c as we can see i n t he 20t h
cent ur y wor ks such as t hose of Achel i s
27
, Beck
28
and
Voi pi o
29
. A r emar kabl e wor k on t he f i el d of anal ysi s of
ecst at i c pr act i ces, i n t er ms of psychi at r y, was compl et ed
by Thomas Andr ae i n 1926
30
, t he aut hor t aki ng car e t o st at e
t hat we shoul d not consi der ecst asy as any mor e “pr i mi t i ve”
t han ot her ment al f unct i ons such as r easoni ng or wi l l .

26
Bour gui gnon, op. ci t . p. 3. The aut hor conduct ed a f amous r esear ch i n
t he begi nni ng of t he 70s t hat came t o t he st agger i ng r esul t t hat , f r om
488 di f f er ent soci et i es obser ved ar ound t he wor l d, 437, or 90%, had
some ki nd of ASC i nduci ng pr act i ce as par t of t hei r cul t ur al mi l i eu.
27
Di e Ekst ase i n i hr er kul t ur el l en Bedeut ung, p. 18. Ci t . by Hol m,
op. ci t . p. 11.
28
Di e Ekst ase, p. 50. Ci t . by Hol m, op. ci t . p. 11.
29
Aar ni Voi pi o. Sl eepi ng Pr eacher s, a St udy i n Ecst at i c Rel i gi osi t y.
Hel si nki : Suomal ai nen Ti edeakat emi a, 1951. The aut hor r el at es sl eepi ng
t r ances t o hyst er i a. Usef ul compar i sons can be f ound i n Car l o
Gi nzbur g. Ecst asi es: Deci pher i ng t he Wi t ches’ Sabbat h. London:
Hut chi nson Radi us, 1990.
30
Myst i kens psykol ogi . Ci t . by Hol m, op. ci t . pp. 11- 12.

12
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

I t i s not ewor t hy t hat t he pi ct ur es pr esent ed by Second
Templ e seer s as pr oduct of t hei r exper i ences ar e hi ghl y
det ai l ed and coul d be r at i onal l y appr ehended by any per son
who knows t he l anguages of t he vi si onar y t ext s ( esot er i c
and hi dden si gni f i cance woul d const i t ut e a second l ayer of
meani ng t hat does not concer n us her e) , as di f f er ent f r om
r el at ed phenomena l i ke gl ossol al i a wher e a shar ed knowl edge
of ski l l bet ween t he myst i c and sur r oundi ng peopl e i s
assumed
31
. Even mor e r emar kabl e i s t he f act t hat a concept
of hi st or y such as t he one shar ed by di ver se men l i ke
J osephus, t he aut hor s of Dani el and of 4Ezr a, can be so
si mi l ar despi t e t he ver y di f f er ent means of each man t o
r each t he concept . Thi s means t hat t her e i s no l i mi t t o t he
i nt er act i on bet ween er udi t e and popul ar mat er i al i n t he
sour ces avai l abl e t o us, and t hat t he bor der s bet ween
consci ous, “er udi t e” knowl edge and popul ar l or e ar e qui t e
f l ui d, as t he means t o acqui r e t hemcan al so be.
I woul d l i ke t o st r ess t hat , even i f t he exper i ences
descr i bed by t he seer s wer e compl et el y f r audul ent , t hey
coul d, i n t heor y, be under st ood i n t er ms of st r uct ur al
( i . e. soci o- ant hr opol ogi cal or psychi at r i c) anal ysi s of
ASCs, t hi s bei ng ar guabl y a st r ong poi nt i n f avour of t hei r
aut hent i ci t y. Besi des, bei ng t he ecst at i c exper i ences
pot ent i al l y har mf ul
32
, t hey shoul d occur i nsi de
i nst i t ut i onal i zed f r amewor ks
33
- r ef er r i ng us agai n t o t he

31
Fel i ci t as D. Goodman, Speaki ng i n Tongues. A Cr oss- Cul t ur al St udy of
Gl ossol al i a. Chi cago / London: Uni ver si t y of Chi cago Pr ess, 1972. P. 8.
32
Cf . t he i nt r oduct i on t o t he t ext of 3En by Ander sen, OTP 1, p. 233
and I t hamar Gr uenwal d. Apocal ypt i c and Mer kavah Myst i ci sm. Lei den:
Br i l l , 1980.
33
Thus Sar bi n and Al l en i nt r oduced a “scal e” t o measur e t he i nt ensi t y
of t he ecst at i c f act or i nvol ved i n each case- st udy, var yi ng f r om0 ( no
ecst at i c i nvol vement ) t o 7 ( bewi t chment ) , ecst asi es bei ng nor mal l y
gr aded by t hem at 6; dogmat i c as i t may seem, i t has t he vi r t ue of
r ecogni zi ng t he pot ent i al har m of ecst at i c pr act i ces and, by
ext ensi on, t hei r aut hent i ci t y. Cf . Theodor e Sar bi n. “Rol e t heor y” i n:
Gar dner Li ndzey and El l i ot Ar onson ( eds. ) . The Handbook of Soci al

13
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

di scussi on of t he exper i ences as l i t er ar y t opoi , f r audul ent
or not , but anyway t he need f or soci al per f or mance and
cont r ol of t he vi si onar y exper i ences i s wi despr ead
34
.

Psychol ogy. Readi ng, Mass / London: Addi son- Wesl ey, 1968. Ci t . by
Hol m, op. ci t . p. 18.
34
Wi l son, “Pr ophecy and ecst asy: a r eexami nat i on”, p. 326. A poi nt must
be made her e r egar di ng t he r el at i ve l onel i ness of t he apocal ypt i c seer
as compar ed t o hi s pr ophet i c count er par t .

14
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

4. The meani ng of pseudepi gr aphy

The i dea of a t ext si gned by someone ot her t han i t s
r eal ( i . e. mechani cal ) wr i t er i s usual l y associ at ed wi t h
f r aud, bot h f or moder n cases as wel l as f or anci ent ones.
However , i n t hi s t hesi s we ar e deal i ng wi t h phenomena
t hat , al t hough ext er nal l y bei ng aki n t o f r audul ent
pseudepi gr aphy, may be somet hi ng di f f er ent si nce i t appear s
i n t ext s st r ewn wi t h r ef er ences t o vi si onar y exper i ences,
t o whi ch pseudepi gr aphy may or may not be r el at ed. I n t he
case of anci ent Second Templ e t ext s t he not i on of
pseudepi gr aphy i s much mor e compl i cat ed t han our s i n t he
moder n wor l d, and usual l y i nvol ves t he appr opr i at i on of t he
name of a gr eat f i gur e of t he past : f or exampl e, wi sdom
t r adi t i ons can be at t r i but ed t o a past char act er ( nat ur al l y
one not ed f or hi s gi f t s on wi sdom, namel y Sol omon) , as i s
t he case i n Qohel et , Test ament and Wi sdomof Sol omon.
I n t he moder n- day t ext s chosen f or cr oss- cul t ur al
compar i son a si mi l ar phenomenon happens, wi t h t he maj or
di f f er ence t hat t he aut hor i n whose name t he medi um wr i t es
can somet i mes be compl et el y unknown t o t he publ i c ( e. g.
Emmanuel , t he gui di ng spi r i t of t he medi um Fr anci sco
Cândi do “Chi co” Xavi er ) , or may be a f amous per son of t he
past di sgui sed i n anot her name, f or var i ous r easons ( Andr é
Lui z, who may have been t he f amous doct or Car l os Chagas;
“I r mão X”, a ni ckname used by t he i nt el l ect ual Humber t o de
Campos t o avoi d f ur t her l awsui t s f r om hi s f ami l y agai nst
t he medi um) . The compar i son i s par t i cul ar l y usef ul when i t
comes t o pseudepi gr aphi cal wor ks wher e t he st yl e of t he
pr esumed aut hor s i s easi l y compar abl e.
I n t he moder n- day cases f r aud can be di smi ssed on t he
par t of t he medi um anal yzed, at l east as f ar as
i nvest i gat i on has t aken us unt i l now. I nst ead,

15
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

psychol ogi cal devi ces, usual l y r el at ed t o hypnosi s, may be
t he cl ue t o under st andi ng t he var i ous aut omat i sms t hat
di r ect t he medi um act i vi t y and t hus pr oduce wor ks
ost ensi bl y si mi l ar , but not i dent i cal i n st yl e t o t he
put at i ve aut hor s.
That t he same r easoni ng shoul d be appl i ed t o anci ent
Second Templ e pseudepi gr aphy i s one of t he obj ect i ves of
t hi s t hesi s. I t shoul d be not ed, however , t hat most aut hor s
seem t o be i nt er est ed i n t he hi st or y of r ecept i on of
pseudepi gr aphy, and not i n t he psychol ogy of t he
“pseudepi gr apher ”. The most r ecent at t empt i n t he f i el d i s
Duf f ’ s r emar kabl e DPhi l wor k, whi ch makes a poi nt i n
i nsi st i ng on t he r el evance of accur at e at t r i but i on of
aut hor shi p f or anci ent r eader s
35
. Li t er at ur e on t he subj ect
i s pl ent i f ul , but al most al ways ei t her t r yi ng t o pr ove
whet her a cer t ai n t ext i s f al se, or at t empt i ng t o el uci dat e
how peopl e deal t wi t h at t r i but i on of aut hor shi p. As a ver y
br i ef sur vey, t he wor ks of Syme
36
, Br ox ( as edi t or )
37
,
Chamber s
38
, Si nt
39
and, above al l , Tor m
40
ar e t he most
i mpor t ant f or t he t heme of t hi s t hesi s. They shal l be
di scussed i n mor e dept h i n f ur t her chapt er s.
I n shor t , al t hough t he at t i t ude t owar ds anci ent
pseudepi gr aphi cal t ext s may have been qui t e si mi l ar t o our
moder n way of doi ng so, t he psychol ogy of pseudonym
aut hor shi p may have been qui t e di f f er ent , at l east f or

35
Thi s cont r adi ct s t he wi del y hel d not i on t hat anci ent r eader s di d not
car e about accur acy i n aut hor shi p, or l i ved i n such a di f f er ent f r ame
of mi nd f r omour s t hat i t “di d not mat t er ”.
36
“Fr aud and i mpost ur e”, Pseud. I .
37
Pseudepi gr aphi e i n der Hei dni schen und J üdi sch- Chr i st l i chen Ant i ke.
Dar mst adt : Wi ssenschaf t l i che Buchgesel l schaf t , 1977.
38
The Hi st or y and Mot i ves of Li t er ar y For ger i es. Oxf or d / London:
Basi l Bl ackwel l / Si mpki n / Mar shal l , 1891.
39
Pseudonymi t ät i m Al t er t um; i hr e For men und i hr e Gr ünde. I nnsbr uck:
Uni ver si t ät sver l ag Wagner , 1960.
40
“Di e Psychol ogi e der Pseudoni mi t ät i mHi nbl i ck auf di e Li t er at ur des
Ur chr i st ent ums” i n: Tor m, op. ci t .

16
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

r el i gi ous t ext s t hat we cannot suspect of havi ng been
del i ber at el y f al si f i ed t hr ough i l l wi l l
41
. Moder n
aut omat i cal l y wr i t t en Kar deci st t ext s of f er a l i ve exampl e
of how t o pr oduce a t ext t hat i s, at t he same t i me,
t r ut hf ul t o i t s pr esumed aut hor and at t he same t i me
mechani cal l y wr i t t en by anot her per son decades, cent ur i es
or mi l l enni a l at er t han t he por t r ayed aut hor . As we shal l
see i n t he next chapt er , si nce t he mechani cal aut hor ’ s
subj ect i vi t y pl ays such an i mpor t ant par t of t he pr ocess,
t hi s woul d al so account f or anachr oni sms seen bot h i n
moder n psychogr aphy and i n anci ent t ext s.

41
A f amous exampl e of t hi s ki nd of pseudepi gr aphy i s gi ven by
Ter t ul i an r egar di ng a pr i est of Asi a Mi nor accused of havi ng wr i t t en
hi msel f t he Act s of Paul “out of l ove f or Paul ” ( amor e Paul i ) ; t hi s
was soon di scover ed wi t h consequences f or t he pr i est . Cf . Tor m,
op. ci t . p. 126 f f . I t woul d be unwi se t o put al l pseudepi gr aphi cal
t ext s i n t hi s cat egor y, as i t woul d al so be t o consi der al l
pseudepi gr aphy t o hi de a si ncer e and deep- r oot ed psychol ogi cal
pr ocess. The epi sode wi l l be di scussed i n gr eat er det ai l bel ow.

17
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

5. Out l i ne of schol ar shi p about l at e Second Templ e
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy

Accor di ng t o t he cr i t er i a di scussed i n t he t er mi nol ogy
above, t he exper i ences r el at ed by t he apocal ypt i c seer s do
i n f act br i ng pr of ound al t er at i ons bot h i n t hei r per cept i on
of r eal i t y and of t hemsel ves, br i ngi ng out vi vi d and
col or f ul vi si onar y pi ct ur es. I t i s al so uncl ear as t o what
can be consi der ed aut hent i c f i r st - hand exper i ence and what
i s an expect ed par t of a genr e
42
. Mor e on t he t heme i s t o
be f ound i n t he Appendi x t o t he t hesi s.

5. 1. The concept of cor por at e i dent i t y as appl i ed t o
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy
I n t he di scussi on about t he si ncer i t y of apocal ypt i c
exper i ences one pi oneer i ng at t empt was made by Davi d S.
Russel l , af f i r mi ng t hat t her e coul d be an essent i al
af f i ni t y bet ween i ndi vi dual s separ at ed by a gr eat di st ance
i n t i me, happeni ng due t o si mi l ar i t i es i n di f f er ent
event s
43
. Thi s al so supposes t hat di achr oni c event s may be
per cei ved by t he i ndi vi dual as si mul t aneous i n a gi ven
cul t ur al cont ext - wi t hout t hi s i mpl yi ng ment al conf usi on
or f ool i shness on t he par t of t he vi si onar y, but
const i t ut i ng r at her a f ul f i l l ment of t he condi t i ons

42
Ther e i s not a unani mousl y accept ed def i ni t i on of apocal ypse,
not wi t hst andi ng t he ef f or t s of so many schol ar s at t he end of t he
1970’ s; t he of t en quot ed vol ume 14 of Semei a and t he pr oceedi ngs of
t he 1979’ Uppsal a col l oqui um ar e t he pr oduct s of t hat di scussi on, t o
whi ch I r ef er . These al l poi nt t o a def i ni t i on of apocal ypt i c i n t er ms
of l i t er ar y genr e. Cf . J ohn J . Col l i ns ( ed. ) . Apocal ypse: t he
Mor phol ogy of a Genr e. ( Semei a vol . 14. ) Mi ssoul a: Schol ar s Pr ess, 1979
and Dani el Hel l hol m ( ed. ) . Apocal ypt i ci sm i n t he Medi t er r anean Wor l d
and t he Near East : Pr oceedi ngs of t he I nt er nat i onal Col l oqui um on
Apocal ypt i ci sm, Uppsal a, August 12- 17, 1979. Tübi ngen: Mohr , 1983.
43
Davi d S. Russel l . Di vi ne Di scl osur e: an I nt r oduct i on t o J ewi sh
Apocal ypt i c. London: SCM, 1992. P. 67. Hi s ef f or t s can be consi der ed as
pi oneer i ng because many of hi s i deas wer e f i r st devel oped dur i ng t he
Si xt i es, i n The Met hod and Message of J ewi sh Apocal ypt i c.

18
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

avai l abl e t o hi m / her i n t er ms of t he r ange of ecst at i c
exper i ences avai l abl e i n a gi ven soci et y
44
.
Russel l chose t o i dent i f y such a phenomenon i n t er ms of
what he cal l s “cor por at e uni t y”, or t he per cept i on of
event s wi del y separ at ed i n t i me as bei ng si mul t aneous
45
.
Thi s uni t y i s composed not onl y of t he per cept i on of
di achr oni c event s as si mul t aneous but al so of t he i dent i t y
bet ween t he mechani cal wr i t er and t he soci al gr oup i n whi ch
he i s i nser t ed, and as such account s f or t he choosi ng of
t he name t o whi ch t he t ext i s bei ng at t r i but ed
46
. I n l at er
year s Russel l came t o r ej ect par t of hi s expl anat i on,
al t hough r et ai ni ng i t s essent i al s, however . I n t he next
pages we wi l l di scuss onl y t he use made by Russel l of t he
concept of cor por at e i dent i t y; f i ner poi nt s i n t he whol e of
hi s ar gument s ar e t o be f ound i n i t em 5. 2 of t hi s
i nt r oduct i on, t oget her wi t h ot her aut hor s’ poi nt s of vi ew.
The i dea t hat t he apocal ypt i c vi si onar y may si ncer el y
i mper sonat e someone el se can be expl ai ned by means ot her
t han possessi on and cor r espondi ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng. I t has
been pr oposed i n t he past t hat Hebr ew t hought coul d be
i nf or med by cat egor i es ut t er l y di f f er ent f r omour own ( and,
f or t hat mat t er , al so f r om Gr eek modes of t hought
47
) .
Regar di ng what i nt er est s us her e, Hebr ew not i ons of t i me
and i dent i t y ar e t he most i mpor t ant t o be di scussed.

44
I d. i bi d.
45
I d. i bi d.
46
Agai n i f r eader s ( or l i st ener s) wer e f ool ed by t hi s devi ce, no
mat t er how good- i nt ent i oned i t may have been, t hi s woul d f al l beyond
t he scope of t hi s t hesi s, al t hough compr i si ng an i mpor t ant par t of
Russel l ’ s ar gument at i on – whi ch i ncl udes bot h r ecept i on and
composi t i on.
47
By “Gr eek” Boman i mpl i es a cont i nui t y wi t h our own f or ms of t hi nki ng
- t hi s i s emphasi zed when he def i nes t he di f f er ences bet ween ver bal
f or ms i n I ndo- Ger mani c ment al i t y ( possessi ng a cl ear i ndi cat i on of t he
di f f er ence bet ween past , pr esent and f ut ur e) and t he Semi t i c one ( onl y
knowi ng compl et e or i ncompl et e act i ons) . Cf . Thor l ei f Boman. Hebr ew
Thought Compar ed wi t h Gr eek. London / New Yor k: SCM Pr ess, 1960.
P. 146.

19
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

Boman pr oposed, i n a wi del y r ead book
48
, t hat Hebr ew
concept s of t i me devel oped ver y di f f er ent l y f r om t he Gr eek
ones and among t hese chi ef di f f er ences woul d be t he f act
t hat Hebr ew t hought ( i f ever t her e was any ent i t y t hat can
be named as such, unmovabl e f r om pr e- Exi l i c t o Tannai t i c
t i mes) coul d not concei ve t i me as somet hi ng abst r act ,
pr ef er r i ng i nst ead t o f i l l i t wi t h “qual i t y” ( i . e. t o
ascr i be t o di f f er ent t i mes di f f er ent qual i t i es - good, or
bad and so on)
49
. Boman al so poi nt s out t he not or i ous
absence of mat hemat i cal t hi nki ng i n Hebr ew ment al i t y and t o
t he emphasi s put by Hebr ew modes of t hi nki ng on t he whol e
i nst ead of t he i ndi vi dual
50
.
These ar e t he t wo mai n i ssues r egar di ng Boman’ s ver y
i nf l uent i al i deas. But bef or e we di scuss t hem i n any
l engt h, we shoul d t ake a l ook at anot her st ance wher e t he
supposedl y i nt r i nsi c di f f er ence bet ween Hebr ew t hought and
Gr eek was f or mal i zed - i n Wheel er Robi nson’ s wor k
51
.
Summar i zi ng Robi nson’ s i deas r egar di ng t he t opi c, we
coul d say t hat he af f i r med t he pr ecedence of t he
col l ect i vi t y agai nst t he i ndi vi dual i n Hebr ew t hought ,
t aki ng as a st andar d f or t hat t he l egal i dea of col l ect i ve
r esponsi bi l i t y ( e. g. mani f est i n J s 7, i n t he epi sode of
Achan) . I t woul d i mpl y t hat f or i ndi vi dual mi st akes t he
whol e f ami l y of t he of f ender must be puni shed and al l
I sr ael must suf f er , t hus l eavi ng no pl ace f or i ndi vi dual i t y
as we know i t . A f ai r l y r ecent r evi ew of Robi nson’ s i deas
l ed t o t he concl usi on t hat he was deepl y ( mi s) i nf or med by
ant hr opol ogi cal t heor i es cur r ent i n hi s own t i me ( i . e. t he
begi nni ng of t he 20t h cent ur y) , whi ch he woul d appl y cr oss-

48
I dem, p. 140.
49
I dem, p. 154.
50
I dem, p. 168.
51
Ref er r ed t o i n Boman, op. ci t . p. 148.

20
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

cul t ur al - l i ke t o under st and Hebr ew ment al i t y by way of
pr i mi t i ve peopl e.
One such ant hr opol ogi cal r ef er ence i s t he wor k of
Mai ne, who af f i r med t hat i n such soci et i es i ndi vi dual i t y
was swal l owed by t he f ami l y - but t hi s onl y i mpl i es, as i n
I sr ael i t e soci et y, t hat l egal l y men wer e under st ood i n such
col l ect i ve t er ms, not t hat i ndi vi dual s wer e not consci ous
of bei ng t hemsel ves and not someone el se, or of bei ng
whol l y absor bed by t he gr oup
52
. Lat er t ext s by Robi nson,
such as a conf er ence i n 1923, show gr eat i nf l uence of Lévy-
Br uhl ’ s not i on of “pr e- l ogi cal ” t hi nki ng among pr i mi t i ve
peopl es
53
.
The i dea comes t o a possi bl e and l ogi cal concl usi on i n
t hat t he ecst at i c pr act i ces of t he pr ophet s l ead t hem t o
mi ngl e t hemsel ves wi t h God, t o become one wi t h Hi m, i . e. t o
at t ai n ecst asy by l osi ng i ndi vi dual i t y and i dent i f yi ng
onesel f f ul l y wi t h t he dei t y
54
. Thi s i s i mpossi bl e, i n my
vi ew, bot h i n pr ophet i c and i n l at er apocal ypt i c
descr i pt i ons of ecst at i c pr act i ces. The seer , whoever he i s
and r egar dl ess of t he passage r eadi ng l i ke a pl ai n cl i ché
( l i ke Vi sEzr a) or havi ng t he si ncer e f eel and devel opment
of 2Br , r emai ns a di f f er ent ent i t y f r om God, f r om t he
angel s t hat may i nt er medi at e hi s exper i ence and f r om ot her
char act er s pr esent i n t he t ext s
55
.

52
J ohn W. Roger son. “Hebr ew concept i on of cor por at e per sonal i t y: a r e-
exami nat i on”, J TS 21: 1- 16, 1970. P. 3.
53
I dem, p. 7.
54
I d. i bi d.
55
Wi t hout goi ng i nt o f ur t her det ai l and t heol ogi cal i ssues, even He
who i s t he Son of God hi msel f f or Chr i st i ans, J esus. I f i n t hat case
no l oss of i dent i t y i s i mpl i ed, what does one say about pr ophet s and
apocal ypt i ci st s’ much mor e modest cl ai ms? Gnost i ci sm woul d pr esent us
wi t h a qui t e di f f er ent pi ct ur e, but t hen t he her met i c char act er of
t hei r doct r i nes and pr act i ces woul d make t he compar i son al t oget her
mor e di f f i cul t , i f not i mpossi bl e. Except i on t o t he quest i on of
i dent i t y i s t o be made i n t he epi sode of Enoch’ s i dent i t y as Met at r on
i n 3En 4.

21
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

These ar e t hen t he t wo mai n st ances of t he i dea t hat
Hebr ew i ndi vi dual i t y may be somet hi ng ent i r el y di f f er ent
f or mour own concept i on, and t hat i t woul d be mi sl eadi ng t o
t r eat J ewi sh myst i cs as i ndi vi dual s i n t he same way we
under st and t he t er m. Cr i t i ci sm of Boman has been made by
many, over a l ong per i od of t i me - Ar nal do Momi gl i ano’ s
ar gument s bei ng t he best t o synt hesi ze t he many pr obl ems
i nvol ved wi t h Boman’ s r easoni ng
56
. Al t hough Momi gl i ano i s
mor e concer ned wi t h hi st or i ogr aphi cal pr act i ces, he seems
qui t e r i ght i n ar gui ng t hat di f f er ences i n modes of
expr essi on ( i . e. t he f act t hat gr ammat i cal l y t he passage of
t i me i s expr essed i n qui t e di f f er ent ways i n Semi t i c
t hought ) do not i mpl y t hat J ews l i ved i n a st at e of ment al
conf usi on, knowi ng not hi ng but an et er nal pr esent wher e
bi bl i cal char act er s and f i r st - cent ur y man i nt er mi ngl ed
f r eel y
57
.
Wheel er Robi nson’ s i deas l ef t a deeper mar k t han
Boman’ s i n apocal ypt i c st udi es i nasmuch as t hey pr ovi ded
t he f r amewor k f or an i mpor t ant and pi oneer i ng wor k on
apocal ypt i c vi si onar y exper i ences, such as Russel l ’ s Met hod
and Message of J ewi sh Apocal ypt i c. I n hi s r eassessment of
t he cor por at e i dent i t y t heme and i t s i nf l uence, Roger son
r i ght l y poi nt s out t o t he i nf l uence of t he i dea i n Russel l
but bl unt l y st at es t hat pseudepi gr aphy i s not necessar i l y
expl ai ned by cor por at e i dent i t y
58
.
I n Russel l , Robi nson’ s i deas f i r st t ake t he f or mof t he
spr ead of apocal ypt i c consci ousness t hr ough t he whol e body,

56
Ar nal do Momi gl i ano. “Ti me i n anci ent hi st or i ogr aphy” i n: Essays i n
Anci ent and Moder n Hi st or i ogr aphy. Mi ddl et own: Wesl eyan Uni ver si t y
Pr ess, 1987. Pp. 180- 181 f f .
57
Al t hough J ewi sh hi st or i ans - not t o say apocal ypt i c seer s - wer e
cl ear l y unawar e of t he di f f er ence bet ween myt hi cal and hi st or i cal past
( i . e. bet ween one i nf or med by document s subj ect t o cr i t i ci sm, or , mor e
of t en, by per sonal t est i moni es of wi t nesses t o event s) . Thi s i ncl udes
J osephus.
58
Roger son, op. ci t . p. 11.

22
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

so t hat some or gans i ncor por at e et hi cal and psychi cal
pr oper t i es. Thi s l eads t o t he pr eci se and usef ul
descr i pt i on of or gan’ s f unct i ons i n apocal ypt i c t ext s,
whi ch can be f ound i n t he Appendi x
59
. I n l at er year s
Russel l r ej ect ed t he mor e r adi cal assumpt i ons of t he
cor por at e i dent i t y i dea as appl i ed t o apocal ypt i c, but kept
t he essent i al of i t - i ncl udi ng t he not i on t hat event s
mi ght be per cei ved as si mul t aneous by an i ndi vi dual , when
i ndeed t hey had t aken pl ace i n t he myt hi cal or di st ant
past
60
. Russel l adds t hat i n hi s opi ni on some - but not al l
- of t he consumer s of apocal ypt i c t ext s mi ght have bel i eved
t hat t he t ext had r eal l y been wr i t t en at t he t i me
por t r ayed
61
. Thi s does not add di r ect l y t o t he i ssue of
whet her t he act ual wr i t er f el t as i f he wer e someone el se
but may suggest t hat , i f t he pr act i ce wer e common t o t he
audi ence, i t coul d be a mode of exper i ence t o t he wr i t er as
wel l .
The not i on t hat apocal ypt i ci st s l i ved i n a t i me shar ed
by t he por t r ayed her oes i s t o be r ej ect ed by t he si mpl e
f act t hat st yl i st i c devi ces show t he dat i ng of apocal ypses
t hemsel ves ( i . e. even i f abl e t o posi t t he exi st ence of a
Vor l age i n t he apocal ypt i c t ext s ( usual l y Gr eek) , t her e ar e
many det ai l s i n t he nar r at i ve t hat al l ow us t o ascr i be t he
t ext s t o dat es ot her t han t hose depi ct ed i n t he nar r at i ve –
l i ke t he r ef er ences t o t he dest r uct i on of t he Templ e i n 2Br
and 4Ezr a, t he vi neyar d of Agr i ppa i n 4Br et c. ) . Thi s
“bet r ayal ” of aut hor shi p, i nst ead of pr ovi ng t he f al sehood
of t he myst i cal exper i ences descr i bed and, by ext ensi on, of
t he t ext s’ aut hor i t y cl ai ms, shows us t he cul t ur al

59
Russel l , Met hod and Message, pp. 141- 148.
60
Russel l , Di vi ne Di scl osur e, pp. 66- 67.
61
I d. i bi d.

23
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

subt l et i es and deepl y human char act er of t he composer
62
. As
much as some Kar deci st t ext s pr et end t o be nar r at i ves of
event s whi ch t ook pl ace i n Fi r st - cent ur y Pal est i ne, what
t hey show i n f act i s a vi vi d pi ct ur e of Br azi l i n t he f i r st
hal f of t he 20t h cent ur y; l i kewi se wi t h apocal ypt i c
pseudoni mi t y i n t hi s r egar d. But by t he same t oken i t i s
not t o be i nf er r ed t hat t he apocal ypt i c seer , any mor e t han
a Kar deci st medi umsuch as Chi co Xavi er , di d not wi t ness i n
myst i cal r apt ur e t he event s he por t r ays. Resear ch has shown
t hat medi ums at l ar ge ar e capabl e of doi ng t hat wi t hout any
l oss of ot her aspect s of consci ousness or soci al
conf or mi t y
63
.
What I pr opose i s di f f er ent t han an appl i cat i on of t he
concept of cor por at e i dent i t y ( whi ch i s f l awed) ; I i nt end
t o l ook at t he pseudepi gr aphi cal phenomenon as i nvol vi ng
i dent i t y not wi t h an i ndi st i ngui shabl e whol e but r egar di ng
a speci f i c char act er , namel y t he por t r ayed her o. I t i s f or
t hi s r eason t hat cr oss- cul t ur al anal ysi s r egar di ng ot her
possessi onal phenomena r el at ed t o pr oduci ng r el i gi ous t ext s
seemed i deal .

5. 2. Recent di scussi ons on apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy as
i dent i f i cat i on wi t h al l eged aut hor s
The mai n r eason, however appar ent l y f eebl e, t o t ake
apocal ypt i c exper i ences descr i bed i n t he apocal ypses and
Second Templ e l i t er at ur e at l ar ge i s t he “aur a of t r ut h”
at t ached t o t hem. Thi s i s sur el y no pr oof of aut hent i ci t y
( f r auds can be ver y wel l di sgui sed, af t er al l ) , but t he
r ever se i s al so t r ue: pseudonym di sgui se needs not be t he

62
We can no l onger say wi t h Pusey i n t he Ni net eent h cent ur y t hat
ei t her Dani el i s di vi ne or a pl ai n i mpost ur e. Cf . J ohn J . Col l i ns.
“I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on: bi bl i cal t heol ogy and t he book of Dani el ”,
EA 6, 1990. P. 29.
63
See bel ow chapt er s 2 and 3.

24
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

mar k of f r aud
64
. Ot her r ecent aut hor s have t r i ed, i n
di f f er ent ways, and wi t h var yi ng f ocus, t o t ake i nt o
consi der at i on t he possi bi l i t y of apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy
bei ng somet hi ng ot her t han f r aud; par t i cul ar l y i mpor t ant
among t hose ar e, i n a l oosel y chr onol ogi cal sequence,
St one, Russel l , Hi mmel f ar b, Col l i ns, Aune, Rowl and, Mer kur
and Fr ankf ur t er . Ref er ence shoul d al so be made t o t he wor k
of J ohn Bar t on
65
.
Mi chael St one’ s r easoni ng i s per haps t he onl y at t empt
out si de of t hi s t hesi s t o suggest a speci f i c l i nk bet ween
pseudepi gr aphi cal aut hor shi p and myst i cal exper i ence,
al bei t not i n t er ms of possessi on
66
. For St one, t he
exper i ences descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c exper i ences ar e t o be
f ound commonl y i n t he Hel l eni st i c wor l d; besi des, St one i s
eager t o poi nt out t hat aut hent i c ecst at i c pr act i ces can be
t r ansmi t t ed i n heavi l y t r adi t i onal f or ms
67
. The quest i on of
a l i nk bet ween t he vi si onar y and t he acqui r ed i dent i t y i s
not deal t wi t h by St one, who knows t her e can be no “har d
pr oof ” f or i t , but i s nonet hel ess t aken ser i ousl y as a
possi bi l i t y. Li ke ever y ot her aut hor , i ncl udi ng mysel f ,
St one emphasi zes t hat t her e wi l l never be har d- pr oof f or
t he i ssue, but he gi ves t he posi t i ve hypot hesi s a chance
and goes on t o devel op i t
68
.

64
Col l i ns, “I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on”, p. 33.
65
Or acl es of God: Per cept i ons of Anci ent Pr ophecy i n I sr ael Af t er t he
Exi l e. London: Dar t on, Longman and Todd, 1986. 211 f f . A f i nal wor d
must be sai d about Rebecca M. Lesses. Ri t ual Pr act i ces t o Gai n Power :
Angel s, I ncant at i ons, and Revel at i on i n Ear l y J ewi sh Myst i ci sm.
Har r i sbur g: Tr i ni t y Pr ess I nt er nat i onal , 1998, a wel l - wr i t t en book on
t he subj ect t hat , nonet hel ess, does not deal wi t h our mai n concer n i n
t he t hesi s ( i . e. aut hor shi p and myst i cal exper i ence i n apocal ypt i c
t ext s) but concent r at es on pr epar at or y i ssues r el at ed t o hekhal ot
t ext s.
66
“Apocal ypt i c - vi si on or hal l uci nat i on?” i n: Sel ect ed St udi es i n
Pseudepi gr apha and Apocr ypha wi t h Speci al Ref er ence t o t he Ar meni an
Tr adi t i on. Lei den / New Yor k / Kobenhavn / Köl n: E. J . Br i l l , 1991.
P. 425.
67
I dem, p. 428.
68
I dem, p. 420.

25
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

St one adds t hat opposi t i on t o Hel l eni zat i on i n
pol i t i cal t er ms ( as di f f er ent f r omcul t ur al i ssues, many of
whi ch wer e i ncor por at ed wi t hout t r auma i n t he wor l d vi ew of
J ews and ot her peopl es subj ect t o Gr eek r ul e) i s al so a
f eat ur e common t o anci ent magi c wor l d vi ew, f r equent i n t he
Hel l eni st i c wor l d, whi ch can i n t heor y enabl e an
exper i ment al di mensi on behi nd t he apocal ypt i ci st s’
descr i pt i on
69
. Pseudepi gr aphy, by i t s ver y nat ur e, excl udes
t he possi bi l i t y of a f ace val ue r egi st r y of i nt i mat e
exper i ences, i mmedi at e and aut obi ogr aphi cal
70
. St one
r ej ect s t he assumpt i on t hat pseudepi gr aphy mi ght be j ust a
r esour ce t o gai n aut hor i t y, f or t hi s woul d i mpl y a cl osed
canon t hat was obvi ousl y not t he case ( at l east f or t he t wo
cor e apocal ypt i c t ext s, Dn and 1En, and ar guabl y so f or
4Ezr a and 2Br , Fi r st - or Second- cent ur y t ext s as t hey most
l i kel y ar e) .
Fear of censor shi p - anot her possi bl e r eason t o be
r ej ect ed al so by Col l i ns, as we shal l see - i s di scar ded by
St one who, basi ng hi msel f on 4Ezr a, ar gues t hat t her e coul d
st i l l be r oomf or t he enl ar gement of Si nai t i c r evel at i on at
t he t i me of i t s composi t i on; he al so poi nt s out t hat , as
decept i on, pseudepi gr aphy wor ks ver y poor l y - when anci ent
aut hor s want ed somet hi ng t o l ook l i ke t he Bi bl e, t hey woul d
pr oduce somet hi ng l i ke t he Templ e Scr ol l and wr i t e i n

69
I d. i bi d.
70
I dem, p. 421. Thi s does not mean t hat an aut hor i n t r ance - such as
Chi co Xavi er has done - can not mi ngl e hi s/ her own i nt i mat e f ear s,
j oys or ot her emot i ons i n t he ensui ng nar r at i ve. I n f act t hat i s t he
mai n poi nt St one uses t o ar gue i n f avour of t he aut hent i ci t y of t he
exper i ence of t he vi si onar y i n 4Ezr a i n a l at er ar t i cl e ( “A
r econsi der at i on of apocal ypt i c vi si ons”, HTR 96 ( 2) : 167- 180, 2003) ,
t o be t aken i nt o consi der at i on bel ow. St one has devot ed a gr eat deal
of hi s ef f or t s t o t he exami nat i on of 4Ezr a whi ch i s i ndeed r i ch f or
our pur poses but not r epr esent at i ve of apocal ypt i c exper i ences - not
onl y f or t he pr esence of chemi cal i nducement but al so f or t he l engt hs
gone by t he vi si onar y t o show hi s i nner t r ansf or mat i on i n t he cour se
of t he vi si ons.

26
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

Hebr ew
71
. Agai nst Russel l , St one ar gues t hat i n Ant i qui t y
t he assumpt i on t hat apocal ypses wer e r egar ded as ol d as
t hey i nt ended t o be was i ndeed wi despr ead - even Ter t ul i an
wonder ed how Enoch’ s books sur vi ved t he Fl ood
72
. The
at t r i but i on of aut hor shi p mi ght have begun - but t hi s does
not expl ai n al l cases - as t he cr yst al l i zi ng of a
t r adi t i on, and not as f or ger y
73
. Last l y, St one f ol l ows t he
t r end of El i ade and Hi mmel f ar b i n under l i ni ng t he f act t hat
a heavi l y t r adi t i onal descr i pt i on does not excl ude si ncer e
exper i ence
74
; I t oo f i nd t hi s r easoni ng cor r ect .
I n a r ecent ar t i cl e, St one cel ebr at es t he f act t hat , 30
year s f r om t he or i gi nal publ i shi ng dat e of “Apocal ypt i c -
vi si on or hal l uci nat i on?” ( 1974) a l ot has changed and t he
exper i ences descr i bed i n t he apocal ypses ar e no l onger as
easi l y di smi ssed as f or ger i es - and poi nt s out t he i l l -
f eel i ng t hat t he ASC- pr one Ezeki el gener at es among
f undament al i st schol ar s i s pr eci sel y f or t hat r eason
75
.
Ther e i s no exper i ence compar abl e t o t hat of 4Ezr a ( an
assumpt i on t o whi ch I al so subscr i be and shal l devel op) ,
and St one makes good use of t he nar r at i ve of 4Ezr a t o t r ace
t he j our ney of t he vi si onar y’ s soul : i n shi f t i ng f r om
demandi ng of God an expl anat i on of evi l as i n t he begi nni ng
of t he t ext t o t he posi t i on t aken i n f r ont of t he woman i n

71
I dem, pp. 423- 425.
72
I dem, p. 426; cf . al so Russel l , Di vi ne Di scl osur e, p. 67.
73
I dem, pp. 426- 427.
74
I dem, p. 428. Thi s al so poi nt s out t o t he f act t hat t he “t r ut hs”
r eveal ed i n Bi bl i cal l i t er at ur e t end t o be r egar ded as val i d i n t he
r eal mof myt h, not as a r eposi t or y of act ual i nf or mat i on ( somet hi ng t o
be emphasi zed by Col l i ns) . I t i s as t r ue f or apocal ypt i c as i t i s f or
Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng: t he medi um i s l i mi t ed by t r adi t i onal
f or ms and dogma, and yet exper i ences do t ake pl ace. I t shoul d be
not ed, however , t hat t her e ar e a number of l ayer s t hat medi at e t he
i ni t i al apocal ypt i c vi si on, supposi ng i t t o be t r ue ( copyi ng, edi t i ng,
and j ust put t i ng t he exper i ence down i n an i nt el l i gi bl e manner ) . Cf .
Amos Wi l der . “The r het or i c of anci ent and moder n apocal ypt i c”, I nt .
25, 1971. P. 437.
75
St one, “A r econsi der at i on of apocal ypt i c vi si ons”, p. 167.

27
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t he vi si on of t he heavenl y J er usal em ( 4Ezr a 9- 10) , t he
vi si onar y has under gone a compl et e r ebi r t h pr ocess
76
.
The pl ai n and si mpl e i dent i f i cat i on of t he vi si onar y
wi t h Ezr a - whi ch i s a t enabl e hypot hesi s but whi ch was
somewhat t aken f or gr ant ed by St one i n hi s ear l i er wor k -
i s r ect i f i ed by t he aut hor , cl ai mi ng t hat even i f t he
vi si onar y had not under gone t he exper i ences descr i bed, t hey
wer e common enough i n hi s soci et y f or hi m t o know t hem
77
.
The quest i on of t he t r adi t i onal i sm of t he f or ms t aken by
t he descr i pt i ons - whi ch has al so puzzl ed Russel l much
ear l i er - i s deal t wi t h by St one vi a t he i dea t hat myst i cs
can onl y descr i be t hei r exper i ences i n t er ms of t he
l anguage avai l abl e t o t hem; or i t coul d be ar gued t hat some
degr ee of “i mposi t i on” i s pr esent and makes t he apocal ypt i c
seer conf or m t o t he expect at i ons of t he gr oup i n t er ms of
what i s t o be seen
78
.
Russel l ar gues f or t he si ncer i t y of t he exper i ence
al t hough under l i ni ng an over al l i mpr essi on of ar t i f i ci al i t y
i n t he t ext s
79
. Among i ndi cat i ons t hat we ar e f aci ng

76
I dem, p. 175. The pr ocess descr i bed by 4Ezr a echoes shamani st i c
emphasi s i n deat h and r esur r ect i on, and i s emphasi zed by St one. But
her e we have a t ext t hat i s i nt act and was composed as a whol e,
di spl ayi ng t he i nt i maci es of vi si onar y epi sodes and even some wei r d
chemi cal i nduct i on pr act i ces. Al l of t hat i s not t o be f ound anywher e
el se. The par al l el wi t h Shamani sm i s r esumed by St one r egar di ng t he
i ssue of t r adi t i onal f or mul at i on of exper i ences, whi ch t he Shamans
al so do accor di ng t o an est abl i shed l i t er ar y convent i on: “The use of
convent i onal f or ms does not cont r adi ct t he exi st ence of t he
exper i ence. However , i t does make i t di f f i cul t t o demonst r at e i n any
gi ven case”.
77
I dem, p. 178.
78
An i dea dear al so t o Hi mmel f ar b and whi ch i s par al l el ed i n
psychol ogy - Fr eudi an pat i ent s havi ng Fr eudi an dr eams, J ungi an havi ng
J ungi an ones. Fr eud had a si mi l ar pr obl em l ong ago when, dur i ng
hypnosi s sessi ons, he “f ound out ” t hat 10 out of 10 f emal e pat i ent s
r epor t ed ef f ect i ve or at t empt ed assaul t s by t hei r f at her s dur i ng ear l y
chi l dhood. 10 i n 10 means 100 i n 100, whi ch i s obvi ousl y nonsense and
made Fr eud r epl ace t he act ual sexual i mpul se and aggr essi on f or
symbol i sm of bot h. See Wi l l i am W. Sar gant . The Mi nd Possessed: a
Physi ol ogy of Possessi on, Myst i ci sm and Fai t h Heal i ng. London:
Hei nemann, 1973. P. 109 and 195.
79
Met hod and Message, p. 158.

28
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

r ef er ences t o genui ne exper i ences Russel l poi nt s out t he
many exampl es of noct ur nal i nspi r at i on ( e. g. vi si ons bef or e
sl eep i n Dn 10: 9, dur i ng sl eep i n 2Br 53: 1 or even af t er i t
i n 2En 1: 6) , suggest i ng genui ne psychi cal act i vi t y r at her
t han a mer e l i t er ar y t heme
80
. J oseph’ s appear ance i n
Test Benj 10: 1 l ooks l i ke t el evi si on and echoes Bal aami n Nm
24: 4
81
.
Eager t o show t he essent i al af f i ni t y bet ween pr ophecy
and apocal ypt i c, Russel l ar gues t hat t he i nspi r at i on of t he
l at t er i s a mi xt ur e of t he or i gi nal pr ophet i c i nspi r at i on
and a mor e r ecent , l i t er ar y one
82
. I t shoul d be not ed t hat
Russel l al so set s l i mi t s f or what moder n psychol ogy mi ght
have t o say about t he apocal ypt i ci st ’ s ment al pr ocedur es
83
.
I n t he above quot ed Di vi ne Di scl osur e, Russel l woul d
r ef i ne some poi nt s and ar gue f ur t her on t he si ncer i t y of
t he exper i ences descr i bed. Her e he suggest s t hat
pseudepi gr aphy mi ght i mpl y a uni o myst i ca of t he act ual
wr i t er wi t h t he put at i ve aut hor
84
. The essent i al of
Russel l ’ s way of put t i ng t he hypot hesi s owes much t o
Wheel er Robi nson’ s concept of cor por at e i dent i t y, as seen
above, but i n Di vi ne Di scl osur e some f i ner poi nt s ar e made.
Fi r st , pseudoni mi t y i s her e di scussed as par t of a
wi despr ead phenomenon t hr oughout t he Medi t er r anean wor l d;
i t woul d be naï ve t o assume t hat al l t he publ i c woul d
r egar d t he pseudepi gr aphed aut hor as bei ng t he r eal one
85
.
Quot i ng Col l i ns, Russel l al so poi nt s out t hat t he
apocal ypt i c choosi ng of some names and not ot her s f or
put at i ve aut hor s bet r ays some essent i al si mi l ar i t i es,

80
I dem, p. 165. For quant i t at i ve appr eci at i on of vi si ons asl eep see t he
appendi x t o t he t hesi s.
81
I dem, p. 166.
82
I dem, p. 173.
83
I dem, p. 140.
84
I dem, p. 66.
85
I dem, p. 67.

29
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

f ol l owi ng t he si ncer e i dent i f i cat i on of t he aut hor i n
quest i on wi t h t he past her o; bot h woul d shar e a common
r evel at or y exper i ence
86
.
The key t o Russel l ’ s ar gument - t he i nt ensi t y and
f r equency of dr eam- l i ke vi si ons i n apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e -
appear s agai n, t hi s t i me wi t h t he ai d of cr oss- cul t ur al
st udi es
87
. The al most day- t o- day nat ur e of t he l anguage by
whi ch t he apocal ypt i ci st descr i bes hi s vi si ons i s so vi vi d
t hat i t r ei nf or ces t he i dea t hat we ar e deal i ng her e wi t h
si ncer e exper i ences: t he need of pr ayer as par t of t he
pr ocess - as seen i n e. g. Dn 2: 18, 4Ezr a 5: 13 et c. i s al so
f avour abl e t o t he si ncer i t y of t he epi sodes, accor di ng t o
Russel l
88
. The f act t hat by means of pr ayer , f ast i ng or
chemi cal i nduct i on ( 4Ezr a) t he apocal ypt i ci st s bel i eved
t hey wer e pr opi t i at i ng t he vi si onar y epi sodes onl y adds t o
t he assumed i dent i f i cat i on bet ween put at i ve and r eal
aut hor s’ t r ance
89
.
The next aut hor t o be exami ned i s Mar t ha Hi mmel f ar b. An
i ni t i al poi nt t o be t aken i nt o consi der at i on i s t hat she
asks how f ar t he exper i ence of t he apocal ypt i c seer was
accessi bl e t o ot her s as wel l - t hi s accessi bi l i t y appear s
t o be t he case i n hekhal ot l i t er at ur e, and al so i n t he
Ascensi on of I sai ah; i t shoul d be avai l abl e t o al l t he
r i ght eous af t er deat h
90
.
The t r adi t i onal char act er of many of t he apocal ypt i c
vi si onar y epi sodes i s al so poi nt ed out by Hi mmel f ar b - she
emphasi ses t hat al l ot her wor l dl y- j our ney apocal ypses r epor t

86
J ohn J . Col l i ns. The Apocal ypt i c Wi sdom of t he Book of Dani el .
Har var d Semi t i c Monogr aphs 16, Schol ar s Pr ess, 1977. P. 72. Ci t . by
Russel l , Di vi ne Di scl osur e, pp. 67- 69.
87
Thomas J . Sappi ngt on. Revel at i on and Redempt i on at Col ossae. J SOT
Pr ess, 1991. P. 78 f f . Ci t . by Russel l , Di vi ne Di scl osur e, p. 73.
88
Russel l , Di vi ne Di scl osur e, p. 74.
89
I dem, p. 75.
90
Mar t ha Hi mmel f ar b. “The exper i ence of t he vi si onar y and genr e i n t he
Ascensi on of I sai ah 6- 11 and t he Apocal ypse of Paul ” i n: Semei a 36:
97- 111, 1986. P. 103.

30
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t hemes al r eady occur r i ng i n 1En
91
, and among t hese of chi ef
i mpor t ance i s t he “Book of Wat cher s” ( 1En 1- 36) , a t r ue
mat r i x of apocal ypt i c vi si ons
92
. A poi nt of i nt er est t o us
her e i s t hat , l i ke El i j ah - possi bl y i mpor t ant i n t er ms of
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, as we saw i n chapt er 4 above - , Enoch,
i mpor t ant as he i s f or t he devel opi ng of apocal ypt i c
t r adi t i on does not di e, but r at her wal ks wi t h God ( Gn
5: 24) . But even bei ng f oundat i onal , 1En’ s vi si onar y
exper i ences f i nd a cl ose par al l el i n Ez 1 and I s 6, i n a
pr ocess cul mi nat i ng wi t h hekhal ot t ext s
93
- showi ng how
t r adi t i onal mat er i al can be r ef ur bi shed t o convey and
pr opi t i at e si ncer e exper i ences.
However , even bei ng ki nd t o t he possi bi l i t y of si ncer e
exper i ence descr i bed i n Enochi c l i t er at ur e, Hi mmel f ar b
t akes gr eat caut i on i n r egar di ng t he r epor t s as t r ue at
f ace val ue: “Enoch’ s ascent cannot be t aken si mpl y as a
t est i mony t o t he aut hor ’ s own exper i ence. What ever el se i t
may be, i t i s an epi sode i n a st or y about Enoch”
94
. Thi s i s
no deci si ve ar gument agai nst t he aut hent i ci t y of t he
exper i ence descr i bed, but pseudepi gr aphy may al so suggest a
cer t ai n di st anci ng bet ween act ual and put at i ve aut hor s
( i . e. apar t f r omi dent i f i cat i on l i ke t he Kar deci st wr i t i ngs
we mi ght have, her e as i n ot her apocal ypt i c exampl es, an
even gr eat er separ at i on bet ween vi si onar y and her o; but
t hi s can al so mean t hat t her e i s no l oss of sel f i nvol ved
and t hat t he vi si onar y keeps hi s i dent i t y by not compl et el y
mi ngl i ng hi s own sel f wi t h t he por t r ayed her o) .

91
Thi s mi ght i mpl y t he ant er i or i t y of 1En over ot her apocal ypses or
j ust t hat t he t hemes t her ei n r epor t ed ar e ear l i er . Cf . Mar t ha
Hi mmel f ar b. “Fr om pr ophecy t o apocal ypt i c: t he Book of t he Wat cher s
and t our s of Heaven” i n: Ar t hur Gr een ( ed. ) . Wor l d Spi r i t ual i t y.
London: Rout l edge & Kegan Paul , 1986. P. 146.
92
I dem, p. 148.
93
I dem, p. 149.
94
I dem, p. 153.

31
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

The most i mpor t ant poi nt t o be made by Hi mmel f ar b i n
our anal ysi s i s t hat t he vi si onar y, havi ng had a si ncer e
exper i ence, nonet hel ess al r eady knows at t he st ar t what t o
see and expect - “Chr i st i an myst i cs see Chr i st ; J ewi sh
myst i cs do not ”: t he ascent t o Heaven onl y conf i r med what
t he vi si onar y knew bef or ehand
95
, much i n t he same f ashi on
as Fr eudi an pat i ent s under hypnosi s conf or med t o Fr eud’ s
own wi shf ul t heor i es and moder n- day subj ect s under goi ng
psychoanal ysi s conf i r mt hei r anal yst s’ assumpt i ons i n t hei r
pr ocesses. Thi s i s a poi nt of t he ut most i mpor t ance and t o
be r esumed i n t he concl usi on t o t hi s t hesi s.
Fol l owi ng t he same t r end, Hi mmel f ar b poi nt s out t hat
vi si ons conveyi ng t oo much i nf or mat i on about heaven or hel l
ar e i n pr i nci pl e mor e suspect t han t hose havi ng a mor e
spont aneous and sober out l ook
96
.
One of t he most i mpor t ant def ender s of t he si ncer i t y of
t he vi si onar y exper i ences i n t he apocal ypses i s J ohn J .
Col l i ns. Regar di ng t hi s i ssue, we shal l have a l ook cl oser
i nt o one of hi s many t ext s, f or i t seems t o be mor e
di r ect l y r el at ed t o our di scussi on.
I n a 1990 t ext Col l i ns ar gues r i ght l y t hat pseudoni mi t y
was t he nor m r at her t han t he except i on among apocal ypt i c
t ext s, somet hi ng t o be conf i r med by t he r edi scover y of
pseudepi gr apha and t he Dead Sea Scr ol l s
97
. Taki ng i nt o
account t he ext ensi on of pseudepi gr aphy i n Ant i qui t y, we
cannot di smi ss t he possi bi l i t y of deal i ng wi t h a consci ous
l i t er ar y mechani sm her e, but t he appar ent accept ance and

95
I dem, pp. 153- 154.
96
Thi s seems a r easonabl e pr oposi t i on i n i t sel f t o me, but l eaves t he
quest i on t hat , i f we ar e t o consi der as t r ue exper i ences t hose wher e
t he vi si onar y al r eady knew what t o expect , t he amount of det ai l cannot
be per f ect l y assessed as t o make us consi der any out l ook of exper i ence
t r ue or f al se wi t h cer t ai nt y. I n shor t , i f t he exi st ence of a t opos i s
no pr oof of f al sehood, t han Hi mmel f ar b’ s ar gument s t r ansl at e i nt o t he
quest i on of i nt ensi t y - how much ar e we goi ng t o al l ow as evi denci ng
t r ue or f al se exper i ences.
97
“I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on”, p. 30.

32
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

mor al ser i ousness of J ewi sh- Chr i st i an pseudepi gr apha makes
i t di f f i cul t t o bel i eve we ar e deal i ng wi t h pl ai n f r aud
98
.
Col l i ns goes on t o di scuss a number of anci ent
quot at i ons r egar di ng t he l egi t i mat e use of pseudepi gr aphy,
among t hemt hose of Sal vi an of Mar sei l l es and Ter t ul l i an
99
.
An i mpor t ant poi nt made by Col l i ns i s t hat f or ger y out of
f ear shoul d be di scar ded as mot i vat i on f or pseudepi gr aphy
seemi ng as t ext s l i ke Dani el gl or i f y mar t yr dom or ar e
out spoken about t he domi nant power s l i ke Or Si b 3
100
; on t he
ot her hand, agr eei ng wi t h Hi mmel f ar b, Col l i ns poi nt s out
t he f act t hat f oundat i onal t ext s l i ke Dani el and 1En had no
known t opos t o i mi t at e, and t hus mi ght i mpl y aut hent i c
exper i ence
101
. To any def i ni t e at t empt of pr ovi ng
def i ni t el y t he si ncer i t y of t he vi si onar i es’ exper i ences
r el at ed t o t he choosi ng of a put at i ve aut hor ’ s name i n t he
apocal ypses Col l i ns says t hat “Such an expl anat i on i s, of
cour se, hypot het i cal , and I do not know of any way i n whi ch
i t coul d be ver i f i ed. I t i s at t r act i ve, nonet hel ess,
because i t at t empt s t o deal ser i ousl y wi t h t he ecst at i c
char act er of t he exper i ence t hat an apocal ypse descr i bes.
Apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy, t hen, need not be r egar ded as a
cal cul at ed decept i on, but r at her as a r esul t of t he i nt ense
and emot i onal exper i ence of t he vi si onar y”
102
.
Davi d Aune of f er s i nsi ght s about t he i ssue i n t wo
t ext s, and we not i ce a cl ear shi f t i n posi t i on bet ween t hem
bot h. I n hi s 1983 book he st at es t hat pseudoni mi t y was an
expedi ent t o gai n aut hor i t y f or a canon t hat was al r eady
cl osed ( cont r a St one, see above) : par al l el s i n pr ophet i c

98
I dem, p. 31.
99
These wi l l be r esumed bel ow, t oget her wi t h a mor e compl et e
di scussi on of pseudepi gr aphy i n Ant i qui t y.
100
Col l i ns, “I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on”, p. 32.
101
An assumpt i on r easonabl e i n i t sel f but agai n i n need of exami nat i on
i n t he l i ght of pr ophet i c t ext s l i ke Ezeki el and I sai ah. Cf . Col l i ns,
“I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on”, p. 33.
102
I d. i bi d.

33
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

l i t er at ur e i n t he J ewi sh and Chr i st i an wor l ds show t hat i t
never ci r cul at ed anonymousl y, but al ways had an aut hor
103
.
Nor does Aune’ s ear l i er t ext consi der pseudoni mi t y
essent i al t o t he under st andi ng of apocal ypt i c
104
.
However , a l at er t ext by hi m shows a shi f t i n
consi der i ng t he aut obi ogr aphi cal nar r at i ve i n pr ose as
cent r al t o t he def i ni t i on of t he f or m of an apocal ypse
105
.
I ndi r ect evi dence f or t he i mpor t ance at t ached t o t he
per f or mance of r eadi ng ( and t hus, pot ent i al l y f or t he
assumed i dent i t y of t he nar r at or , a poi nt t o be r esumed by
Fr ankf ur t er , see bel ow) i s f ur ni shed, accor di ng t o Aune,
vi a Di o Chr ysost om ( Or at i o 18. 18)
106
, f or whom t he composer
shoul d di ct at e t he t ext and not wr i t e i t di r ect l y ( t he
r eci t at i on possi bl y bei ng r egar ded as cl oser t o
i mper sonat i on, at l east f or t he audi ence) . I n Rev 1: 3 we
shal l obser ve t he same phenomenon, pr oof of t he scar ci t y of
si l ent r eader s i n Ant i qui t y
107
.
Next i n our bi bl i ogr aphi cal r evi ew come t he vi ews of
Chr i st opher Rowl and, as expr essed i n The Open Heaven
108
.
Even bei ng one def ender of t he si ncer i t y of apocal ypt i c
vi si onar y exper i ence agai nst t he not i on t hat i t coul d be a
mer e l i t er ar y convent i on, Rowl and advi ses caut i on i n
st at i ng t hat a gr eat par t of apocal ypt i c mat er i al may be
r edact i onal ( e. g. 4Ezr a 11- 12)
109
. Pr eser vat i on of
aut hent i c vi si ons does not mean t hat t he whol e apocal ypt i c

103
Davi d Aune. Pr ophecy i n Ear l y Chr i st i ani t y and t he Anci ent
Medi t er r anean Wor l d. Gr and Rapi ds: Wi l l i am B. Eer dmans, 1983. P. 109.
Thi s woul d hol d t r ue even f or Mal achi , who began ci r cul at i on i n
anonymous f ashi on but t hen was ascr i bed t o t he pr ophet of t he same
name.
104
I dem, p. 110.
105
“The Apocal ypse of J ohn and t he pr obl em of genr e” i n: Semei a 36,
1986. P. 65.
106
Cf . t he edi t i on or gani zed by Ludwi g A. Di ndor f . Di oni s Chr ysost omi
Or at i ones. Lei pzi g: Teubner , 1857.
107
“The Apocal ypse of J ohn and t he pr obl emof genr e”, p. 77.
108
London: SPCK, 1982.
109
The Open Heaven, p. 234.

34
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t ext i n quest i on descr i bes si ncer e exper i ences, or even
t hat apocal ypt i c had begun i n t hi s f ashi on, so ar gues
Rowl and
110
.
Thi s bei ng sai d, Rowl and agr ees t hat r evel at or y
t echni ques ar e exposed and pr eser ved i n ear nest i n
apocal ypt i c vi si ons ( e. g. t he cup i n 4Ezr a 14: 18 l ooki ng
l i ke Ez 3: 2)
111
. An i mpor t ant poi nt made by hi m i s t hat i n
an epi sode l i ke 4Ezr a r e- r eadi ng of Dn 7: 13 t he awkwar dness
of t he pi ct ur e ( i n Dn t he beast s come f r omt he sea, wher eas
i n 4Ezr a i t i s t he man) suggest s t hat we ar e deal i ng wi t h
mor e t han pl ai n l i t er ar y convent i on – i n whi ch case t her e
woul d be l ess r oomf or cont r adi ct i ons l i ke t hat
112
.
Last l y, Rowl and, i n a t r end t o be f ol l owed by
Hi mmel f ar b and Fr ankf ur t er , ar gues f or t he i mpor t ance of
r ef l ect i on on Bi bl i cal passages as an i mpor t ant aspect of
ecst at i c t echni ques – a wel l - known exampl e bei ng Dn 9: 1
r el at ed t o J r 25: 11
113
, but ot her s mi ght be gi ven, many
goi ng back t o Ezeki el .
One of t he most ent husi ast i c def ences of t he si ncer i t y
of t he vi si onar y exper i ence i n apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e comes
f r om Dani el Mer kur
114
. He f ol l ows Russel l and Rowl and i n
agr eei ng on t he st agger i ng amount of det ai l gi ven by
exper i ences i n t he t ext s, and ar gues bot h about t he
aut hent i ci t y of t he exper i ence and al so about t he means by
whi ch vi si ons wer e pr oduced
115
. I t shoul d be not ed,

110
I dem, pp. 246- 247 and 214- 215.
111
I dem, p. 229. Rowl and does not say whi ch ar e t he t echni ques t hus
pr eser ved, but ar guabl y no one can answer t hat quest i on
sat i sf act or i l y. Li ke ever y ot her aut hor i ncl udi ng mysel f he i s ar gui ng
al so i n f avour of t he i mpor t ance of Ez 1 as a mat r i x f or apocal ypt i c
vi si onar y exper i ence ( cf . p. 228) .
112
I dem, pp. 217- 218.
113
I dem, p. 215.
114
“The vi si onar y pr act i ces of J ewi sh apocal ypt i ci st s” i n: L. Br yce
Boyer and Si mon Gr ol ni k ( eds. ) . The Psychoanal yt i c St udy of Soci et y.
Hi l l sdal e: Anal yt i c Pr ess, 1989.
115
I dem, pp. 120- 121.

35
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

however , t hat t he aut hor ’ s t heor y i s l i mi t ed t o
psychoanal ysi s ( sever el y hamper i ng hi s ef f or t s, i n my
opi ni on, and al so ar guabl y f or ci ng anci ent modes of t hought
i nt o a moder n pat t er n and one qui t e aut hor i t ar i an i n t hi s
case)
116
.
Havi ng sai d t hat , Mer kur ’ s anal ysi s of f er s a number of
i nsi ght f ul pr oposi t i ons. One of t hem i s t hat , whi l e
accept i ng t he now common i dea t hat dr eams mi ght f ol l ow
i nduct i on by Fr eudi an, J ungi an or any ot her t heor et i cal
suggest i on, Mer kur t akes f ur t her t he at t empt t o separ at e
convent i onal t hemes and si ncer e exper i ence ( e. g. a st andar d
t heme woul d be t he angel s expl ai ni ng dr eams i n 2Br 35- 47
and 48- 76)
117
.
An i mpor t ant i ssue r ai sed by Mer kur i s t hat t he
apocal ypt i c seer f r equent l y get s answer s t o quest i ons he
di d not l ook f or : “Thi s ci r cumst ance i ndi cat es a
phenomenol ogy of i nspi r at i on r at her t han aut o- suggest i on
[ . . . ] ”
118
. On t he ot her hand, t oget her wi t h Gr uenwal d and
Rowl and, he suggest s t hat AsI s 6: 10- 12, 14- 16a mi ght r eveal
sel f - hypnot i c i nduct i on of t r ance
119
. Excessi ve mour ni ng i s
al so under l i ned by Mer kur as an ASC i nducer i n t he
apocal ypses ( or , f or t hat mat t er , even i n Bi bl i cal
l i t er at ur e – e. g. 1Kgs 18: 26- 29, J s 7: 2- 5) . I n apocal ypt i c
l i t er at ur e t hi s r ecour se appear s, among ot her st ances, i n
1En 14: 7, Dn 9: 3- 4 and 3Br 1: 1- 3
120
. I n t he Shepher d of
Her mas t hi r d vi si on, 10: 6 t her e i s expl i ci t r ef er ence t o
t hat
121
.
Anot her i mpor t ant poi nt t o make i s t hat even t hi s
i nduci ng devi ce mi ght have an unsuccessf ul out come ( e. g.

116
I dem, p. 121. See al so Russel l , Met hod and Message, p. 140.
117
I dem, p. 123.
118
I dem, p. 124.
119
I d. i bi d.
120
I dem, p. 125.
121
I dem, p. 127.

36
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t he t hi r d vi si on i n 4Ezr a) ; t he sudden change of humour by
t he vi si onar y i n 1En 26: 6b, 17: 1, 4Ezr a 13: 11, ApSof 10: 8
and 3Br 17: 3 woul d show t r aces of mani c- depr essi ve
psychosi s
122
. Last l y, and r el at ed t o t he i dea of mour ni ng,
Mer kur emphasi zes t he f eel i ng of gui l t t hat accompany many
r el i gi ous cr eeds, wi t h t he mani f est i nt ent i on of gi vi ng t he
i ndi vi dual a f eel i ng of r el ease when opposi t e sent i ment s
ar e devel oped – i . e. t o t he i dea t hat mour ni ng and gui l t
wi l l f ol l ow a st at e of r epent ance and wel l - bei ng. Thi s i s
made expl i ci t i n ApAbr 18: 12- 14
123
. Mer kur al so ar gues
agai nst sel f - hypnosi s t heor i es t hat st r ess t he monot ony of
r epet i t i ons, f or medi t at i on t echni ques of t he apocal ypt i c
seer s ar e r at i onal and di scur si ve: r ehear si ng wel l - known
t hemes and bui l di ng i magi nat i ve ment al pi ct ur es, t hey coul d
i ncubat e i nspi r at i ons t hat woul d, f i nal l y, gai n vi sual
f or m
124
.
The l ast i mpor t ant aut hor l ef t f or us t o t ake a l ook at
i s Davi d Fr ankf ur t er . Agai nst what we have been pur sui ng i n
t hi s t hesi s ( and i t shoul d be r emember ed t hat most of t he
pr evi ous aut hor s f ol l owed t he same pat h) , namel y
i nvest i gat i on of ecst at i c t echni ques pr esent i n passages
t hat t al k openl y about what t he seer di d bef or e t he
vi si onar y exper i ence ( t ext s pr one t o t hat bei ng t he maj or
apocal ypses l i ke 1- 3En, Dn, 2Br and 4Ezr a, as wel l as some
l ess popul ar wor ks such as ApSof or ApAbr ) , Fr ankf ur t er
get s hi s anal ysi s f r om t he Copt i c Apocal ypse of El i j ah, an
appar ent l y ver y cr ude t ext f or t he pur pose, besi des bei ng
l at e and of Chr i st i an or i gi n and usage
125
.

122
I dem, p. 133.
123
I dem, p. 140.
124
I dem, p. 141.
125
Not wi t hst andi ng t he many pecul i ar i t i es of ApEl , Fr ankf ur t er ’ s wor k
i s r emar kabl e and we shal l di scuss t he t wo t ext s wher e Fr ankf ur t er
exposes hi s vi ews, namel y El i j ah i n Upper Egypt : t he Apocal ypse of
El i j ah and Ear l y Egypt i an Chr i st i ani t y ( Mi nneapol i s: For t r ess Pr ess,

37
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

Fi r st of al l i t shoul d be not ed t hat , unl i ke 1En, Dn,
2Br or 4Ezr a we ar e deal i ng her e wi t h a Chr i st i an t ext ,
emanat i ng f r om t he i l l i t er at e backgr ound of t he Egypt i an
chor a, space of f anat i c mi l l enar i ani sm
126
. ApEl r eveal s a
wor l d wher e t r adi t i onal Bi bl i cal her oes ar e as i mpor t ant t o
Egypt i an Chr i st i ans as t hey wer e t o Pal est i ni an J ews
127
.
The t ext i t sel f pl aces gr eat st r ess i n f ast i ng ( e. g. ApEl
1: 23- 27) , but t hi s can be under st ood as a cl eansi ng devi ce
r at her t han i nduct i on t echni que expl i ci t l y f or mul at ed f or
vi si onar y pur poses
128
. As I sai d above, i n ApEl we have no
hi nt s of pseudepi gr aphy ot her t han t he t i t l e of t he wor k –
unl i ke 4Ezr a or 2Br , we have no i nt r oduct i on i n ApEl
st at i ng how “El i j ah” got hi s vi si on: i t does show, however ,
some connect i on bet ween “t hi s” El i j ah and t he Bi bl i cal
one
129
.
Fr ankf ur t er al so poi nt s t o t he i mpor t ance of aur al
consumpt i on of t hi s ki nd of l i t er at ur e and t he ef f ect s t hi s
mi ght have had on an audi ence i mmer sed i n Bi bl i cal
t r adi t i on, whi l e at t he same t i me i l l i t er at e:

The nar r at i ve cont ext of t he Apocal ypse of El i j ah and
i t s pseudepi gr aphi c at t r i but i on may t hus be out l i ned:
t he t ext woul d have been hear d and under st ood i n l i ght
of t he l egend of El i j ah’ s r evel at i ons on a mount ai nt op.
I n a pr edomi nant l y i l l i t er at e cul t ur e, such l egends
woul d have car r i ed aut hor i t y equal t o t hat of bi bl i cal
st or i es
130
.


1993) and “The l egacy of J ewi sh apocal ypses i n ear l y Chr i st i ani t y:
r egi onal t r aj ect or i es” ( i n: J ames C. Vander Kam and Wi l l i am Adl er
( eds. ) . The J ewi sh apocal ypt i c her i t age i n ear l y Chr i st i ani t y. Assen:
Van Gor cum/ For t r ess Pr ess, 1996) .
126
El i j ah i n Upper Egypt , p. 1.
127
I dem, pp. 2- 3.
128
See e. g. ApEl 1: 13- 22. Fast i ng coul d avoi d demons ent er i ng t he
body. On t he ot her hand f ast s wer e a known means of pr opi t i at i ng
r evel at i ons f r om El i j ah i n J ewi sh l i t er at ur e: cf . I t hamar Gr uenwal d.
Apocal ypt i c and Mer kavah Myst i ci sm. Lei den: Br i l l , 1980. P. 101.
129
I dem, p. 40, 59- 60.
130
I dem, p. 65.

38
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

Thi s “soaki ng” coul d be r el at ed t o t he act ual
i dent i f i cat i on of common peopl e t o Bi bl i cal char act er s, an
i dea t o be r esumed bel ow. Anyway t he use of f i r st - per son
nar r at i ve i n such an at mospher e shoul d have caused t he
deepest i mpact on t he audi ence, and Fr ankf ur t er suggest s
t hat t hi s mi ght have been a del i ber at e use of t he
devi ce
131
.
Fr ankf ur t er ’ s i deas, as f ur t her devel oped i n a l at er
t ext , t ake us t o t he not i on t hat , f or some Chr i st i an gr oups
r epr esent ed i n t he Mar t yr dom of Per pet ua ( +- 202 CE) , t he
gi f t of pr ophecy i s cl ear l y not r est r i ct ed t o anci ent
t i mes
132
. I n “The l egacy of J ewi sh apocal ypses” Fr ankf ur t er
r ef i nes t he i deas under l yi ng hi s pr evi ous wor k and st r esses
t he appar ent i dent i t y bet ween El i j ah and ot her Bi bl i cal
f i gur es and t he audi ence of ApEl ; gr eat car e must be t aken,
however , si nce t hi s does not i mpl y a f ace- val ue i dent i t y
bet ween t he act ual aut hor of t he t ext and El i j ah, al t hough
makes t hi s mor e t han a r emot e possi bi l i t y
133
.
I under st and al l t hese exampl es t o be st ances t hat show
t he i mpor t ance of sel f - suggest i on or i mmer si on of t he
i ndi vi dual i n cer t ai n gi ven cul t ur al r ef er ences. Thi s hol ds
t r ue even f or f or ger i es - al t hough l ogi cal l y not f or t he
si ncer i t y of t he exper i ences - , and does not i mpl y sel f -
hypnosi s but does not excl ude i t ei t her . As we shal l see i n
t he Appendi x, t hi s can t ake t he f or m of exhaust i ve
r epet i t i on of f or mul ae but does not necessar i l y i mpl y such
devi ces. Nei t her i s t hi s ki nd of i nduct i on pr esent i n

131
I dem, p. 88.
132
“The l egacy of J ewi sh apocal ypses”, p. 137.
133
A ver y i mpor t ant t ext r egar di ng t he r evi ew of mot i vat i ons f or t he
pr oduct i on of apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr apha i s f ur ni shed by Br uce Met zger
( “Li t er ar y f or ger i es and canoni cal pseudepi gr apha”, J BL 91: 3- 24,
1972) , but I shal l deal wi t h i t onl y i n t he next chapt er - when
di scussi ng speci f i c st udi es on pseudepi gr aphy and pseudoni mi t y.

39
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e nor i n Kar deci st vi si onar y i nduct i on
t echni ques.

40
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

6. Why a cr oss- cul t ur al appr oach i s needed

Cr oss- cul t ur al st udi es such as t he one pr oposed her e
coul d har dl y be j ust i f i ed i f t her e wer e enough pr i mar y
sour ces f or us t o est abl i sh a compl et e t heor y of
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy i n t he def i ned t ext s accessi ng
onl y t he sour ces t hemsel ves. Thi s i s not possi bl e f or a
weal t h of r easons – what we now have i s j ust a par t of a
l ar ger out put of t ext s; t he or i gi nal composi t i ons i n whi ch
t he sour ces wer e wr i t t en ( i n l anguages whi ch we cannot be
sur e of i n most cases) have been, t o an i mmense ext ent ,
l ost ; t he sour ces, never obl i ged t o t el l what t he hi st or i an
want s t o know, ar e par t i cul ar l y di smal r egar di ng our
quest i on; and l ast l y, pseudoni mi t y may pl ay i t s r ol e i n
maki ng t hi ngs mor e di f f i cul t f or t he schol ar ( whi l e at t he
same t i me bei ng a possi bl e cl ue t o t he pr ocesses anal yzed) .
The gr oup chosen pr ovi des bot h a manageabl e and unt r i ed
uni ver se f or cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son wi t h t he vi si onar y
pr ocesses of l at e Second Templ e myst i cs.
The sour ces used hi t her t o have not been abl e t o yi el d a
concl usi ve, cl ear - cut pi ct ur e r eveal i ng t he si ncer i t y of
pseudepi gr aphy, much l ess i f t he choosi ng of
pseudepi gr aphi cal wr i t i ng i nvol ves t r ue possessi on by t he
r eal ( i . e. mechani cal ) aut hor . Si nce t hi s i s i n ef f ect t he
case i n Kar deci sm ( wher e spi r i t ual aut hor shi p i s i ndeed a
var i et y of possessi on) i t compr i ses a par t i cul ar l y usef ul
cr oss- cul t ur al sour ce t o be eval uat ed agai nst anci ent
pseudepi gr aphy.

41
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

7. Consi der at i ons of met hod

The par al l el of f er ed i n t hi s t hesi s as an el uci dat i ng
cl ue t o t he apocal ypt i c seer s’ pr act i ces r el at es t o a
mai nst r eam Br azi l i an cont empor ar y r el i gi ous movement
( Kar deci sm) wher e ecst at i c pr act i ces pl ay a maj or r ol e,
whi l e t hese pr oduce a l i t er ar y cor pus whose aut hor shi p i s,
l i ke J ewi sh apocal ypt i c, pseudonym. Thi s i s Kar deci st
Spi r i t i sm, an i mpor t ant r el i gi ous st r eam i n Br azi l . Thi s
choi ce i s j ust i f i ed by many r easons – t he maj or one bei ng
t he f act t hat , bot h i n apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphi c wr i t i ng
and i n Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng t her e i s t he appar ent
ext er nal si mi l ar i t y of ecst at i c pr ocesses i nvol vi ng
al t er nat e i dent i t i es f or t he pr oduct i on of t ext s
134
.
The f act t hat shamani smhas al r eady been t r i ed i n ot her
st ances besi des Asht on’ s at t empt , wi t h i nconcl usi ve
r esul t s
135
, al so suggest s t hat new, f r esh appr oaches t o
t ackl e t he pr obl em of under st andi ng ol d ecst at i c pr act i ces
l acki ng i n pr i mar y sour ces by means of compar i son wi t h mor e
r ecent , bet t er document ed ones shoul d be t r i ed. Compar i sons
of t hi s ki nd ar e not sel f - evi dent , and t he chosen pat h i s
not t he onl y one possi bl e, f or t he l i mi t s bet ween
compar abl e obj ect s i s vi r t ual l y i nexi st ent
136
. And i n
compar i ng t hi s gr oup wi t h t he myst i cs of l at e Second Templ e

134
I t must be t aken i nt o account , however , t hat t he t ext s pr oduced i n
apocal ypt i c cont ext s wer e, at var yi ng degr ees, r egar ded as sacr ed or
even as par t of canoni cal Scr i pt ur e when t hi s came i nt o bei ng; t he
same cannot be sai d of psychogr aphi cal wr i t i ngs i n t he cont ext chosen
f or compar i son, al t hough t hey ar e of t en hel d i n hi gh est eem and ar e
used as a gui dance f or t he f ai t hf ul .
135
One good exampl e woul d be t he ar t i cl e by Ar vi d S. Kapel r ud.
“Shamani st i c f eat ur es i n t he Ol d Test ament ” i n: Car l M. Edsman.
St udi es i n Shamani sm. St ockhol m: Al mqvi st & Wi ksel l , 1967. El i ade’ s
r emar ks on Ezeki el as di spl ayi ng shamani c f eat ur es al so dr ew much
at t ent i on, al t hough ver y weakl y subst ant i at ed i n my vi ew ( cf .
Shamani sm: Ar chai c Techni ques of Ecst asy. London: Ar kana, 1989.
Pp. 162- 163) .
136
Over hol t , Pr ophecy i n Cr oss Cul t ur al Compar i son, p. 1; 4.

42
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

J udai sm, I do not i nt end t o anal yze one whol e gr oup agai nst
t he ot her , but mer el y t o compar e cer t ai n char act er i st i cs
appar ent l y shar ed bet ween t hem; t he apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphi c exper i ence coul d be bet t er under st ood by
t hese means, al t hough not t he speci f i c cont ent or doct r i ne
of t he gr oups i nvol ved
137
. By def i ni t i on, compar i son i s
never a synonym f or i dent i t y – nor can par al l el s pr ove
def i ni t el y t he ways of t hi nki ng of t he anci ent vi si onar i es.
Ther e i s much i nsi ght f or t he hi st or i cal i magi nat i on t o be
gai ned by t hi s appr oach, however
138
.
The i dea of t aki ng a cr oss- cul t ur al appr oach pi cki ng
t he Br azi l i an Kar deci st movement cannot suppose or pr ove a
di r ect l i nk bet ween l at e Second Templ e J udai sm and
cont empor ar y Sout h Amer i can ecst at i c pr act i ces; t her e can
be no di r ect quot i ng, use or cl ear bor r owi ng bet ween, say,
t he much- r ead wr i t i ngs of Al l an Kar dec and t he Syr i ac
apocal ypse of Bar uch. Thi s wor k i s not i nt ended t o
demonst r at e di r ect l i nks and i nf l uences bet ween r el i gi ous
gr oups and t ext s, but r at her i t i s i nt ended t hat , by means
of anal yzi ng cont empor ar y aut omat i c wr i t i ng pr act i ces, some
l i ght may be shed upon pseudepi gr aphy as i t appear s i n
J ewi sh apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e
139
.
Of cour se t he whol e i dea t hat psychogr aphi cal pr ocesses
( i . e. aut omat i c wr i t i ng) and apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy ar e
compar abl e r est s on t he assumpt i on t hat apocal ypt i c was,
f r om t he st ar t , wr i t t en l i t er at ur e and not a col l ect i on of

137
Chr i st opher R. Hal l pi ke. “Some pr obl ems i n cr oss- cul t ur al
compar i son” i n: Thomas O. Bei del man ( ed. ) . The Tr ansl at i on of Cul t ur e.
London: Tavi st ock, 1971; Over hol t , “Pr ophecy: t he pr obl em of cr oss-
cul t ur al compar i son”, p. 73.
138
Over hol t , Pr ophecy i n Cr oss Cul t ur al Compar i son, p. 335.
139
Of cour se Kar dec and 2Bar uch can be r el at ed i n a way, si nce bot h
st em f r om a common sour ce – namel y pr e- Exi l i c J udai sm, whi ch i n t ur n
coul d be r el at ed t o ear l i er r el i gi ons and bel i ef s et c. . . However , t hi s
i s not t he ki nd of l i nk sear ched f or i n t hi s wor k and any at t empt t o
el uci dat e i t woul d t ake us much beyond t he scope of t he t hesi s, i f
i ndeed i t shoul d pr ove possi bl e.

43
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

or al l y pr eser ved t r adi t i ons t o be put i nt o wr i t t en f or m
l ong af t er t hei r composi t i on. I have never seen any ser i ous
chal l enge t o t hi s i dea.
Pseudoni mi t y and pseudepi gr aphy, r emar kabl e f eat ur es as
t hey ar e i n Second Templ e l i t er at ur e, can wel l have not hi ng
t o do wi t h t he vi si onar y epi sodes descr i bed: no mat t er how
vi vi d and r eal i st i c t he apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphi c pi ct ur e
may be, i t can al ways be a f r aud, pi ous or done wi t h
mal i ce. However , i f t hi s wer e t he case we woul d st i l l be
l ef t wi t h many si de quest i ons – why i s t hi s char act er
chosen f or put at i ve aut hor shi p i n a gi ven t ext , and not any
ot her one? How does t he concept of f r aud appl y t o t he
anci ent r eader shi p of t hese t ext s? Di d t he composer s of
such t ext s f or mpar t of any def i ni t e gr oups whi ch coul d be
def i ned by havi ng i n common t he devi ce of pseudoni mi t y, or
was t hi s so over spr ead as t o const i t ut e a f eat ur e
i ndi st i ngui shabl e f r omot her s?
These quest i ons ar e not answer abl e at pr esent , and t hey
shal l onl y be deal t wi t h i n t hi s t hesi s i nsof ar as t hey may
hel p us under st and t he apocal ypt i c seer s i n a mor e compl et e
way. But I t hi nk t hat , wer e we abl e t o posi t t hat
pseudepi gr aphy i s cl ear l y f r aud ( r egar dl ess of i t s
i nt ent i on) , t he case f or i nvest i gat i on woul d be much weaker
and t he r el evant quest i ons i n much smal l er number s. But
even i n t hat case, we woul d be l ef t wi t h t he pr obl emof t he
nat ur e of t he myst i cal exper i ence t hat may l i e behi nd i t .
Of cour se, t he exper i ences may be r eal wi t h t he i dent i t y
al so bei ng t r ue, or wi t h an assumed i dent i t y; or t hey can
be f al se and st i l l of f er t he same t wo possi bi l i t i es
r egar di ng i dent i t y.
Summar i zi ng t hose possi bi l i t i es, a f al se exper i ence
under a f al se name woul d l eave us wi t h a par ody, i n i t sel f
wor t hy of i nvest i gat i on but f ar away f r om t he st udy of

44
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

vi si onar y exper i ences t hemsel ves – i t woul d t ake us t o an
ent i r el y di f f er ent t ype of pr oposal , t hat of t he st udy of a
l i t er ar y t opos i n t he chosen per i od ( i t coul d happen t hat
t hi s t hesi s ends wi t h t he concl usi on t hat t he exper i ences
descr i bed ar e i n f act t opoi , but t hen such a concl usi on
wi l l have been r eached by a whol l y di f f er ent appr oach) . A
t r ue exper i ence under a t r ue name i s, f or r easons wel l
known t o anyone r easonabl y acquai nt ed wi t h apocal ypt i c,
i mpossi bl e ( i . e. t he “Ezr a” of 4Ezr a cannot be t he post -
Exi l i c l eader of t he canoni cal book t hat bear s hi s name,
nor coul d t hi s be sai d of Bar uch, and so on) . A f al se
exper i ence under a t r ue i dent i t y i s al so r ul ed out ( we
cannot be sur e about t he aut hent i ci t y of t he exper i ence
yet , but , as st at ed above, we can be sur e t hat whoever
composed 4Ezr a i s def i ni t el y not t he her o of t he canoni cal
book) .
A t r ue exper i ence under a f al se name i s t he t hi ng t o be
deal t wi t h her e, f or r easons t o be devel oped i n a mor e
compl et e f ashi on i n t he next chapt er s. I f t hi s under l yi ng
assumpt i on i s gi ven some i ni t i al cr edi t as a t ent at i ve
hypot hesi s, however modest , we can dwel l on t he accessor y
t heme of t he chosen i dent i t y wi t h gr eat er assur ance and
bet t er per spect i ves. Thi s wi l l be done t hr oughout t hi s
wor k, and even i f t he r esul t s come t o t he concl usi on t hat
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy has not hi ng t o do wi t h one
possi bl e moder n count er par t , psychogr aphy, i t woul d have
been wor t h t r yi ng, f or al l owi ng a di f f er ent i nsi ght i nt o
t he pr ocess of pr oduci ng r el i gi ous t ext s under t he gui se
( or gui dance) of an ent i t y ot her t han t he mechani cal
wr i t er ’ s per sonal i t y. Thi s woul d st i l l hol d t r ue i f moder n-
day aut omat i c wr i t i ng can be under st ood i n t er ms of sel f -
suggest i on or hypnot i c pr ocesses.

45
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

I t i s not expect ed t hat , by al l owi ng t he i dent i t y of
t he pr esumed aut hor t o be aki n t o t hat of t he spi r i t t hat
communi cat es t o t he Kar deci st medi um, we wi l l aut omat i cal l y
have f i r st - hand pr oof t hat apocal ypt i c t ext s descr i be
aut hent i c vi si onar y pr ocesses; as sai d above, i t may wel l
be t he opposi t e. Pseudoni mi t y as possessi on i n any degr ee
i s j ust a hypot hesi s t o be t est ed i n t he absence of
compl et e i nf or mat i on on t he wr i t i ng/ composi ng pr ocess of
apocal ypt i c wr i t er s, and t he many l i mi t at i ons t hat t hi s
met hod i mposes on t he schol ar shal l be deal t wi t h i n t he
next chapt er s. I hope t o have expl ai ned sat i sf act or i l y t hat
t hi s i s not an ar bi t r ar y choi ce but t hat appar ent
si mi l ar i t i es and t he i mmedi at e avai l abi l i t y of much
mat er i al r egar di ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng makes t hi s associ at i on
a l ogi cal st ep, and hopef ul l y a f r ui t f ul one.
The i dea t hat t he exper i ences descr i bed by t he
apocal ypt i c vi si onar i es may be mer e expr essi ons of l i t er ar y
t opoi does not r ender i nval i d t he epi sodes descr i bed, whi ch
may hi de aut hent i c exper i ences. I woul d suggest t hat t he
f act t hat t he seer s may be descr i bi ng t hei r exper i ences i n
a pr econcei ved and hi ghl y ar t i f i ci al manner - as has been
poi nt ed out by mor e t han one schol ar - i s no pr oof t hat t he
exper i ences never t ook pl ace. Thi s j ust r ef l ect s t he f act
t hat t he audi ence of t hose t ext s expect ed t he seer s
descr i bed t o have under gone cer t ai n ki nds of exper i ences,
much i n t he same way t hat moder n man expect s cer t ai n gr oups
and i ndi vi dual s t o behave i n det er mi ned f ashi ons; t hi s
expect at i on may i n t ur n cont r i but e t o t he r ol e- pl ayi ng of
par t i ci pant s f r om t he chosen gr oup. Of cour se t he i ssue of
pseudepi gr aphy r ai ses a l ot of subsequent quest i ons, f or
when we t al k about col l ect i ve expect at i ons i n t he behavi our
of cer t ai n i ndi vi dual s and gr oups we assume t hat t he l at t er
can be cl ear l y i dent i f i ed - and bei ng t he apocal ypses f or

46
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t he most par t pseudepi gr aphi c wr i t i ngs we woul d t hen have
t o under st and si mul t aneousl y t he t opoi of t he vi si ons and
t he wr i t i ng under a pseudonym
140
.
Summi ng up, t he f act t hat t he act i on of t he subj ect s
i nvol ved can be st er eot ypi cal does not mean t hat t hey ar e
necessar i l y f al se
141
; i t may wel l be t hat t he st er eot ypi cal
per f or mances of t he ecst at i cs i nvest i gat ed communi cat e
r ecogni zabl e meani ngs t o peopl e who par t i ci pat e and wat ch
r i t ual s, and si nce t he vi si onar y epi sodes ar e hi ghl y val ued
by t he gr oups concer ned, t hi s shoul d nor mal l y l ead t o
st er eot ypy
142
. I t shoul d be r emember ed t hat t her e wi l l
al ways be r oom f or var i et i es of exper i ences bet ween t he
pr act i oner s of any sect or gr oup, no mat t er how si mi l ar or
st er eot yped t he descr i pt i ons may come.
I n ot her soci et i es wi t h r el i gi ous ecst at i c pr act i ces
such as shamani sm we wi l l al so f i nd t opoi gui di ng t he
conduct of t he shaman: t hey ar e expect ed t o behave i n a
cer t ai n f ashi on and i n so doi ng t hey gai n soci al
accept ance
143
. The i ssue whet her t hei r f i r st - hand
exper i ences ar e f ake or not i s al t oget her di f f er ent and
t akes us back t o a poi nt al r eady di scussed, namel y t hat
even bei ng apocal ypt i c vi si ons, f al se exper i ences i n
t hemsel ves, t he “l i es” t ol d ar e under st andabl e onl y i n
t er ms of cer t ai n soci al codes, whi ch cannot be, as such,

140
An exampl e of r ever si ng r ol es can be f ound i n t he ver y i nt er est i ng
aut obi ogr aphy of J acob Fr omer quot ed by Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t . p. x; 207-
208, wher e a young and skept i cal J ew sees, i n t he ghet t o, a r abbi
per f or m t he exor ci sm of t he spi r i t of a deceased J ew conver t ed t o
Chr i st i ani sm. The unf or t unat e soul had, mor eover , been a sui ci de and
subsequent l y r ei ncar nat ed as a pi g – al l ver y f i t t i ng t o a non-
Chr i st i an i nt er pr et at i on whi ch nonet hel ess l ef t unexpl ai ned aspect s
bot h f or Fr omer t he eyewi t ness as wel l as f or Oest er r ei ch.
141
Bour gui gnon, op, ci t . p. 14.
142
Over hol t , Pr ophecy i n Cr oss- Cul t ur al Per spect i ve, p. 13. The aut hor
gi ves as an exampl e t he f act t hat among t he hui chol f r om Nor t her n
Mexi co vi si ons i nduct ed by i ngest i on of t he peyot e al so have a st r ong
st er eot ypi cal char act er , wi t hout t hi s meani ng t hat t hey ar e f akes.
143
El i ade, Shamani sm, especi al l y chapt er 1, “Gener al consi der at i ons.
Recr ui t i ng met hods. Shamani smand myst i cal vocat i on”.

47
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

t r ue or f al se. To gi ve an exampl e, t he set t i ng of Dani el ’ s
vi si ons i n Dn 7 can be f ake, or t he vi si onar y epi sode
i t sel f may be, but nonet hel ess t he whol e pi ct ur e t el l s us
much about f ear s and hopes of J ews dur i ng t he Hel l eni st i c
per i od, as wel l as what coul d be r easonabl y expect ed as
si gns of success f or a r oyal ser vant l i ke Dani el i n
Or i ent al cour t s of t he per i od: bot h set s of dat a ar e
i ndependent of t he aut hent i ci t y of t he vi si onar y pr ocess
i t sel f .
So t hi s i s a summar y of t he possi bi l i t i es of
under st andi ng t he phenomenon of apocal ypt i c vi si onar y
exper i ences as possessi on - of t he seer by God, but mor e
l i kel y of t he seer by t he one whose name he t akes. Thi s
expl anat i on seems t o be wor t h t r yi ng, f or i t woul d account
bot h f or t he st er eot yped char act er of pseudepi gr aphi c
vi si ons and al so f or t he event ual l y “t r ue” nat ur e of t he
exper i ences descr i bed i n t he t ext s. Si nce PTs ar e such an
i mpor t ant par t of t hi s di scussi on, t hese ar e j ust
i nt r oduct or y obser vat i ons t o be f ul l y devel oped i n t he
appr opr i at e par t s of t he t hesi s.
Compar i son t o Kar deci sm i s by no means t he onl y cr oss-
cul t ur al pat h t o f ol l ow, but t he st agger i ng number of
t ext s, t hei r wi l l i ngness t o t al k about ASC- i nduci ng
pr ocedur es and t he var i et y of genr es t hey r epr esent make
Kar deci st t ext s, and especi al l y t hose by Chi co Xavi er , a
ver y good choi ce f or cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son even i f
aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s pr esent i n a number of ot her cul t ur es.
Fi nal l y a wor d of caut i on i s due t o t he var i et y of
mat er i al chosen r egar di ng anci ent sour ces: al t hough
apocal ypt i c t ext s const i t ut e t he cor e of t he sour ce
mat er i al s, a l ook at ot her ki nds of t ext s was unavoi dabl e
and somet i mes const i t ut es a mi cr o- cr oss- cul t ur al uni ver se
i n i t sel f . Thus pseudepi gr apha f r om t he OT as wel l as t he

48
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

NT wer e used when f easi bl e, even when t hey ar e not
apocal ypses ( e. g. t he case of 4Br , or apocr yphal wor ks
at t r i but ed t o Paul i n l at e Ant i qui t y, or even mor e
i mpor t ant l y, t he Chr i st i an apocal ypse known as ApEl ) . Not
ever y t ext wi l l f ur ni sh evi dence, nor ar e concl usi ons
r el at ed t o Chr i st i an ci r cl es appl i ed t o ear l i er J ewi sh ones
wi t hout r i sk.

49
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

8. Pr esent at i on of t he t hesi s

I n t he t hesi s, chapt er s ar e pr esent ed f ol l owi ng t he
exposi t i on of t he ar gument as bel ow: f i r st of al l t he
i nt r oduct i on deal s wi t h t he t heor et i cal i ssues at t he cor e
of t he t hesi s, essent i al l y t he possi bi l i t i es and l i mi t s of
cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son, and al so why such an appr oach i s
needed f or t he pr oposed t heme ( ch. 1) .
The t hesi s pr oper i s st r uct ur ed begi nni ng wi t h an
over vi ew of gener al i ssues r el at ed t o Br azi l i an Kar deci sm
and of t he r el evance and out put of i t s f or emost psychi c,
Chi co Xavi er ( ch. 2) . Xavi er i s exempl ar y among an out put
t hat t hi s i mmense f or sever al r easons - hi s r eput at i on, hi s
wi l l i ngness t o t al k about pr epar at or y pr act i ces i n a ver y
st r ai ght f or war d manner ( i ncl udi ng admi ssi on of sel f -
hypnot i c pr act i ces) ; t hi s i s t hen anal yzed i n t er ms of t he
schol ar shi p associ at ed wi t h aut omat i c wr i t i ng and
possessi onal t r ance as t hese ar e i nt egr al t o Kar deci st
psychogr aphy ( ch. 3) . Thi s schol ar shi p, r el evant as i t i s
t o t he pur poses of t he t hesi s, has not , so f ar as I have
i nvest i gat ed, expl ai ned t he phenomenon of Kar deci st
aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n pur el y sci ent i f i c t er ms, but i t sheds
l i ght on ASC- i nduct i ve pr act i ces t hat ar e - at l east
supr ef i ci al l y - aki n t o many of t he pr epar at or y passages
f ound i n apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e.
Par t 2 i s an appl i cat i on of t he i nsi ght s f r omt he st udy
of t he Kar deci st mat er i al t o t he st udy of apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy. The di scussi on begi ns wi t h consi der at i on of
t he evi dence f r om Second Templ e J ewi sh and ot her
cont empor ar y t ext s f or t he not i on of an i ndi vi dual bei ng
seen as embodyi ng or i n some way bei ng i nspi r ed by a f i gur e
f r om t he past . Thi s di scussi on al so expl or es t he
exami nat i on of apocal ypt i c passages wher e t he act ual wr i t er

50
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

speaks of hi msel f i n f i r st per son under t he gui se of
anot her char act er , f or such passages ar e t he f i r st pl ace t o
sear ch f or t hi s al l eged i dent i t y because t hey ost ensi bl y
r ef er t o f i r st - hand exper i ences. Anci ent r el i gi ous t ext s
( not necessar i l y apocal ypt i c) wher e aut omat i c wr i t i ng or
some si mi l ar aut hor i al devi ce may be i mpl i ed ar e t hen
anal yzed si nce t hey pr ovi de evi dence on how
pseudepi gr aphi cal devi ces mi ght have wor ked r egar di ng t hei r
audi ence; t hi s i s not a “per f ect f i t ” but r at her an anal ogy
t owar ds apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy ( ch. 5) . Thi s par t of
t he di sser t at i on concl udes wi t h a di scussi on of r el i gi ous
pseudepi gr aphy i n Ant i qui t y as a whol e, emphasi zi ng r ecent
t heor et i cal di scussi on on pseudepi gr aphy i n t he Gr eco- Roman
wor l d, t hough t he suppor t t hese di scussi ons of f er t o t he
pr esent t hesi s i s mar gi nal , at best ( ch. 6) .
The t hesi s concl udes wi t h an assessment of t he
vi abi l i t y of t he i dea t hat pseudepi gr aphy may be t he
r esul t of a f or m of aut omat i c wr i t i ng ( i . e. as i nvol vi ng
mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s or possessi on by t hem) and i s
t her ef or e a possi bl e way of under st andi ng bot h apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy and t he vi si onar y epi sodes descr i bed
t her ei n. I n shor t , i t i s hoped t hat i n par t 3 of t he
di sser t at i on t he many i nsi ght s col l ect ed al ong moder n
st udi es r egar di ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng - wi t h specai l emphasi s
i n t he out put of Chi co Xavi er , f or t he r easons al r eady
st at ed - ar e t ent at i vel y f i t i nt o what i s known of
apocal ypt i c descr i pt i ve pr epar at or y passages. The st udy of
moder n- day pr act i ces t hat l ead t o ASCs t hat , i n t ur n, t ake
t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng, may hel p us i nvest i gat e t he
aut hent i ci t y of such apocal ypt i c descr i pt i ons and, i n case
we ar e deal i ng wi t h l i t er ar y t opoi , t o di scer n, as f ar as
i s possi bl e, what can be r epor t s on f i r st - hand exper i ences

51
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka

and what i s j ust what i s expect ed f r oma genr e, wi t hout any
l i nk t o si ncer e r epor t s.
Last l y t he appendi x di scusses evi dence whi ch mi ght
suggest t he r eal i t y of t he vi si onar y exper i ences cont ai ned
i n some apocal ypt i c t ext s, i ncl udi ng aspect s of pr epar at or y
pr act i ces i n apocal ypt i c wi t h speci al r egar d t o 4Ezr a and
t he possi bi l i t y of chemi cal l y- i nduced vi si onar y
exper i ences.

52



Par t One

Cr oss- cul t ur al par al l el s t o vi si onar y
pr ocesses i nvol vi ng t he assumpt i on of
anot her per son’ s aut hor i al i dent i t y
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


CHAPTER 2 - AUTOMATI C WRI TI NG I N MODERN- DAY KARDECI SM

1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er

I n t hi s sect i on of t he t hesi s we wi l l have a br i ef
i nt r oduct i on t o Br azi l i an Kar deci sm, wi t h speci al f ocus on
i t s r enowned out put of spi r i t ual l y- or i ent ed l i t er at ur e
named “psychogr aphy”. An out l i ne of t he i nst i t ut i onal and
dogmat i c devel opment of t he doct r i ne i n Br azi l i s gi ven,
f ol l owed by bi ogr aphi cal dat a on i t s most r el evant and
pr ol i f i c medi um, Fr anci sco Cândi do “Chi co” Xavi er . The many
genr es r epr esent ed i n Kar deci st out put ar e al so di scussed,
wi t h emphasi s on t he edi t or i al aspect s of t he pr act i ce of
Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng ( i . e. how Chi co Xavi er handl ed
t he pr ocess of ever yday wr i t i ng, how r ef er ences t o deceased
aut hor s l ed t o l egal act i on and how t hi s subsequent l y
changed decl ar ed i dent i t i es of pr esumed aut hor s) . The
chapt er concl udes wi t h t he apocal ypt i c nat ur e of t wo of t he
most f amous Kar deci st t ext s by Chi co Xavi er , and how t hei r
decl ar ed aut hor s act as gui des i n t he ot her wor l d.

53
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. Br i ef i nt r oduct i on t o t he devel opment of
Br azi l i an Kar deci sm

The r el i gi ous gr oup chosen f or compar i son i s composed
of Br azi l i an Kar deci st myst i cs. A ver y br i ef summar y of t he
doct r i ne and a hi st or y of t he gr oup i n Br azi l wi l l be
gi ven; we shal l concent r at e on t he vi si onar y pr ocesses
t hemsel ves wi t h occasi onal r ef er ence t o t he cont ent of
t ext s or vi si ons onl y when t hey coul d convey usef ul
i nf or mat i on about pr epar at i ons t hemsel ves. Among t he
sour ces consul t ed, gr eat i mpor t ance i s at t r i but ed t o t he
wr i t i ngs of Fr anci sco “Chi co” Xavi er , t he most i mpor t ant
Br azi l i an psychi c ever , whose l i f e, t eachi ngs and pr act i ce
ar e al l r epr esent at i ve of Kar deci st pr act i ce whi l e at t he
same t i me set up as a st andar d t o be i mi t at ed by f ol l ower s.
Chi co Xavi er i s r el evant f or hi s exempl ar y l i f e as wel l as
f or hi s enor mous out put – about 400 di f f er ent t i t l es
wr i t t en, many t r ansl at ed i nt o f or ei gn l anguages and
amount i ng t o many mi l l i ons of copi es sol d. Thi s
pr oduct i vi t y, as we shal l see, i s t he r esul t of a l i f e
ent i r el y dedi cat ed t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng. Al l t he above
j ust i f y hi s choi ce as t he st andar d agai nst whi ch Kar deci st
pr epar at or y pr act i ces can be measur ed.
I t must be bor ne i n mi nd t hat , si nce ASC phenomena i n
Kar deci st Spi r i t i smwer e ext r emel y var i ed ( i . e. ASCs can be
r el at ed t o t he heal i ng of di seases, t o per f or mi ng
oper at i ons wi t hout anaest het i cs, t o di vi ni ng t he f ut ur e and
so on) , we shal l concent r at e on vi si onar y pr ocesses r el at ed
t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng si nce t hese wi l l l ead t o a f i nal
r esul t si mi l ar t o t he sour ces of t he mai n t heme of t hi s
t hesi s –bot h i n apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy and Kar deci st
aut omat i c wr i t i ng we have r eal or assumed myst i cal

54
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


exper i ences t hat ar e cr yst al l i zed as t ext s wr i t t en i n t he
name of someone ot her t han t he act ual ( i . e. mechani cal )
wr i t er . Of cour se cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son ot her t han
aut omat i c wr i t i ng coul d be used t o assess dat a on myst i cal
exper i ences of t ypes bet ween t he gr oups chosen, but t hi s i s
not t he ai mof t hi s t hesi s and shal l be omi t t ed due t o t he
avai l abi l i t y and appar ent si mi l ar i t y bet ween t he t wo t ypes
of phenomenon chosen.

55
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. 1. A sur vey of Kar deci st doct r i ne
1
The sour ces on whi ch our anal ysi s wi l l be based ar e
essent i al l y t he “codi f i cat i on” ( codi f i cação, t he Por t uguese
name gi ven t o t he f oundi ng t ext s of Kar deci st Spi r i t ual i sm)
as i t i s r el at ed t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng and some
r epr esent at i ve t ext s of t he most i mpor t ant Br azi l i an
Kar deci st psychi c ever , Fr anci sco Cândi do Xavi er ( 1910-
2002) , wi del y known as “Chi co” Xavi er . Occasi onal r ef er ence
shal l be made t o l esser - known medi ums ( t hi s i s t he t er mby
whi ch Kar deci st psychi cs ar e known i n Br azi l ) such as
Di val do Per ei r a Fr anco, as wel l as t o t he smal l er amount of
mat er i al on pr epar at i on f or aut omat i c wr i t i ng publ i shed by
Kar deci st s t hemsel ves. But Chi co Xavi er i s hai l ed as a
nat i onal sai nt and i n t he hi er ar chy of hol i ness among
Kar deci st medi ums he i s by f ar t he most pr est i gi ous
2
.
I n essence, Kar deci sm devel oped i n t he ni net eent h
cent ur y as a myst i cal doct r i ne t hat on one hand der i ved
f r om t he bel i ef i n r ei ncar nat i on and spi r i t s, and r el i ed
heavi l y on Dar wi ni smon t he ot her . Thi s meant t hat , i n t he
Kar deci st concept i on of t he wor l d, cont i nuous evol ut i on of
i ndi vi dual spi r i t s, of ci vi l i zat i ons, r el i gi ons and of t he
whol e Ear t h i s a cor ner st one. Thi s l eads bot h t o a
compl acent vi ew of ever y ot her r el i gi ous pr act i ce ( each
bei ng good i n i t s own t i me, and sui t ed t o a cer t ai n ki nd of
evol ut i onar y st age bot h of man and of soci et y) whi l e at t he
same t i me pur por t i ng a hi ghl y el i t i zed vi ew of Kar deci st s
t hemsel ves – nat ur al l y seen as t he t op of t hi s evol ut i onar y

1
To avoi d conf usi ons, “aut hor s” i n psychogr aphed wor ks ar e al ways t he
medi ums; t he name of t he spi r i t t hey cl ai m t o be r epr esent i ng i s
al ways gi ven whenever st at ed i n t he or i gi nal wor ks.
2
Mar i a L. Caval cant i . O mundo i nvi sí vel : cosmol ogi a, si st ema r i t ual e
noção de pessoa no espi r i t i smo. Ri o de J anei r o: Zahar , 1983. Ci t . by
Sandr a J . St ol l . Ent r e doi s mundos: o espi r i t i smo da Fr ança e no
Br asi l . DPhi l . Depar t ament o de Ant r opol ogi a. Uni ver si dade de São
Paul o, São Paul o, 1999.

56
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


chai n, somet hi ng under st andabl y di sl i ked by pr act i t i oner s
of ot her cul t s.
Br azi l i an Spi r i t i sm i s gener al l y known as Kar deci sm
3
,
and t akes i t s name f r om Al l an Kar dec, nom de pl ume of t he
Fr ench Hi ppol yt e Léon Deni zar d Ri vai l ( 1804- 1869) . He was
deepl y i nvol ved wi t h Pest al ozzi as an educat or and, i n May
1855, he wi t nessed t he t hen common phenomenon of t ur ni ng
t abl es ( appar ent l y moved by t he medi umi st i c f or ce of
medi ums ar ound i t ) . Fr om t hen on he devot ed mor e and mor e
ef f or t t o t he f or gi ng of a doct r i ne whi ch woul d t r y t o
under st and, i n t ypi cal Posi t i vi st i c f ashi on, r el i gi ous
phenomena i n t er ms of r at i onal and accessi bl e expl anat i on.
He l ef t a r easonabl y l ar ge amount of wor k behi nd hi m, among
whi ch we shoul d under l i ne Genesi s, t he Book of t he Spi r i t s,
t he Book of t he Medi ums and t he The Gospel accor di ng t o
Spi r i t i sm, pl us vol umi nous post humous wor ks. The f our books
above const i t ut e st apl e r eadi ng f or Br azi l i an Kar deci st s,
wi t h t he Book of Medi ums bei ng usual l y consi der ed mor e
di f f i cul t r eadi ng t han t he r est .
Synt het i cal l y speaki ng, Kar deci sm t r i ed t o expl ai n t he
dest i ny of man ( i ndi vi dual and col l ect i vel y) i n t er ms of
evol ut i on. Appl i ed t o t he human soul , t hi s means t hat
Heaven and Hel l ar e deni ed as per manent abodes f or t he soul
of t he dead; J esus i s al so r ej ect ed as a di vi ne f i gur e but

3
Some conf usi on ar i ses her e, si nce ot her non- Kar deci st gr oups i n
Br azi l i dent i f y t hemsel ves as “Spi r i t i st ” whi l e bei ng i n f act Af r o-
Br azi l i an cul t s. Thi s happens t o enhance t hei r own pr est i ge, much t o
t he di sl i ke of “t r ue” Kar deci st s who despi se t hi s use of t he t er m.
Anot her i ssue t o t ake i nt o account i s t hat some Af r o- Br azi l i an ci r cl es
ar e deepl y i nt er est ed i n Kar deci sm and adopt many of t hei r concept s
sui t ed t o t hei r own uses and pr act i ces. For t he pur poses of t hi s
t hesi s, however , Kar deci sm means onl y what t hei r pr act i t i oner s i nt end
i t t o - t he r el i gi ous pr act i ce based on t he wr i t i ngs of i t s f ounder ,
Al l an Kar dec. The i dea t hat Af r o cul t s and Kar deci sm do i ndeed f or m a
“cont i nuum” i s f ound i n t he pi oneer i ng wor k of t he Br azi l i an
soci ol ogi st Cândi do Pr ocópi o Camar go i t s champi on – cf . Kar deci smo e
umbanda; uma i nt er pr et ação soci ol ógi ca. São Paul o: Li vr ar i a Pi onei r a
Edi t or a, 1961.

57
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


hi ghl y pr ai sed as a gr eat medi um. I n t er ms of et hi cs,
Kar deci sm dr aws a l ot on Chr i st i ani t y, al t hough r ej ect i ng
Cat hol i ci sm as much as possi bl e ( a ver y pecul i ar si t uat i on
i n Br azi l , wher e among gener al syncr et i smi t i s ver y common
t o see peopl e pr act i ci ng bot h cul t s)
4
. I n Kar deci st t er ms,
t he soul goes t hr ough a pr ocess of cont i nuous evol ut i on,
ai ded or hamper ed by t he “di scar nat e spi r i t s”, t he soul s of
t he dead. These ar e not t o be mani pul at ed i n magi cal t er ms,
but can of f er usef ul or har mf ul advi ce. Kar dec hi msel f
“i nt er vi ewed” spi r i t s i n or der t o know whet her i t woul d be
pr of i t abl e f or man t o know t he f ut ur e bef or ehand, get t i ng
t he answer t hat i t woul d not be
5
.
I n chapt er XI I I of t he Book of t he Medi ums, Kar dec
devot es a l ot of space t o t he t heme of psychogr aphy
( Spi r i t i st aut omat i c wr i t i ng) , whi ch he di vi des i n t wo
t ypes: i ndi r ect ( wi t h t he hel p of i nst r ument s) or di r ect
( whi ch comes st r ai ght f r omt he medi um) .
The advant age of psychogr aphy, accor di ng t o Kar dec, i s
t hat i t al l ows us t o keep t r ack of , and r ecor d
communi cat i on wi t h t he ot her wor l d as much as we do wi t h
our or di nar y l et t er s
6
. I ndi r ect wr i t i ng compr i ses t he use
of some i nt er medi ar y devi ce ( such as a wooden basket wi t h a
pen at t ached) t ouched by t he medi um i n or der t o get t he
wr i t i ng done; accor di ng t o Kar dec t hi s can l ead t o l engt hy
wr i t i ngs whi ch can go on f or many pages
7
. I t must be
poi nt ed however t hat Kar dec never at t r i but ed t he wr i t i ng t o
t he “i ncar nat i on” of t he obj ect used as a hel per by a
spi r i t ; t he same hol ds f or di r ect wr i t i ng, wher e t he medi um

4
A pi ct ur esque not e on t he t heme i s added when i t i s known t hat among
t he most st ubbor n spi r i t s t hat may i nadver t edl y appear and spoi l a
Kar deci st séance ar e t hose of deceased Cat hol i c pr i est s ( echoi ng t he
exor ci smof t he apost at e J ew ci t ed by Fr omer , cf . Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t .
p. x) . Cf . Camar go, op. ci t . p. 22.
5
BM 26. 289; 303.
6
BM 13. 152.
7
BM 13. 154.

58
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


i s consi der ed t o be j ust a machi ne l endi ng hi s/ her hand f or
t he i nt el l i gent f or ce ( t he spi r i t ) t o wr i t e
8
.

The spi r i t t hat communi cat es act s over t he medi um who,
under t hi s i nf l uence, moves mechani cal l y t he ar m and
hand t o wr i t e wi t hout havi ng t he sl i ght est awar eness of
what he wr i t es ( at l east t hat i s t he most common
case)
9
.

Kar dec emphasi zes t hat , i f a basket i s used, i t i s not
t he obj ect t hat becomes i nt el l i gent , but

Shoul d we suppr ess t hi s i nt er medi ar y and put t he pen
st r ai ght i n t he hand of t he medi um and t he r esul t
shoul d be t he same and wi t h an even si mpl er pr ocedur e,
si nce t he medi um woul d t hen wr i t e as one does i n
or di nar y f ashi on
10
.

Anyone who has medi umi st i c power t o wr i t e usi ng devi ces
( t abl es, basket s and so on) can wr i t e di r ect l y. Thi s i s
al so t he means t o be pr ef er r ed i n t er ms of medi umi st i c
wr i t i ng, si nce accor di ng t o Kar dec i t does not need any
pr epar at i on what soever
11
- a ver y di sput abl e assumpt i on t o
any st udent of r el i gi ous phenomenon, and i ndeed t o be
r ej ect ed i n cl ose exami nat i on of pr epar at or y pr act i ces of
f amous Br azi l i an Kar deci st medi ums such as Chi co Xavi er .
These ar e t he most i mpor t ant i ssues t o be t aken i nt o
account r egar di ng psychogr aphy and i t s pr epar at i on
accor di ng t o t he codi f i cação, or Kar dec’ s own wr i t i ngs.
A r el at ed mat t er i s psychogr aphy as under st ood by ot her
Spi r i t i st s f r om t he ni net eent h cent ur y l i ke Wi l l i am S.

8
Thi s hi ghl y di st ant and quasi - sci ent i f i c concept of medi umshi p woul d
be gr eat l y al t er ed i n Br azi l , wher e r el i gi ous aspect s of Kar deci sm
t ook gr eat er pr ecedence over t he or i gi nal sci ent i f i c ones. Chi co
Xavi er ’ s r el at i on t o t he wor l d of spi r i t s i s pr oof of t hat , as we
shal l see shor t l y.
9
BM 13. 157.
10
I d. i bi d.
11
I d. i bi d.

59
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


Moses, who t ook i t t o mean wr i t i ng wi t hout human
i nt er f er ence of any ki nd ( i . e. j ust t o l eave paper and pen
under a t abl e, wi t h t he pr esence of medi ums ar ound i t and
t hen col l ect messages wr i t t en by spi r i t s)
12
. Thi s t akes us
f ar away f r omt he pr oposed cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son; i t i s
a hi ghl y di sput ed i ssue and i s i l l ust r at ed her e j ust t o
show t hat t he t er m “psychogr aphy” may have meani ngs ot her
t han t he Kar deci st one
13
. Thi s ki nd of spi r i t ual
communi cat i on wi t h t he dead by t he l i vi ng i s not or i ousl y
absent f r om t he Br azi l i an Kar deci st scene, bot h i n edi t ed
t ext s and per sonal r epor t s, and by i t s ver y nat ur e i t woul d
have l i t t l e t o do wi t h cul t ur al pr epar at or y pr ocesses of
any sor t . I ndeed some Br azi l i an medi ums woul d r at her use
t he t er m“pneumat ogr aphy” t o r ef er t o t he di r ect wr i t i ng of
messages wi t hout t he i nt er vent i on of t he medi um; however as
one Spi r i t i st i s eager t o di st i ngui sh, psychogr aphy has
al ways t he medi at i on of t he medi um’ s psychol ogi cal l i f e
14
.
A moder n t axonomy of t he aut omat i c wr i t i ng phenomenon
woul d l ook l i ke t hi s: on one hand we have t wo ext r eme t ypes
of medi umshi p i nvol vi ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng,

1. Mechani cal : t he mechani cal psychogr apher i s
i dent i f i ed by t he i nvol unt ar y movement s of hi s hand and t he
l ack of consci ousness about t he cont ent of t he del i ver ed
message.

12
I t must be r emember ed t hat Moses hi msel f woul d al so wr i t e
aut omat i cal l y i n t he mor e usual meani ng of t he t er m– i ni t i al l y wi t h a
ver y di m, i r r egul ar and sl ow hand, so much t hat he had t o wat ch
car ef ul l y t hat t he f i nal t ext woul d not be i l l egi bl e. Si nce he was a
“mechani cal ” medi um ( see t axonomy bel ow) , t hese l i mi t at i ons soon
i mpr oved. See Wi l l i am S. Moses, Ensi nos espi r i t ual i st as. Ri o de
J anei r o: Feder ação Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a, 1981.
13
Wi l l i am S. Moses. Psychogr aphy: by M. A. , Oxon. London: Lond. & Co. ,
1882.
14
J ader Sampai o. “Um est udo compar at i vo sobr e a psi cogr af i a”.
El ect r oni c sour ce, ht t p: / / www. geae. i nf . br , 2003. Par t 1.

60
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. I nt ui t i ve: t he r ever se of t he above. Her e a spi r i t
t r ansmi t s hi s/ her i deas t o t he medi um who r egi st er s t hem
vol unt ar i l y.

On t he ot her , t he most common t ype accor di ng t o Kar dec
( and as f ar as I know ever y Br azi l i an Kar deci st woul d agr ee
wi t h t hi s) i s t he semi - mechani cal , wher e t he medi um f eel s
bodi l y movement s of t he hand and r ecor ds t he t hought s
occur r ed dur i ng t he sessi on. Kar dec woul d al so of f er a
di f f er ent cl assi f i cat i on, r el at ed not t o t he l evel of
consci ousness of t he medi um but t o t he f i nal out put as
r el at ed t o t he st ar t i ng condi t i ons ( t hus, medi ums coul d be
“pol ygr aphs” – when cal l i gr aphy changes; “pol ygl ot s” when
t hey wr i t e i n l anguages unknown t o t hem; or “i l l i t er at e”
when t hey wr i t e dur i ng t he ASC al t hough i gnor ant of wr i t i ng
when consci ous) . Kar dec i nsi st ed, mor eover , t hat t he
psychogr apher al ways has a gr eat r ol e i n t he pr ocess, be
t he medi um i nt ui t i ve or mechani cal . Medi ums can al t er t he
messages of t he spi r i t s and assi mi l at e t hem t o t hei r own
i deas and pr ef er ences
15
.

15
BM, 266 and 261. The same i dea i s t o be f ound i n Edgar d Ar mond’ s
f amous t r eat i se, Medi uni dade, p. 85, wher e t he much- r ever ed spi r i t of
Ramat i s i nsi st s on t he act i ve r ol e ( non- r obot - l i ke) of t he medi um( São
Paul o: Al i ança, 1956) .

61
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


2. 2. Kar deci smi n Br azi l
Kar deci sm, al t hough al most dead i n Eur ope became ver y
popul ar i n Br azi l at t he end of t he ni net eent h cent ur y. The
Feder ação Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a ( Br azi l i an Spi r i t i st
Feder at i on) dat es f r om t hat t i me ( 1884) and i t i s qui t e
possi bl e t hat Kar deci sm became “adopt ed” i n Br azi l i n much
t he same f ashi on t hat al l t hi ngs Fr ench wer e, at t hat t i me
( one must onl y consi der t hat even t he mot t o on t he nat i onal
f l ag, Or dem e pr ogr esso - “or der and pr ogr ess”) i s al so a
mai n sl ogan of Posi t i vi sm, anot her Fr ench doct r i ne whi ch
became wi despr ead i n Br azi l i an ci r cl es)
16
.
Af t er havi ng been hi gh f ashi on i n ni net eent h- cent ur y
Eur ope ( f amous peopl e l i ke Conan Doyl e wer e deepl y
i nt er est ed i n what seemed, at t he t i me, t he def i ni t i ve
under st andi ng of r el i gi ous phenomena) , Kar deci sm al most
di sappear ed f r om vi ew i n Eur ope but devel oped ver y qui ckl y
i n Br azi l . To t hi s day i t i s a wel l - known, or gani zed and
di f f used cul t , so much so t hat t he smal l number of
pr act i t i oner s seems di spr opor t i onal t o what i s ost ensi bl y
seen of Kar deci sm i n t he mass medi a and pr i nt i ng i ndust r y.
Messi ani c over t ones have been gi ven t o t hat , namel y t hat
Br azi l had a mi ssi on r egar di ng t he pr act i ce and
per f ect i oni ng of Kar deci sm
17
.
Br azi l i an Kar deci sm i s essent i al l y a mi ddl e- cl ass
phenomenon, of t en t he opt i on of peopl e eager t o est abl i sh
cont act wi t h t he ot her wor l d whi l e at t he same t i me keepi ng
ot her r el i gi ous af f i l i at i ons – wi t h t he except i on of
Pr ot est ant i sm, i nt r ansi gent on t hi s mat t er , syncr et i sm and

16
A ver y f i ne over vi ew on Br azi l i an Kar deci smf or t he Engl i sh- speaki ng
r eader can be f ound i n Davi d J . Hess. Spi r i t s and Sci ent i st s:
I deol ogy, Spi r i t i sm, and Br azi l i an Cul t ur e. Uni ver si t y Par k:
Pennsyl vani a St at e Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1991.
17
Chi co Xavi er was one of t he maj or pr opagandi st s of t hi s t heme,
avoi di ng doct r i nal di scussi ons whenever possi bl e and emphasi zi ng
Br azi l ’ s r ol e as spi r i t ual l eader of t he wor l d.

62
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


even t he si mul t aneous pr act i ce of mor e t han one cul t at a
t i me i s a common char act er i st i c of Br azi l i an r el i gi osi t y.
I n t er ms of i ni t i at i on, Kar deci sm does not of f er
spect acul ar happeni ngs such as Af r o- Br azi l i an cul t s: i t i s
expect ed t hat t he médi um l eads a decent pr i vat e and publ i c
l i f e, as f r ee f r om vi ces as possi bl e ( t hese ar e seen as
si gn of a “backwar d” obsessi ng spi r i t and ar e consequent l y
t o be avoi ded as pr epar at or y means) . I t i s al so supposed by
Kar deci st s t hat medi umshi p can t ake many di f f er ent f or ms
( or dons, “gi f t s”) , whi ch ar e not t he same i n ever y medi um.
Some have t he gi f t of heal i ng, some t hat of per suasi ve
speaki ng, some t hat of psychogr aphy, some of f or eseei ng t he
f ut ur e. Of cour se most peopl e comi ng t o t he cent r os
espí r i t as ( Kar deci st Spi r i t i st meet i ng cent r es) ar e l ooki ng
f or i mmedi at e- pur pose ser vi ces ( cont act i ng t he dead,
heal i ng di seases and so on) , but f or t he medi um hi msel f
Kar deci sm i s r at her a bur den t o be car r i ed i n or der t hat
t he i ndi vi dual may go on i n t he evol ut i on of hi s/ her soul ,
whi l e hel pi ng ot her s. Psychogr aphy i s under st ood as par t of
t hi s pr ocess and, f r om t he medi ums’ poi nt of vi ew, ar i ses
as a “cal l i ng” f r om t he ot her wor l d i nsi st i ng t hat t hey
must t ake t he bur den and go on wi t h t hei r mi ssi on. Fr oman
out si der ’ s poi nt of vi ew, however , i t seems cl ear t hat
t hose who di spl ay any t endency t owar ds medi umshi p and
r ecei ve “cal l s” ( usual l y f r om t eenagehood onwar ds, but
somet i mes ear l i er t oo) ar e al r eady wel l di sposed t owar ds i t
( by r el at i ves, par ent s, f r i ends, wr i t t en mat er i al ) . Thi s
pr evi ous i nt er nal di sposi t i on, al t hough deni ed by most
medi ums as bei ng a t r i gger f or medi umi st i c behavi or , seems
t he most i mpor t ant aspect t o be consi der ed i n t he i ni t i al
st ages of medi umshi p.
Si nce not ever yone has t he same gi f t s, i t i s debat abl e
whet her t her e i s any di f f er ence i n t he ASCs exper i enced by

63
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


t he di f f er ent subj ect s ( i . e. f r om t he medi ums who
exper i ence possessi onal t r ance t o t hose who heal – t o gi ve
passes i n Kar deci st j ar gon – and t o t hose who under t ake
aut omat i c wr i t i ng) . Ver y l i t t l e r esear ch has been done on
t he t heme but we shal l come back t o i t l at er ( i n a sense
Kar deci st s t hemsel ves, r egar di ng t hei r r el i gi on aki n t o
sci ence, wi l l of f er expl anat i ons f or t he phenomena, whi ch
must sur el y be t aken i nt o account but by no means can be
l i st ed as schol ar l y appr oaches) .
I n t er ms of t he r el at i on bet ween t he Kar deci st medi ums
and t he possessi ng spi r i t s, a f ew t hi ngs must be poi nt ed
out . Fi r st , si nce Kar deci sm i s essent i al l y a mi ddl e- cl ass
phenomenon, a gr eat deal of t he par t i ci pant s wi l l have
col l ege educat i on or at l east a f ul l hi gh school di pl oma;
t he spi r i t s t hey pur por t t o r epr esent ar e accor di ngl y
ser i ous and r espect abl e peopl e ( as opposed t o t he l ower
st r at a of soci et y r epr esent ed i n Af r o cul t s)
18
. The
“possessi ng” spi r i t s do not necessar i l y t ake hol d of t he
medi um ( t he aut hor has hear d f r om mor e t han one per son
i nvol ved t hat t hi s a ki nd of “base” pr ocedur e, t hat i s bot h
t he spi r i t and t he medi um ar e evol uí dos, “devel oped”,
possessi on becomes unnecessar y) ; but t hey ar e al ways
r espect abl e and somet i mes even f amous peopl e of t he past ,
usual l y speaki ng i n Por t uguese and wr i t i ng i n t he same
l anguage
19
. Spi r i t s of l ess sophi st i cat ed or i gi ns may
appear at t he sessi ons but ar e t o be per suaded t o l eave

18
Camar go, op. ci t . p. 85 f f .
19
Al t hough Chi co Xavi er has a f ew t ext s wr i t t en aut omat i cal l y i n ot her
l anguages, among whi ch one of t he most f amous i s t he message del i ver ed
by t he spi r i t of t he I t al i an I l da Mascar o Saul l o, deceased i n Rome on
December 20t h 1977. I nt er est i ngl y, her e changes of cal l i gr aphy al so
occur and exper t eval uat i on di d i dent i f y t he “new” st yl e as i ndeed
bel ongi ng t o I l da. Cf . Car l os A. Per andr éa. A psi cogr af i a à l uz da
gr af oscopi a. São Paul o: Edi t or a J or nal í st i ca Fé, 1991. P. 56. I t shoul d
be not ed t hat ot her Kar deci st t heor et i ci ans hol d t hat changes i n
cal l i gr aphi c st yl e ar e onl y possi bl e i n mechani cal wr i t er s, and Chi co
Xavi er def i ned hi msel f as semi mechani cal .

64
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


under t he ef f or t s of t he mor e exper i enced medi ums, shoul d
t hi s be r equi r ed. The t i me dur i ng whi ch t he medi um i s
subj ect t o t he i nf l uence or possessi on of a spi r i t var i es a
gr eat deal , as i n Chi co Xavi er ’ s own account s.
Psychogr aphy i n Br azi l i an Kar deci st ci r cl es i s, among
ot her t hi ngs, a way of r eadi ng, wr i t i ng and under st andi ng
t he past – somet i mes equat ed t o hi st or y as a di sci pl i ne.
The t i t l e of one of t he best - known wor ks by Chi co Xavi er
t est i f i es t o t hat – Há 2000 anos. . . ( 2000 year s ago. . . ) . I n
t hi s case we have a l engt hy wor k deal i ng wi t h not hi ng l ess
t han t he bi r t h of Chr i st i ani t y i t sel f , compl et e wi t h
backgr ound i nt r i gue and f eul l et i n- l i ke advent ur es r egar di ng
t he spi r i t of Emmanuel ( t he mai n spi r i t ual gui de of Chi co
Xavi er ) , who was, i n one of hi s i ncar nat i ons, a Roman
senat or . Thi s makes what many woul d consi der bad t ast e
l i t er at ur e but whi ch i s never t hel ess eager l y consumed ( i t
was al r eady i n i t s 29t h edi t i on by t he t i me of t he
r edact i on of t hi s t hesi s; t ot al out put of books
psychogr aphed by Chi co Xavi er al one i s sai d t o be above 12
mi l l i on) , and f ul f i l l s t he r ol e of expl ai ni ng human hi st or y
t o a publ i c unused t o, and unwi l l i ng t o appr oach, mor e
academi c wor ks.


65
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


3. Kar deci st pr epar at or y pr ocesses f or aut omat i c
wr i t i ng

3. 1. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng and medi umshi p t r ai ni ng
As seen above, Kar deci st medi ums t hemsel ves ascr i be
t hei r abi l i t y t o wr i t e aut omat i cal l y, i n any of t he sub-
var i et i es of psychogr aphy, t o a spi r i t ual gi f t . Besi des, i n
accor dance wi t h Kar dec’ s own vocat i on as a pedagogue and
hi s di dact i cal vi ew of t he spi r i t ual wor l d
20
, t hi s gi f t
shoul d be educat ed and per f ect ed. As a wel l - document ed
exampl e, any per son havi ng a medi umi st i c di sposi t i on and
wi l l i ng t o j oi n a Spi r i t i st gr oup i n São Paul o dur i ng t he
1950’ s woul d under go t he f ol l owi ng st eps as “f or mal
medi umi st i c educat i on”: f i r st he/ she woul d cont act t he
Feder ação Espí r i t a ( Spi r i t i st , i . e. Kar deci st Feder at i on of
São Paul o) ; t hen he/ she woul d under go spi r i t ual and medi cal
exams ( t he l at t er somet i mes not bei ng obser ved) ; af t er war ds
t he per son woul d at t end evangel i zat i on cour ses, accor di ng
t o hi s/ her l evel of under st andi ng; as a f our t h st ep t he
candi dat e woul d hel p i n assi st ent i al wor k ( phi l ant hr opy
bei ng a cor ner st one of Br azi l i an Kar deci sm) and f i nal l y
he/ she wi l l be t aken t o one speci f i c cour se such as t he
“Medi um school ”, whi ch may have had mor e t han 5, 000
st udent s i n 1960 al one. The whol e pr ocess woul d have t aken
4 year s f or an adul t ( wi t h cl asses once or t wi ce a week) ,
t hus equat i ng i n number of year s anyway t he nor mal dur at i on
of a uni ver si t y degr ee i n Br azi l
21
. Thi s amount of t i me may
be gr eat er or shor t er dependi ng on ot her f act or s – i f t he
subj ect had been i nt r oduced t o Kar deci smsi nce chi l dhood ( a
pr act i ce cont r ar y t o Kar dec’ s t eachi ngs but whi ch i s now

20
Spi r i t s ar e t o be equat ed wi t h t eacher s; see t he Book of t he spi r i t s
24.
21
Camar go, op. ci t . pp. 29- 30; 6; 31.

66
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


st andar d pr act i ce i n or gani zed Br azi l i an Kar deci sm) , i f
he/ she showed any medi umi st i c pr opensi t y bef or e, i f he/ she
had al r eady been i nvol ved i n vol unt ar y wor k.
Fr om an out si der ’ s poi nt of vi ew t hi s l ooks t oo
r at i onal , but i t must be r emember ed t hat f r om t he
Kar deci st s’ vi ewpoi nt t he i ni t i al i ndi vi dual dr i ve i s never
t o be expl ai ned i n t er ms of del i ber at e i nduct i on or
consci ous t r ai ni ng. Kar deci st medi ums ar e ei t her unsur e
about t hei r own pr epar at or y pr ocesses, or unwi l l i ng t o t el l
anyone about t hem, or bot h; however , Leandr o Sant ar osa has
gi ven a l engt hy and ver y subst ant i al cont r i but i on t o t he
t heme, t hat shal l be di scussed bel ow.
As a st ar t i ng poi nt , t hi s Kar deci st t heor et i ci an can
ar gue t hat

As we al l know, medi umshi p i s a f acul t y t hat depends on
an or gani c pr edi sposi t i on, i ndependent of mor al s. Thi s
means t hat i t i s t o be f ound i n any per son, what ever
t he t emper , heal t h, i nt el l ect ual and mor al devel opment ;
t he same cannot be sai d of i t s use, whi ch can be good
or l ess good, accor di ng t o t he medi um’ qual i t i es
22
.

That sai d, pr act i ce of aut omat i c wr i t i ng does r equi r e
speci al condi t i ons ( al t hough, i n t ypi cal Kar deci st f ashi on,
Sant ar osa cl ai ms t hat not hi ng el se besi des penci l and paper
ar e necessar y) :

I n t er ms of mat er i al di sposi t i on, one shoul d avoi d al l
t hat may hi nder t he movement s of t he hand; i t i s bet t er
t hat i t does not r est on t he paper . These pr ecaut i ons
ar e usel ess, because af t er t he per son i s wr i t i ng
cor r ect l y, no obst acl e can det er t he hand. I t does not
mat t er whet her pen or penci l ar e used
23
.


22
Leandr o Sant ar osa. “For mação dos médi uns”. El ect r oni c sour ce,
ht t p: / / www. espi r i t o. com. br , 2002.
23
I d. i bi d.

67
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


Agai n i n t er ms t hat seem cont r adi ct or y t o t he hi ghl y
or gani zed scheme of t he Feder ação Espí r i t a de São Paul o
( FESP) , i t i s st at ed t hat , f or t he medi um t o devel op
hi m/ her sel f pr oper l y i t i s necessar y t o go t hr ough a ser i es
of pr epar at or y st ages: “year s of st udy, mat ur i t y, const ant
mor al change, t emper at e l i f e and abst i nence f r om t he
gr osser vi ces, such as smoki ng and dr i nki ng”
24
. To t hese I
t hi nk t hat an ever - gr owi ng know- how on aut omat i c wr i t i ng
coul d be added.
Chi co Xavi er hi msel f woul d f ul f i l l al l t he condi t i ons
above, whi ch coul d, i n hi ndsi ght , be seen r at her as hi s own
exampl e set up as a model t han a st r i ct pr epar at i on, whi ch
he never admi t t ed knowi ng i n such pr eci se t er ms. Sant ar osa
goes on i n hi s l i st of pr epar at or y i ssues, however , and
adds t hat i n t he appr ent i ce medi um f ai t h i s not t he most
i mpor t ant condi t i on: i t hel ps ef f or t s, no doubt , but
goodwi l l , i nt ense desi r e and r i ght i nt ent i ons shoul d be
enough
25
.
The f i r st si gn of abi l i t y t o wr i t e aut omat i cal l y as
under st ood by Sant ar osa i s a ki nd of t r embl i ng i n t he ar m
and hand; somet i mes t hi s gi ves onl y i nsi gni f i cant t r aces
but soon, wi t h t r ai ni ng, t he si gns wi l l become cl ear er and
t he scr i pt ends up l ooki ng l i ke or di nar y wr i t i ng ( i t al i cs
mi ne; t he passage shows how even unwi l l i ngl y, t he
t heor et i ci an al l ows par t of t he pr epar at i on pr ocess t o
r el at e t o t r ai ni ng, i . e. t o i nt ensi ve concent r at i on on t he
goal ) .

I n some cases, whi ch ar e r ar e, t he medi um wr i t es wi t h
ease f r om t he begi nni ng. I n ot her s, he must l ear n how
t o l et hi s/ her hand l oose. Ther e ar e medi ums t hat
cannot pr oduce but t he most meager r esul t s; i f t hi s

24
I d. i bi d.
25
I d. i bi d.

68
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


condi t i on goes on f or some t i me i t i s bet t er t o st op.
Because i t i s unpr of i t abl e t o i nsi st
26
.

The begi nner shoul d avoi d est abl i shi ng r el at i onshi ps
wi t h l esser spi r i t s who ar e l i kel y t o make hi m/ her wr i t e
f ast er , but at a cost : “The f i r st condi t i on i s t he medi um
t o put hi msel f under t he pr ot ect i on of God and hi gher
spi r i t s”. A common doubt ar i ses i n ever y medi um( at l east
i n t he semi mechani cal and i nt ui t i ve t ypes) – i t i s t he
message del i ver ed r eal l y f r om a spi r i t ? To t hi s Sant ar osa
gi ves t he t ypi cal answer t hat i t does not r eal l y mat t er ( a
common t r ace t o al l Kar deci st l i t er at ur e and t o
pr act i t i oner s wi t h whom I had t he chance t o t al k on t he
mat t er ) : i f i t i s good and i n conf or mi t y wi t h t he doct r i ne,
i t can be i n good f ai t h r egar ded as t he medi um’ s own
( “t hank your guar di an angel , who wi l l not st op suggest i ng
ot her good i deas”)
27
. The ver y same i dea i s t o be f ound i n
one of t he t ext s of t he codi f i cação ( Kar dec, Book of t he
spi r i t s, 33) .

3. 2. Pr epar at i on and meani ng of aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n
Br azi l i an Kar deci sm
Whi l e deal i ng wi t h t he mai n t heme of t hi s wor k, namel y
pr epar at or y pr ocesses f or vi si onar y exper i ences, one shoul d
not conf use di f f er ent appr oaches and i ssues t o be t aken
i nt o account : whi l e at a psychol ogi cal l evel expl anat i ons
can be f ound i n t he sci ent i f i c l i t er at ur e deal i ng wi t h ASCs
( whi l e aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s a t heme whi ch has not been
wi del y r esear ched, compar ed t o ot her s) . At t he neur ol ogi cal
l evel t hi s can be done t oo, namel y i n t he wor ks of Osmar d
Far i a ( Manual de hi pnose médi ca e odont ol ógi ca) and J ayme
Cer vi ño ( t hi s i n t he mor e t r adi t i onal Kar deci st f ashi on,

26
I d. i bi d.
27
I d. i bi d.

69
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


Al ém do i nconsci ent e) . As a gener al f eat ur e, i t must be
under l i ned t hat ver y l i t t l e empi r i cal wor k i s done by
Br azi l i an Kar deci st s t hemsel ves ( who pr ef er t o dr aw on
ot her sour ces and, whenever t her e i s somet hi ng r esembl i ng
“empi r i cal ” r esear ch i t mer el y has t he ef f ect of conf i r mi ng
pr e- exi st i ng bel i ef s t hr ough ci r cul ar ar gument s) .
However , t hi s bei ng an anal ysi s cent er ed i n cul t ur al
aspect s of t he pr epar at or y pr ocesses, i t i s mor e i mpor t ant
t o under st and what meani ngs t he pr act i ces r el at ed t o
psychogr aphy mean t o t he Kar deci st s t hemsel ves t han t o
t ackl e t he i ssue vi a psychol ogi cal / psychi at r i c or a
medi cal appr oach, whi ch shal l come i n t he next chapt er .
By vi si onar y pr ocesses one shoul d under st and her e not
onl y t he i mmedi at e pr act i ces ( whi ch can, t o some ext ent , be
l ear nt and t aught t o i ndi vi dual s) but t he whol e of t he
cul t ur al envi r onment whi ch sur r ounds t he i ndi vi dual i n
quest i on – t hi s means al so t he of t en anonym t hemes,
char act er s and l i t er at ur e t o whi ch peopl e ar e exposed si nce
chi l dhood ( a good exampl e woul d be t he Reader ’ s Di gest
i ssues l ef t behi nd by Chi co Xavi er hi msel f when movi ng t o
anot her home)
28
.
Thi s t akes us t o 2 non- excl udi ng but r at her
compl ement ar y l evel s of under st andi ng Kar deci st pr epar at or y
pr ocesses: t he f i r st compr i ses “t echni ques” whi ch ar e st i l l
r at her obscur el y i nvest i gat ed i n Kar deci sm, but whi ch
i ncl ude hypnosi s, sel f - suggest i on and ascet i sm; a second
and mor e accessi bl e l evel ( al t hough much mor e di f f i cul t t o
anal yze i n f ul l det ai l , whi ch woul d t ake down t o t he
i ndi vi dual medi um) compr i ses t he whol e of cul t ur al t hemes
known by a gi ven per son si nce chi l dhood, and l i kel y t o be
pr esent i n hi s / her r ol e per f or mance as a medi um ( t hi s

28
Mar cel S. Mai or . As vi das de Chi co Xavi er . Ri o de J anei r o: Rocco,
1994. P. 129.

70
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


i ncl udes t he Chr i st i an hagi ogr aphi cal model s pr esent i n a
backl ands Cat hol i c upbr i ngi ng such as t he one r ecei ved by
Xavi er i n t he begi nni ng of t he 20t h cent ur y) .
The ecst asy t echni ques l i st ed above, whi ch coul d be
gener al l y gr ouped under t he t r i pl e l abel of i nt el l ect ual
di sci pl i ne, ascesi s and hypnot i c sel f - suggest i on expl ai n
par t of t he phenomena: what i s happeni ng t o t he medi um? But
t hey do not answer what i s of i nt er est t o us her e, why di d
t he ASC t ake t hi s f or m? I n my opi ni on t hi s can onl y be
under st ood i n t er ms of cul t ur al r ef er ences t hat shoul d, as
such, be t aken as an i nt egr al par t of t he pr epar at or y
pr ocess. The r eadi ng of case st udi es and per sonal
obser vat i on by t he aut hor has shown t hat a vi si on al ways
conf or ms mor e t o t he cul t ur al mi l i eu of t he subj ect t han t o
t he t echni que i t sel f
29
. Even i n mundane dr ug exper i ences
wi t h hal l uci nogens t he ki nd of ASC r epor t ed can easi l y be
mat ched t o known t al es, myt hs or even common medi a t hemes –
and none of t hi s means t hat t he exper i ence was f al se i n
i t sel f , but onl y t hat cul t ur e f ashi ons a per f or mat i ve
di scour se t hat i s made possi bl e by a t echni que
30
. The
l at t er , devoi d of cul t ur al cont ent , woul d never t ake pl ace;
i f we ar e t o ascr i be si mi l ar ASC- i nduci ng t echni ques l i ke,
say, t he use of henbane oi nt ment i n subj ect s f ar apar t i n
t i me l i ke si xt eent h- cent ur y wi t ches and t went i et h- cent ur y
schol ar s t he r esul t i s sur pr i si ngl y si mi l ar
31
. Thi s i s l ess
due t o t he pr oper t i es of henbane and mor e because moder n
subj ect s wer e wel l i nf or med of what exper i ences past

29
Not ever ybody has t he same exper i ences wi t h t he same dr ugs ( peopl e
who t ook LSD i n cont r ol l ed exper i ment s i n t he Fi f t i es cl ai med t o have
had no exper i ence at al l , i n cont r ast t o t he t hen f ashi onabl e account s
by Al dous Huxl ey; cf . Er nst Ar bman, Ecst asy, or Rel i gi ous Tr ance, i n
t he Exper i ence of t he Ecst at i cs and f r om t he Psychol ogi cal Poi nt of
Vi ew. St ockhol m: Bokf ör l aget , 1963- 1970. P. 196) .
30
See chapt er 1.
31
Cf . t he Appendi x t o t he t hesi s, 2. 4 f or a deeper di scussi on on
expect at i ons r el at ed t o vi si onar y pr ocesses ( wi t h speci al emphasi s i n
chemi cal i nducement ) .

71
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


henbane- usi ng wi t ches had had ( i . e. what st er eot ypes woul d
f i t i n) . I n ot her wor ds, t he l ear ned t echni que compr i ses
al so what i s deemed as accept abl e as a per f or mance t o be
soci al l y di spl ayed as myst i cal exper i ence.
Thi s means t hat , whi l e r epor t edl y bei ng ot her - wor l dl y
and non- r el at ed t o ear t hl y t aught subj ect s, t he r evel at i ons
cont ai ned i n Kar deci st l i t er at ur e easi l y show t hei r own
si gns of t he t i mes wher e t hey wer e wr i t t en. Thi s i s not by
any means t o say t hat t hey ar e f al se, but r at her t o
r ecogni ze t he pr of oundl y human ( t hus, cul t ur al ) char act er
of t he wr i t i ngs of men l i ke Chi co Xavi er , Bezer r a de
Menezes or Di val do Fr anco. A hi nt of t he i dea above can be
f ound at t he pr ef ace t o Chi co Xavi er ’ s f i r st book, Par naso
de al ém- t úmul o ( a l engt hy col l ect i on of poems f r om ver y
f amous Br azi l i an dead ar t i st s) : t he medi um cl ai ms t hat , of
some of t he poet s “I di d not know a si ngl e ver se”
32
– whi ch
r ai ses t he i mmedi at e quest i on of how much Xavi er di d know
about ot her s
33
. That hi s per sonal l evel of i nst r uct i on was
ver y l ow i s a wel l - known f act – and has t he ef f ect of
enhanci ng t he r esul t s of hi s psychogr aphed poet r y.
I n f act i t i s a t opos among Kar deci st t ext s t hat i deas
and concept s beyond t he knowl edge of t he medi um ar e pr oof
of t he t r ut h of t he pr ocess and message of Kar deci sm and,
by ext ensi on, of t he exi st ence of t he spi r i t ual wor l d and
t he sur vi val of t he soul af t er deat h. Chi co Xavi er i s no

32
Fr anci sco C. Xavi er , Par naso de al ém- t úmul o. Ri o de J anei r o:
Feder ação Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a, 1932. P. 26.
33
I n a commonpl ace t o t hi s ki nd of l i t er at ur e, Chi co Xavi er woul d say
t hat he began t o r ecei ve t hese poems whi l e t endi ng a gar l i c gar den
( i mage of humi l i t y and l ack of r esour ces) ; al l t he whi l e t he f i r st
poet , t he Symbol i st August o dos Anj os woul d t el l hi m or al l y t he poems
usi ng wor ds t hat he, Chi co coul d not possi bl y know ( t hi s “pr ovi ng” t he
aut hent i ci t y of t he exper i ence vi a t he t opos of poor f or mal educat i on
ver sus compl exi t y of vocabul ar y) . The same devel opment woul d be f ound
l at er i n t ext s di ct at ed by t he spi r i t of Andr é Lui z who, as a f or mer
medi cal doct or , woul d st r i ve t o use wor ds as compl i cat ed as possi bl e
( see speci al l y Nosso l ar , but al so Nos domí ni os da medi uni dade) . Cf .
St ol l , op. ci t . pp. 138- 139.

72
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


except i on, and cl ai ms t hat he had t o r esor t t o a di ct i onar y
ver y of t en, as he was bei ng commanded t o use wor ds he had
never hear d of . One coul d al most say t hat anachr oni sm i s
gr eat l y pr i zed i n Kar deci st l i t er at ur e as pr oof of
aut hent i ci t y, t hus i nver t i ng an out si der ’ s cr i t i cal
appr oach t o t he causes f or some concept s t o be f ound i n t he
t ext s.
On t he ot her hand, Xavi er i s si ncer e enough t o admi t , a
f ew pages af t er , t hat he has al ways had an i ncl i nat i on
t owar d l i t er at ur e: “At home I al ways st udi ed as much as I
coul d”
34
. I t i s not because of hi s l ack of f or mal educat i on
t hat we cannot posi t t hat he had a f i ne degr ee of knowl edge
of what was bei ng psychogr aphed and t hus, of what woul d be
consi der ed appr opr i at e: even when deal i ng wi t h t he most
er udi t e aut hor s i t i s not easy t o know what t hey r ead as
par t of t hei r educat i on ( di r ect quot at i on of ot her s hel ps
sol ve onl y hal f of t he quest i on: we know t hat aut hor A r ead
B, but t hi s does not excl ude knowl edge of C, D or E vi a
i ndi r ect means, l or e, t r i vi a or even mi squot at i ons) .
So we know wi t h l i t t l e det ai l what composed Chi co
Xavi er ’ s l ong pr epar at or y cour se – what const i t ut ed hi s
cul t ur al package unl eashed when he began t o wr i t e
psychogr aphy at t he age of 21. I t can be r easonabl y
i nf er r ed, f r omhi s own wor ds, t hat some of t he poet s quot ed
he al r eady knew. As f or t he Bi bl e ( whi ch he woul d al so
comment on psychogr aphi cal l y, t hi s was st apl e r eadi ng f or
anyone goi ng t hr ough pr i mar y educat i on at t hat t i me i n
Br azi l , even mor e so i n t he backl ands: he even admi t s t hat
( pr ecar i ous) t eachi ng of t he f our oper at i ons and sect i ons
of t he Bi bl e const i t ut ed t he wor ki ng knowl edge of a
school mast er at hi s t i me
35
.

34
Par naso de al ém- t úmul o, p. 31.
35
I dem, p. 31 f f .

73
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


Whi l e bei ng unabl e t o know pr eci sel y what const i t ut ed
hi s f or mat i ve r ef er ences, we can be sur e t hat t hese had a
huge i mpor t ance i n t he r ol es t hat Xavi er chose f or hi msel f
and, i t can be ar gued, f or t he ki nd of spi r i t s he chose ( or
was chosen by) t o psychogr aph. I t shoul d be poi nt ed out ,
however , t hat Chi co Xavi er hi msel f admi t s t hat , whi l e he
began t o deal wi t h psychogr aphy onl y at 21, si nce t he age
of 5 he “conf used” i nhabi t ant s of t hi s wor l d and t he ot her
– t hi s bei ng si gn not onl y of a power f ul i magi nat i on
myst i cal l y i ncl i ned, but al so t hat i t was somehow accept ed
and wel come, i n hi s soci al mi l i eu, t o have t hi s ki nd of
behavi or
36
. The whol e epi sode of hi s si st er ’ s di sease and
cur e shows t hat , f ol l owi ng t he shamani st i c pat t er n of
devel opment : t he gi r l , becomi ng hopel essl y i l l i n 1927 ( she
coul d not be cur ed by nor mal medi ci ne, nor by t he r el i gi ous
i nt er vent i on of Cat hol i c pr i est s) was f i nal l y t aken i nt o
t he house of a Spi r i t i st coupl e t o whomChi co Xavi er woul d
al ways f eel gr eat l y i ndebt ed, J osé Her mí ni o Per áci o and
Cár men Pena Per áci o and, of cour se, be heal ed.
The above epi sode f i t s i n t he pat t er n so f ul l y st udi ed
by Mi r cea El i ade r egar di ng shamani st i c “cal l i ng” – t he
shaman usual l y bei ng, i n t he soci et i es st udi ed, someone who
under went sympt oms of appar ent si ckness and f ound r el i ef i n
devel opi ng hi s / her shamani c ( t hence, medi umi st i c)
possi bi l i t i es. Accor di ng t o El i ade, t he shaman i s f i r st of
al l someone who, havi ng cur ed hi msel f , acqui r ed t he gi f t of
heal i ng ot her s
37
. Thi s i s pr eci sel y t he ki nd of exper i ence
under gone by Chi co’ s si st er : soon af t er bei ng t aken i n by
t he gener ous coupl e, she went back home cur ed and at t he

36
I dem, p. 33.
37
El i ade, Shamani sm, p. 27.

74
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


same t i me began t o di ct at e messages f r om t hei r mot her , who
had di ed i n 1915
38
.
The deat h of hi s mot her had t he gr eat est i mpact
compar ed t o any si ngl e event i n t he bi ogr aphy of Chi co
Xavi er . Whi l e she l ay on her deat hbed, she summoned her son
and t ol d hi m t hat “I f anyone t el l s you t hat I di ed, i t i s
f al se. Do not bel i eve i t . I wi l l r emai n qui et , sl eepi ng.
And I shal l come back”
39
. Thi s f or ecast woul d pr obabl y have
been t he f i r st t est i mony t o Chi co Xavi er about l i f e beyond
deat h – at a t i me when i t woul d have l ef t t he most pr of ound
i mpr essi on, t o be deepened by t he subsequent mal t r eat ment
by hi s st epmot her and many vi si ons of hi s bi ol ogi cal mot her
comi ng back t o comf or t hi m.
Chi co hi msel f , however , mi ni mi zes t he epi sode of hi s
mot her ’ s deat hbed t al k. But what happened wi t h hi s si st er
i s mor e openl y admi t t ed as cont r i but i ng t o hi s f or mat i on as
medi um: he says t hat i t was onl y af t er her r et ur n t hat he
began t o at t end meet i ngs wher e hi s abi l i t i es as a “semi
mechani cal wr i t i ng medi um” began t o devel op, wi t h speci al
emphasi s on hear i ng and vi sual medi umshi ps. The f i r st
pi eces of communi cat i on wer e pr ose f r agment s on t he
Gospel s, as wel l as smal l pi eces of poet r y
40
, bot h f i t t i ng
wel l wi t h what Chi co cl ai ms t o have been hi s r eadi ngs up t o
t hat t i me. A bi ogr aphi c wor k st at es t hat Chi co Xavi er began
hi s “publ i c medi umshi p” pr eci sel y on J ul y 8
t h
1927, havi ng
t hen pr oduced t he f i r st “of f i ci al ” pages under aut omat i c

38
I d. 32. Chi co Xavi er ’ s mot her woul d r emai n a ver y gr eat i nf l uence
t hr oughout hi s l i f e: he even pr oduced a book ent i r el y devot ed t o her
psychogr aphed messages f r om t he ot her wor l d ( Car t as de uma mor t a,
1935) .
39
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 13.
40
I d. i bi d.

75
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


wr i t i ng
41
, and t he whol e epi sode i s r ecal l ed by Chi co
Xavi er hi msel f
42
:

I t was a f r eezi ng ni ght and t he f r i ends who wer e
t oget her r ound t he t abl e woul d f ol l ow t he movement s of
my ar m, moved and cur i ous. The r oom was not ver y bi g
but , i n t he begi nni ng of my f i r st t r ansmi ssi on f r omt he
ot her wor l d, I f el t out of my physi cal body, al t hough
besi des i t . I t must be not ed t hat , whi l e t he messenger
wr ot e t he sevent een pages, my usual vi si on [ i . e.
bi ol ogi cal f acul t y of seei ng] under went si gni f i cant
al t er at i ons. The wal l s t hat l i mi t ed t he space
di sappear ed. The r oof di ssol ved i t sel f , as i t wer e, and
l ooki ng hi gh above, I coul d see t he st ar s i n t he mi ddl e
of t he ni ght . At t he same t i me, l ooki ng ar ound I coul d
see a whol e ar r ay of f r i endl y [ spi r i t ual ] ent i t i es
[ . . . ] pushi ng me f or war d not t o f ear anyt hi ng about t he
r oad t o t r avel
43
.

I n t hi s t hi ck descr i pt i on of t he ASC as i t happened t o
Chi co Xavi er f or t he f i r st t i me, some f eat ur es l ook
out st andi ng: t he per cept i on of space i s gr eat l y al t er ed,
t he wr i t i ng f l ows aut omat i cal l y but t he medi umi s i n a ki nd
of “i n- bet ween”, not f ul l y i n r apt ur e but r et ai ni ng at
t i mes t he r emembr ance of t he wor l d ar ound hi m ( at t est ed by
t he pr esence and war mt h of hi s f r i ends, t he r oof and t he
wal l s) .
The medi um cannot , under any ci r cumst ances, guar ant ee
t hat t he poems ar e r eal l y f r om t he per sonal i t i es who si gn

41
Chi co Xavi er hi msel f admi t s t hat , as par t of hi s t r ai ni ng as a semi
mechani cal aut omat i c wr i t er he had pr oduced hundr eds of dr af t pages
bef or e t hat : however , on command by t he spi r i t of Emmanuel , t hese have
al l been dest r oyed. Thi s suggest s t he wi l l i ngness of Chi co Xavi er t o
pr esent a publ i c per sona wi t h an of f i ci al r ecor d bot h f or pr i vat e
vi r t ue and act i ve aut omat i c wr i t i ng, di sr egar di ng exper i ences t hat do
not f i t i n t he chosen pat t er n – descr i bed as bei ng i n f act chosen by
spi r i t s such as Emmanuel j ust as t r ai ni ng mat er i al .
42
Feder ação Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a. “Chi co Xavi er - t r aços bi ogr áf i cos”.
El ect r oni c sour ce,
ht t p: / / www. espi r i t o. or g. br / por t al / downl oad/ pdf / i ndex. ht ml , 2002.
43
I d. i bi d.

76
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


t hem: what he does emphat i cal l y deny i s t hat t he poems can,
f or any r eason, be consi der ed hi s own:

What I can def i ni t el y say i s t hat t hey ar e not mi ne,
because I di d not make t he sl i ght est ef f or t t o put t hem
i nt o wr i t t en f or m
44
.

The sensat i on f el t was t hat some ot her hand gui ded hi s;
somet i mes

[ I f el t as i f ] I had a wr i t t en vol ume i n f r ont of me,
whi ch I copi ed; ot her t i mes, t hat someone was
di ct at i ng t o me ( whi l e doi ng t hose, I coul d f eel
el ect r i c i mpul ses t hr ough my ar ms and br ai n)
45
.

The cl i max of t hose exper i ences makes Chi co f eel t hat
he

had l ost my [ hi s] body, not f eel i ng, f or some moment s,
t he sl i ght est physi cal sensat i on. That i s what I
physi cal l y f eel t hr oughout t hi s phenomenon, ver y common
i n me
46
.

As he concl uded Paul o e Est êvão ( 1941) , af t er 8 mont hs
of wor k, Chi co Xavi er saw a spi r i t di smount i ng a ki nd of
panel t hat t ur ned hi s r oom i nt o a cabi n i sol at ed f r om t he
out si de wor l d
47
. Al t hough t hi s i s t he end r at her t han t he
pr epar at i on f or t he ecst at i c pr ocess, i t i s r easonabl e t o
i nf er t hat Chi co was i n such a deep t r ance as t o descr i be
t he end of t he t ask i n such t er ms.
Ther e i s no spi r i t i nvocat i on i n t he pr act i ces hi t her t o
descr i bed, and i t shoul d be not ed t hat t he pr ocess i s by no
means uni f or m: Chi co coul d r emai n 10 days wi t hout r ecei vi ng

44
Par naso de al ém- t úmul o, p. 33.
45
I d. i bi d.
46
I d. i bi d.
47
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 67. Thi s makes an obvi ous cont r ast t o t he
wal l s comi ng down i n hi s f i r st of f i ci al exper i ence.

77
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


any message, whi l e t hen havi ng up t o t hr ee whol e poems
di ct at ed i n t he same day. Accor di ng t o Chi co, t he smal l er
t he number of medi ums at t endi ng, t he bet t er t he r esul t
obt ai ned ( cont r adi ct i ng somehow Kar dec’ s consi der at i ons on
psychogr aphy) , al t hough no expl anat i on i s gi ven f or t hi s
r easoni ng. I n t he pr epar at or y pr ocesses descr i bed i n t he
pr ef ace t o t he Par naso, t wo concl usi ons ar e t o be dr awn at
t hi s st age: Chi co Xavi er hi msel f had no r evel at or y-
i ni t i at or y exper i ence t hat gui ded hi mt o t he r oad of spi r i t
mani pul at i on, but hi s si st er di d and her s was decl ar edl y a
ver y meani ngf ul exper i ence; pl us, t he ki nd of messages
r ecei ved, no mat t er how anachr oni st i c t he medi um t r i es t o
make t hem l ook, f i t s ver y wel l i n hi s cul t ur al
possi bi l i t i es at t he t i me.
As Kar dec hi msel f st at es, “anyone who f eel s, t o any
degr ee, t he i nf l uence of spi r i t s i s a medi um”
48
. Chi co
Xavi er coul d boast t hat he f el t t hemat a hi gh degr ee f r om
chi l dhood onwar ds, al ways emphasi zi ng t he i nvol unt ar y
char act er of hi s medi umshi p. The most st r i ki ng exampl e of
Chi co Xavi er ’ s at t empt t o obl i t er at e any st yl i st i c
char act er i st i cs t hat coul d be ascr i bed t o hi msel f r at her
t han t o t he spi r i t s he i s psychogr aphi ng woul d be f ound i n
Mecani smos da medi uni dade ( “Medi umshi p mechani cs”, 1960) ,
wr i t t en t oget her wi t h anot her Br azi l i an medi um, Wal do
Vi ei r a. The l at t er was t hen onl y 25 year s ol d, al r eady a
dent i st and medi cal doct or ( t hus addi ng pr est i ge t o t he
whol e Kar deci st exper i ence vi a t he r ever se st r at egy t o t hat
of Chi co emphasi zi ng hi s own i gnor ance) ; Wal do was
di scover ed t o be r ecei vi ng f r om a spi r i t al so wel l -
acquai nt ed t o Chi co ( t he al r eady quot ed dr . Andr é Lui z) and
bot h set about wr i t i ng a book t oget her – Wal do doi ng t he
even chapt er s and Chi co t he odd ones. The r esul t i s t hat i n

48
BM, 14.

78
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


t he end i t i s i mpossi bl e t o t el l any st yl i st i c di f f er ences
bet ween t hem
49
.
I ndeed, al t hough Chi co Xavi er woul d of f i ci al l y consi der
hi s medi umshi p wor k t o have begun bet ween 1927 and 1931 and
compr i si ng t he poet r y of t he Par naso, we can be sur e t hat ,
accor di ng t o hi s own account s, he had begun much ear l i er ,
al t hough r el uct ant t o consi der any pr evi ous exper i ences as
r el evant . So, when Chi co Xavi er was st i l l i n t he f our t h
year of pr i mar y school he was on t he ver ge of wr i t i ng a
composi t i on wi t h a t heme def i ned by t he gover nment of Mi nas
Ger ai s, hi s pr ovi nce. I t woul d be a compet i t i on won by t he
young Chi co, an epi sode t o whi ch however he at t r i but es
l i t t l e i mpor t ance ( possi bl y t o st r ess humi l i t y and t he l ack
of pr epar at i on of hi s l at er exper i ences) .

As soon as t i me began, I saw a man besi de me. I was
scar ed and asked my compani on on my si de [ . . . ] i f he
had seen anyone. He sai d he saw no one [ . . . ] But t he
man t ol d me t he f i r st par t of what I was supposed t o
wr i t e. Havi ng hear d cl ear l y, I asked t he t eacher i f I
coul d l eave my pl ace and I went t o t al k t o her [ . . . ]
She asked me cal ml y [ what t he man was t el l i ng me t o
wr i t e] I r epeat ed what I had hear d
50
.

The t eacher was skept i cal about t he epi sode, whi ch
woul d nonet hel ess ear n Chi co honour s i n t he compet i t i on.
The r est of t he cl ass, whi l e knowi ng t hi s, mocked hi m and
asked hi mt o wr i t e agai n, wi t h t he hel p of t he “man”, about
any gi ven t heme; appar ent l y Chi co di d t he j ob. However , hi s
own r epor t does not go much f ur t her t han t hat t o i nf or mt he
nat ur e of t he chal l enge ( whi ch agai n f i t s i n Chi co’ s f ut ur e
descr i pt i on of hi s own pr epar at or y pr ocesses, or l ack of ) .
Thi s passage bei ng f or got t en i n Chi co Xavi er ’ s
“of f i ci al ” account s of pr epar at i on f or psychogr aphy, t he

49
St ol l , op. ci t . p. 102.
50
I d. pp. 127- 128.

79
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


medi um i s wi l l i ng t o t el l about hi s f i r st psychogr aphed
message he wi l l i ngl y r ecogni zes as such – a l et t er by hi s
mot her , dat ed f r om 23/ 07/ 1927. Thi s was done wi t h t he
assi st ance of t he al r eady quot ed dona Cár men, and Chi co
t el l s us t hat he was r eal l y t r embl i ng at t he end
51
.
Chi co Xavi er woul d psychogr aph a message f r om t he
spi r i t of Andr é Lui z gi vi ng mor e det ai l on t he pr epar at or y
pr ocess f r oman ot her wor l dl y poi nt of vi ew:

Based on nobl e magnet i sm, t he di scar nat e i nst r uct or s
i nf l uence t he br ai n’ s mechani sms t o t he f or mat i on of
cer t ai n phenomena, j ust l i ke musi ci ans when t hey t ouch
t he cor ds of t he pi ano and pr oduce a mel ody. And j ust
l i ke t he sound waves associ at e t hemsel ves i n musi c,
ment al waves conj ugat e t hemsel ves i n [ wr i t t en]
expr essi on [ . . . ] Thus we can i dent i f y psychogr aphy,
f r om t he st r i ct l y mechani cal t o t he i nt ui t i ve,
i ncor por at i on i n di f f er ent degr ees of awar eness,
i nspi r at i ons and pr emoni t i ons
52
.

Anot her f amous Br azi l i an medi um, Di val do Per ei r a
Fr anco, coul d t heor i ze on t he pr obl em of t he r el at i ons
bet ween pat hol ogy and medi umshi p ( appar ent i n t he case of
Xavi er ’ s si st er and, t o some ext ent , i n hi s own f r ai l
const i t ut i on) :

[ Medi umshi p] i s a gi f t t hat put s man bet ween t wo
ext r emes and can l ead t o cer t ai n st at es, conf used wi t h
di seases. I f i t mani f est s i t sel f i n t he i nt el l ect ual
ar ea, i t can pr esent t he i ndi vi dual wi t h cer t ai n
appar ent st at es of audi t i ve or vi sual hal l uci nat i ons,
anxi et y, f ear , cl aust r ophobi a, unr easonabl e f ear s of
t he ni ght and of get t i ng al ong wi t h peopl e [ . . . ] Not
bei ng pr epar ed f or t hese mani f est at i ons, i t i s onl y

51
I d. 130.
52
Fr anci sco C. Xavi er and Wal do Vi ei r a [ di ct at ed by t he spi r i t of
Andr é Lui z] . Mecani smos da medi uni dade. Ri o de J anei r o: Feder ação
Espí r i t a Br asi l ei r a, 1964. Pp. 133- 134.

80
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


nat ur al t hat [ t he medi um] exper i ences i nt r anqui l i t y or
i l l - f eel i ng
53
.

Ref l ect i ng t he f i r st psychogr aphed l et t er f r om hi s
mot her , Chi co Xavi er woul d gi ve a vi vi d account of t he
pr obl ems he woul d f ace i n t he begi nni ng of hi s wr i t i ng ( al l
addi ng t o t he i dea t hat psychogr aphy r equi r es t r ai ni ng and,
as such, can be under st ood i n t er ms of di sci pl i nar y
exer ci se bot h by Kar deci st or by ext er nal obser ver s) : i n
t he begi nni ng i t was ver y t i r esome, as i f Chi co had an i r on
bel t compr essi ng hi s head
54
:

Hi s ar mseemed t o be mi ner al i zi ng, t ur ni ng i nt o an i r on
r od, heavy but dr i ven by an awesome f or ce [ . . . ] and hi s
[ Chi co’ s] psychol ogi cal st at e woul d var y consi der abl y,
bet ween ext r emes of good and bad t emper . But as t i me
went by t hese sensat i ons changed. St ep by st ep t he
medi um acqui r ed gr eat er abi l i t y, and, i n t he end, an
i ncr edi bl e speed i n t he pr act i ce of psychogr aphy: [ . . . ]
‘ I j ust needed t o t ake paper and penci l t hat t he
message woul d f l ow’
55
.

Bot h passages ar e a cl ear admi ssi on of medi umshi p as
t her apy ( t hi s not i mpl yi ng t hat t he medi ums t hemsel ves ar e
si ck, but onl y t hat t hey exper i ence sympt oms of si ckness,
or aki n t o i t , t hat di sappear af t er devel opi ng medi umi st i c
f acul t i es)
56
; Kar deci st s woul d say t hat , i f t he medi umget s
si ck i n appar ent r el at i on t o hi s/ her vi si onar y act i vi t i es,
t hi s i s due t o debt s of past l i ves, not t o t he act i vi t y

53
Di val do P. Fr anco. “Car act er í st i cas da medi uni dade”. El ect r oni c
sour ce, ht t p: / / www. conci esp. or g. br , 2002 ( excer pt s f r om Mi guel de
J esus Sar dano. Di val do, mai s que uma voz, uma canção de amor à vi da!
Sant o Andr é: Cent r o Espí r i t a Dr . Bezer r a de Menezes, / s. d. / ) . Par t 1.
54
Sur pr i si ngl y si mi l ar t o t he exper i ence descr i bed by Ludwi g
St audenmai er . Di e Magi e al s exper i ment el l e Nat ur wi ssenschaf t . Lei pzi g:
Akademi sche Ver l agsgesel l schaf t , 1922. Pp. 22- 23 f f .
55
St ol l , op. ci t . pp. 136- 137.
56
On t he l i nk bet ween ASCs and di sease much has been sai d,
unf or t unat el y of l i t t l e use due t o t he pr econcei ved nat ur e of t he
st udi es. As El i ade put i t , t he nat i ves i n t he gr oups obser ved do not
conf use si ckness and shamani st i c vocat i on – or al t er nat i vel y, t he si ck
man i s a f ai l ed shaman. Cf . El i ade, Shamani sm, p. 27.

81
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


i t sel f
57
. Di val do goes on t o di st i ngui sh t he ki nds of
medi umshi p, whi ch compr i se t he abi l i t y t o wr i t e
aut omat i cal l y – her e agai n pr i zi ng anachr oni sm as pr oof of
aut hent i ci t y: “[ . . . ] i f he can wr i t e a page i n f i ner
f ashi on t han hi s moment ar y capaci t i es, or do so about a
subj ect hi t her t o unhear d of t o hi m, her e we have
psychogr aphi cal medi umshi p”
58
.
What shoul d be consi der ed as t he pr i mor di al pr epar at or y
means t o t hi s pr ocess? I n t he wor ds of Chi co Xavi er
hi msel f , r ecal l i ng a di al ogue wi t h Emmanuel , hi s mai n
“sponsor i ng” spi r i t , t he answer i s easy: di sci pl i ne.
Emmanuel once asked Chi co i f he was r eady f or medi umi st i c
dut y: t o t hi s Chi co answer ed posi t i vel y but want ed t o know
what was necessar y – and t o t hi s quest i on Emmanuel
r epeat edl y answer ed t hat di sci pl i ne was t he key ( i n f act
t he spi r i t di d not ment i on anyt hi ng el se as necessar y
besi des t hi s) . Thi s goes ver y wel l wi t h what i s known about
t he r ecent l y deceased Chi co Xavi er , who seemed by al l
account s t o have l i ved a ver y di sci pl i ned, ascet i c and
bl amel ess l i f e
59
. These aspect s ar e t ol d t o us by Xavi er
hi msel f , who descr i bed hi s dai l y l i f e i n t he f ami l i ar t o
t he r eader t er ms of mi ssi on, ascet i cs and suf f er i ng:

I can onl y r est when I am sl eepi ng. As soon as I wake
up, I am at t r act ed t o t he book af f ai r [ . . . ] I t i s a
ki nd of compul si on [ si c] . I cannot t hi nk about anyt hi ng
el se [ cont r ast t hi s t o t he i dea, by Ludwi g, t hat
psychogr aphy i s aki n t o t he abi l i t y of doi ng t wo t hi ngs
at t he same t i me – but maybe Chi co Xavi er i s r ef er r i ng
not t o t he pr ocess of wr i t i ng, but t o hi s own sel f -
per cei ved obsessi on] [ . . . ] I amnot compl ai ni ng, but t o

57
Fr anco, op. ci t . par t 1.
58
I d. i bi d. Chi co Xavi er woul d agr ee t hat , af t er 3 or 4 days wi t hout
psychogr aphi cal wor k, t he medi um’ s sensi bi l i t y i s somewhat l essened;
cf . St ol l , op. ci t . 173.
59
“Chi co Xavi er - t r aços bi ogr áf i cos”. Chi co Xavi er , by r eason of t hi s
way of l i f e and t he huge assi st enci al wor k he l ed, woul d compet e f or
t he Nobel Peace Pr i ze i n 1982.

82
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


f ul f i l l my dut y I coul d not even car e about t he cl ot hes
I am wear i ng [ . . . ] I cannot t hi nk about anyt hi ng el se
but t he Spi r i t i st book. These books come t o l i f e among
i ncr edi bl e st r uggl es [ . . . ] but so i t i s. I wake up
[ . . . ] t he day j ust st ar t i ng, and I am al r eady l ooki ng
f or paper and penci l ; t he i deas st umbl e as i f i n a
wat er f al l i nsi de my head and I must wr i t e. I f eel
obl i ged, I cannot r esi st [ . . . ]
60

One l ast aspect i n Chi co Xavi er ’ s per sonal conduct must
be consi der ed her e f or i t s appar ent r el at i on wi t h hi s
i ncr edi bl e out put and i ncessant dedi cat i on t o spi r i t ual
wor k, and t hi s i s cel i bacy. Chi co never consi der ed i t as an
i mposi t i on on al l medi ums, but r at her as a per sonal bur den
t hat had t o be under t aken i n or der t hat he coul d f ul f i l l
hi s mi ssi on:

I n or der t hat t he books coul d spr i ng out of my poor
f acul t i es, i t was necessar y, so Emmanuel t el l s us, t hat
I accept ed t he l i f e I pr esent l y l i ve, wher e mar r yi ng
[ . . . ] woul d not be possi bl e. Thi s does not mean t hat
medi umshi p cr eat es ant agoni sms bet ween t he medi um and
ear t hl y mar r i age, but r at her t hat some medi umi st i c
t asks r equi r e speci al condi t i ons t o be f ul f i l l ed
61
.


60
Revi st a Espí r i t a Al l an Kar dec 19, 1993, 30. Agai n t he medi um woul d
agr ee t hat each t i me t he sympt oms descr i bed woul d be l ess and l ess
sever e as t i me passed; i n hi s l at er l i f e Chi co Xavi er woul d say t hat
“I do not get so t i r ed anymor e and, af t er get t i ng t he messages, I
r emai n i n t he same physi cal and psychol ogi cal st at e as bef or e”. The
di sci pl i ne mot i f appear s agai n i n t he st r ange epi sode of t he pi ano –
Chi co Xavi er has al ways r ecei ved an i ncr edi bl e amount of gi f t s and
donat i ons of ever y ki nd t hr oughout hi s l i f e, and he al ways di sposed of
t hem t o char i t y. On one occasi on, however , he was gi ven a br and new
pi ano, whi ch he i nt ended t o keep and l ear n how t o pl ay. Hi s gui di ng
spi r i t , Emmanuel , r epr ehended hi m sever el y poi nt i ng out t hat he coul d
not spar e t he t i me f or such mundane pl easur es, and so t he pi ano was
done away wi t h. I t i s a most st r i ki ng exampl e of t he Pr ussi an
di sci pl i ne sel f - i mposed by Chi co Xavi er – or , i n hi s own t er ms,
i mposed on hi m by t he spi r i t s. I n f act , si nce 1931 Emmanuel dr ew a
dai l y r out i ne f or Chi co Xavi er , whi ch i ncl udes t he st udy of gr ammar ,
t ypi ng, t he New Test ament and Kar dec’ s wr i t i ngs ( cf . El i as Bar bosa. No
mundo de Chi co Xavi er . São Paul o: I DE, 1992. Ci t . by St ol l , op. ci t .
p. 49) . Al l t hi s poi nt s t o a pr epar at or y pr ocess t hat goes f ar beyond
per sonal concent r at i on f or each séance or wr i t i ng sessi on.
61
Fol ha Espí r i t a, November 1976, ci t . by St ol l , op. ci t . p. 151.

83
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


I ndeed, t he medi umwoul d say publ i cl y t hat he coul d not
be consi der ed a man i n pr oper t er ms, i n t he epi sode wher e a
woman had t r i ed t o seduce hi m; al r eady i n hi s yout h he had
been t aken t o a br ot hel f or sexual i ni t i at i on, evi dent l y
wi t hout havi ng had i nt er cour se wi t h any of t he women:
l egend has i t t hat t hey r ecogni zed hi m and went al l
t oget her t o pr ay
62
. Thi s al l l ends i t sel f admi r abl y t o
bui l d Xavi er ’ s per sonal l egend of hol i ness, but can al so be
under st ood i n t er ms of i nt egr al dedi cat i on t o a cause, t hat
of aut omat i c wr i t i ng: sexual i nt er cour se ( not t o ment i on
t he obl i gat i ons of a f ami l y l i f e) woul d have made hi s t ask
much mor e di f f i cul t i f not i mpossi bl e, gi ven t he i nt ensi t y
of hi s dai l y di al ogues wi t h hi s gui di ng spi r i t s ( usual l y
Emmanuel and Andr é Lui z) .

62
I d. i bi d.

84
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


3. 3. Genr e and per sonal i dent i t y of t he spi r i t ual aut hor
Can moder n aut omat i c wr i t i ng be consi der ed a genr e i n
i t sel f , or does psychogr aphy compr i se sever al genr es? Thi s
i s i mpor t ant r egar di ng pr epar at or y pr ocesses, f or i f t he
t ext s ar e t o be deal t wi t h as a whol e, i t i s r easonabl e t o
t r eat t he pr epar at i ons as essent i al l y si mi l ar ; t he same
woul d not be t r ue i f t hey ar e j ust “ot her wor l dl y”
expr essi ons of mor e r espect abl e l i t er ar y genr es. I t woul d
appear t hat whi l e t hey al l di spl ay many si mi l ar i t i es, t he
psychogr aphed t ext s ost ensi bl y bel ong t o di f f er ent genr es –
r omance, poet r y, bi ogr aphy, shor t advi ce. The pat t er n of
pr epar at or y pr ocesses i s, cor r espondi ngl y, over l y
st er eot yped r egar dl ess of t he genr e and obeys t he f ol l owi ng
char act er i st i cs:

1. The medi ums ar e ascet i cs, f ol l owi ng t he exampl e of
t he gr eat Kar deci st myst i cs ( Chi co Xavi er , Bezer r a de
Menezes, Di val do Per ei r a Fr anco and Kar dec hi msel f ) ;
2. Di sci pl i ne i s t he key t o pr epar at i on ( under st ood as
f ocusi ng on t he et hi cal aspect s of a “pr oper ” medi uml i f e) ;
3. Chemi cal i nduct i on i s not onl y absent , but ASC-
i nduci ng subst ances ar e despi sed by Kar deci st s even i n
or di nar y l i f e ( t hey ar e af t er al l t he i dent i f yi ng si gns of
a “backwar d” spi r i t , st i l l at t ached t o ear t hl y vi ces – t hi s
bei ng t he r eason f or t he use of i ncense and el abor at e
r i t ual s i n ot her “l ess devel oped” r el i gi ons such as Umbanda
– an Af r o- Br azi l i an cul t – and even Cat hol i ci sm
63
) ;

63
I t must be not ed t hat Chi co Xavi er cl ai med t o have had an exper i ence
wi t h LSD, not t aki ng t he dr ug as any ot her per son, but “spi r i t ual l y”,
i . e. gi ven t o hi m by hi s l i f e- l ong advi sor Emmanuel : i n Oct ober 1958
t he spi r i t of f er ed t o i nt r oduce t he dr ug t o Xavi er , who f el t out of
hi s own body i n t he ni ght . Emmanuel came and put a whi t e dr i nk i nsi de
a gl ass, expl ai ni ng t hat i t was an al kal oi d t hat woul d pr oduce t he
same ef f ect as LSD. I n t hi s f i r st exper i ence, however , Xavi er f el t
awf ul sensat i ons and saw monst r ous vi si ons. Emmanuel expl ai ned t o hi m
t hat t hi s was due t o hi s spi r i t ual st at e at t he moment : wi t h

85
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


4. I magi nat i on, hel ped by sel f - hypnosi s, seems t o f or m
t he mai nst r eam of t he pr ocess – t he vi si onar y t aki ng hol d
of many t hemes t hat compr i se hi s/ her or di nar y l i f e
happeni ngs and t r ansf or mi ng t hem i nt o vi si onar y
exper i ences, meani ngf ul t o t he Kar deci st communi t y of
bel i ever s i nvol ved. Anci ent or moder n l anguages, when t hey
appear , woul d const i t ut e a separ at e i ssue whose
i nvest i gat i on, t o see whet her t he case const i t ut es f r aud or
not , woul d t ake us t oo f ar away f r omour subj ect ( al t hough
t hi s phenomenon has echoes i n a f ew apocal ypt i c passages,
as we shal l see i n ot her chapt er s) .

However t he i ssue of t he genr e of t he t ext i s f ar f r om
super f l uous i n our case, si nce t he f i nal out put i s ver y
di f f er ent i n each of t he genr es t r i ed by Chi co Xavi er .
A f i r st and mor e i mpor t ant one i s t hat of poet r y: i t i s
per haps her e t hat t he i ssue of per sonal st yl e as i mi t at i on,
t r ut hf ul communi cat i on wi t h t he ot her wor l d or pl ai n f r aud
poses i t sel f i n t he cl ear est way. The quest i on of t he
aut hent i ci t y of poems ( i . e. of t hei r r el at i on t o out put of
t he poet s when al i ve) i s f ar f r omcl osed.
On ot her genr es, such as sel f - hel p or r omance, t hi s i s
f ar f r om cl ear . Af t er al l , al t hough t he ver y moder n and
f eul l et i n- l i ke advent ur es of Emmanuel i n t he f i r st - cent ur y
l ook unl i kel y, t her e i s no har d pr oof t hat t hey never t ook
pl ace ( al t hough, i n t he opi ni on of t he aut hor of t hi s
t hesi s, t hey const i t ut e ver y bad l i t er at ur e i ndeed, but t he
“hi st or i cal ” ser i es was not wr i t t en wi t h an eye on st yl e) .

r epent ance, pr ayi ng and char i t y t he r esul t s mi ght be di f f er ent . Xavi er
di d as was t ol d and, si x days af t er , had a ver y f i ne vi si onar y
exper i ence ( i n t he same l i nes, wi t h Emmanuel gui di ng hi m et c. ) . The
ef f ect s i n bot h cases mat ch what woul d be expect ed of a LSD- user so
much ( i . e. const i t ut e vi si onar y t opoi ) t hat i t i s har d not t o t hi nk of
second- hand knowl edge on t he par t of Chi co Xavi er . Cf . Sout o Mai or ,
op. ci t . pp. 125- 126.

86
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


The huge out put of messages f r om t he dead woul d t ake
t hi s f ur t her , gi ven t he uni ver sal accl ai m of Xavi er ’ s
abi l i t y t o cat ch communi cat i on f r omt he ot her wor l d.
To t he genr es l oosel y cor r espond def i ni t e char act er s:
Emmanuel t o t he hi st or i c books; Andr é Lui z t o t he “medi cal ”
or “t echni cal ” wor ks deal i ng wi t h t heor i es of
r ei ncar nat i on; Humber t o de Campos, Fr eder i co Fi gner and
even Mar i l yn Monr oe and t he bohemi an composer Noel Rosa t o
l i ght er t ext s, i n t he f or m of essays or chr oni cl es. Of
cour se t he poet s as a gr oup ar e of par amount r el evance when
i t comes t o t he at t r i but i on of poet r y t o spi r i t ual aut hor s.
The i dent i t y of t hese i s so i mpor t ant , bot h t o Kar deci st s
and t o gr eat er sect i ons of Br azi l i an soci et y as a whol e, as
t o mot i vat e l awsui t s on t he i ssue as wi l l be obser ved i n
t he next sect i on.

87
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


4. Edi t or i al medi at i on of psychogr aphy

I t must be t aken i nt o account t hat al t hough Chi co
Xavi er does not t el l us much about i t , edi t i ng pl ays i t s
r ol e i n t he f i nal pr oduct : at l east f or 1936 Chi co
descr i bes hi s dai l y Kar deci st wr i t i ng as goi ng f r om 19: 00
t o 1: 00 am, when he woul d r ewr i t e t he dr af t s ( i . e. t he
psychogr aphed t ext s t hemsel ves) and t ype t hemon a bor r owed
t ypewr i t er
64
. How many changes t he t ext woul d under go i n
t hi s pr ocess i s i mpossi bl e t o know ( even mor e so because at
l east i n t he begi nni ng of hi s medi umshi p t he spi r i t s woul d
or der hi mt o dest r oy any dr af t s
65
) .
I t coul d be ar gued whet her t he phenomenon exper i enced
by Chi co Xavi er i s pl ai n f r aud, act ual psychi c
communi cat i on or a ki nd of psychol ogi cal pr ocess t hat makes
t he medi um i ncor por at e t he mechani cs of t he por t r ayed
subj ect s wi t hout any f or mal knowl edge of t hem ( i . e. t o be
abl e t o pr oduce poet r y i n t he met r e of a deceased ar t i st
wi t hout f or mal and del i ber at e t r ai ni ng of any ki nd) .
I f t he psychogr aphi cal phenomena of t he medi ums
di scussed her e wer e f r audul ent , t her e woul d be no need t o
under st and t he pr epar at or y pr ocesses i n t er ms of
psychol ogi cal anal ysi s; and i t woul d be ver y unwi se t o
expl ai n t hem i n t er ms of t he Kar deci st expl anat i on i t sel f
( si nce i t const i t ut es a hypot hesi s whose basi s cannot be
checked) . I t must be t aken i nt o account , however , t hat a
gr eat deal of cont r over sy ar ose i n Br azi l r egar di ng Chi co
Xavi er ’ s medi umshi p, and t hi s i s i ndeed r el at ed t o hi s
pr epar at or y pr ocesses: i n 1944 t he wi dow of a ver y f amous
and by t hen deceased Br azi l i an i nt el l ect ual , Humber t o de
Campos, deci ded t o sue Chi co Xavi er who had been publ i shi ng

64
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 66.
65
St ol l , op. ci t . p. 136.

88
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


books under t he name of her husband as t he communi cat i ng
spi r i t . Thi s put Kar deci st Spi r i t i sm under t he scr ut i ny of
t he l aw, because i t coul d be seen ei t her as a f r aud ( and as
such condemned by st r i ngent Br azi l i an l aws on wi t chcr af t
and r el at ed pr act i ces) or i t coul d be seen as a pr act i ce
gener at i ng t r ue aut hor i al t ext s – i n whi ch case Humber t o de
Campos’ f ami l y woul d be due a huge sum i n copyr i ght s. At
t he end of t he t r i al , Chi co Xavi er was decl ar ed i nnocent
66

but hi s wor ks and pr act i ces wer e put under a much br i ght er
l i ght by al l segment s of Br azi l i an cul t ur ed r eader s. I t
shoul d be not ed t hat , even bef or e t he l awsui t and whi l e
st i l l al i ve, Humber t o de Campos mani f est ed hi msel f i n t er ms
t hat woul d di smi ss Chi co Xavi er ’ s poet r y as pl ai n f r aud
67
.
The same woul d be sai d of many r enowned aut hor s i n ar t i cl es
publ i shed some year s af t er , when Kar deci sm r emai ned an
i mpor t ant i ssue i n t he debat e
68
.
On t hese i ssues t he cont r over si es t hat evol ved i n t he
Br azi l i an pr ess dur i ng t he 1930’ s and 40’ s ar e ver y t el l i ng
– f or even skept i cal i nt el l ect ual s coul d not r el at e Chi co
Xavi er ’ s exper i ences t o f r audul ent pr act i ce. On t he
cont r ar y, one emi nent t hi nker , Raymundo Magal hães J r . ,
wr ot e t hat i t woul d t ake 60 days r eadi ng one aut hor at a
t i me, day and ni ght , t o be abl e t o emul at e hi s st yl e.


66
The j udges consi der ed t he case wi t hout gr ounds, and whi l e unabl e t o
expl ai n psychogr aphy, r easoned t hat r oyal t i es shoul d onl y be ascr i bed
t o “i ncar nat e” aut hor s.
67
Chr oni cl e publ i shed i n t he Di ár i o Car i oca, 10/ 07/ 1932. Ci t . by
St ol l , op. ci t . p. 60.
68
The aut hor of t hi s t hesi s managed t o obser ve a f ew t i mes medi ums
wr i t i ng aut omat i cal l y, and coul d not ascr i be any ext er nal pr epar at i on
t o t hem( subst ances et c. ) . The cont ent of t he messages was al ways ver y
di f f er ent f r om t he huge di ver si t y of genr es deal t wi t h by Chi co
Xavi er , but t hi s needs not concer n us her e. I t shoul d be not ed however
t hat t he medi ums obser ved had l ess st r i ki ng f eat ur es i n t hei r wr i t i ngs
t han Chi co Xavi er , t hi s maki ng t he messages mor e easi l y i dent i f i abl e
t o t hem out si de t he medi umi st i c mi l i eu but at t he same t i me l ess
compel l i ng t han Xavi er ’ s hi st or i cal novel s or poems.

89
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


But i mi t at i on no doubt t akes qual i t i es of i nt el l i gence
and a gr eat deal of cul t ur e, l ogi c i n t he choosi ng of
t hemes and i n exposi ng t he i deas, i n shor t , some degr ee
of consci ence of l i t er ar y val ues [ . . . ] For t hese ver y
r easons I decl ar e t hat , i f Chi co Xavi er i s an i mpost er ,
he i s a ver y t al ent ed one.
69

Emmanuel hi msel f woul d have a r ol e i n censor i ng
wr i t i ngs f r om Chi co Xavi er : on one of t hose t he medi um, a
gr eat l over of ani mal s, had a vi si on st r ongl y condemni ng
t he i ngest i on of meat . The spi r i t who si gned t he “ar t i cl e”
about t he i ssue was none ot her t han Humber t o de Campos, who
was censor ed by Emmanuel – who ar gued t hat t he evi l s comi ng
f r om a whol esal e condemnat i on of meat - eat i ng woul d sur pass
t he benef i t s of a cause t hat was, i n i t sel f , j ust . So t he
t ext was r i pped t o shr eds on t he or der s of Emmanuel
70
.
A st r ange case of spi r i t ual censor shi p agai n ar i si ng
f r om Emmanuel deal t wi t h a psychogr aphed bi ogr aphy.
Fr eder i co Fi gner , a weal t hy busi nessman f r om Ri o de
J anei r o, Kar deci st and f r i ends wi t h Chi co Xavi er , di ed i n
1947 af t er an i nt ense r el at i onshi p wi t h t he medi um ( whi ch
i ncl uded huge donat i ons f or assi st ent i al wor k) . A f ew
mont hs af t er , Xavi er r ecei ved hi s vi si t , wi l l i ng t o put
down hi s own exper i ences i n t he ot her wor l d as a ki nd of
aut obi ogr aphy ( even wi t h a compl et e t i t l e – Vol t ei , “I am
back”) . Emmanuel woul d not al l ow i t : t he spi r i t sai d t hat
Fi gner was st i l l i mmat ur e f or such an ent er pr i se, whi ch
nonet hel ess t ook pl ace 2 year s af t er war ds, and wi t h Fi gner
appr opr i at el y di sgui sed as I r mão J acob ( “Br ot her J acob”) ,

69
Ar t i cl e i n A Noi t e, Ri o de J anei r o, 4/ 8/ 1944. Ci t . by St ol l , op. ci t .
p. 65.
70
Accor di ng t o t he medi um, one of Emmanuel ’ s ar gument s was t hat many
men ear ned t hei r l i vi ng deal i ng i n meat - i ncl udi ng Chi co Xavi er
hi msel f , a publ i c ser vant on a st at e f ar m. Cf . Sout o Mai or , op. ci t .
pp. 116- 117.

90
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


so as t o avoi d anot her l awsui t i n t he l i nes of Humber t o de
Campos’
71
.
Emmanuel ’ s cr i t i ci sm, cont i nuous i nt er f er ence i n Chi co
Xavi er ’ s l i f e and endl ess demands woul d add t o t he
censor shi p of t ext s as descr i bed above, but woul d t ake us
f ar f r om t he mai n t heme whi ch ar e psychogr aphed t ext s
r at her t han Xavi er ’ s bi ogr aphy.
Nor woul d t he poems of t he f i r st edi t i on be al ways t he
same – edi t or i al act i vi t y meant t hat some woul d be excl uded
f r om subsequent edi t i ons, as wel l as t he pr ef aces
under goi ng mi nor changes. The second edi t i on of t he Par naso
- f r om 1935 - woul d f or i nst ance moder at e t he at t acks on
t he pr ef ace t o t he Cat hol i c Chur ch by Manuel Qui nt ão. I t i s
t he f i nal exampl e of how ear t hl y and spi r i t ual r evi si on ar e
t o be under st ood i n t he wor l d of Kar deci st aut omat i c
wr i t i ng ( al t hough t he or i gi nal s f r om each book have not
under gone any ot her al t er at i ons t han Xavi er ’ s own
t r ansposi ng t hemt o t ypewr i t t en t ext ) .

71
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 91.

91
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


5. Two moder n- day Kar deci st apocal ypses, and how
t hei r al l eged aut hor s ar e por t r ayed

A ver y i mpor t ant par t of PTs ( as exper i enced by Chi co
Xavi er ) can al so be deduced f r om exper i ences descr i bed i n
apocal ypses, l i ke t he “dai l y l i f e” aspect s of t he
af t er wor l d descr i bed i n t hem bot h. I t appear s so i mpor t ant
t hat i t composes a maj or par t of r evel at i ons descr i bed.
I f t hi s i s t o be t aken i nt o account , t hen har dcor e
Kar deci st t ext s l i ke Nosso l ar and Mi ssi onár i os da l uz
shoul d be consi der ed moder n- day apocal ypses: but at t he
same t i me Kar deci smpr oposed a whol esal e demyst i f i cat i on of
t he beyond and t hei r vi si ons have a cor r espondi ngl y mor e
“dai l y- l i f e” char act er .
I n t he case of Kar deci st mat er i al t he par al l el s f r om
t hi s wor l d t o t he ot her go much f ur t her , and books such as
Mi ssi onár i os da l uz ar e sol d as newspaper ar t i cl es on what
t he wor l d beyond i s l i ke
72
. Her e t oo t her e ar e cl asses,
t eacher s, pupi l s and wor ker s, al l engaged i n t eam wor k
whi ch, i n t he end, has st r ong Chr i st i an over t ones: al l
spi r i t s, l i vi ng or dead, shoul d aspi r e t o put t he Gospel
i nt o pr act i ce, i . e. t o l ove one anot her
73
. A st r i ki ng
exampl e woul d be t he or gani zat i on of Nosso l ar whi ch, as
al r eady sai d, r esembl es ver y cl osel y t hat of Get úl i o
Var gas’ cor por at i ve st at e: at some poi nt t he assi st ance
gi ven by t he mor e devel oped spi r i t s t o t he backwar d ones

72
So t he back f l ap r eads: “Andr é Lui z, goi ng on wi t h t he ser i es of
r epor t s on l i f e ‘ on t he ot her si de’ , gi ves us det ai l s about t he wor k
i nvol vi ng pr epar at i on f or r ei ncar nat i on of spi r i t s r eady f or a new
exi st ence i n t he physi cal wor l d”. And t he whol e t ext f ol l ows t hi s
scheme, whi ch i n t he end makes r eadi ng f l ow qui t e easi l y.
73
Mi ssi onár i os, p. 110, 121, 137 and many mor e. I t i s i n t hi s spi r i t
t hat Xavi er ’ s aver si on t o pol i t i cs i s t o be under st ood - i t i s
r ender ed usel ess or , at t he best , as a secondar y t ool t o t he
pr act i ci ng of t he “gol den r ul e”.

92
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


has t o be st opped - t empor ar i l y - because of t he
i ndi sci pl i ne and consequent r i sks i nvol ved.
Agai n i t must be st r essed t hat al l t hose dai l y
exper i ences and r el at ed l or e ar e i nt egr al t o vi si onar y
pr ocesses i n Kar deci sm.
Par t of t hi s out put deal s wi t h r epor t s on what t he
wor l d beyond i s l i ke – t hey ar e i n f act gui ded t our s f or
t he cur i ous about what t her e can be af t er deat h. Two of
Chi co Xavi er books i n par t i cul ar ar e shaped i n apocal ypt i c
f ashi on – Nosso l ar and Mi ssi onár i os da l uz. Bot h ar e par t
of t he “Andr é Lui z ser i es”, havi ng been di ct at ed by t he
spi r i t of t he same name. Bot h ar e al so i ncr edi bl y det ai l ed
and di dact i cal r egar di ng i nf or mat i on on t he ot her wor l d,
and yet bot h have an unmi st akabl e f l avour t hat bet r ays t he
cul t ur al mi l i eu i n whi ch t hey wer e wr i t t en.
Nosso l ar was wr i t t en i n 1944, i n t he l ast days of
Var gas’ di ct at or shi p i n Br azi l and t he st r uct ur e i t
di spl ays r esembl es ver y much t he assi st ent i al st at e t hat
exi st ed at t hat t i me. One of t he sect i ons of t he book
( whi ch begi ns, appr opr i at el y, wi t h a cl ose l ook at t he
l ower r egi ons of t he beyond) deal s wi t h t he mi ni st er i al
st r uct ur e of t he super nat ur al col ony, medi cal l anguage and
cl i ni cal exams per meat e i t t hr oughout . The whol e of t he
wor k i s devot ed t o show how di vi ne j ust i ce wor ks
cont i nuousl y and t o t he usual commonpl aces of sapi ent i al
l or e.
The book i s not r i ch i n accur at e descr i pt i ons of what
Chi co Xavi er under went t o be abl e t o r ecei ve t he message of
Andr é Lui z, but t he whol e wor k i s f ul l of sensat i ons,
descr i pt i ons and r easoni ngs t hat ar e al l t oo f ami l i ar i n
sensor y det ai l . The vi si onar y under goes al l t he r ange of
human emot i ons and exper i ences al l t he commonest bodi l y
sensat i ons, l i ke hunger , f ear , t hi r st and so on – onl y t o

93
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


f i nd out t hat t he spi r i t ual col ony t hat gi ves name t o t he
book i s al most a car bon- copy of t hi ngs t he vi si onar y knew
ver y wel l bef or ehand. Even t he pi ct ur esque cl osi ng of
assi st ent i al wor ks i n t he hi gher l evel s due t o t he r est of
t he l ower i s pr et t y much a descr i pt i on of cl ass r el at i ons
i n Br azi l of t hat t i me
74
. I t can har dl y be doubt ed t hat
agai n al l t he r ange of t he exper i ences known t o t he medi um
ar e an essent i al par t of hi s vi si onar y t r avel , even mor e
t han speci f i c pr epar at i ons f or t he pur pose.
The ot her t ext , Mi ssi onár i os da l uz, f ol l ows t he same
t opoi t o some ext ent . I t i s al so a por t r ai t of t he wor l d
beyond wi t h mi nut e det ai l r egar di ng t he et er nal j ob of
t eachi ng soul s i nt o t he ways of God, i nvol vi ng anal ysi s of
past mi sdeed and r et r i but i on et c. but i s much l ess
spect acul ar t han Nosso l ar i n t er ms of t he pl aces and
exper i ences descr i bed. I t coul d al so be t hat af t er t he huge
i mpact caused by Nosso l ar t her e woul d be much l ess t o
i mpr ess t he publ i c; i n any case, t he way t hat t he spi r i t of
Andr é Lui z moves i n r el at i on t o hi s own gui di ng spi r i t
Al exandr e and ot her et her eal bei ngs does not i nvol ve any
speci f i c pr act i ces, or at l east t hese ar e not mi nut el y
descr i bed - as i s t he nor mi n al l of Xavi er ’ s wr i t i ngs t hat
we have exami ned. The whol e “Andr é Lui z ser i es” has t hi s
apocal ypt i c f l avour and i t i s i n vai n t hat one shoul d
sear ch f or i mmedi at e vi si onar y i nduct i on t echni ques i n
t hem.

74
Nosso l ar , op. ci t . p. 57.

94
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


6. Summar y

The essent i al i ssues ar i si ng f r om t hi s chapt er as
r el at ed t o t he whol e of t he t hesi s ar e:

1. Kar deci sm, r egar dl ess of t he t r ansf or mat i ons i t
under went i n i t s adopt i on i n Br azi l , has aut hor shi p
at t r i but ed t o t he spi r i t s of t he deceased as a mai n i ssue;
2. The way t hese wr i t i ngs ar e pr oduced i s vi a aut omat i c
wr i t i ng, whi ch has 3 mai n f or ms: i nt ui t i ve, mechani cal or
semi - mechani cal . Most medi ums, i ncl udi ng Chi co Xavi er , f al l
i n t he l at t er cat egor y;
3. The huge out put of Chi co Xavi er , t oget her wi t h hi s
exempl ar y l i f e and compar at i vel y goodwi l l t o t el l about
pr epar at or y pr ocesses r ender hi m as i nval uabl e f or t he
cr oss- cul t ur al st udy i nt ended;
4. Aut hor shi p as spi r i t ual phenomenon, such as i t
pr esent s i t sel f i n Br azi l i an Kar deci sm, may be an i mpor t ant
par al l el t o Second Templ e pseudepi gr aphy, due t o t he
essent i al at t r i but i on of wr i t i ngs t o someone ot her t han t he
act ual , mechani cal wr i t er ;
5. As pr epar at or y means, chemi cal i nduct i on i s t o be
excl uded ( and, by ext ensi on, any ki nd of phar macol ogi cal
i nduct i on) ; t he Kar deci st medi um r el i es i nst ead on
psychol ogi cal pr ocesses;
6. As pr epar at or y pr ocesses one shoul d under st and not
onl y t he i mmedi at e concent r at i on of t he medi umf or t he t ask
at hand i n t he next séance, but r at her hi s/ her whol e
per sonal hi st or y, whi ch may compr i se i mpr essi ng epi sodes
( l i ke Chi co Xavi er ’ s mot her ’ s t al k on her deat hbed, or t he
seei ng of spi r i t s i n school ) ;

95
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka


6. At t r i but i on of aut hor shi p i s ver y i mpor t ant i n t he
Kar deci st - book wor l d and i s i ndel i bl y r el at ed t o t he genr e
of t ext s
75
.
7. Among t he many st yl es and f or ms t hat Kar deci st t ext s
can t ake, t hat of t he apocal ypt i c r evel at i on i s one of t he
most i mpor t ant i n t er ms of i t s i mpact among t he r eadi ng
publ i c: however , t he r evel at i ons descr i bed r esembl e mor e
t he cul t ur al envi r onment wher e t hey wer e pr oduced t han
anyt hi ng el se ( i . e. t hat whi l e exhi bi t i ng an et hnogr aphy of
t he wor l d beyond t hey l ook ver y much l i ke t he soci al mi l i eu
of Br azi l i n t he f i r st hal f of t he 20t h cent ur y) .

75
Al t hough we saw above t hat f or Kar deci st s a good psychogr aphed t ext
i s t he one t hat conveys a message i n conf or mi t y wi t h t he doct r i ne,
r egar dl ess of t he si gnat ur e – whi ch i s nonet hel ess ver y i mpor t ant f or
t he pur poses of t hi s wor k.

96
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHAPTER 3 – KARDECI ST AUTOMATI C WRI TI NG I N THE LI GHT
OF SCHOLARSHI P


1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er

I n t hi s sect i on an anal ysi s of Kar deci st aut omat i c
wr i t i ng wi l l be made accor di ng t o schol ar l y di scussi on on
t he t heme. I t shoul d be poi nt ed out t hat r esear ch on
Kar deci smi s compar at i vel y scar ce.
A f i r st maj or di vi si on i n t hi s ar ea r el at es t o t he
di vi si on bet ween r el i gi ous and pr of ane aut omat i c wr i t i ng,
of whi ch onl y t he f i r st concer ns us ( al t hough dat a on t he
l at t er can pr ove usef ul , as wi l l be seen) . Many f eat ur es
f ound by r esear cher s not concer ned wi t h Kar deci sm at al l
wi l l appl y t o Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng, st r ongl y
suggest i ng t hat a speci al t ype of per sonal i t y i s mor e
pr one t o t hat ki nd of r el i gi ous out put .

97
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as hypnot i c phenomenon

By compar i son t o ot her r el i gi ous t ext s, Kar deci st
r epor t s ar e qui t e open i n descr i bi ng t he vi si onar y
pr ocesses t hemsel ves, and t aki ng i nt o account t he f act
t hat we have some ki nd of i dent i f i cat i on bet ween t wo
aut hor s ( t he “r eal ” and t he “supposed” or spi r i t ual one) ,
we shoul d assess t he medi umni st i c exper i ences hi t her t o
descr i bed i n t er ms of possessi onal phenomena as def i ned by
schol ar s. A good st ar t i ng poi nt woul d be Zar et sky and
Shambaugh’ s st udy
1
. Accor di ng t o t hese aut hor s, t her e ar e 5
essent i al t r ai t s t o def i ne medi umni st i c/ spi r i t ual
possessi on:

1. The i ndi vi dual becomes si ck or ent er s a di ssoci at i ve
st at e by means of sever al i nduct i ve t echni ques ( Chi co
Xavi er di d not become si ck hi msel f but had t he power f ul
exampl e of hi s si st er ’ s exper i ence - al t hough of a
di f f er ent nat ur e - as wel l as wi t nessi ng hi s mot her ’ s
deat hbed t al k) ;
2. Hi s behavi our can be r ecogni zed as di f f er ent f r om
t he habi t ual one;
3. Thi s behavi our i s at t r i but ed t o a ki nd of cont r ol
exer ci sed by some ext er nal agent ( t hi s bei ng an expl i ci t
cl ai m of al l Br azi l i an Kar deci st psychogr aphi c l i t er at ur e,
al t hough i n di f f er ent degr ees accor di ng t o each case) ;
4. Thi s agent i nspi r ed t he i ndi vi dual t o act i n a
cer t ai n f ashi on, havi ng “ent er ed” hi m ( anot her cl ai m of
Chi co Xavi er and al l medi ums) ;
5. Thi s agent communi cat es an under st andabl e message.

1
I r vi ng Zar et sky and Cynt hi a Shambaugh ( eds. ) . Spi r i t Possessi on and
Spi r i t Medi umshi p i n Af r i ca and Af r o- Amer i ca: an Annot at ed
Bi bl i ogr aphy. Gar l and Ref er ence Li br ar y of Soci al Sci ence. New Yor k /
London: Gar l and Publ i shi ng, 1978. P. xi i .

98
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




The above can be hel d as t r ue f or t he exper i ences
hi t her t o descr i bed wi t hout us havi ng t o deal wi t h t he
aut hent i ci t y of t he phenomenon: t he medi ums accept
spont aneousl y ( or , i n a f ew per sonal obser vat i ons, when
asked) t he i t ems above. We coul d speak wi t h a good degr ee
of cer t ai nt y, t hen, of Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng as
const i t ut i ng a PT t ype exper i ence ( al t hough i n Br azi l i an
r el i gi ous j ar gon t hi s woul d be accept ed onl y r el uct ant l y
by many Kar deci st s, f or t he t er m “possessi on” has st r ong
Af r o- r el i gi ous over t ones, t o be avoi ded as a mat t er of
pr i nci pl e by Kar deci st s) . Possessi on wi l l be di scussed
bel ow; f or t he moment suf f i ce i t t o say t hat , f ol l owi ng
t he above di st i nct i ons, Chi co Xavi er had bot h PT and pl ai n
T ( some ki nds of communi cat i ng wi t h spi r i t s i nvol ve
t r ance, ot her s do not ; t r ance does not aut omat i cal l y i mpl y
i n possessi on by spi r i t s)
2
.
Zar et sky and Shambaugh go f ur t her i n def i ni ng t he
st ages of t he PT i t sel f , agai n f i ve i n t ot al :

1. The pr evi ous pr epar at i on ( bat hs, l i bat i ons and so
on; no ment i on of i mmedi at e use of t hem i s made i n t he
t ext s consul t ed or i n t he sessi ons obser ved, al t hough
peace of mi nd, sexual abst i nence or avoi dance of cer t ai n
f oods and al cohol on t he day of t he séance ar e somet i mes
t o be kept ; “ext er nal ” i nducement t echni ques ar e
condemned as bel ongi ng t o “l esser ” spi r i t s and, as such,
ar e t o be avoi ded by t he medi um) ;
2. The ecst asy- i nduct i on t echni ques;
3. Possessi on i t sel f ;

2
Er i ka Bour gui gnon. “The sel f , t he behavi or al envi r onment , and t he
t heor y of spi r i t possessi on” i n: Mel f or d E. Spi r o ( ed. ) . Cont ext and
Meani ng i n Cul t ur al Ant hr opol ogy. New Yor k: Fr ee Pr ess, 1965. Pp. 40
and 42.

99
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. The end of t r ance;
5. The af t er - ef f ect s of t r ance ( t i r edness, i l l - bei ng and
so on)
3
.

I t shoul d be not ed t hat t he concept of possessi on does
not i ncl ude t he f acul t y of t r ansmi t t i ng any hi ghl y
coher ent or even sophi st i cat ed message ( al t hough t hi s i s a
mai n i ssue i n Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng) . I n f act we can
obser ve, i n Kar deci st séances, t he odd appear ance of
unwant ed, base spi r i t s who have t o be deal t wi t h, ki ndl y
but f i r ml y, by a mor e exper i enced medi um avai l abl e. I n no
case obser ved or hear d of di d t hese possesi onal non-
wr i t i ng ent i t i es l ead t o any wr i t t en t est i mony of what
t hey wer e doi ng at t he wr ong t i me and pl ace. PT l eadi ng t o
aut omat i c wr i t i ng seems t o i nvol ve t he capaci t i es of t he
medi um t o a hi gh degr ee, when cont r ol of a coher ent
message i s of hi gh i mpor t ance whi l e at t he same t i me
usual l y obt ai ned ( i . e. t he medi um al most al ways get s a
message r el at ed t o hi s/ her i nner mot i vat i ons t o st ar t t he
pr ocess i t sel f ) .
I t shoul d al so be poi nt ed t hat , f ol l owi ng a pat t er n
al r eady obser ved f or PTs out si de t he Br azi l i an Kar deci st
mi l i eu, t he aut omat i c wr i t er ’ s PT i s al most al ways a
publ i c happeni ng ( i . e. t her e ar e mor e wi t nesses t o i t )
4
. I t
i s al so r emar kabl e t hat cl ose exami nat i on of t he spi r i t s
por t r ayed r eveal s a symbol i c concept i on of t he soci et y

3
Zar et sky and Shambaugh, op. ci t . p. xi v.
4
Bour gui gnon, Rel i gi on, Al t er ed St at es of Consci ousness and Soci al
Change, p. 15. Thi s woul d not hol d t r ue t o some per sonal r epor t s of
ver y f ew peopl e who cl ai med t o have ver y pr i vat e and sol i t ar y
aut omat i c wr i t i ng exper i ences ( and who wer e Kar deci st s) . I t woul d be
r easonabl e t o i nf er , however , t hat t he pr epar at or y pr ocess t o be
di scussed bel ow was t he same i n f amous, dat ed séances such as t he ones
f r om t he Par naso de al ém- t úmul o and t o t he anonymous, r ecl use- t ype
ones, si nce t he i deal s of l i f est yl e ar e f ai r l y si mi l ar among
pr act i t i oner s i nt er vi ewed and no chemi cal ASC- i nduci ng t echni que was
ever f ound among any of t hem.

100
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



wher e t he phenomenon t akes pl ace and as such i s
i ndependent of t he vi si onar y pr ocesses i nvol ved
5
. The above
wor ki ng as st ar t i ng def i ni t i ons r egar di ng ASCs r el at ed t o
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, l et us t ake a l ook at moder n oper at i ve
def i ni t i ons of t he i ssue. I t can be def i ned as scr i pt s
pr oduced wi t hout t he cont r ol of t he consci ous sel f
6
or as
wr i t i ng t hat i s done wi t hout t he wr i t er bei ng consci ous of
what he i s wr i t i ng, or even occasi onal l y of t he act of
wr i t i ng i t sel f
7
. Ot her s vent ur e t hat aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s
t o be under st ood as a phenomenon of di ssoci at ed
consci ousness i n whi ch t he wr i t er f eel s hi s hand gui ded by
some myst er i ous f or ce, i n some cases bei ng awar e of what
i s bei ng wr i t t en, i n some havi ng amnesi a
8
. A mor e pr eci se
cont empor ar y def i ni t i on cl ai ms t hat aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s
t he scr i pt t hat t he wr i t er pr oduces i nvol unt ar i l y and i n
some i nst ances wi t hout bei ng awar e of t he pr ocess,
al t hough he may be i n an al er t waki ng st at e, and gener al l y
i s so
9
.
The st at e i n whi ch t he aut omat i c wr i t er i s i s al so ver y
i mpor t ant . Besi des t her apeut i c ( i . e. psychol ogi st s’ ) use
of t he pr act i ce, i t al most al ways i mpl i es an ASC ( at l east
one aut hor af f i r mi ng t hat t he di ssoci at i on pr oduced by
aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s an ASC i n i t sel f )
10
. Thi s does not
pose any pr obl em si nce i n ant hr opol ogi cal l i t er at ur e

5
Thi s i s qui t e obvi ous when one t hi nks about Nosso l ar . Bour gui gnon’ s
concl usi on r egar di ng t hi s i ssue means t hat peopl e l ess apt t o change
t hei r l i ves i n t he mat er i al wor l d t end t o do so i n di ssoci at i ve
st at es; see Bour gui gnon’ s Rel i gi on, Al t er ed St at es of Consci ousness
and Soci al Change, p. 24.
6
Nandor Fodor . “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng” i n: Encycl opaedi a of Psychi c
Sci ence. London: Ar t hur Pr ess, 1933. P. 19.
7
I an St evenson. “Some comment s on aut omat i c wr i t i ng”, J ASPR 72 ( 4) ,
1978. P. 316.
8
Br i an Ear l e and Fr eder i ck W. Theye. “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as a
psychi at r i c pr obl em”, PQS 42( 2) , 1968. P. 218.
9
Ani t a Mühl . Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng. An Appr oach t o t he Unconsci ous. New
Yor k: Gar r et t / Hel i x, 1964. P. 4.
10
I d. i bi d.

101
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t r ance and spi r i t possessi on ar e al so consi der ed
di ssoci at i ve st at es
11
.
I n anot her sense i t al so i mpl i es how t he aut omat i c
wr i t er sees hi msel f r egar di ng t he wr i t i ng pr ocess, as we
saw i n t he l ast chapt er . Fr om t he poi nt of vi ew of t he
f i nal pr oduct - t he psychogr aphed book - gr eat er
i mpor t ance seems t o be at t ached t o t he act ual wr i t er t han
t o t he spi r i t ual one
12
. As a r ul e, t he Kar deci st
psychogr apher i s wi l l i ng t o emphasi ze t hat

1. He i s i gnor ant of t he cont ent of t he messages
conveyed ( t he mor e sophi st i cat ed or supposedl y
sophi st i cat ed t he message and t he gr eat er t he i gnor ance of
t he medi um, t he mor e val ued i t i s)
2. Fact ual conf i r mat i on shoul d be r eadi l y avai l abl e
whenever possi bl e ( t hi s i s especi al l y desi r abl e when i t
comes t o pol i t i cal st at ement s or t o t he l ocat i ng of f or mer
pl aces, al t hough Chi co Xavi er was par t i cul ar l y unhappy
about t he f i r st )
3. Doct r i nal conf i r mat i on i s al ways mor e
i mpor t ant t han i t ems 2 and 3 i n Kar deci st aut omat i c
wr i t i ng; i f t he i dent i t y of t he spi r i t ual aut hor i s t he
mai n i nt er est f or t he aut hor of t hi s t hesi s, mor e t han one
Kar deci st i nt er vi ewed woul d st r ess t he i r r el evance of t he
i ssue and t hat i f a message i s sound i n t er ms of Kar deci st
doct r i ne, t he i dent i t y of t he communi cat i ng spi r i t i s
of secondar y i mpor t ance.

We have al so seen t hat f or Kar deci st s t he wr i t i ng
medi umcan be cl assi f i ed i n 3 cat egor i es, accor di ng t o t he
degr ee of sel f - consci ousness i nvol ved i n t he wr i t i ng

11
Bour gui gnon, “Sel f ”, p. 39.
12
Lui z E. Soar es. “O aut or e seu dupl o”, RS 4, 1979. P. 132.

102
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



pr ocess - mechani cal , semi mechani cal or i nt ui t i ve. Recent
dat a on t he t heme by a gr oup of cl i ni cal r esear cher s
i ndi cat es t hat , i n a gr oup of 110 Kar deci st s f r om São
Paul o, Br azi l , 77, 2% cl ai med t o be consci ous dur i ng t he
whol e pr ocess of psychogr aphy, psychophony or possessi on;
18, 9% decl ar ed t hemsel ves t o be semi consci ous and onl y
3, 7% woul d say t hey wer e unconsci ous of what was
happeni ng
13
. Tr ansl at ed t o t he Kar deci st cat egor i es t hi s
means t hat 2/ 3 of t he i nt er vi ewed consi der t hemsel ves as
aut omat i c wr i t er s of t he i nt ui t i ve t ype ( as such wi t h no
sci ent i f i c i nt er est , due t o t he i mpossi bi l i t y of
separ at i ng cl ear l y what i s i nt er nal t o t he wr i t er and what
may be ascr i bed t o out si de, spi r i t ual sour ces) . 18, 8%
woul d f i t i n t he same cat egor y of Chi co Xavi er , i . e. semi
mechani cal ( keep par t i al consci ousness of what t hey ar e
goi ng t hr ough)
14
. To t hi s st r at i f i cat i on f ol l ows anot her ,
whi ch i s coher ent t o i t : when asked i f t hey coul d cont r ol
t hei r medi umshi p, 63% sai d t hat t hey al ways di d, 31, 1%
t hat t hey usual l y di d and 5, 5% r ar el y or ever cont r ol l ed

13
The r est answer ed t hat t hey had never under gone any exper i ence of
t he t hr ee l i st ed. Cf . Paul o J . Negr o et al i i . “Do r el i gi ous medi umshi p
di ssoci at i ve exper i ences conf or m t o t he soci ocogni t i ve t heor y of
di ssoci at i on?”, J TD 3( 1) , 2002. Pp. 57- 61. Anot her quest i onnai r e
i nvol ved a mor e gender - f ocused appr oach ( cf . Kei t h M. T. Hear ne. “A
quest i onnai r e and per sonal i t y st udy of sel f - st yl ed psychi cs and
medi ums”, J SPR 55( 816) , 1989, whi ch r emi nds us of t he f act t hat
psychi c power s may be a means of expr essi on t o peopl e ot her wi se shor t
of t hem, such as women, i n sever al soci et i es ( f ol l owi ng Lewi s’
suggest i on) .
14
One i mpor t ant obser vat i on t o be made i s t hat i t l ooks ver y r i sky t o
consi der t he out put of Chi co Xavi er as one si ngl e bl ock of t ext s
wr i t t en t hr ough t he same f or mul a and havi ng equal val ue t o t he
r esear cher ; i t seems t o me t hat , as t i me went by and Xavi er became
mor e and mor e i mpor t ant ( and as a consequence devot i ng mor e t i me
t o char i t y wor k) hi s t ext l oses t he or i gi nal i t y and f r eshness of t he
f i r st decade and have as cont ent mor e and mor e commonsensi cal l or e
and ever yday wi sdom. Al t hough t hi s r el at es t o t hei r cont ent and not
t o t he pr epar at or y pr ocess i t sel f , i t al so means t hat t he supposedl y
st r i ki ng f eat ur es of t he spi r i t s of t he deceased and much l ess
per cept i bl e i n t hose l ast 300 books and t hi s i n t ur n may mean t hat
t hei r cont ent owes mor e t o Xavi er ’ s own per sonal i t y t han t o
medi umni st i c communi cat i on at t ai ned vi a pr epar at i ons.

103
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i t ( t aki ng us r oughl y t o t he same pr opor t i ons about
awar eness of t he wr i t i ng pr ocess i t sel f )
15
.
The r esear ch above t ackl es a ver y i mpor t ant i ssue f r om
t he poi nt of vi ew of Kar deci st s, - but r egar dl ess of how
t hey f eel about t hei r own exper i ences, f r omt he sci ent i f i c
poi nt of vi ew t her e has al ways been an i mpor t ant quest i on
as t o t he mot or and/ or psychol ogi cal backgr ound of
aut omat i c wr i t i ng
16
( t hi s poi nt i ng t o t he di f f i cul t
quest i on about how much, i f at al l , a symbol i c act i vi t y as
wr i t i ng can be done wi t hout t he awar eness of t he subj ect ) .
And as ear l y as t he 1920’ s di scussi ons r egar di ng t he r ol e
of r ecol l ect i on of memor i es i n t he f i nal pr oduct of
aut omat i c wr i t er s was t aki ng pl ace
17
, as wel l as t o how
much non- ver bal associ at i ons ar e i mpor t ant f or t he
aut omat i c wr i t er s
18
. I n t he l ast decade of t he ni net eent h
cent ur y, aut omat i c wr i t i ng coul d be seen as st r i ct l y mot or

15
Negr o et al i i , i dem. Concer ni ng chi l d abuse and heal t h as i mpor t ant
t o t he f or mat i on of t he psychi c, no di st i nct i ve f eat ur e coul d be
f ound - f or t he f i r st , 89, 9% of t hose i nt er vi ewed di d not ment i on any
abuse dur i ng chi l dhood, and 91, 4% no abuse af t er becomi ng adul t s. Al l
t he peopl e exami ned consi der ed t hei r own heal t h as good, ver y good or
excel l ent ( Negr o et al i i , op. ci t . p. 61) . On t he ot her hand, t he f act
t hat t he t ext s pr oduced by Kar deci st s vi a aut omat i c wr i t i ng ar e so
var i ed, t he case f or Chi co Xavi er bei ng ver y speci al can be pushed
f or war d and r el at ed t o bot h hi s f ai l i ng heal t h and hi s chi l dhood
unhappi ness as wel l . I t i s al so ast oni shi ng t hat Negr o’ s t eam of
r esear cher s di d not f i nd any r el at i on what soever bet ween t r ai ni ng and
medi umshi p ( Negr o cl ai ms no cur r ent r el i gi ous af f i l i at i on but was
r ai sed as a Kar deci st , and so shoul d have known bet t er ) . For me t hi s
i s i n t he ver y cor e of t he pr obl em, and any cl i ni cal obser vat i on
shoul d t ake i nt o account t he l engt hy and sophi st i cat ed t r ai ni ng needed
t o become a successf ul Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t er , i t sel f par t of t he
pr epar at or y pr ocesses.
16
Wi l ma Kout st aal . “Ski r t i ng t he abyss: a hi st or y of exper i ment al
expl or at i ons of aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n psychol ogy”, J HBS 28( 1) , 1992.
P. 5.
17
Cf . Mor t on Pr i nce. “An exper i ment al st udy of t he mechani sm of
hal l uci nat i ons”, BJ P 2, 1922. P. 165 f f .
18
Even a r el at i vel y scept i cal schol ar as Mor t on Pr i nce knows onl y t wo
ki nds of aut omat i c wr i t er , f r omt he poi nt of vi ew of t he pr oduct i on -
t hose who r emai n unconsci ous dur i ng t he pr ocess and t hose who get
i deas r el at ed t o t he i ssues bei ng wr i t t en, but not i n ver bal i zed
f or ms. Appar ent l y i t di d not occur t o hi m t hat t he wr i t er s mi ght be
put t i ng down i mpr essi ons ( i nt er nal or spi r i t ual ) i nt ui t i vel y, not
f ol l owi ng a di ct at i on. Cf . Kout st aal , op. ci t . p. 6.

104
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



and havi ng not hi ng t o do wi t h t he subconsci ous
19
( but t hen
t hi s may be due t o t he t hen smal l amount of concept ual
appar at us r ef er r i ng t o ot her aspect s of t he human mi nd
ot her t han t he consci ous l evel ) . A mor e pr omi si ng pat h ( we
shal l r et ur n t o i t on i t em 4 of t hi s chapt er ) i s t he l i nk
bet ween memor y and aut omat i c wr i t i ng, especi al l y as
r el at ed t o “cr i pt omnesi a” ( t he abi l i t y t o r ecal l t hi ngs
r ecor ded at a subconsci ous l evel )
20
.
But i f we ar e deal i ng wi t h semi mechani cal or pur el y
mechani cal aut omat i c wr i t er s i t i s r easonabl e t o assume
t hey ar e al l i n some ki nd of ASC, or di ssoci at i ve st at e,
and t hat many of t hose quot ed r epor t si mi l ar sensat i ons t o
t hat f el t by Chi co Xavi er - a heavy ar m and el ect r i cal
i mpul ses f l owi ng t hr ough i t
21
. One pat i ent of Ani t a Mühl
r epor t ed a si mi l ar sensat i on, el ect r i c vi br at i ons
t hr oughout t he whol e body: soon af t er she began wi t h
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, cl ai mi ng t o r ecei ve l et t er s f r om her
dead husband
22
.
So f ar we have been deal i ng wi t h aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n
myst i cal cont ext s, si nce we ar e t r yi ng t o el uci dat e
aspect s of apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e; but i t i s al so ver y
i mpor t ant i n t he t her apeut i c uni ver se, st r i pped of
myst i cal cont ent by t he anal yst , by t he pat i ent or bot h.
Thi s may be cl ar i f yi ng si nce i t account s bot h f or a gr eat
deal of schol ar shi p on aut omat i c wr i t i ng t o day and may
shed l i ght on t he under l yi ng pr ocesses t hemsel ves.


19
Wi l l i am R. Newbol d. “Exper i ment al i nduct i on of aut omat i c
pr ocesses”, PsyR. 2( 4) , 1895. P. 358.
20
St evenson, op. ci t . p. 319.
21
See above, p. 96; St evenson r epor t s t he same sensat i ons wi t h t he
i mpr essi on t hat someone el se i s gui di ng t he ar m ( op. ci t . p. 317) .
Newbol d r epor t s t he st r ange case of A. B. who, r euni t ed wi t h ot her
medi ums, f el t a vi ol ent movement i n hi s l ef t ar m but t he mot or
di st ur bance t r ansf er r ed i t sel f t o t he r i ght si de ( op. ci t . pp. 358- 362) .
22
Mühl , Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng, p. 42.

105
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. 1. Non- myst i cal aut omat i c wr i t i ng
Under t hi s headi ng we shal l be r ef er r i ng essent i al l y t o
t he use of aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n a cl i ni cal cont ext , ei t her
f or cur i ng ment al di st ur bances, f or eval uat i ng supposedl y
myst i cal pr ocesses or even t o i nvest i gat e cr i mes.
The mai n i dea under l yi ng al l wor k i n t hi s ar ea i s t hat
aut omat i c wr i t i ng may be a wi ndow f or t he subconsci ous,
unl eashi ng i nf or mat i on about i ssues t oo di f f i cul t t o
handl e on a consci ous l evel , or t oo super f i ci al t o be
r ecal l ed by i t . As such, i t had among i t s gr eat est
t heor et i ci ans Ani t a Mühl and Mi l t on Er i ckson ( t he l at t er
f amous f or wor k on hypnosi s) . I n t he l ay sense t hat
aut omat i c wr i t i ng get s done i n t hi s cont ext , ever y per son
i s capabl e of i t - t he si mpl est f or m of t he phenomenon
bei ng t he r andom dr awi ngs most of us ar e used t o doi ng
whi l e on t he phone and wi t h pen and paper at hand
23
.
Exampl es abound wher e aut omat i c wr i t i ng was used t o
uncover hi dden psychol ogi cal pr ocesses. A f amous case i n
some aspect s evocat i ve of Chi co Xavi er i s descr i bed by
Er i ckson and Kubi e: an under gr aduat e 20 year s ol d
devel oped a phobi a of l eavi ng door s open, wi t h a si de
sympt om of hat r ed f or cat s. Vi a t he use of aut omat i c
wr i t i ng ( i n whi ch she was i nt er est ed and came t o
under st and i n schol ar l y t er ms) i t was f ound out t hat when
she was t hr ee she woul d l eave door s open i n def i ance of
her f at her , and her gr andf at her t ol d her a scar y st or y
about a mouse bei ng hunt ed by a cat
24
. Par t of her sympt oms
woul d be t he devel opment of a secondar y per sonal i t y, t hat

23
I dem, p. 5.
24
Mi l t on H. Er i ckson and Lawr ence S. Kubi e. “The per manent r el i ef of
an obsessi onal phobi a by means of communi cat i ng wi t h an unsuspect ed
dual per sonal i t y”, PQ 8, 1939. Pp. 471- 509.

106
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



of “Mr s. Br own”, a gui di ng and pr ot ect i ng spi r i t i n some
ways si mi l ar t o t he Emmanuel of Chi co Xavi er
25
.
Ot her exampl es coul d be gi ven, but i t woul d t ake us t oo
l ong and f ar away f r om t he mai n i ssues. Suf f i ce i t t o say
t hat , under mor e or l ess cont r ol l ed ci r cumst ances i n a
t her apeut i cal envi r onment aut omat i c wr i t i ng can be
pr oduced even by peopl e wi t h no myst i cal i ncl i nat i ons, and
can be used as a means of scr ut i ni zi ng t he subconsci ous.

2. 2. Wr i t i ngs i n ot her l anguages
Among Kar deci st t ext s t he occur r ence of messages i n
l anguages ot her t han t hat of t he act ual wr i t er i s
r el at i vel y r ar e; on t he ot her hand wr i t i ngs i n ar chai c
st yl e, supposedl y f r om spi r i t s of t he deceased t hat have
al l egedl y l i ved i n a t i me mat chi ng t he wr i t t en st yl e ar e
f ai r l y common. These occur i n Xavi er ’ s f i r st poem book,
and i n ot her cont ext s many exampl es coul d be gi ven.
One of t he most f amous i s t hat of “Pat i ence Wor t h”, t he
spi r i t of a sevent eent h- cent ur y Engl i shwoman t hat woul d
appear t o a humbl e St . Loui s housewi f e cal l ed Pear l Cur r an
i n t he f i r st decades of t he 20t h cent ur y
26
. She woul d put
down her communi cat i ons i n ar chai c Engl i sh, whi ch some
woul d at t r i but e t o t he knowl edge of di al ect s, ot her s t o
t he gui di ng spi r i t i t sel f . Today, most r esear cher s woul d
consi der her case as a ver y speci al one of secondar y
per sonal i t y
27
. An associ at ed phenomenon woul d be t hat of

25
One must keep guar d, however , r egar di ng cases l i ke Er i ckson’ s
st udent - st er eot ypy occur s not onl y i n r el i gi ous ci r cl es but al so i n
t her apeut i c ones; i t i s qui t e possi bl e t hat she sai d, consci ousl y or
not , what Er i ckson woul d l i ke t o hear . The expl anat i on f i t s
def i ni t el y i n a psychoanal yt i cal f r ame.
26
For a f ul l r epor t on t he case ( t hat once gener at ed ver y heat ed
ar gument s) see I r vi ng Li t vag. Si nger i n t he Shadows: t he St r ange St or y
of Pat i ence Wor t h. New Yor k: MacMi l l an, 1972.
27
St evenson, “Some comment s”, op. ci t . p. 319. Anot her case i s
r epor t ed by Newbol d, op. ci t . p. 361 wher e one spi r i t i n a séance
cl ai med t o have l i ved bet ween 1629 and 1685: i mmedi at el y B.

107
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



composi ng i n t he name of deceased musi ci ans, l i ke t he case
of Rosemar y Br own i n t he ear l y Sevent i es of t he l ast
cent ur y; but t he l at t er i nvol ves a degr ee of t r ai ni ng i n
musi cal not at i on and t heor y
28
.
Ani t a Mühl , possi bl y t he r esear cher who di d most on t he
subj ect of aut omat i c wr i t i ng, cl ai ms t hat

Many mor e t hi ngs ar e r ecor ded by us t han we have any
i dea of ever bei ng awar e of - t hi ngs r ead but not
under st ood ( f or i nst ance, seei ng a f or ei gn l anguage
f l ashed on a scr een, or Hebr ew, Chi nese or Egypt i an
symbol s whi ch ar e ut t er l y unf ami l i ar ) ; t hi ngs hear d but
r ej ect ed ( especi al l y t he hear i ng of obsceni t i es and
vul gar phr ases) or t hi ngs sensed i n any way but
appar ent l y not not i ced
29
.

Thi s i s t r ue even f or t he dul l est of exi st ences,
l eadi ng Mühl t o asser t t hat “i t i s no wonder t hat al most
anyt hi ng mi ght come out of anybody”
30
. Anot her cl i ni cal
case r ef er s t o a pat i ent speaki ng i n t he anci ent I t al i an
di al ect , Oscan. One exampl e of t hi s Fi f t h- cent ur y l anguage
has been pr eser ved i n a pl umb r ol l named “The cur se of
Vi bi a”, whose t ext mat ched per f ect l y t he l anguage t hat t he
pat i ent spoke. Under hypnosi s, he r eveal ed t hat a l ong
t i me bef or e he was i n a l i br ar y and someone near was
r eadi ng Oscan, pr eci sel y f r omt he “Cur se” page
31
. Thi s ki nd
of cr ypt omnet i c r escui ng of r emembr ances i s aki n t o past
l i ves’ exper i ences, as we shal l see bel ow.

( anot her pat i ent ) began t o wr i t e i n ar chai c Engl i sh, whi ch he knew.
Cases such as t hi s pose many si mul t aneous pr obl ems - how medi umshi p
can be “cont agi ous” and how i t i s of t en di f f i cul t t o separ at e bet ween
pr evi ous, consci ous knowl edge and subconsci ous memor i es.
28
Al t hough i t i s al so an escape f r om a dul l exi st ence, i n t hi s case
f l eei ng t o t he wor l d of cl assi cal composer s. Cf . Rosal i nd Heywood.
“Not es on Rosemar y Br own”, J SPR 46, 1971. P. 215.
29
Mühl , Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng, op. ci t . pp. 8- 10 f f .
30
I d. i bi d.
31
J udi t h Mar r i ot t . “Hypnot i c r egr essi on and past l i ves t her apy:
f ant asy or r eal i t y?”, AJ CHH 5 ( 2) : 65- 72, 1984. P. 67

108
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Anot her exampl e of such abi l i t y i s appar ent i n a case
f r omt he begi nni ng of t he t went i et h cent ur y. Ol i ver Lodge,
a f amous cl assi ci st and f r i end of a wel l - known schol ar i n
t he f i el d, Fr eder i ck Myer s, was wi l l i ng t o pr ove t hat he
coul d est abl i sh communi cat i on wi t h t he spi r i t of t he
l at t er af t er he di ed
32
. Lodge went so f ar as t o engage
Myer s’ spi r i t i n a l ong di scussi on on t he meani ng of t he
wor d l et he, i n whi ch t he “spi r i t ” gave l ong and
sophi st i cat ed answer s. The psychi c, Mr s. Wi l l et t , knew a
bi t of Vi r gi l ( t he mai n i ssue i n di scussi on bet ween Lodge
and t he spi r i t ) , but di d not have enough schol ar shi p as t o
gi ve t he answer s Lodge t r anscr i bes
33
. But t he case i s not
as wel l subst ant i at ed as Lodge woul d have i t , and one
wonder s i f i t i s not wi shf ul t hi nki ng.
Thi s woul d be especi al l y i mpor t ant f or t he case of
Chi co Xavi er , who, as we saw, al ways st r essed hi s
wi l l i ngness t o r ead what ever he coul d on any subj ect , and
has been seen r eadi ng dynami cal l y at a bl i ndi ng pace. The
ot her l i nk est abl i shed by Mühl , t hat t he mechani sm by
whi ch appar ent l y such i ncompr ehensi bl e i nf or mat i on as
f or ei gn and anci ent l anguages ar e st or ed i n an
subconsci ous memor y i s si mi l ar t o t hat by whi ch many
t r aces cont r ar y t o t he nat ur e of t he medi um can be
devel oped ( obsceni t i es, st r ange sexual behavi our et c. ) .
Thi s i s a f eat ur e i n many of Xavi er ’ s epi sodes, as we
shal l see bel ow.

32
Myer s hi msel f wr ot e qui t e a l ot on psychi c phenomena, i ncl udi ng one
ar t i cl e cal l ed “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng: t he daemon of Socr at es” ( PSPR 5:
522- 547, 1889) , wher e t he per si st ence of psychi c phenomena i n hi st or y
i s di scussed.
33
Ol i ver Lodge. “Evi dence of cl assi cal schol ar shi p and of cr oss-
cor r espondence i n some new aut omat i c wr i t i ngs”, PSPR 25, 1911. Pp. 123-
124; 145.

109
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Mul t i pl e- per sonal i t y phenomena and aut omat i c
wr i t i ng

Ther e can be an essent i al si mi l ar i t y bet ween aut omat i c
wr i t i ng and t he phenomenon of mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es, bot h
i n r el i gi ous- or i ent ed pr act i ce and i n l ay, t her apeut i c
cont ext s
34
. Bot h have t he common t r ai t t hat t he act ual
r ol e- pl ayer pr esent s hi m/ her sel f as someone el se, t hi s
i nvol vi ng possessi on or not , accor di ngl y
35
. The way t o
handl e t he occur r ences i s qui t e var i ed and pl ays a gr eat
par t i n t he vi si onar y pr ocess i t sel f , i n my opi ni on.
A ver y el ement ar y ef f or t i n pr oduci ng mul t i pl e
per sonal i t i es under cont r ol l ed condi t i ons was t r i ed as
ear l y as 1942, wi t h a compl et e “r eci pe” bei ng gi ven
36
.
These exper i ment s wer e r epeat ed and t he r esul t s t he same,
on mor e t han 50 di f f er ent occasi ons. Most r esear cher s
poi nt t o t he i dea t hat mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es phenomena
ar e a di st i nct i ve t r ace of ment al di sease, or of ser i ous
psychol ogi cal t r oubl e
37
; we shal l not go i nt o t hat but , f or
t he cul t ur al anal yst t hi s does onl y make sense i f t he

34
The t heme has been t hor oughl y i nvest i gat ed i n t he quot ed wor ks of
Ani t a Mühl , i n Ear l e and Theye’ s ar t i cl e and al so i n Er nest Hi l gar d.
Hypnot i c Suscept i bi l i t y. New Yor k: Har cour t , Br ace & Wor l d, 1965.
35
Theodor e Sar bi n and Ver non Al l en. “Rol e t heor y” i n: Gar dner Li ndzey
and El l i ot t Ar onson ( eds. ) . The Handbook of Soci al Psychol ogy. Vol . 1.
Readi ng, Mass. / London: Addi son- Wesl ey, 1968. Pp. 489 f f .
36
Phi l i p L. Har r i man. “The exper i ment al pr oduct i on of some phenomena
r el at ed t o mul t i pl e per sonal i t y”, J ASP 37, 1942. Pp. 245- 246. I t i s
i mpor t ant t o not e t hat on t he one hand t he “r eci pe” i nvol ves a good
hypnot i c subj ect and on t he ot her pr oduces di smal r esul t s - not at al l
r esembl i ng Xavi er ’ s ki nd of t ext s or , f or t hat mat t er , even t hose of
Pat i ence Wor t h or of ot her case- st udi es descr i bed by Mühl . Har r i man
st at es t hat he never f ound wr i t i ngs devoi d of meani ng, a r edundant
af f i r mat i ve bei ng wr i t i ng a cul t ur al ( i . e. meani ngf ul ) act i vi t y by
def i ni t i on.
37
So Mühl , Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng, p. 132 ( wi t h t he obser vat i on t hat
i nvol unt ar y expr essi on, of whi ch aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s a pecul i ar case,
can be associ at i ve when i t l eads t o sat i sf act or y adj ust ment and
di ssoci at i ve when not ) ; by t he same aut hor , “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as an
i ndi cat i on of t he f undament al f act or s under l yi ng t he per sonal i t y”,
J AP 17, 1922. P. 16 f f . ; Er nest Hi l gar d. “The hi dden obser ver and
mul t i pl e per sonal i t y”, I J CEH 32( 2) , 1984. P. 250.

110
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



f i nal out put l eads t o mal adj ust ment
38
. Thus, i n
psychoanal yt i cal t er ms a secondar y per sonal i t y ( or
mul t i pl e ones) may be t he f i nal r esul t of deep
di ssoci at i ons, whi ch i n t ur n expr ess compul si ons and
obsessi ons
39
, and al t er nat i ng of per sonal i t i es may make t he
i ndi vi dual unr el i abl e f or hi msel f and soci et y
40
.
I t al so t ur ns out t hat t he per sonal i t i es t hat emer ge
can be ut t er l y opposed t o t he or di nar y, consci ous one
( t hi s wi l l pr ove t o be t he case of Chi co Xavi er , as we
shal l see) . So cont r ar y t o t hem t hese t endenci es
cr yst al l i zi ng i n secondar y per sonal i t i es may be t hat t he
i ndi vi dual qui t e l ogi cal l y at t r i but es t hem t o an ext er nal
agent , most commonl y a spi r i t
41
. The pr ocess may al so i mpl y
i n t he f or mat i on of cr i mi nal or per ver t ed secondar y
per sonal i t i es, showi ng pol ymor phi c sexual i nst i nct s
42
. Thi s
becomes ast oni shi ngl y cl ear i n a r epor t of a hol i day t r i p
t aken by Chi co Xavi er wi t h some f r i ends: i t const i t ut es
i mpor t ant t est i mony about hi s per sonal devot i on t o t he
Kar deci st cause and pr ovi des f r esh i nsi ght i nt o t he i ssue
of t he l i nks bet ween mul t i pl e per sonal i t y i dent i t i es and
aut omat i c wr i t i ng.

[ Af t er a busy day] The t hr ee f r i ends di ned and went t o
a r oom. They chat t ed [ . . . ] They wer e r eady f or a
r easonabl y t r anqui l sl eep when Chi co suggest ed some
pr ayer . Emmanuel woul d mani f est hi msel f [ . . . ] Chi co’ s
voi ce changed. [ . . . ] Soon af t er , he became qui et and
gave way t o a ser i es of ghost s. Al l used and abused
Chi co’ s body
43
.


38
I . e. f ol l owi ng El i ade’ s i dea t hat t he shaman i s, above al l , someone
who acqui r ed t he gi f t of heal i ng ot her s by f i r st heal i ng hi msel f ; t hi s
coul d t r ut hf ul l y be sai d of Chi co Xavi er .
39
Mühl , Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng, pp. 18- 19.
40
I dem, p. 25.
41
I dem, p. 10.
42
Mühl , “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as an i ndi cat i on”, p. 168
43
For t he whol e sequence, cf . Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . pp. 107- 109.

111
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The f i r st vi si t or was t he spi r i t of a shi p capt ai n sunk
by a Fr ench buccaneer of f t he Br azi l i an coast , i n 1810. He
was mad gi vi ng or der s t o t he gunmen, mour ned hi s cr ew, wi f e
and chi l dr en ki l l ed i n t he event and compl ai ned about
Napol eon:

How can t hi s be gent l emen? I l oved gener al Napol eon so
dear l y. How coul d he become such a vul t ur e? He who
f ought f or t he i deal s of equal i t y, f r at er ni t y and
l i ber t y. . .

Ver y commonsensi cal and yet ver y much t o t he t ast e of
Enl i ght enment i nspi r ed vi si onar i es l i ke Kar deci st s. But
mor e was t o come.

Chi co’ s voi ce woul d become wai l i ng, mor e acut e or
si bi l ant , st r onger and gent l er . He woul d cr awl , j ump,
cont or t and have t he f ace mar ked by sudden st r okes.
Al one, he gave bi r t h t o unbel i evabl e char act er s.
Thr ough hi s mout h a ‘ j udge’ negot i at ed unf ai r
sent ences agai nst pol i t i cal pr est i ge. Fr anci scan monks
r emember ed t he good t i mes when t hey engaged i n or gi es
and ki l l ed t he guest s i n t hei r cl oi st er t o r ob t hem
[ . . . ]
The ugl y st or i es came one af t er t he ot her : newbor ns
wer e ki dnapped i n t he senzal as [ sl aves’ house i n
Br azi l ] , t or t ur ed and sacr i f i ced i n sat ani c r i t ual s.
Femal e sl aves wer e r aped by t hei r owner s. Chi co
i ncar nat ed al l t hose cr eat ur es i n a maddeni ng
monol ogue.

Hi s f r i ends t r i ed t o cal m hi m down, but t o no avai l :
one of t he most desper at e vi si t or s was

a sl ave ki l l ed by f l ayi ng [ . . . ] Hi s cr i me: t o
suppl i cat e t o t he head of t he Fr anci scans t hat hi s
daught er Ani nha woul d not be t aken t o t hei r or gi es
[ . . . ] For t hr ee ni ght s, t he r oombecame t he st age of
ot her wor l dl y t r agedi es. Ther e [ . . . ] Chi co of f er ed a
t ast e of what he used t o do i n t he weekl y and pr i vat e
desobsessi on séances [ . . . ] Those wer e hi s hol i days.

112
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




I n t hi s except i onal l y dense descr i pt i on, many f eat ur es
descr i bed bef or e i n t he chapt er ar i se. Fi r st of al l , t he
al t er nat i on of voi ce, t one and f aci al expr essi on t hat
accompani ed ever y new spi r i t . Secondl y, t he per ver t ed
char act er of t he st or i es t ol d - some wi t h ver y sor di d
det ai l
44
. Thi r dl y, t he sexual pol ymor phi sm ( pr esent
al r eady i n t he st or y t ol d t hat Xavi er had been, i n
anot her i ncar nat i on, Fl avi a, wi f e of Emmanuel i n t he dr ama
of Há 2000 anos at r ás. . . )
45
. Thi s shoul d i ncl ude t r adi t i onal
Kar deci st at t acks on t he Chur ch of cour se ( t he monks bei ng
cr i mi nal s i n at l east t wo such st or i es) . Apar t f r om havi ng
spi r i t ual exi st ence or not , t he char act er s pr esent i n
Xavi er ’ s hol i day ni ght s f i t ver y wel l i ndeed wi t h what ever
wor k has been assessed on mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es and
possesi onal phenomena, and al so f i t t he pi ct ur e of hi s
dysf unct i onal f ami l y backgr ound. Thi s does not i mpl y t hat
t he epi sodes wer e f al se or made up, but mer el y t hat t he
medi um i s, by t he above l i st ed f act or s, pr edi sposed t o see
t hem; one coul d even speak of a pr epar at or y pr ocess so
compl et e as t o ent ai l a ki nd of “r e- educat i on” when
deal i ng wi t h possessi on
46
. Last l y, al t hough t her e i s no
hi nt t hat Chi co Xavi er ’ s par ade of secondar y per sonal i t i es
was i nst i gat ed by pr ayer , t he whol e epi sode began af t er
pr ayi ng - not enough t o concl ude t hat i t act ed as an
i nducer , but somet hi ng whi ch cannot be di smi ssed.
Even r esear cher s sympat het i c t o t he r eal i t y of
par anor mal phenomena ar e wi l l i ng t o concede t hat t he

44
Cf . above, p. 96.
45
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 65.
46
Thi s i s t he poi nt of vi ew expr essed by Pi er r e Ver ger r egar di ng
possessi on i n Af r o- Br azi l i an cul t s. Cf . “Not es sur l e cul t e des Or i sa
et Vodun a Bahi a, l a Bai e de t ous l es Sai nt s au Br esi l et a 1’ anci enne
Cot e d’ Escl aves en Af r i que”, MI FAN, Dakar , 1957.

113
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



secondar y per sonal i t i es emer gi ng may be f al se ( al t hough
conveyi ng par anor mal knowl edge)
47
.
I t i s agr eed by al l r esear cher s consul t ed on t he mat t er
t hat t her e i s some r el at i on bet ween di ssoci at i ve st at es
( of whi ch mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es ar e a par t i cul ar case,
and aut omat i c wr i t i ng a by- pr oduct of i t i f i t i s not
at t r i but ed t o t he subj ect hi msel f ) and i nt er nal conf l i ct s,
especi al l y i f t hey go back t o ear l y chi l dhood
48
. I n one
ext r eme cl i ni cal case, t hat of Mi ss X, 7 secondar y
per sonal i t i es devel oped, one bei ng t hat of t he pr ost i t ut e
Anne McGui nni s - and anot her , Vi ol et 2, qui t e capabl e of
wr i t i ng per ver se det ect i ve st or i es, somet hi ng i mpossi bl e
f or t he pat i ent her sel f
49
.
Regar di ng t he act i ve use of senses i n aut omat i c
wr i t i ng, i t appear s t hat al l possi bi l i t i es pr esent
t hemsel ves - Chi co Xavi er havi ng at t he same t i me vi sual
and/ or audi t or y hal l uci nat i ons and ot her s bei ng consci ous
dur i ng onl y par t of t he pr ocess
50
.
Peopl e who have t he abi l i t y t o wr i t e aut omat i cal l y may,
i n shor t , al so have an abi l i t y t o devel op secondar y
per sonal i t i es t o each of whose di f f er ent at t r i but es,
st yl es and even handscr i pt ar e at t r i but ed. Thi s does not
mean t hat ever y aut omat i c wr i t er has sever al
per sonal i t i es, but t hi s i s t he case t hat most i nt er est s us
her e bot h r egar di ng Kar deci st s l i ke Chi co Xavi er and
anci ent apocal ypt i ci st s wr i t i ng i n t he name of someone
el se t han t hemsel ves. The t ype of per sonal i t y pr one t o

47
St evenson, “Some comment s”, p. 321.
48
Hi l gar d, “The hi dden obser ver ”, op. ci t . p. 250. I t shoul d be poi nt ed
out t hat at l east one schol ar ( Mühl ) at t r i but es t he devel opment of
aut omat i sm as pr oduci ng t he di ssoci at i ve st at e, and not t he ot her way
r ound ( cf . Mühl , “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as an i ndi cat i on”, p. 166) .
49
Mühl , “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as an i ndi cat i on”, pp. 170- 178.
50
So t he case descr i bed by Mor t on Pr i nce, wher e a pat i ent coul d
descr i be i n l oud voi ce t he hal l uci nat i on she was havi ng ( because i t
was on a consci ous l evel ) but t he wr i t i ng r egar di ng i t was aut omat i c.
Cf . Pr i nce, op. ci t . p. 170.

114
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



di ssoci at i on t o t he l evel t hat a whol e di f f er ent char act er
pops up has been t er med “FPP”, or “f ant asy- pr one
per sonal i t y”
51
. Thi s deser ves cl oser exami nat i on.
The exper i ment t hat or i gi nat ed t he t er m FPP was
conduct ed i n a gr oup of 27 women, excel l ent hypnot i c
subj ect s, wi t h a cont r ol gr oup of 25 t hat wer e not .
I nt er vi ews concent r at ed on memor i es of adul t s and
chi l dr en, f ant asi es and psychi c ( myst i cal ) exper i ences.
Al l but one of t he good hypnot i c subj ect s had an i nt ense
f ant asy l i f e t hat , i n t ur n, f ed t hei r hypnot i c
per f or mance
52
. Al l t he subj ect s had hi gher educat i on ( wi t h
2 except i ons) and t hei r age var i ed f r om19- 63.
Fr om t he or i gi nal 27, t he r epor t coul d be summar i zed
t hus: al l but one had an i nt ense make- bel i eve l i f e si nce
chi l dhood, t al ki ng t o dol l s and t oy ani mal s ( t he cont r ol
gr oup di d t he same j ust when pl ayi ng, not al l t he t i me) .
I n t he mai n gr oup most al so bel i eved i n angel s,
l epr echauns et c. , si nce chi l dhood, and t he ones who came
f r om hi ghl y dysf unct i onal homes ( l i ke t hat of Chi co
Xavi er ) woul d have J esus or God as t hei r compani on
53
. And
l i ke Chi co Xavi er t hey devel oped mechani sms t o cope wi t h
t he pot ent i al danger s of such si t uat i ons, l i ke aski ng
nei ghbour s i f t hey wer e al so seei ng t he same t hi ngs
54
.
Fr om t he or i gi nal gr oup i t was f ound out t hat 70% had
been encour aged t o f ant asi ze by an i mpor t ant adul t f i gur e,

51
The t er m was f i r st used, as f ar as I know, i n Sher yl C. Wi l son and
Theodor e X. Bar ber ’ s now cl assi cal ar t i cl e of 1983 ( “The f ant asy-
pr one per sonal i t y: f or under st andi ng i mager y, hypnosi s, and
par apsychol ogi cal phenomena” i n: Anees A. Shei kh ( ed. ) . I mager y:
Cur r ent Theor y, Resear ch and Appl i cat i on. New Yor k: Wi l ey, 1983) .
52
I dem, p. 340.
53
I dem, pp. 345- 347.
54
Thi s becomes cl ear i n t he advi ce gi ven t o Chi co Xavi er t o anot her
f amous medi um, Lui z Gaspar et t o ( speci al i zed i n pai nt i ng i n t he name of
f amous deceased ar t i st s l i ke Van Gogh et c. ) . I n an i nt er vi ew bet ween
t hem bot h i n 1976, Xavi er exhor t ed Gaspar et t o t o educat e t he spi r i t s
and gi ve t hem a dai l y al l owance of t i me, and st i ck t o i t . Cf . Sout o
Mai or , op. ci t . pp. 195- 196.

115
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



by 3 mai n channel s: r eadi ng st or i es, pr ai si ng t he chi l d’ s
make- bel i eve or t r eat i ng t he chi l d’ s t oys as i f t hey wer e
r eal
55
( t he quest i on r emai ns i f most adul t s do not do t hi s
wi t h chi l dr en; I woul d say t hat mor e f act or s ar e i nvol ved
and wer e not t aken i nt o account on t he exper i ment - l i ke
who was t he adul t i n each case? Di d t hi s per son pl ay make-
bel i eve out of “nor mal ” pl ayi ng t i mes? Di d he / she
i ncar nat e t he char act er s of st or i es? An af f i r mat i ve
quest i on t o t hi s must be put i n t he case of Chi co Xavi er ,
i f we go back t o hi s mot her ’ s deat h- bed t al k - ver y
i mpr essi ve and r eal i st i c, and by t he most si gni f i cant
f i gur e a chi l d can have dur i ng ear l y chi l dhood) .
Among t he 27 of t he mai n gr oup, 16 had a l onel y
chi l dhood ( agai nst j ust 1 i n t he cont r ol ) ; of t hose 9 had
i magi nar y f r i ends. Agai n 9 i n t he mai n gr oup agai nst ni l
i n t he cont r ol al l egedl y had di st ur bances i n ear l y
chi l dhood, whi ch i ncl uded ser i ous physi cal abuse, a mot her
t hat had had ser i ous emot i onal t r oubl es or had l ef t home,
domest i c i nst abi l i t y or var i ous combi nat i ons of t he
f act or s above
56
. As many as 9 among t he mai n gr oup st ar t ed
ar t i st i c act i vi t i es bet ween 2- 4 year s ol d, and woul d
f ant asi ze whi l e pr act i si ng t hemf or at l east t he f ol l owi ng
12 year s. 65% of t he mai n gr oup cl ai m t o see as wel l wi t h
eyes open or shut
57
.
However , t he mai n char act er i st i c of t he FPP gr oup
r egar di ng r ol e- pl ayi ng ( i . e. r el at ed t o mul t i pl e
per sonal i t i es and/ or aut omat i c wr i t i ng) i s t hat 64% of

55
Wi l son and Bar ber , op. ci t . p. 349. Peopl e havi ng f ant asi es wi t h t hi s
i nt ensi t y have t ol er ance f or t he di st or t i on of r eal i t y, and al l
ki nds of hal l uci nat i ons have been f ound i n t hese cases - i ncl udi ng
t al ki ng ani mal s et c. . Thi s i s what i s i mpl i ed i n t he t er m “t r ance
l ogi c” quot ed by Hi l gar d, Hypnot i c Suscept i bi l i t y, op. ci t . p. 9.
56
I d. i bi d. Cont r ast t hi s pi ct ur e wi t h t he one gener at ed by Paul o
Negr o’ s t eam, above.
57
I dem, p. 352. Thi s may be an i mpor t ant f act or consi der i ng t he
account s we have about apocal ypt i ci st s’ vi si ons bei ng at ni ght , or
dr eam- l i ke. The boundar y may be mor e bl ur r ed t han i t seems.

116
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t hem occasi onal l y pr et end t o be someone el se j ust as t hey
di d when chi l dr en; whi l e pr et endi ng, t hey woul d be so
absor bed i n t he r ol e- pl ayi ng as t o l ose awar eness of t hei r
r eal i dent i t y
58
. Thi s may al so account f or t he sur pr i si ngl y
hi gh per cent age of FPPs cl ai mi ng t o have had psychol ogi cal
pr egnancy ( 60%)
59
.
Rol e- pl ayi ng and l osi ng i dent i t y wi t h someone el se may,
as aut omat i c wr i t i ng, have t o do wi t h memor y r ecal l
accor di ng t o Wi l son and Bar ber ’ s st udy. 96% of t he FPPs
agai nst 4% i n t he cont r ol gr oup def i ne t hei r own memor i es
as abnor mal l y shar p; t hi s means t hat when r ecal l i ng t hey
t ypi cal l y br i ng t he past exper i ence i nt o pr esent t i me and
space. Ver y f ew of t hem f or got t hi ngs whi ch had happened
i n ear l y chi l dhood, and 24 i n t he mai n gr oup r emember
t hi ngs bef or e t hei r t hi r d year ( agai nst 3 i n t he cont r ol
gr oup) ; i n t he FPPs 8 r emember t hi ngs whi ch happened
bef or e t hei r f i r st year
60
. Thi s i s of t he ut most
i mpor t ance, si nce i t i s memor y t hat war r ant s t he i nt egr i t y
of per sonal i t y, and l oss of i t ( common i n hypnosi s) can
l ead t o enact ment of r ol es usual l y non- accessi bl e t o t he
subj ect
61
. I t i s an appar ent cont r adi ct i on t hen t hat
excel l ent hypnot i c subj ect s ar e, i n t hi s i nvest i gat i on,
al so FPPs and have good r ecal l at t he same t i me. I t coul d
be t hat t he capaci t y t o r ecal l i s one and t he same
r egar dl ess of t he ver aci t y of t he f act r emember ed - i . e.
t he hypnot i st can suggest t he r eal i t y of memor i es f or
event s t hat di d not happen; t he hypnot i zed subj ect can

58
I dem, p. 354.
59
I dem, p. 358.
60
I dem, p. 356.
61
Hi l gar d, Hypnot i c Suscept i bi l i t y, p. 208.

117
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



al so acqui r e ot her r ol es and f ul f i l t hemaccor di ng t o what
i s expect ed f r omhi m/ her i n each case
62
.
To concl ude t he st at i st i cs, 50% i n t he mai n gr oup have
f el t t he sensat i on t hat someone was usi ng t hem t o wr i t e a
poem, song or message; 6 i n t he mai n gr oup ( agai nst ni l i n
t he cont r ol ) have had i mpor t ant r el i gi ous exper i ences i n
t he f or m of vi si ons. 2/ 3 of t he mai n FPP gr oup bel i eves
t hat has t he power of heal i ng, and cl ai m t o have
est abl i shed cont act wi t h spi r i t s or ghost s ( agai nst 16% i n
t he cont r ol gr oup)
63
. The FPPs have had, t hr oughout t hei r
l i ves, many exper i ences si mi l ar t o hypnosi s, and seem t o
l i ve i n a wor l d ver y si mi l ar t o t hat suggest ed t o t hem by
t he hypnot i zer
64
; but t he mai n i ssue her e i s t hat out of
t he 27 FPPs onl y 4 can be cl assi f i ed as havi ng adj ust ment
pr obl ems
65
. Thi s means t hat FPPs way of deal i ng wi t h
r eal i t y may be much mor e r easonabl e and f unct i onal t han
one mi ght t hi nk at f i r st si ght .

62
I dem, pp. 8- 10. Cf . al so Thomas Sar bi n. “Cont r i but i ons t o r ol e-
t aki ng t heor y: I . Hypnot i c behavi or ”, PR 57, 1950. Ci t . by Hi l gar d,
Hypnot i c Suscept i bi l i t y, p. 10.
63
Wi l son and Bar ber , op. ci t . pp. 362- 363.
64
I dem, p. 375.
65
I dem, p. 366.

118
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng as possessi on

I n Kar deci st t er ms, ambi gui t y ar i ses as t o t he
cor r ect ness of cal l i ng t he aut omat i c wr i t i ng phenomenon
“possessi on” : Kar dec hi msel f r ef used t o accept i t i n t he
begi nni ng of hi s car eer but adopt ed i t l at er
66
. Chi co
Xavi er hi msel f cl ai ms expl i ci t l y never t o have i nvoked
spi r i t s, but at t he same t i me we saw above t hat he di d not
ascr i be t he wr i t i ngs t o hi msel f ( but r at her he f el t out of
hi s body, f eel i ng el ect r i ci t y f l owi ng and so on) .
I n t hi s sense, we must r emember t hat “possessi on”
cannot be under st ood as a synonym f or “ecst asy”, and
const i t ut es a cul t ur al expl anat i on f or a di ssoci at i ve
phenomenon t hat may have causes ot her t han possessi on by a
spi r i t
67
. The spi r i t , be i t Humber t o de Campos, Emmanuel or
Andr é Lui z, r emai ns someone di f f er ent f r om Chi co Xavi er
( t her e i s no per manent conf usi on of i dent i t i es bet ween
t hem, no mat t er how of t en t he medi um may r ef er t o a gi ven
spi r i t as a hel per , assi st ant or t he ki nd) .
As par t of t he consi der at i ons r egar di ng possessi on i n
t hi s chapt er I woul d f i r st l y l i ke t o st r ess t hat , whi l e
put t i ng so much emphasi s on t he Kar deci st pr epar at or y
pr ocesses as l ong- t er m cul t ur al appr ent i ceshi p, I do not
i nt end t o deny t he val ue of l ear nt pat t er ns of accept abl e
behavi our and per f or mance. I t i s r at her as a di dact i cal
r esour ce t hat one shoul d separ at e t he t wo i ssues, whi ch
ar e never consi der ed as such by t he act or s t hemsel ves.
A good exampl e of t he above i s t he sur pr i si ng admi ssi on
of a schol ar such as Fel i ci t as Goodman of t he f eel i ng t hat
over came her whi l e doi ng f i el d wor k i n a Pent ecost al

66
Cont r ast hi s posi t i on i n t he Book of t he spi r i t s 473 ( 1857) t o t hat
of t he ar t i cl e publ i shed i n SR, December 1863.
67
Wi l son, Pr ophecy, pp. 32- 34; Bour gui gnon, Rel i gi on, Al t er ed St at es
of Consci ousness and Soci al Change, p. 12.

119
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



communi t y i n Mexi co: al t hough a ver y di f f er ent mi l i eu f r om
Kar deci st cent r es, she al so “l ear nt ” t he behavi our
expect ed and di d not go on wi t h i t onl y because her
pr evi ous t r ai ni ng i n anot her di sci pl i ne. Mi l i eu and t opoi
( t hose of t he schol ar ) woul d gi ve no r oomt o i t
68
. The same
happened t o Di ana Br own whi l e under goi ng r esear ch on Af r o-
Br azi l i an cul t s dur i ng t he 1980’ s
69
.
Thi s means t hat on one hand t he t r ai ni ng of t he medi um
i t sel f conf or ms t o cer t ai n t opoi ; on t he ot her , t he
cul t ur al her i t age of t he medi um makes hi m/ her adher e t o a
cer t ai n choi ce of char act er s, messages, st yl es ( put i n
t hei r own t er ms, “gi f t s”) .
I n compar i son t o t he amount of descr i pt i on of
ecst asi es, descr i pt i on of possessi ons i s mor e r ar e
70
. I t i s
commonpl ace i n Kar deci sm, al bei t somet i mes i n a pej or at i ve
way, t o happen séances of “di sobssessi on” of peopl e t hat
ar e possessed by evi l spi r i t s bei ng qui t e nor mal . Some of
t he phenomena descr i bed by Chi co Xavi er , however , ar e
unmi st akabl y possesi onal ( e. g. t he one wi t h t he Fi r st
Wor l d War Ger man nur se, Shei l l a, who pr ogr essi vel y
possessed one of Chi co’ s f ol l ower s)
71
. Thi s may be due t o
pr ogr essi ve secul ar i zat i on of t he soci et i es anal yzed, or
( mor e l i kel y) t o t he f act t hat possessi on gener al l y
i nvol ves amnesi a ( al so an expl anat i on as t o how t o avoi d
t he embar r assment caused by “subver si ve” or t r anssexual
spi r i t s) . I t shoul d be not ed t hat whi l e anci ent and
medi eval cases i nvol ve t he devi l hi msel f wi t h gr eat

68
Goodman, Speaki ng i n Tongues, pp. 71- 73.
69
Umbanda: Rel i gi on and Pol i t i cs i n Ur ban Br azi l . Ci t . by Hess,
Spi r i t s and Sci ent i st s, p. 174.
70
Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t . p. 12. I n t hi s r espect a gr eat deal of t he
anal ysi s pr ovi ded her ei n owes t o Oest er r ei ch’ s cl assi cal wor k.
Deepl y i nt er est ed i n t he phenomenon of possessi on, he changed f r om
an i ni t i al Posi t i vi st poi nt of vi ew t o a Neo- Pl at oni c one, convi nced
as he became of t he si ncer i t y of t he possessi on account s ( al t hough
he r ej ect ed a spi r i t ual expl anat i on unt i l t he end) .
71
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 141.

120
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



f r equency, i n moder n case st udi es i t i s gener al l y t he
spi r i t of t he deceased t hat t ake hol d of t he vi ct i m- t hi s
bei ng pr obabl y r el at ed t o a di l ut i ng of t he bel i ef s i n t he
r eal i t y of t he devi l
72
.
I n t he West er n wor l d account s of possessi on can be
f ound f ai r l y easi l y i n t he New Test ament ( e. g. Mk 12: 24;
43; 3: 22; 5: 2- 10; Lk 11: 14- 26; 8: 26- 39; Mt 7: 28- 33; mor e
at At 19: 13- 16; Mk 1: 23- 27; 9: 17- 27; Mt 17: 14- 21; Lk 9: 35-
45; Mt 12: 22; Lk 13: 10- 13. I n t he Ol d Test ament Saul ’ s
case i s possi bl y t he best known ( 1Sm 18: 10 f f . ) ; J osephus
gi ves a det ai l ed account of an exor ci sm i n AJ 8. 2.
Possessor s ar e cal l ed pneu/mata and t he f act t hat t he
descr i pt i ons gi ven mat ch what can be assessed t oday vi a
psychol ogy of r el i gi on, means we ar e deal i ng wi t h
aut hent i c t r adi t i ons
73
( al t hough t he expl anat i ons gi ven
t hen and now ar e obvi ousl y qui t e di f f er ent ) .
A medi umwi l l i ng t o t al k about hi s ASC exper i ences such
as Chi co Xavi er woul d f i t ver y wel l i n t he t hr ee mai n
char act er i st i cs of possesi onal phenomena as devi sed by
Oest er r ei ch: he acqui r es a new physi ognomi c appear ance,
( even mor e so when Emmanuel speaks t hr ough hi m, and t hi s
i n t ur n i s r el at ed t o mul t i pl e- per sonal i t y) , a new voi ce,
and t he l at t er cor r esponds t o t he f i r st ( i . e. new
physi ognomy = new voi ce) . Thi s i s even t r uer when we
t hi nk about t he embar r assment caused by an Ar gent i nean
woman on Xavi er , when she want ed t o mar r y hi m( i ndeed, she
was enr apt ur ed by Emmanuel )
74
.

[ Af t er t he séance] One of t he women pr esent , daught er
of t he Ar gent i nean ambassador , l ost her mi nd. She had
f ound t he man of her l i f e [ . . . ] She cl ung t o t he

72
Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t . p. 26.
73
I dem, pp. 3- 4.
74
I dem, pp. 17- 21.

121
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



medi um’ s ar m and di d not l oosen i t . When Chi co ent er ed
i n t he hal l of passes [ a ki nd of Kar deci st bl essi ng] ,
she went af t er hi mand, t o assur e pr i vacy, t ook t he key
i n her pocket [ . . . ] Chi co t r i ed t o escape
[ . . . ] sayi ng, ‘ My dear I have no mar r i age pl ans. I am
not wor t hy of t hi s and woul d onl y br i ng you
unhappi ness. You f el l i n l ove wi t h Emmanuel , not wi t h
me [ . . . ] ’
75

Bei ng f i l l ed wi t h t he i dea t hat he was bei ng possessed,
Xavi er coul d wel l have behaved i n a manner consi st ent wi t h
hi s bel i ef and devel oped a f ul l - scal e macho appear ance
when possessed by Emmanuel , whi l e af f ect i ng no i nt er est i n
sex i n hi s dai l y l i f e.
Fol l owi ng anot her t hr ead i n t he di scussi on, i t coul d
al so be t hat cul t i vat i ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng devel ops even
f ur t her t he di ssoci at i ve t endenci es expr essed f ul l y i n
spi r i t possessi on. St audenmai er di d t hi s mor e or l ess
consci ousl y; t he boy Fr i t z, al so st udi ed by Oest er r ei ch,
woul d be anot her case. I t i s r emar kabl e t hat whi l e
St audenmai er cul t i vat ed per sonal i t i es of gr andi ose
char act er s, Fr i t z di d not wi t h have such i n r egar d t o hi s
backi ng spi r i t “Al gar ” - but nonet hel ess he had
daydr eami ng wher e he, t he shy ner d, was a gr eat
char act er
76
.
Thi s i s ost ensi bl y absent i n Chi co Xavi er wr i t i ngs, but
i s a mai n f eat ur e of Kar deci sm ( many, i f not most
bel i ever s cl ai mi ng t o have been somet hi ng ver y speci al i n
t he past - pr ef er abl y a Chr i st i an mar t yr or a sl ave
owner ) . To t hese assumpt i ons Xavi er al ways gave mocki ng
answer s - r egar di ng t he supposed mar t yr s, he woul d say
t hat he was j ust a f l ea on t he l i ons i n t he Roman ar ena
77
.
Nonet hel ess, i t was common t al k t hat i n hi s next

75
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 97.
76
I dem, p. 57 f f . ; pp. 72- 75.
77
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 65.

122
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i ncar nat i on he woul d swap pl aces wi t h Emmanuel and Xavi er
hi msel f even j oked at t hi s wonder i ng i f hi s pr esent mast er
woul d be abl e t o t ake t he same puni shment when t hey had
swapped chai r s
78
.
Al t hough i t i s al ways di f f i cul t t o t al k i n gener al
t er ms about possessi on i n Kar deci sm ( si nce i t i s usual l y
t he mar k of backwar d spi r i t s and medi ums) , i t i s
r easonabl e t o i nf er t hat t hi s i s pr esent whenever t her e i s
a change i n i dent i t i es ( such as happens wi t h t he poet s’
book, Par naso de al ém- t úmul o) . Resear cher s mor e
sympat het i c t o t he spi r i t ual expl anat i on wi l l say t hat t he
col l abor at i on of di f f er ent mi nds t o t he f i nal pr oduct does
not i mpl y possessi on ( i t has been expl ai ned as due t o
t el epat hy, f or exampl e) . The anal ogy bet ween an or chest r a
and i t s conduct or has been pr oposed, wi t h hi dden
obser ver s, subsel ves and spi r i t s al l pl ayi ng a par t i n t he
f i nal medi umni st i c communi cat i on
79
.
A mor e scept i cal appr oach wi l l say t hat possessi on i s a
phenomenon qui t e si mi l ar t o sel f - t al k, whi ch ever y one of
us knows wel l
80
: t he bi g di f f er ence bei ng t hat her e i t goes
t o such l engt hs as t o pr omot e a compl et e di ssoci at i on and
gener at e separ at e ent i t i es i nsi de t he sel f , whi ch t he
medi um chooses t o cal l “spi r i t s” i n accor dance wi t h
hi s/ her bel i ef s. I t can al so gener at e ver y sophi st i cat ed
i nt er act i on wi t h knowl edge st or ed unconsci ousl y and abl e
t o be r ecal l ed under hypnosi s or sel f - hypnosi s ( t hi s bei ng
par t i cul ar l y t r ue when i t comes t o communi cat i ng i n
l anguages or al phabet s consci ousl y unknown t o t he
subj ect ) .

78
I dem, p. 235.
79
J oseph H. M. Whi t eman. “Dr eam and dr eaml i ke st at es seen as ki nds of
possessi on: i mpl i cat i ons f or medi umshi p, ESP and sur vi val ”,
J SPR 62 ( 852) , 1998. Pp. 408- 412 .
80
Oest er r ei ch, op. ci t . p. 65.

123
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Possessi on does not i mpl y vi ol ent t r ance, al t hough i t
does al ways i mpl y an ASC. On t hat , i t can al so be sai d
t hat i t i s al so a t echni que t hat can be l ear ned - Chi co
Xavi er had gr eat t r oubl e i n t he begi nni ng of hi s
medi umshi p r egar di ng t hi s i ssue, but as t i me went by he
devel oped ways t o di sci pl i ne bot h hi msel f and t he spi r i t s
as t o how much dai l y t i me he woul d devot e t o psychogr aphy,
as we saw. Thi s does not i ncl ude t echni ques f or l ear ni ng
t he cont ent of what i s bei ng wr i t t en - whi ch woul d have
mor e t o do wi t h memor y r ecal l vi a sel f - hypnosi s
81
. What
mat t er s her e i s t hat Xavi er woul d gi ve r ei n t o t hese
memor i es of dat a on al most ever y subj ect vi a possesi onal
phenomena ( a way of pr ot ect i ng hi msel f of cr i t i cs, but
al so danger ous i f copyr i ght i nher i t or s wer e st i l l al i ve as
i n t he Humber t o de Campos’ f ami l y epi sode)
82
.
I t must al so be poi nt ed out t hat one t hi ng i s a
Kar deci st bel i ever t r yi ng t o expl ai n possessi on i n t he
l i ght est and bl andest of ways and anot her i s t he schol ar ’ s
l ook: be i t vi ol ent or not , t he ASC under whi ch a medi um
l i ke Chi co Xavi er wr i t es down communi cat i ons f r om t he
beyond i s wel l descr i bed as a ki nd of possessi on, i f not
al l t he t i me, at l east at t he moment of put t i ng i t down i n
paper .

81
A f act wel l at t est ed by t he spi r i t of Emmanuel hi msel f ; cf . Sout o
Mai or , op. ci t . p. 54.
82
I dem, p. l l l .

124
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



5. Past - l i ves t her apy, hypnosi s and i dent i t y wi t h
past char act er s

Spi r i t ual , possessi onal i dent i t y wi t h past char act er s,
r el evant as t hi s may be bot h i n pseudepi gr aphy and
psychogr aphy, i t i s by no means l i mi t ed t o aut omat i c
wr i t i ng as a means by whi ch peopl e can t r ul y and
compl et el y i dent i f y t hemsel ves wi t h men and women who have
l i ved i n t he past . Past - l i ves t her apy, r egar dl ess of t he
shaky gr ounds on whi ch i t i s f or mul at ed, has gr own i n
i mpor t ance si nce t he 1960’ s and, due t o i t s wi despr ead
use, i t s appar ent si mi l ar i t y t o mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es and
i t s r el at i on t o hypnosi s deser ves t o be exami ned.
Thi s i s not t he pl ace t o dr aw a compl et e pi ct ur e of t he
hi st or y of t he doct r i ne of r ei ncar nat i on ( t o whi ch t he
bel i ef i n past l i ves i s al ways at t ached) , but r at her t o
expl or e some aspect s of i t t hat mi ght be usef ul . I t i s a
cor ner st one of Kar deci sm, as we saw above, and was wi del y
known i n t he Anci ent Wor l d as wel l ( Pl at o and Or i gen, t o
name but t wo f amous aut hor s, wer e wel l acquai nt ed wi t h
i t ) .
Li ke so many t hi ngs common t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng and
psychot her apy, past l i ves t heor y can be used as
t her apeut i c means or under st ood i n spi r i t ual t er ms ( i n t he
l at t er t he ef f ect wi l l al so be t her apeut i cal , i f pr oper l y
under st ood by t he subj ect ) . The whol e assumpt i on
under l yi ng i t i s t hat per sonal i t y t r ai t s, di seases, weal t h
or even ski n mar ks ar e at t r i but abl e t o what ever t he
subj ect has done i n t he past . As such, t he soul oper at es
pr et t y much l i ke a bank account , cont r i vi ng debt s,
acqui r i ng and r epayi ng l oans. Tr oubl e i s l i kel y t o ar i se
when unpai d debt s f r omone i ncar nat i on sur f ace i n anot her ;

125
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t hi s i s used bot h by Kar deci st psychi cs and by al t er nat i ve
psychot her api st s as a way of maki ng peopl e cope wi t h t hei r
own f ear s and anxi et i es and, i f possi bl e, get r i d of t hem.
The most common way t o get t o a subj ect ’ s supposed past
l i f e i s vi a hypnosi s. To cr i t i cs t hat cl ai m t hat t he i dea
of r ei ncar nat i on has no sci ent i f i c val ue, t her api st s adept
t o i t wi l l answer t hat al l t hat mat t er s i s t he pat i ent s’
t r eat ment , and i n t hi s sense i t i s i r r el evant t o know i f
t her e has ever been anot her l i f e such as t he pat i ent
descr i bes as t he cause of hi s/ her woes
83
. The met hod as
such has not hi ng speci al - i t j ust t akes f ur t her what
Fr eud and J ung began t o do, i . e. t o sear ch f or t he or i gi ns
of sympt oms i n t he ear l i est possi bl e r ecol l ect i ons.
What makes past l i ves t her apy so pecul i ar i s t hat i t
t akes t he sear ch beyond t he subj ect s’ pr esent l i f e
84
. Ot her
t her api st s suggest t hat one shoul d onl y r esour ce t o past
l i ves r egr essi on when envi r onment al or genet i c f act or s ar e
not enough
85
. The r esul t s ar e sur pr i si ngl y si mi l ar t o what
Chi co Xavi er achi eved i n hi s own séances - t o expl ai n t hat
one i s af r ai d of f i r e because he/ she di ed by i t i n a
pr evi ous l i f e, t he ot her has headaches because he/ she was
beheaded et c. . The l i st i s endl ess and t he r esul t s, ver y
coher ent .
Thi s i ndeed poses a pr obl em. Some aut hor s cl ai mt o have
f ol l owed as many as 1, 600 cases suggest i ve of
r ei ncar nat i on, wi t h t he consequence t hat t hi s may pr ovi de
a r i ght answer f or many phobi as r epor t ed by t he subj ect s
86
.

83
Mor r i s Net her t on and Nancy Shi f f r i n. Past Li ves Ther apy. Oxf or d:
Wi l l i amMor r ow, 1978. P. 16.
84
I dem, p. 18.
85
I an St evenson. “The expl anat or y val ue of t he i dea of r ei ncar nat i on”,
J NMD 164. 1977. P. 305.
86
I dem, p. 309. St evenson i s qui t e r i gor ous i n hi s t r eat ment of
evi dence, and yet sympat het i c t o t he whol e concept . One suggest i on he
gi ves i s t hat one subj ect may have memor i es t hat do not mat ch memor y
i mages - and st i l l be t r ue. Anot her aut hor t hi nks t hat t he medi um’ s

126
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



I t may wel l be, however , t hat past l i ves ar e gener at ed vi a
ment al pr ocesses qui t e si mi l ar t o aut omat i c wr i t i ng and
r el at ed phenomena ( sel f - t al k, possessi on, ot her
aut omat i sms) . The subj ect s’ i dea of havi ng been someone
el se and t he mat chi ng r emembr ances may be i nduced.
A r ecent exper i ment on t he i ssue consi st ed i n t aki ng 60
under gr aduat es and di vi di ng t hem i n 3 gr oups of 20,
hypnot i zi ng t hemand maki ng t hemgo back t o “past l i ves”
87
.
Gr oup A woul d l i st en t o t apes suppor t i ve of t he i dea;
gr oup B woul d have neut r al i nf or mat i on on t apes; and gr oup
C had i nf or mat i on cont r ar y t o i t , or even r i di cul i ng t he
whol e concept . The r esul t s obt ai ned show cl ear l y t he r ol e
of i nduct i on, wi t h a gr eat er pr opor t i on of past l i ves’
bel i ever s accor di ng t o t he ki nd of i nduct i on r ecei ved
88
.
Mor e i mpor t ant , under hypnosi s t he subj ect s coul d go ver y
f ar i n r egr essi on ( or i n pr ogr essi on t o t he f ut ur e) ,
wi t hout t hi s bei ng har d pr oof of t he val i di t y of t he i dea
of r ei ncar nat i on.
I n ot her exper i ment s a woman was made t o advance t o t he
age of 65, at a t i me when she was much younger t han t hat
89
;
and anot her r esear cher t ook t he t est even f ur t her i nduci ng
behavi our pr evi ous t o t he pr esent st age i n human
bi ol ogi cal evol ut i on: a subj ect was hypnot i zed t o go back

unconsci ous i s capabl e of sel ect i ng, f r om t he vast popul at i on i n
f r ont of i t , t he i nf or mat i on r equi r ed vi a t el epat hy and t hen
“dr amat i zes” i t as comi ng f r om t he dead. Cf . F. H. Cl eobur y. “The
t heor y of sel ect i ve t el epat hy”, J SPR 44( 737) , 1968. Pp. 326- 327.
87
Rober t A. Baker . “The ef f ect of suggest i on on past - l i ves
r egr essi on”, AJ CH 25 ( 1) : 71- 76, 1982. P. 71 f f .
88
I d. i bi d. So, gr oup A had 17 cases of past l i ves ( 15 r el at i ng mor e
t han 1 i ncar nat i on) , wi t h 3 r el at i ng ni l ; gr oup B had 12 ( 9 wi t h mor e
t han 1 i ncar nat i on) , wi t h 8 ni l ; and gr oup C had onl y 2 r epor t i ng
past l i ves ( 1 of t hese wi t h mor e t han one) , agai nst 18 r epor t i ng ni l .
Thi s does not pr ove t hat t he 18 coul d not have had t he exper i ence,
but r at her t hat , af t er suggest i on, wer e embar r assed t o r epor t - whi ch,
i n
t he end, mat ches t o r esear cher s i ni t i al assumpt i on t hat i nducement
f avor s or i nhi bi t s “past l i ves” exper i ences.
89
I dem, p. 72.

127
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t o hi s behavi our when he was 6 year s ol d, and f r omt hen on
t o ol der st ages. When asked by t he hypnot i zer who she was,
t he subj ect poi nt ed i n l et t er s t hat she was a chi mp ( f or
apes do not speak) . Si nce i t was t hen known t hat chi mps
woul d pani c at t he si ght of an ape or human head depr i ved
of t he body, t hi s was shown t o t he subj ect and a pani c
r eact i on f ol l owed - t hus concl udi ng t he exper i ment wi t h a
r eact i on t ypi cal of what an ape woul d di spl ay
90
.
Anyway, t he exper i ment s above show t hat t he i nducement
of “r ol e- pl ayi ng” can i ndeed pr ovi de t i me t r avel s and
exper i ences not accessi bl e t o an or di nar y i magi nat i on
( al t hough t hey coul d be possi bl y avai l abl e t o FPPs) . I t i s
al so t r ue t hat i t i s easi er f or subj ect s t o pr oduce
mat er i al r el at ed t o t hi ngs past t han t o t he f ut ur e ( f or
obvi ous r easons, si nce t he past i s wel l - document ed even
f or t he dumbest subj ect , wher eas i nsi ght s i nt o t he f ut ur e
have l ess gui dance)
91
.

90
Mi l t on V. Kl i ne. “A not e on pr i mat e- l i ke behavi or i nduced t hr ough
hypnosi s”, J GP 81, 1952. Pp. 126- 127. The whol e exper i ment has one
f l aw, however : chi mps cannot speak nor r ead - so t he poi nt i ng of
l et t er s i n answer i ng t he hypnot i zer ’ s quest i ons i s mor e compl ex and
shoul d not be t aken at f ace val ue ( l est t he hypnot i zer i s t o be
cr edi t ed wi t h bel i ef i n speaki ng ani mal s et c. - t hey ar e, as we saw, a
di st i nct i ve mar k of t he FPPs) . See al so f r omt he same aut hor “Hypnot i c
r et r ogr essi on: a neur o- psychol ogi cal t heor y of age r egr essi on and
pr ogr essi on”, J CEH 1: 21- 28, 1953. The most i mpor t ant r esear cher on
hypnosi s i n t he t went i et h cent ur y, however , ar gues based on evi dence
t hat suggest i bi l i t y i s an i mpor t ant f act or i n hypnot i zabi l i t y and
shoul d al ways be pr esent ( cf . Mi l t on H. Er i ckson “Hypnosi s: a gener al
r evi ew”, DNS 2: 13- 18, 1941) ; mor e r ecent appr oaches deny t hi s l i nk i n
non- cl i ni cal popul at i ons ( cf . J oseph Gr een. “Hypnot i zabi l i t y, t he
di ssoci at i ve exper i ences scal e, HGSHS: A amnesi a, and aut omat i c
wr i t i ng: i s t her e an associ at i on?”, I J CEH 45 ( 1) , 1997. P. 69) .
91
I n t hi s r espect i t shoul d be not ed t hat r el i gi ous t hemes t hat now
f or m par t of t r adi t i onal l or e ar e f avour i t e t hemes. Pear l Cur r an
wr ot e, i n t he same f ashi on of Chi co Xavi er , a novel based on t he
passi on of Chr i st ( A Sor r y Tal e, wher e Ti ber i us has, f eul l et i n- l i ke
j ust as i n Xavi er ’ s r omance, an i l l egi t i mat e son t o a Gr eek dancer .
Thi s boy l i ves a l i f e par al l el t o J esus and ends up as one of t he
t hi eves cr uci f i ed t oget her wi t h hi m) ; Net her t on and Shi f f r i n r epor t
f i ve cases of pat i ent s bei ng eyewi t nesses t o t he cr uci f i xi on but ,
amazi ngl y, none had an i mpor t ant r ol e on t he pl ot ( cont r ar y t o
Xavi er ’ s gui de, Emmanuel ) . See Past Li ves Ther apy, op. ci t . p. 160. I t
shoul d al so be poi nt ed out t hat , si nce chi l dhood, we ar e accust omed t o

128
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The t heme of past l i ves as a r epor t f r ompat i ent s under
t her apy i s al so r el at ed t o t he above- di scussed concept of
sel f - t al k. Bei ng an i mpor t ant f eat ur e t o keep ment al
st abi l i t y, sel f - t al k can be used as a f i r st i nduct i on t o
past l i ves r egr essi on and, i f a pat i ent sees hi s/ her
per sonal hi st or y as a di sast er ( as many wi l l do) , sel f -
t al k wi l l be damagi ng t o hi m/ her . Thi s l ooks l i ke a
ni ght mar e, i n whi ch t he subconsci ous cr eat es a hi deous
met aphor t o speak about i t sel f , accor di ng t o a schol ar
92
.
Bei ng i nduced t o an ASC wher e t her e i s f ul l awar eness of
t he cont ent of t he met aphor , t he psychot her api st may go on
wi t h t he t r eat ment
93
. And al t hough past l i ves t her apy i s an
exagger at i on i n t er ms of r et r ogr essi on, t echni ques f or
r egr essi on t o at t est ed, cur r ent l i f e past t i mes ar e al so
wel l known - and i nvol ve si mi l ar devi ces, such as
hei ght eni ng emot i ons of past moment s, al t er nat i ng cl ocks
and wat ches et c. . Cal l i gr aphi c anal ysi s may be empl oyed t o
see i f t he pat i ent has r eal l y r egr essed t o ear l i er t i mes
( e. g. i nf ancy)
94
.
To concl ude, one i mpor t ant r emar k on t he i ssue i s t hat ,
al t hough past l i ves and r ei ncar nat i on cannot be pr oved,
nei t her can psychoanal yt i cal concept s be - bot h j ust
pr ovi de nar r at i ve f r amewor ks t hat appar ent l y have
t her apeut i c val ue f or t he pat i ent . I t i s al so t o be

st or i es bei ng t ol d i n t he past t ense and t he f act t hat al l t hese cases
ar e i n some way par al l el t o J esus’ st or y but do not i nt er f er e wi t h t he
out come suggest t hat t hi s may be a devi ce t o make t he whol e epi sode
mor e aut hent i c, t o t he aut hor s and t o t he publ i c i n gener al .
92
Fr eder i ck Lander s. “Past l i ves t her apy: a met aphor f r om t he
subconsci ous”, AJ CHH 7 ( 1) , 1986. P. 19.
93
I dem, p. 21. Lander s i s al so sympat het i c t o t he past l i ves concept
( not as havi ng ont ol ogi cal val ue but as a t her apeut i cal t ool ) , and
ar gues t hat past l i ves ar e never 100% i nduced by hypnosi s, but r at her
a vol unt ar y f unct i on of t he pat i ent ’ s per sonal i t y. Suppor t i ve of t hi s
i dea i s t he f act t hat , out si de a cl i ni cal envi r onment , even FPPs do
not show si gns of ment al mal f unct i oni ng; cf . Rober t E. Bar t hol omew et
al . “UFO abduct ees and cont act ees: psychopat hol ogy or f ant asy
pr oneness?”, PP 22 ( 3) , 1991.
94
Wi l l i am Br yan. “The t echni ques of age r egr essi on, pr ogr essi on, and
t i me di st or t i on”, J AI H 15 ( 1) , 1974. Pp. 26- 30.

129
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



quest i oned whet her di smi ssi ve expl anat i ons ar e not abusi ve
i n r espect t o t he t housands t hat under go past l i ves
t her apy successf ul l y - t o assume t hat al l have ment al
dysf unct i ons may be t oo f ar - f et ched. The concept of FPP
l ooks f ai r er r egar di ng t he under st andi ng of t he ment al
compl exes under l yi ng t hi s par t i cul ar phenomenon of
i dent i t y wi t h someone el se i n t he past
95
.
One mai n i ssue i s al so t o be t aken i nt o consi der at i on:
al l t he exper i ment s under cont r ol l ed ci r cumst ances l i ke
t hose of Kl i ne or Mühl yi el ded ver y meagr e r esul t s
compar ed t o t he qual i t y, r ange and vol ume of Kar deci st
wr i t i ngs such as t hose of Chi co Xavi er or even t o t hose of
Pear l Cur r an. Al t hough i mpor t ant obser vat i ons mi ght have
been made r egar di ng t he r el at i ons bet ween hypnosi s,
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, mul t i pl e per sonal i t y and past l i ves,
t her e i s st i l l a ver y bi g gap bet ween schol ar ’ s
obser vat i ons i n l abor at or i es and what t he f ai t hf ul
exper i ence i n séances. The hypnot i zed, be i t a bel i ever i n
past l i ves exper i ences or not ( and t he same cr i t er i a
appl yi ng t o t he t her api st ) , wi l l acqui r e r ol es and per f or m
what i s expect ed f r om hi m/ her accor di ngl y
96
( t hus t he
i mpor t ance of Baker - l i ke i nduct i on exper i ment s) .

95
Mar i ot t , op. ci t . p. 68. J ust l i ke J ewi sh myst i cs see Moses and
Chr i st i an myst i cs see J esus ( f ol l owi ng Mar t ha Hi mmel f ar b’ s
suggest i on) , Fr eudi an pat i ent s have Fr eudi an dr eams and J ungi an
pat i ent s, J ungi an ones.
96
Hi l gar d, Hypnot i c Suscept i bi l i t y, op. ci t . p. 10.

130
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



6. Summar y

Summar i zi ng t he most r el evant i ssues di scussed i n t hi s
chapt er , we can say t hat :

1. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s r el at ed t o hypnosi s, bot h i n
what f ol l ows f r om schol ar shi p and al so i n myst i cal
account s ( l i ke t he l i nk est abl i shed by Chi co Xavi er ’ s
pr ot ect or , Emmanuel ) ;
2. When i nt er pr et ed i n myst i cal cont ext , aut omat i c
wr i t i ng can be under st ood as a PT wher e par t i al or f ul l
i dent i f i cat i on wi t h someone el se i s i mpl i ed ( t he “ot her ”
bei ng a spi r i t or , mor e r ar el y, a per son st i l l al i ve at
t he t i me of wr i t i ng) ;
3. Ther e i s some degr ee of cont r ol of t he ASC
i nvol vi ng aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n Kar deci sm, and t hi s i s
subst ant i at ed bot h by st at i st i cs and by r epor t s of Xavi er
hi msel f ;
4. Repor t s of physi cal sensat i ons ( speci al l y r egar di ng
el ect r i cal i mpul ses i n t he ar ms) ar e r emar kabl y si mi l ar
i n aut omat i c wr i t i ng subj ect s, Kar deci st or not ;
5. Aut omat i c wr i t i ng can be used i n non- myst i cal
cont ext s and i s an abi l i t y avai l abl e t o most i f not t o
al l peopl e;
6. Di ssoci at i on i nvol ved i n aut omat i c wr i t i ng
pr ocesses can l ead t o f ul l y det ached secondar y
per sonal i t i es, whi ch many t i mes di spl ay cr i mi nal or
t r anssexual t r ai t s;
7. The r ecal l i ng of memor i es hel ps t he devel opment of
such per sonal i t i es, and vi a hypnosi s t hose subconsci ous
memor i es can be unl eashed ( t hi s i s a possi bl e expl anat i on
f or Chi co Xavi er bei ng abl e t o wr i t e on so many di f f er ent

131
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t hemes, and f or medi ums i n gener al t o expr ess t hemsel ves
i n l anguages t hat t hey do not know consci ousl y) ;
8. I n a cont r ol l ed envi r onment , secondar y
per sonal i t i es can be pr oduced;
9. Mul t i pl e per sonal i t i es phenomena ar e aki n t o
possessi on, i n t hat bot h may be a hei ght ened f or m of
sel f - t al k, and al so r el at ed t o chi l dhood t r auma
( def i ni t el y t he case of Chi co Xavi er ) , -
10. Ther e i s a ki nd of per son mor e pr one t o mul t i pl e
per sonal i t i es, aut omat i c wr i t i ng, bel i ef i n UFOs and t he
l i ke - t he FPP. They ar e not r emar kabl e i n ot her
r espect s, but have devel oped a f ul l - scal e f ant asy l i f e.
Thi s capaci t y may al so go back t o ear l y chi l dhood, agai n
r esembl i ng Xavi er ’ s pr ocess; al l t he phenomena di scussed
i n t hi s chapt er r el at e t o r ol e- pl ayi ng - peopl e abl e t o
wr i t e aut omat i cal l y, FPPs and abduct ees ar e al l , i n t he
end, per f or mi ng r ol es expect ed of t hem. FPPs, whi ch may be
t he ki nd of per sonal i t y di spl ayed by aut omat i c wr i t er s,
onl y t ake t hei r r ol e- pl ay mor e ser i ousl y t han ot her s.

132



Par t Two

Apocalyptic pseudepigraphy in the light of
the Kardecist material
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHAPTER 4: RELEVANCE OF THE CONCEPT OF REI NCARNATI ON,
I TS VI ABI LI TY I N LATE SECOND TEMPLE J UDAI SM AND
EVI DENCE FROM CHRI STI AN AUTHORS


1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er

This chapter comprises three main issues: first, a
discussion in the relevance of the idea of reincarnation
for the whole thesis (i.e. why this concept is linked to
the authorial issues regarding pseudepigraphy and automatic
writing at large); secondly an appreciation of the presence
of the concept in late Second Temple authors, specially
Josephus.
Regarding the evidence chosen among Second Temple
authors, that of Josephus is of paramount importance, not
least because of its confusing tones: as we will see below,
his reflexions on reincarnation imply a precise knowledge
of the original uses of the idea in Platonic or Pythagorean
contexts, but also imply adaptation to a specifically
Jewish mode of thought that cannot be considered identical,
not even similar, to the Greek. But in terms of reflexions
akin to the conceptual world of our sources, Josephus’
remarks are the closest we can get and in this lies their
importance.
In a cross-cultural comparison work like this one, the
possibility of genealogical links between Josephus and some
of the apocalypses examined (e.g. 4Ezra) cannot be
dismissed. Whatever a late Second Temple author like him
has to tell us regarding contemporary beliefs in
reincarnation may not be the last word on the theme but
must surely be taken into account.

134
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. Why r ei ncar nat i on and mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s
ar e an i mpor t ant par t of t he ar gument

Writing spiritual texts under the guise of someone
else, mythical or historical, alive or dead, is not
necessarily linked to the belief in reincarnation. However,
the latter implies a degree of independence and autonomy on
the part of the spirits: by the same token, a system with
fixed abodes for spiritual beings (such as Christianity)
provides much less latitude for them to wander and, in
turn, for the living to evoke and manipulate them.
This does not mean that stances of manipulation (such
as the many exorcist practices present in the NT - e.g. Mt
10:1-8; Lk 9:40; 11:20 among others) are absent in late
Second Temple texts. But as a rule Jews and Christians of
the period studied are not especially fond of manipulating
spirits, while at the same time one must bear in mind the
interdictions against necromancy in the OT
1
. It would
indeed be difficult to understand the idea of an actual,
mechanical Jewish author evoking the spirit of a Jewish
hero of the past if such practice was forbidden (unless we
are dealing with heterodox groups or individuals, which are
also absent from our sources).
The same reasoning applies to Christianity: the dead
are not to be manipulated or summoned in any sense (this
constitutes one of many attrition points between Catholics
and Kardecists - the latter insisting, not without reason,
that evidence for the appearance of spirits in

1
Specially 1Sm 28:7. These are much older references, however; but
they can be read in a sense that implies interdictions against a
practice that was widespread, thus the need for prohibition. 2Chr 21
with its reference to an Elijah writing that may have come to light
via automatic writing presents a specific set of problems dealt with
in the following chapter.

135
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



ecclesiastical context, i.e. in cloisters and churches, is
unduly discarded by Church authorities). On the other hand,
communication between dead and living - and specially
written communication - is the hallmark of Kardecism. It
ranges from trivial notes from the otherworld written by
deceased people to their relatives to highly sophisticated
descriptions such as those of André Luiz.
In all those cases, communication between dead and
living, besides being something desired and longed for, is
rendered possible by the transient nature of the states
following death: no fixed categories of blessing or
damnation being known, spirits are free to some extent to
roam and interfere, for good or bad, in the matters of the
living. Psychography is, in this sense, just a specific
mode of such interference, although by no means the only
one
2
.
By the same token, the dead can interfere with the
living by means other than written records: Josephus
himself gives a remarkable account of such an occurrence in
the tale of Glaphyra (AJ 17.349-354; incidentally this
passage also contains some remarks on the immortality of
the soul). But for the purposes of this investigation -
which deals only with spiritual authorship and not with
manipulating of spirits at large - the main link to be
searched is that of disincarnate souls and enquiring or
curious living individuals: and a high degree of

2
Chico Xavier himself had long declined taking part in
“materialization” séances (i.e. sessions where the most important
spiritual happening is the materialization of a dead person so that
anyone can see its form), because of Emmanuel’s strict observations -
Xavier’s ability should be entirely devoted to the Spiritist book,
that reaches far more people than any materialization séance. The
examples of Chico Xavier relinquishing other areas of spiritual
activity could be multiplied - he even declined a request to expel
snakes from a field arguing that his powers were useless for the
purpose, and that the parties interested should get a medium
“specialized” in these problems.

136
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



independence from fixed categories is needed for the
accomplishment of spiritual authorship. Spirits
definitively anchored in Heaven or Hell are less available
for the purpose
3
.

3
Obviously this does not apply to the content of many of the visions
themselves - i.e. the voyages through the otherworld in 1, 2 and 3En
are not incompatible with the notion of fixed abodes for the spirits.
But the proposition that the spirit of Enoch came to a mechanical
author on Earth to give a written account of such spiritual
ethnography is.

137
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Evi dence f or bel i ef i n r ei ncar nat i on i n Second
Templ e J udai sm

One of the main conclusions that we have come to
regards the essential and missing point between Kardecism
and apocalyptic pseudepigraphy regarding mystical
authorship of texts.
Summing up the discussion so far, the hypothesis that
pseudepigraphy may be more than a literary device and
should entail a degree of actual, sincere identification
between the mechanical writer and his portrayed hero is
what we have been discussing. In Kardecist texts this is
more than a mere assumption: this identification is very
real, differences in explanation remaining nonetheless. But
the idea that a spirit effectively takes hold of Chico
Xavier’s faculties and composes texts - indeed, whole books
- is the main core of Kardecist revelatory experience
4
.
This holds true not just for big, seminal texts like Há
2000 anos... or Nosso lar: the staggering number of people
coming after Chico Xavier on a daily basis, looking for
news from deceased relatives is perhaps of greater
importance in his final textual output should anyone try to
edit all his writings one day. It is thus at the very core
of Kardecism that:

1. Spirits do exist;
2. Living people can contact them;
3. Contacting them is allowed (although not always
meritory, depending on the nature of both medium and spirit
and of their intentions)

4
But not of Kardecist practice, essentially referred to assistential
work - development of mediumship is usually considered secondary to
the practice of the Gospel’s golden rule. Cf. Hess, op.cit. pp.2-3.

138
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. The existence of spirits and their communicating
messages to the living is proof of the immortality of the
soul;
5. Reports from the spirits regarding item 4 reveal not
Heaven or Hell but a permanent search for perfection,
summed up in the concept of reincarnation.

Of these five assumptions the last four are problematic
(but not anathema) regarding Jews of the Second Temple
period and, in doctrinal terms of the main world churches,
they remain difficult issues for Christians as well. In the
next chapters we will see a number of stances in ancient
writings where some direct attribution of authorship to
spirits is involved, and there is even the possibility that
a message from Elijah was delivered via automatic writing
5
;
we must note that such examples are comparatively rare in
the corpus that reached us. They are not enough to show
that manipulation of the spirits of the dead was a viable
proposition to apocalyptic writers. One apocalyptic hero
who goes to the world beyond and comes back is Enoch (e.g.
1En 94; 2En 43), but this is very different from assuming
that it was the actual writer of 1En who witnessed the
journey - or even that he had first-hand contact and
intercourse with the spirit of Enoch himself.

3. 1. Absence of t he i dea i n t he OT and Rabbi ni c sour ces
Although apparently incompatible with the unique action
of God in history, reincarnation became part of mainstream
Jewish thought by the end of the seventeenth century
6
.
Modern scholars are almost unanimous in rejecting the

5
Cf. below, pp.225 ff.
6
On this subject see the recent thesis by Dina R. Eylon. Reincarnation
in Jewish Mysticism and Gnosticism. Lewiston / Lampeter: Edwin Mellen
Press, 2003.

139
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



presence of the concept in Rabbinic sources before medieval
times, in the Sefer ha-Bahir
7
. And yet Talmudic sources
might mention it (not as part of acceptable doctrine, and
in quite confused ways, but reincarnation seems present
nonetheless)
8
.
Rabbinic passages from late Antiquity displaying
knowledge of the concept of metempsychosis are Sabbath 152b
and Eccles R.3.21 (where the ressurrected are shaken up and
down, what might suggest transmigration)
9
. San. 109a tells
that the men from Babel were transformed into apes, spirits
and demons.

Origen frequently mentions the subject, and it is
difficult to believe that it escaped the Rabbis’
notice. That Simai and the others were consciously
thinking of transmigration, I do not suggest. But the
views which they expressed may well have come to them,
through various channels, from those who believed in
transmigration
10
.

These very meagre references become even more
irrelevant when compared to the nature of passages clearly
against the belief in reincarnation. One of the most
important of those happens to be an apocalyptic passage,
namely 2Br 21:9-11:

For you only can sustain those who exist, those who
have gone and those who will come [...] For you are the

7
Eylon, op.cit. p.45.
8
Possibly the first scholar to notice this was Herbert Loewe, back in
the 1930’s. Cf. Claude G. Montefiore and Herbert Loewe (eds.). A
Rabbinic Anthology. London: Macmillan, 1938 with special reference to
the notes between pp.660-666. Loewe tracks the misuse of the Hebrew
term mitgalgelin (to roll) related to gilgul (transmigration, i.e.
metempsychosis). This is a lengthy discussion not to be pursued here,
but Loewe and Montefiore agree that the proper use of the concept of
metempsychosis in Jewish thought begins only with Saadiah.
9
Montefiore and Loewe, op.cit. p.663.
10
Id. ibid. The relation of Church Fathers to transmigration shall be
discussed below.

140
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



only Living One, the Immortal One and the Inscrutable
One, and you know the number of men [...]

The reference to the “number of men” suggests a fixed
existence, and those who have gone and who will come are
clearly mentioned as different entities. Is 57:16 and BT
Yevamot 62a speak of the fixed number of souls created by
God:

[...] I will not continually accuse, nor will I always
be angry; for then the spirits would grow faint before
me, even the souls that I have made.

[...] R. Huna said: He fulfilled’ [the obligation to
propagate the race having had children before becoming
a proselyte] because [he follows the tradition] of R.
Assi. For R. Assi stated: The Son of David will not
come before all the souls in Guf
11
will have been
disposed of [...]

These quotations show that, although exotic, reasoning
about reincarnation was a possibility for late Second
Temple authors, such as Josephus
12
. A topic related to this
discussion is whether the notion of resurrection owes
anything to the Greek concept of reincarnation: Josephus
presents a separate set of problems on the theme, to be
discussed below.
Regarding other sources, it is clear that no Biblical
passage deals with the doctrine of reincarnation in
convincing fashion - i.e. references are scarce and, at
best, oblique. Often Sl 90:3-6, Pr 8:22-31; Jr 1:4-5; Ecl
1:9-11 and Js 24:3 are quoted as Biblical “evidence” for

11
The region inhabited by the souls of the unborn.
12
Cf. Eylon, op.cit. p.53 ff.; E.C. Porter. “The pre-existence of the
soul in the Book of Wisdom and in Rabbinic writings”, AJT 12, 1908.
Pp.58-113 and George W. Nickelsburg. Resurrection, Immortality and
Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism. Cambridge (Mass.) / London:
Harvard University Press / Oxford University Press, 1972.

141
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



reincarnation; none of them is convincing for that
purpose
13
.
An altogether different matter is that of the possible
Greek origin of the apocalyptic theme of the resurrection
of the dead. That this idea, as well as that of rewards and
punishments in the afterlife, is very late in Judaism is
not disputed. But the analysis of Isidore Lévy goes very
much in another direction, proposing that not only the idea
of resurrection (a variation on the theme of reincarnation)
but even Dn 12:2 itself are late, Herodian interpolations
14

- therefore closer to the time when many apocalypses were
being written.

3. 2. Uses of t he concept i n J osephus
A very different picture emerges from the testimony of
Josephus, at least at first sight. Stances of the knowledge
and use of the concept are to be found in several passages,
to be discussed below.
Josephus shows acquaintance with the theme of
reincarnation
15
in BJ 2.162, in a doctrinal connection to
Pharisaism:


13
Joseph Head and Sylvia L. Cranston (eds.). Reincarnation in World
Thought. New York: Julian Press, 1967. Pp.83-84. But see Leon Nemoy.
“Biblical quasi-evidence for the transmigration of souls”, JBL 59:
159-168, 1940 for the appearance of the theme in the so-called Code of
al-Qirqisānī, a karaite source. The presence of the concept of
reincarnation in such late Jewish sources has been attributed to the
influence of Arabic thinking (cf. Carra de Vaux. “Tanāsukh”, EI IV,
648-649).
14
La légende de Pythagore de Grèce en Palestine. Paris: Librairie
Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1927. P.247.
15
It should be pointed out that even ancient authors could make a
distinction between metempsychosis and palingenesia: Seneca, for
instance (Letters 108.19) exhibits a point of view similar to that of
Pythagoras, alternating the movement between each body (metemy u/xwsi j )
with interludes in the underground (pal i ggenesi /a). The usage by Josephus
is clearly in favour of the latter terminology, although we cannot be
sure whether he was fully aware of the subtleties related to that
specific vocabulary.

142
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Every soul, they [the Pharisees] maintain, is
imperishable, but the soul of the good alone passes
into another body.

The same acquaintance is to be found in BJ 3.374:

Know you not that they who depart this life in
accordance with the law of nature and repay the loan
which they received from God, when He who lent is
pleased to reclaim it, win eternal renown; that their
houses and families are secure; that their souls,
remaining spotless and obedient, are allotted the most
holy place in heaven, whence, in the revolution of the
ages, they return to find in chaste bodies a new
habitation?

The reference to “chaste” bodies presents a specific
problem of translation, for a(gno/j would better be translated
as “holy”
16
.

And in CA 2.218:

No; each individual, relying on the witness of his own
conscience and the lawgiver’s prophecy, confirmed by
the sure testimony of God, is firmly persuaded that
those who observe the laws and, if they must needs die
for them, willingly meet death, God has granted a
renewed existence and in the revolution of the ages the
gift of a better life.

The idea appears also in BJ 7.185, although less
explicitly:

[...] the so-called demons – in other words, the
spirits of wicked men which enter the living and kill
them unless aid is forthcoming – are promptly expelled
by this root [...].


16
Steve Mason. Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees: a Composition-
Critical Study. Leiden / New York / Kobenhavn / Köln: Brill, 1991.
P.166.

143
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Surprisingly, little has been done about those passages
in Josephus. The best analysis found was that of Steve
Mason, who did much to clarify the misuses and
misunderstandings of the idea of reincarnation in
Josephus
17
.
In terms of vocabulary, Josephus appears remarkably
close to Plato in his knowledge and use of terms related to
reincarnation: the latter does not use pal i ggenesi /a but pa/l i n
gi /gnesqai occurs in the Meno 81b and Phaedon 70c
18
. In AJ
18.14 we have

They [i.e. the Pharisees] believe that souls have power
to survive death and that there are rewards and
punishments under the earth
19
for those who have led
lives of virtue or vice: eternal imprisonment is the
lot of evil souls, while the good souls receive an easy
passage to a new life.

In fact the idea of paradise is not incompatible with
that of reincarnation: in Josephus reference is made of a
new life in a new body only for the just (this could be
understood as a mode of paradise): this looks remarkably
similar to Dn 12 and its promise of perpetual reward and
punishment, in the flesh, for good and wicked.
In addition, there was no unified Greek doctrine of
reincarnation that Josephus could have known: but when he
speaks of reincarnation in one body, and only for the just,
he may be understanding resurrection as the Jewish mode of
thinking about reincarnation
20
. It must be remembered that
Josephus might be trying to impress a Greek audience in the
passages, by means of arguing that sectarian differences

17
Op.cit. Cf. specially chapter 6.
18
Idem, p.163.
19
An idea possibly inserted for the sake of Greek audience.
20
Idem, pp.169-170. The idea that reincarnation is a sort of exile for
the souls of the just finds a parallel in Philo, De gigantibus 2 ff.

144
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



among the Jews echo philosophical schools among the Greeks.
This is explicitly admitted in the Life 12
21
:

Being now in my nineteenth year I began to govern my
life by the rules of the Pharisees, a sect having
points of resemblance to that which the Greeks call the
Stoic school.

In short, evidence from Josephus’ considerations about
belief in reincarnation among the Pharisees is important
and cannot be dismissed. The wording is very similar to
Greek passages on the same theme (in fact, pal i ggenesi /a and
a)nabi /wsi j seem interchangeable in Josephus - cf. AJ 18.14
and CA 2.218)
22
. Given all that, it is reasonable to
conclude that Josephus knew what he was talking about, and
what implications the concept of reincarnation had. At the
same time, however, the way he discusses the issue is in
line with apocalyptic thought in the fashion of Dn 12: by
arguing in favour of reincarnating in one body only
Josephus echoes the theme of resurrection. Less clear in
the light of the Daniel text is the absence of references
to the resurrection of the wicked, so that they may be
tormented forever.
We cannot be aware if the use of Greek vocabulary
related to reincarnation betrays the hand of a Greek
secretary or reviser: this may well be the case given the
fact that the essence of Josephus’ ideas on the theme seem
closer to Jewish resurrection than to Greek reincarnation.
In any case, while vocabulary usage shows that
metempsychosis, palingenesia and similar concepts were, in
principle, available to Second Temple Jews - in any case,
to Josephus they were - Josephus’ usage of such terms does

21
AJ 15.371 makes a similar point when arguing that the Essenes
followed Pythagorean teaching.
22
Mason, op.cit. p.164.

145
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



not imply similarities to Greek thought. So while the
passages show knowledge and even familiarity with
reincarnation they do nothing to prove that for apocalyptic
seers this was a common theme (although, by reversion,
resurrection may be understood as a Jewish derivation of
the Greek concept, as discussed above).

146
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Summar y

The main ideas discussed in this chapter can be thus
summarized:

1. The idea of reincarnation is an essential part of
modern Kardecist automatic writing, due to the implications
of freedom for manipulating the souls of the dead. Absolute
categories such as Heaven or Hell, together with the
rigidity of the places for the souls of the dead, render
psychography impossible or considered as ethically wrong
since they implicate the manipulating of spirits.
2. The notion of reincarnation, or approval of
manipulation of discarnate spirits at large is altogether
absent from the OT and appears in a very confusing,
sometimes unfavourable light in Rabbinic sources.
3. Resurrection is a distinctly apocalyptic idea as it
appears in late texts such as Dn 12. and it is usually
considered as an Iranian borrowing; but it may be the
result of Pythagorean influence, and as such it could be
understood as a variation on the theme of reincarnation, or
as a misunderstanding of the whole concept. This, however,
cannot be proved and seems unlikely.
4. Josephus presents a specific problem, inasmuch as he
explicitly ascribes belief in reincarnation to a Jewish
sect (the Pharisees) and displays another as having points
of contact with the Pythagoreans (the Essenes).
5. The vocabulary used by Josephus is what can be
expected from Greek thought on the subject as was available
to him; at the same time, he may be talking about
resurrection and not reincarnation, given that he considers
the blessing of rebirth in the body as a unique happening,
and restricted to the good. That the vocabulary is similar

147
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



to that of Plato and Seneca may be due to the revision of a
secretary, and the resulting effect of making some Jewish
groups similar to Greek reincarnationists may not be due to
Josephus’ explicit redaction.

148
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHAPTER 5: AUTHORSHI P AND SPI RI TUAL WRI TI NG I N SECOND
TEMPLE J EWI SH APOCALYPTI C AND RELATED TEXTS


1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er

Thi s chapt er di scusses possi bl e evi dence f or aut omat i c
wr i t i ng or pur el y spi r i t ual at t r i but i on of aut hor shi p i n
anci ent t ext s.
I n t hi s sense apocal ypt i c passages wr i t t en i n f i r st -
per son f or m ar e of par amount i mpor t ance because, l i t er ar y
t opos or not , t hey pr ovi de t he f i r st pl ace i n whi ch t o
sear ch f or cl ues f or aut hor shi p i dent i t y. Even i f t he whol e
aut hor i al assumpt i on i s f al se and t he exper i ences descr i bed
pur e i nvent i on, t he f i r st pl ace t o sear ch f or i ndi cat i ons
of aut hor shi p woul d be i n t hese passages, wr i t t en as i f t he
mechani cal wr i t er was t he por t r ayed her o. Not al l of t hem
pr ovi de f ul l - scal e i dent i f i cat i on bet ween wr i t er and
Bi bl i cal char act er , but t he di f f er ences i n r ange and
i nf or mat i on bet ween t hemwi l l be di scussed i n det ai l bel ow.
A r el at ed aspect of t he aut hor i al pr obl em ment i oned
above i s t hat of possi bl e evi dence f or aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n
an OT passage, namel y 2Chr 21 wi t h a r ef er ence t o a t ext
f r omEl i j ah t hat may have been pr oduced af t er hi s deat h vi a
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, al t hough t hi s i s by no means sur e: f or
t he sake of compar i son wi t h f i r st - per son exper i ences and t o
t he El i j ah passage, aut hor shi p di r ect l y at t r i but ed t o a
di vi ne bei ng i s di scussed i n t he case of t he Book of
El chasai . Last l y, an exampl e of how pl ai n f r aud r egar di ng
di vi ne at t r i but i on of t ext s i s gi ven i n t he case of
Luci an’ s r epor t on Al exander of Abnot ei chos. Thi s obvi ousl y
does not i ncl ude any r eal myst i cal exper i ence i nvol vi ng

149
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



aut hor shi p but i s a r emar kabl e exampl e of how an audi ence
( al t hough Pagan) woul d r eact posi t i vel y t o al l egat i ons of
di vi ne aut hor shi p. I t shoul d be r emember ed t hat Chr i st i ans
and J ews wer e deepl y di sappr ovi ng of Al exander ’ s pr act i ces.


150
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. Sur vey of chosen passages

I t i s my ai m t o di scuss, by exami nat i on of apocal ypt i c
passages i mpl yi ng t he nar r at or ’ s i dent i t y, l ooki ng at t he
i ssues i nvol ved i n apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy, possi bl e
at t i t udes t owar ds di r ect r evel at i on by means of i nhuman
aut hor shi p of t ext s, as t hey coul d be under st ood i n l at e
Ant i qui t y or , i n t he case of 2Chr , i n t he l at e Hel l eni st i c
per i od.
The i dea of possessi on, cl osel y r el at ed as i t i s t o t he
i dea of pseudepi gr aphy as f ul l i dent i t y bet ween mechani cal
and por t r ayed her o, was by no means unf ami l i ar t o J ews of
t he Second Templ e Per i od. I nst ances of possessi onal r epor t s
ar e t o be f ound ver y f r equent l y i n t he New Test ament and
even i n J osephus.
Phi l o, comment i ng on t he sacr ed char act er of t he Gr eek
r ender i ng of t he Hebr ew Bi bl e, has an appr eci at i on si mi l ar
t o t he hypot hesi s pr oposed i n t hi s t hesi s, when he says
t hat t he J ewi sh sages r esponsi bl e f or t r ansl at i ng t he
Hebr ew Pent at euch i nt o Gr eek, af t er bei ng l ocked away
separ at el y, woul d each pr oduce an i dent i cal t r ansl at i on of
t he bi bl i cal t ext .

Si t t i ng her e i n secl usi on [ . . . ] t hey became as i t wer e
possessed, and, under i nspi r at i on, wr ot e, not each
scr i be somet hi ng di f f er ent , but t he same wor d f or wor d,
as t hough di ct at ed t o each by an i nvi si bl e pr ompt er
1
.

The pr oposal of i dent i t y of t he apocal ypt i c vi si onar y
wi t h t he put at i ve aut hor does not depend on t hi s passage,
quot ed her e onl y t o show t hat possessi on as r el at ed t o
aut hor i al mat t er s was not an unknown phenomenon; j udgi ng by

1
On Moses. I I . 37. The t er m used t o r ef er t o t he i nvi si bl e pr ompt i ng
( e(ka/stoi j a)ora/twj ) wi l l appear agai n i n an apocal ypt i c passage.

151
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t he f r equency wi t h whi ch i t occur s, i t seems t o have been
qui t e usual , not wi t hst andi ng bi bl i cal i nt er di ct i ons t o t he
mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s ( whi ch woul d i ncl ude summoni ng t hem
t o get wr i t t en r ecor ds)
2
. I t i s t i me t o exami ne t he
apocal ypt i c passages and r el at ed l i t er at ur e t hat deal wi t h
aut hor shi p and at t r i but i on - i . e. whi ch show mor e hi nt s on
t he i dent i t y of t he put at i ve aut hor , or t hat di spl ay some
ki nd of di al ogue swi t chi ng r ol es bet ween t he vi si onar y i n
hi s r ol e of bi bl i cal char act er and an angel . I shal l cal l
t hese passages “nar r at i ve”, si nce t hey expose t he
nar r at or ’ s per spect i ves on t he st or y t hat i s goi ng t o be
t ol d or , when i n t hi r d per son, i nt r oduce t he st or y
di r ect l y.
I have di vi ded t he passages accor di ng t o f i ve
cat egor i es, namel y:

1. Those t hat ar e cl ear l y wr i t t en i n 1st per son;
2. Those t hat ar e cl ear l y wr i t t en i n 3r d per son;
3. Those t hat di spl ay any change of nar r at or s ( i . e. i f
t her e i s any swappi ng of pl aces, i t goes f r om 1st t o 3r d
per son or t he ot her way r ound) ;
4. Those whi ch cont ai n def i ni t e commands gi ven ( usual l y
f r oman angel i c bei ng t o t he vi si onar y, but event ual l y f r om
t he l at t er t o t he f or mer ) ;
5. Those whi ch cont ai n any i mpr essi ve f eat s i nvol ved
( e. g. l ong f ast s, vi si ons, voyages t o Heaven or Hel l ) .

These cat egor i es ar e i mpor t ant because t hey deal wi t h
t he descr i pt i ons of exper i ences f r omt he subj ect s’ poi nt of
vi ew - ei t her si ncer el y ( i f we have r eal exper i ences) or
convent i onal l y ( shoul d we have l i t er ar y t opoi ) . Si nce our

2
Dt 18: 10. These i nt er di ct i ons mi ght be under st ood, as pr ophet i c cr i es
agai nst pol yt hei sm, as pr oof of t he spr ead of t he pr act i ce denounced.

152
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



pr oposal deal s wi t h t he r el at i on bet ween act ual and
put at i ve aut hor s, decl ar at i ons of i dent i t y ar e most
i mpor t ant and as a consequence, most of t he passages deal t
wi t h her e ( but not al l ) come at t he begi nni ng of t he t ext s.

2. 1. Ful l descr i pt i on of t he nar r at or ’ s i dent i t y
The most i nt er est i ng passages ar e t hose whi ch f ul f i l l
al l t he above f i ve cat egor i es ( i ncl udi ng 1st and 3r d per son
nar r at i ves i n t he same t ext , somet hi ng whi ch occur s wi t h
some f r equency) ; t hei r i nt er est l i es i n t he f act t hat t hey
pr ovi de a l ot of i nf or mat i on on t he pr epar at or y pr ocesses
t hemsel ves. These ar e, namel y, 2Br 55: 1- 4, Vi sEzr a 1- 3,
ApSed 2: 1- 5, Test Abr i n B r ecensi on 10: 1- 3, Li f e of Adam
and Eve 25, LdJ b 1: 1- 9 and 2: 1- 4, Rev 21: 9- 11. I n t er ms of
t he wi del y accept ed not i on of apocal ypse as a l i t er ar y
genr e, not t o be di scussed her e, onl y 2Br , Vi sEzr a, ApSed
and Rev woul d qual i f y, but t he i nt ensi t y of t he descr i pt i on
of t he myst i cal exper i ences i n t he ot her t ext s shoul d make
us t ake t hem i nt o account t oo, her e and i n subsequent
anal ysi s.
I n t he f i r st of t hese, 2Br 55: 1- 4, t he vi si onar y speaks
i n t he f i r st per son i n t hi s way:

And i t happened t hat when I had f i ni shed t he wor ds of
t hi s pr ayer [ 2Br 54] , I sat down under a t r ee t o r est
i n t he shadow of i t s br anches. And I was sur pr i sed and
ast oni shed, and I ponder ed i n my t hought s about t he
mul t i t ude of t he goodness whi ch t he si nner s who ar e on
ear t h have r ej ect ed f r om t hem, and about t he gr eat
puni shment whi ch t hey have despi sed, when t hey knew
t hat t hey shoul d be puni shed because of t he si ns t hey
have commi t t ed. And whi l e I was ponder i ng t hese and
si mi l ar t hi ngs, behol d, Ramael , t he angel who i s set
over t r ue vi si ons, was sent and sai d t o me: ‘ Why does
your hear t t r oubl e you, Bar uch, and why ar e you
di st ur bed by your t hought ?’


153
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Thi s passage shows a number of i nt er est i ng f eat ur es
r egar di ng si de ef f ect s of ASCs. The vi si onar y r epor t s t he
need f or r est i ng ( whi ch may i mpl y t i r edness, a l i kel y
f eat ur e i n act ual cont i nuous pr ayer ) ; at t he same t i me he
t al ks about bei ng ast oni shed due t o r ef l ect i ng on t he f i nal
j udgment , and t hi s makes hi s “hear t ” t r oubl ed, accor di ng t o
t he comf or t i ng angel sent . Accor di ng t o Russel l , i n
apocal ypt i c t ext s t he hear t may have f our di f f er ent
f unct i ons - i t houses char act er and per sonal i t y, t he mor e
emot i onal si de of human consci ousness, i nt el l ect ual and
vol i t i ve f unct i ons. Exampl es of t he f i r st ki nd coul d al so
be f ound i n Test J ud 13: 2; i t i s al so t he home of desi r e i n
Test Rub 3: 6 and ApAbr 23: 30. I nt el l ect ual l y t he r ef er ence
i s i mpor t ant i n J ub 12: 20, and f or vol i t i on i n 1En 91: 4 and
J b 1: 15
3
. I n 4Ezr a 4: 36 a si mi l ar pi ct ur e emer ges, onl y
t her e J er emi el i s t he angel
4
: Ramael r eappear s soon af t er
i n 2Br 63: 7.
Vi sEzr a ( Vi si on of Ezr a) i s a Chr i st i an pseudepi gr aphi c
t ext t hat nonet hel ess deser ves t o be exami ned t oget her wi t h
J ewi sh t ext s f or i t s at t r i but i on t o a J ewi sh her o ( Ezr a) ,
because of i t s si mi l ar i t i es wi t h 4Ezr a and, st r angel y and
i nt er est i ng f or our pur poses, wi t h ApSed
5
. I t i s al so a
qui t e l at e t ext i n i t s f i nal f or m ( i t s dat e r angi ng f r om
t he f our t h t o t he sevent h cent ur i es CE) . The passage t hat
concer ns us her e, Vi sEzr a 1- 3, r eads af t er a shor t
i nt r oduct i on i n t hi r d per son:


3
Russel l , Met hod and Message, pp. 142- 143.
4
The t r ansl at or i n OTP, A. Kl i j n, poi nt s out t hat i n t he Syr i ac
t r ansl at i on t he angel i s cal l ed Ramael t oo. I n Or Si b 2. 215- 217 and i n
1En 20: 8 ( i n a f ew mss. onl y) he i s one of t he ar changel s. Cf .
Char l eswor t h, OTP p. 640.
5
ApSed i n i t s ext ant f or m const i t ut es a qui t e l at e pr oduct , possi bl y
Chr i st i an and Byzant i ne, f ul l as i t i s of t er ms of l at e Gr eek usage:
but most schol ar s admi t t hat i t s cont ent s go a l ong way back, possi bl y
i nt o t he begi nni ng of t he CE. See t he i nt r oduct i on by S. Agour i des,
OTP 1, p. 606 f f .

154
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Ezr a pr ayed t o t he Lor d, sayi ng: ‘ Gr ant me cour age, O
Lor d, t hat I mi ght not f ear when I see t he j udgment s of
t he si nner s’ . And t her e wer e gr ant ed t o hi m seven
angel s of hel l who car r i ed hi m beyond t he sevent i et h
gr ade i n t he i nf er nal r egi ons [ . . . ]

The passage begi ns i n a qui t e i mpr ompt u way, wi t hout
any pr epar at or y i nt er l ude bei ng devi sed
6
. The apocal ypse
i t sel f i s r at her shor t and consi st s basi cal l y of t he
descr i pt i on of Ezr a’ s t our of hel l t el l i ng, wi t h sor di d
det ai l , t he f at e of t he wi cked.
The whol e voyage has a qui t e st er eot yped char act er ,
wher e Ezr a does no mor e t han ask God t o have mer cy on t he
si nner s. Thi s r ect i l i near and uni nspi r ed descr i pt i on,
t oget her wi t h t he l ack of a pr oper i nt r oduct i on make one
t hi nk of t he epi sode as bei ng, possi bl y, a l i t er ar y f i ct i on
f ashi oned t o mat ch ot her wel l - known exper i ences i n t he name
of Ezr a ( among whi ch t he vi si ons and conver si on of 4Ezr a
wer e undoubt edl y t he most f amous
7
) . Bei ng a Chr i st i an t ext
( t he unequi vocal r ef er ence t o t he damnat i on of t he J ewi sh
doct or s of t he Law and t o a Her od gui l t y of massacr i ng t he
i nnocent - Vi sEzr a 46- 47 and 37- 39 r espect i vel y) ,
ever yt hi ng poi nt s t o t he ar t i f i ci al i t y of t he i ndi vi dual ,
voyage- l i ke J ewi sh apocal ypse when t r anspl ant ed t o
Chr i st i an gr ound. But t hi s cer t ai nt y of ar t i f i ci al i t y
cannot be ser i ousl y mai nt ai ned when we t hi nk of ot her

6
As t he t r ansl at or s of t he t ext i n t he OTP ( J . R. Muel l er and G. A.
Robbi ns) not e, t her e i s a var i at i on i n one manuscr i pt , L ( 11t h
cent ur y) whi ch i nt r oduces t he f or mul a “When t he bl essed Ezr a pr ayed t o
t he Lor d [ . . . ] ” bef or e “Ezr a” i n ot her s, but t hi s i s not enough t o
di smi ss t he ar t i f i ci al char act er out of t he whol e vi si onar y epi sode.
Cf . OTP 1 p. 587.
7
4Ezr a const i t ut es, f r om t he poi nt of vi ew of t he si ncer i t y of t he
exper i ences descr i bed, t he most i mpor t ant i ndi vi dual t ext f or our
anal ysi s. Cf . t he di scussi on of t he vi si onar y exper i ences i n Mi chael
St one. “Coher ence and i nconsi st ency i n t he apocal ypses: t he case of
‘ The End’ i n 4 Ezr a”, J BL 102: 229- 243, 1983. and al so “A
r econsi der at i on of apocal ypt i c vi si ons”, HTR 96 ( 2) : 167- 180, 2003.
Thi s wi l l be r esumed i n t he concl usi on t o t hi s t hesi s.

155
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Chr i st i an r epor t s on ot her wor l dl y j our neys, or i n t he
dat i ng and aut hor i al pr obl ems posed by t ext s such as 2En
8
.
Next l et us exami ne ApSed 2: 1- 5, a t ext whi ch may have
been wr i t t en at any t i me f r om t he Second t o t he Fi f t h
cent ur i es CE and i s possi bl y of J ewi sh or i gi n al t hough of
Chr i st i an r edact i on i n what came t o us
9
.

And he [ Sedr ach] hear d a hi dden voi ce i n hi s ear s:
‘ Her e, Sedr ach, you who wi sh and desi r e t o t al k wi t h
God and t o ask hi mt o r eveal t o you t he t hi ngs t hat you
wi sh t o ask’ . And Sedr ach sai d, ‘ What ( i s i t ) , my
Lor d?’ And t he voi ce sai d t o hi m, ‘ I was sent t o you
t hat I may car r y you up i nt o heaven’ . And he sai d, ‘ I
want t o speak t o God f ace t o f ace, but I am not abl e,
Lor d, t o ascend i nt o t he heavens’ . But t he angel ,
havi ng st r et ched out hi s wi ngs, t ook hi m as f ar as t he
t hi r d heaven, and t he f l ame of t he di vi ni t y st ood
t her e.

A number of f eat ur es r el at ed t o t r ansl at i on mi ght be of
i nt er est her e, begi nni ng wi t h t he “hi dden” voi ce ( i n t he
l i t er al t r ansl at i on, aor at os, i . e. t he vi si onar y r ecei ved a
voi ce i nvi si bl y - t hi s r ef er r i ng obvi ousl y t o t he voi ce and
not t o t he seer )
10
. The f or m of t he di al ogue and Sedr ach’ s
compassi on r egar di ng t he f at e of t he si nner s echo st andar d
i ssues of J ewi sh t heol ogy of t he apocal ypses ( e. g. 4Ezr a
and 2Br ) , al t hough chapt er 1 const i t ut es a l engt hy
exhor t at i on on t he vi r t ues of l ove ( f ol l owi ng t he t r ends of
1J n i n t he New Test ament ) , and i s not an aut hor i al passage

8
Vi sEzr a coul d const i t ut e a t ypi cal case of t he di st i nct i on
est abl i shed by Russel l bet ween “si ncer e” and “l i t er ar y” i nspi r at i on.
Cf . Russel l , Met hod and Message, p. 159.
9
The evi dence f or t hi s pr ocess of composi t i on i s, among ot her r easons,
t he r ol e of Sedr ach r esembl i ng t hat of Mar y i n Chr i st i an t r adi t i on,
and t he l ack of di st i nct i vel y Chr i st i an el ement s such as t he Cr oss and
t he i ncar nat i on, as wel l as t o t he t ypi cal l y J ewi sh t heme ( pr esent i n
so many J ewi sh apocal ypses) of t he di al ogue bet ween man and God. Cf .
t he not es of S. Agour i des t o t he t r ansl at i on of ApSed, OTP 1, p. 606.
10
Cf . OTP 1 p. 609 not e 21. See al so not e 3 above f or t he same t er mas
used by Phi l o i n descr i bi ng t he i nspi r at i on f or t he sages t o t r ansl at e
t he Tor ah t o Gr eek.

156
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i n t he sense t hat i t does not cont r i but e t o our knowl edge
of t he vi si onar y pr ocesses as r el at ed t o t he pr oduct i on of
t he t ext i t sel f due t o a myst i cal exper i ence.
I t i s not ewor t hy t hat Sedr ach has hi s i nt er vi ew wi t h
God gr ant ed not as a r esul t of pr epar at i on ( f ast i ng f or
exampl e) but r at her suddenl y af t er t he ser mon of chapt er 1.
I nt er est i ngl y, t he angel st at es t hat i t was Sedr ach who
r equest ed t he t al k ( ApSed 2: 1) and t hi s i s agai n emphasi zed
i n 3: 1- 2 by God Hi msel f ( poi nt i ng t o a possi bl e ear l i er
t r adi t i on, now l ost , t hat i ncl uded Sedr ach’ s wi shes) , whi l e
onl y appear i ng i n t he mout h of t he seer i n 1: 4 af t er t he
angel pr esent s hi msel f cl ear l y
11
.
Anot her passage woul d be Test Abr i n B r ecensi on 10: 1- 3:

And Abr aham sai d, ‘ My l or d, may I beseech you t hat you
shoul d conduct me t o t he pl ace of j udgment so t hat I
t oo may see how t hey ar e j udged’ . Then Mi chael t ook
Abr aham ont o a cl oud, and he br ought hi m t o Par adi se
[ . . . ]

The t ext of t hi s Test ament owes i t s f or m t o an
apocr yphal book t hat was pr obabl y wr i t t en i n Gr eek by an
Egypt i an J ew; f r om t hi s mat r i x al so spr ang t he Test ament s
of I saac and J acob, whi ch need not concer n us her e
12
. I t
shoul d be not ed her e t hat Abr aham l ooks f or war d t o get t i ng
t he vi si on, i n cont r ast t o what happens i n Vi sEzr a: and hi s
r equest i s qui t e speci f i c, namel y he want s t o see t he f at e
of t he si nner s. The r equest may be under st ood as a
pr opi t i at or y pr ayer
13
.

11
Cf . J ames H. Char l eswor t h. “The J ewi sh r oot s of chr i st ol ogy: t he
di scover y of t he hypost at i c voi ce”, SJ T 39 ( 1) : 19- 41, 1986.
12
For a f ul l di scussi on of r edact i onal and l i t er ar y pr obl ems r el at ed
t o t hi s i ssue, cf . Mat hi as Del cor . Test ament of Abr aham. Lei den:
Br i l l , 1973. P. 78 f f .
13
I t shoul d be not ed t hat her e t he most pr omi nent char act er i st i c of
Abr aham i n canoni cal scr i pt ur e i s omi t t ed by t he aut hor of t he
Test Abr , namel y hi s unquest i onabl e f ai t h - t he pl ot of t he t ext

157
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Next i n our anal ysi s comes Li f e of Adam and Eve 25
14
,
when God speaks t o Eve, who r epl i es i n t he f i r st per son - a
passage not par t i cul ar l y i nt er est i ng but nonet hel ess
f i t t i ng our pi ct ur e of f i r st per son commandment s gi ven.

Tur ni ng t o me, t he Lor d sai d t o me, ‘ Si nce you have
l i st ened t o t he ser pent and i gnor ed my commandment , you
shal l suf f er bi r t h pangs and unspeakabl e pai ns [ . . . ] ’
15

The passage does not di spl ay any ASC- i nduci ng pr act i ce,
but as a di r ect di scour se t o Eve i t may por t r ay somet hi ng
of a f i r st per son myst i cal i mper sonat i on of t he seer as
Eve; but agai n, gi ven t he many t heat r i cal st ances i n t hese
t ext s wher e f i r st per son nar r at i ves ar e i nvol ved, t oget her
wi t h di dact i cal di al ogues ( expl ai ni ng what was t he cause of
Fal l , why beast s at t ack men et c. ) we have no means of
ascr i bi ng si ncer i t y t o t he exper i ences descr i bed her ei n ( by
cont r ast t o t he hi ghl y el abor at ed vi si onar y exper i ences of
t he bi gger apocal ypses such as 4Ezr a and 2Br )
16
.
LdJ b 1: 1- 9 and 2: 1- 4 gi ves us t he f ol l owi ng pi ct ur e:

J acob t hen went t o Laban, hi s uncl e. He f ound a pl ace
and, l ayi ng hi s head on a st one, he sl ept t her e, f or

consi st s t o a gr eat ext ent of Abr aham’ s r ef usal do f ace deat h and
at t empt f l i ght f r om i t . Geor ge W. Ni ckel sbur g ( ed. ) . St udi es i n t he
Test ament of Abr aham. Mi ssoul a: Schol ar s Pr ess, 1976. P. 87.
14
The apocal ypse i t sel f and not t he vi t a ( i . e. t he Gr eek t ext cal l ed
Apocal ypse of Moses, wi t h sever al var i ant i n t he ver si ons; see t he
not es and i nt r oduct i on by t he t r ansl at or , M. D. J ohnson, OTP 2 p. 249
f f .
15
I n t he Gn t ext we have an al most i dent i cal passage, but God t ur ns t o
t he woman and not t o a nar r at or i n f i r st per son, t he onl y subt l et y i n
t he nar r at i ve’ s poi nt of vi ew.
16
Cf . J ohn M. Mar t i n. Par adi se Lost and t he Genesi s Tr adi t i on. Oxf or d:
Cl ar endon Pr ess, 1968. The popul ar i t y of t he Vi t a among Chr i st i ans i n
a much l at er t i me nei t her ar gues i n f avour nor agai nst t he f i r st -
per son exper i ences descr i bed: i t i s r easonabl e t o suppose, however ,
t hat t hi s popul ar i t y was r el at ed t o t he ef f ect of t he nar r at ed event s
t o t he audi ence. Obvi ousl y t hi s does not necessar i l y i mpl y si ncer e
adhesi on, by t he r eci t i ng per son, t o t he i dea t hat he / she was
ef f ect i vel y i mper sonat i ng someone el se.

158
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t he sun had gone down. He had a dr eam. And behol d, a
l adder was f i xed on t he ear t h [ . . . ]

And af t er a t er r i f yi ng vi si on of t he angel s of God
comi ng up and down t he l adder , t he st or y suddenl y changes
nar r at or s and goes on as a speech of J acob hi msel f :

And God was st andi ng above i t s hi ghest f ace, and he
cal l ed t o me f r om t her e, sayi ng, ‘ J acob, J acob! ’ And I
sai d, ‘ Her e I am, Lor d! ’ [ . . . ] And when I hear d ( t hi s)
f r om on hi gh, awe and t r embl i ng f el l upon me. And I
r ose up f r om my dr eam and, t he voi ce st i l l bei ng i n my
ear s, I sai d, ‘ How f ear f ul i s t hi s pl ace! Thi s i s none
ot her t han t he house of God and t hi s i s t he gat e of
Heaven’ . And I set up t he st one whi ch had been my
pi l l ow as a pi l l ar , and I pour ed ol i ve oi l on t op of
i t , and cal l ed t he name of t hat pl ace t he House of God.

The whol e epi sode i s f ul l of i nt er est - t he vi si onar y
gi ves a l ot of det ai l r egar di ng t he exper i ence, whi ch
begi ns wi t h t he char act er asl eep ( and may ver y wel l be a
dr eam wi t hi n a dr eam) but appar ent l y moves on t o an
awakened exper i ence. The t heme of t he pi l l ow t hat becomes a
pi l l ar i s r emi ni scent of anal ysi s of hypnagogi c st at es
bet ween sl eep and awakeness
17
. I t i s not ewor t hy t hat , whi l e
t he voi ce r esembl es t he exper i ence i n t he Apocal ypse of
Sedr ach, i t r eappear s i n LdJ b 3: 1 addr essi ng not J acob but
Sar i el , i n char ge of dr eams, so t hat he may expl ai n t o
J acob what he went t hr ough.
I ndeed, t he whol e passage i s a case of r ef ur bi shi ng
t r adi t i onal bi bl i cal mat er i al - t he nar r at i ve i n Genesi s
28: 10- 18:

J acob l ef t Beer - sheba and went t owar d Har an. He came
t o a cer t ai n pl ace and st ayed t her e f or t he ni ght ,
because t he sun had set . Taki ng one of t he st ones of
t he pl ace, he put i t under hi s head and l ay down i n

17
Cf . chapt er s 2 and 3 of t hi s t hesi s.

159
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t hat pl ace. And he dr eamed t hat t her e was a l adder set
up on t he ear t h, t he t op of i t r eachi ng t o heaven;
[ . . . ] Then J acob woke f r om hi s sl eep and sai d, ‘ Sur el y
t he Lor d i s i n t hi s pl ace - and I di d not know i t ! ’ So
J acob r ose ear l y i n t he mor ni ng, and he t ook t he st one
t hat he had put under hi s head and set i t up f or a
pi l l ar and pour ed oi l on t he t op of i t .

The epi sode woul d be a mer e r eenact i ng, al most
Tar gumi c- l i ke r ecount i ng of a wel l - known f oundat i onal myt h,
wer e i t not f or t he di f f er ent and or i gi nal pat h t aken af t er
t he pour i ng of oi l over t he pi l l ow: whi l e i t ends wi t h a
shor t t hanksgi vi ng i n t he Bi bl i cal t ext , i n LdJ b t he
vi si onar y goes on t o a l engt hy pr ayer t hat asks f or
i nt er cessi on of t he angel s ( i n a sense r esembl i ng t he r ol e
of angel s i n 2 and 3En) t o gi ve t he i nt er pr et at i on of hi s
dr eam: what f ol l ows i s a ver y vi vi d descr i pt i on of a
vi si onar y exper i ence
18
. Al t hough t he bi bl i cal t ext i s
al most an i nser t i on i n chapt er 1, t her e i s no r ef er ence i n
Gn 28 t o any af t er ef f ect of t he exper i ence - such as J acob
t r embl i ng and f eel i ng awe, al t hough he was cl ear l y
f asci nat ed by what he saw. I t i s a pi t y t hat dat i ng of LdJ b
shoul d be al most i mpossi bl e, as wel l as ascr i bi ng i t s
pr ovenance
19
.
Last l y, Rev 21: 9- 11 pi ct ur es t he f ol l owi ng:

Then came one of t he seven angel s who had t he seven
bowl s f ul l of t he seven l ast pl agues, and spoke t o me,
sayi ng, ‘ Come, I wi l l show you t he Br i de, t he wi f e of
t he Lamb. ’ And i n t he Spi r i t he car r i ed me away t o a
gr eat , hi gh mount ai n, and showed me t he hol y ci t y

18
Of cour se t he consi der at i ons made about t he vi si onar y pr act i ce i n
LdJ b shoul d ext end t o i t s bi bl i cal mat r i x, but t hi s woul d t ake t he
i nvest i gat i on t oo f ar back - and we ar e i nt er est ed onl y i n how Second
Templ e vi si onar i es r ef ur bi shed such nar r at i ves t o dr ess t hei r own
vi si onar y cl ai ms.
19
Epi phani us quot es a “Ladder of J acob” t hat must have been an
ent i r el y di f f er ent t ext , f ocusi ng on t he Templ e ser vi ce ( Adv. Haer .
30. 16. 7) , ci t . by Char l eswor t h, OTP 2, p. 404. Cf . al so J ames L. Kugel .
“The Ladder of J acob”, HTR 88: 209- 227, 1995.

160
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



J er usal em comi ng down out of heaven f r om God, havi ng
t he gl or y of God, i t s r adi ance l i ke a most r ar e j ewel ,
l i ke a j asper , cl ear as cr yst al .

I n t hi s l ast “compl et e” vi si on ( i n t er ms of our
quest i ons) r ef er ence t o ear l i er bi bl i cal mat er i al i s
abundant - par t i cul ar l y on Ezeki el 1, as happens so of t en
wi t h Rev. The pi ct ur e f i t s wel l i n t he f i nal vi si onar y
epi sodes of J ohn of Pat mos, i ncl udi ng t he new Ear t h and
Heaven, as wel l as New J er usal em and shoul d t hus be
under st ood i n t he same cont ext of t he vi si on of t he
descendi ng angel i n Rev 20: 1- 3, t he t hr one i n 20: 4 and t he
voi ce i n 21: 3. I t woul d be di f f i cul t t o envi sage speci f i c
i nst ances of pr el i mi nar y pr act i ces i n Rev, ot her t han t he
pr esence of t he angel i n 1: 9- 17, 4: 1- 2, 18: 1 and 19: 1, but
agai n t he whol e exper i ence descr i bed by J ohn - no mat t er
how much i t depended on t he vi si ons of Ezeki el - pr esent s a
ver y vi vi d pi ct ur e on t he whol e
20
.

2. 2. Ot her descr i pt i ons of t he nar r at or ’ s i dent i t y
A second gr oup of pseudepi gr aphi c passages wi t h
i nf or mat i on on aut hor shi p as r el at ed t o myst i cal exper i ence
i s compr i sed of t ext s conveyi ng onl y f our of t he f i ve i t ems
of i nf or mat i on whi ch ar e f ound i n t he passages di scussed
above: al t hough l ess compl et e t han t he pr evi ous one, t hey
st i l l pr ovi de much i nf or mat i on. So, i n 2En 1: 2- 6 t her e ar e
no commands gi ven; 4Ezr a 9: 23- 25, 26- 29 12: 51 and 14: 38- 48
do not swi t ch nar r at or s ( bei ng al l i n 1st per son) , t he same
f ol l owi ng f or ApAbr 15- 19 and f or Test Naph 5- 7. On t he
cont r ar y, Test Abr r ecensi on A 10: 1 and 4Br 7: 1 l ack t he

20
I t i s st r i ki ng t hat t he vi si on i n chapt er 4 seems t o t ake pl ace i n
Heaven, whi l e t hat of chapt er 1 on ear t h; t hi s r el at es ver y cl ear l y t o
t he cont ent of each vi si onar y epi sode ( cf . Adel a Y. Col l i ns. The
Apocal ypse. Dubl i n: Ver i t as Publ i cat i ons, 1979. P. 34 f f . ) . How t hi s
r el at es t o t he myst i cal exper i ence i t sel f of Revel at i on i s uncl ear t o
me.

161
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



r ef er ence t o a f i r st per son
21
. Rev 1: 9- 17, 4: 1- 2 and 10: 8-
11 al l l ack t hi r d per son i nf or mat i on, and i n 19: 1 t her e ar e
no commands gi ven. Dn 1: 8- 21 does not i nvol ve i mpr essi ve
di spl ays r egar di ng t he vi si onar y pr ocess, 7: 1- 2 l acks
commands and 9: 21 and 10: 1- 17 mi ss a t hi r d per son mai n
nar r at i ve. I t woul d be t i r esome and unnecessar y t o go over
al l t hese passages, and t he most i l l ust r at i ve f or our
pur poses ar e t he f ol l owi ng.
2En 1: 2- 6 gi ves, i n t he l onger r ecensi on cal l ed J
22
, a
vi vi d account of t he exper i ence under gone by t he seer . The
whol e passage shoul d be t aken wi t h gr eat car e, gi ven al l
t he pr obl ems sur r oundi ng 2En r egar di ng dat i ng and or i gi nal
l anguage ( ever yt hi ng has been pr oposed i n bot h ar eas, wi t h
dat es of composi t i on r angi ng f r om I I BCE t o XI V CE -
Char l es pr oposi ng i t s aut hor as a Hel l eni zed J ew f r om
Al exandr i a, Mi l i k suggest i ng a Chr i st i an Byzant i ne monk i n
t he ni nt h cent ur y CE) :

[ . . . ] i n t he f i r st mont h, on t he assi gned day of t he
mont h, I was i n my house al one, and I l ay on my bed,
sl eepi ng. And, whi l e I sl ept , a gr eat di st r ess ent er ed
my hear t , and I was weepi ng
23
wi t h my eyes i n a dr eam
24
.
And I coul d not f i gur e out what t hi s di st r ess mi ght be,
[ nor ] what mi ght be happeni ng t o me. Then t wo huge men
appear ed t o me, t he l i ke of whi ch I had never seen on
ear t h.

21
Al t hough i n t he l at t er t he eagl e t al ki ng t o Bar uch i s a vi si onar y
event wor t hy of not e i n i t sel f .
22
Cf . t he t r ansl at or ’ s not es, OTP 1, p. 91 f f .
23
The t r ansl at or of 2En i n OTP, F. I . Ander sen, ar gues t hat weepi ng i s
a t r adi t i onal mot i f i n apocal ypt i c t ext s, r el at ed t o t he upset t i ng of
apocal ypt i ci st s by t he evi l of t he wor l d or by t hei r i nabi l i t y t o
under st and t he pl an of God ( cf . Dn 7: 15, Rev 5: 4, 4Ezr a 3, 1En 83: 3.
But he r i ght l y poi nt s out t hat t hi s needs not l i e behi nd Enoch’ s
unexpl ai ned gr i ef i n t he passage. I t i s my i dea t hat , al t hough t he
weepi ng may der i ve f r om t r adi t i onal mot i ves i t coul d i mpl y gr i ef as
ecst at i c pr act i ce ( even i f onl y a r emi ni scence of aut hent i c mour ni ng
i n t he passage) ; see next chapt er f or Dani el Mer kur ’ s r easoni ng on
gr i ef as ASC- i nduci ng pr act i ce.
24
Text conf used i n many mss. and l acki ng i n t he ot her bi g t ext of 2En
di spl ayed i n OTP 1, A.

162
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Thei r f aces wer e l i ke t he shi ni ng sun;
t hei r eyes wer e l i ke bur ni ng l amps;
f r omt hei r mout hs f i r e was comi ng f or t h;
t hei r cl ot hi ng was var i ous si ngi ng
25
;
t hei r wi ngs wer e mor e gl i st er i ng t han gol d;
t hei r hands wer e whi t er t han snow.
And t hey st ood at t he head of my bed and cal l ed me by
my name. Then I awoke f r ommy sl eep, and saw t hose men,
st andi ng i n f r ont of me, i n act ual i t y
26
.

The whol e passage i n 2En, r egar dl ess of t he many
composi t i onal pr obl ems, i s qui t e dense i n t he descr i pt i on
of ecst at i c epi sodes - t he pi ct ur e pr esent ed i s qui t e vi vi d
and i mpl i es a vi si on begi nni ng dur i ng sl eep and cont i nui ng
af t er war ds. The amazi ng pi ct ur e of Enoch’ s vi si t or s may
al so be compar ed t o t he “anci ent of days” i n Dn 7: 13, or t o
t he angel s i n 4Ezr a 4: 1, 5: 31 and 2Br 8.
Test Naph 5- 7 di spl ays a ser i es of r ecol l ect i ons i n t he
f i r st per son nar r at i ve of t he pat r i ar ch Napht al i , not
showi ng i mpr essi ve ASC- i nduci ng means but al l owi ng f or
i ncr edi bl e, dr eam- l i ke f eat s - t he gr aspi ng of t he sun and
t he moon by Levi and J udah and t he shi p wi t hout capt ai n
whi ch J acob and hi s sons boar d.
The passages i n 4Ezr a ( 9: 23- 25, 26- 29 12: 51 and 14: 38-
48) ar e ar guabl y ver y i mpor t ant f or any di scussi on of
apocal ypt i c ecst at i c pr act i ces, but by t hei r ver y nat ur e
cannot be di scussed her e: t hey al l egedl y i nvol ve chemi cal
i nduct i on, f or t he onl y t i me i n apocal ypt i c wr i t i ng -
Mar t I s 2: 7- 11 whi ch r ef er s t o t he eat i ng of her bs may be
under st ood i n t er ms of t he accept i ng of kashr ut , not cause-
ef f ect r el at i on
27
.

25
Text cor r upt , but t he t r ansl at or pr oposes “si ngi ng” on or t hogr aphi c
gr ounds ( si mi l ar i t i es bet ween t he mi st akes f ound i n t he mss
consul t ed) , addi ng t hat si ngi ng i s a common t heme f or angel s i n 2En.
26
The t r ansl at or ar gues, cor r ect l y f r om my poi nt of vi ew, t hat t hi s
wor d i mpl i es obj ect i vi t y and makes t he dr eamvi si on coi nci de wi t h what
t he seer was wat chi ng i n an awakened f r ame of mi nd.
27
Cf . t he appendi x, 2. 4.

163
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




2. 3. Passages wi t h smal l er number of i ndi cat i ons
Fi nal l y, passages di spl ayi ng t hr ee or l ess of t he
cat egor i es def i ned i n t he begi nni ng of t hi s chapt er
const i t ut e anot her gr oup, composed by 1En 1: 2, 13: 6- 10,
39: 9- 14, 52, 70, 83: 2, 91: 1; 2En 3: 1; 72: 1, 10; 3En 1: 1;
15B: 2 ( f or i t s i mpor t ance and pecul i ar i t i es, 3En wi l l be
di scussed separ at el y i n t he next chapt er ) . Many passages i n
2Br di spl ay a f ew of t he t hemes di scussed, l i ke 5: 5- 7; 6: 2;
9; 12: 5; 21: 1- 3; 26; 32: 7; 35- 36; 37; 38; 47- 48: 1; 48: 25;
52: 7- 53; 53: 12; 54. 3Br has bot h t he Gr eek and t he Sl avoni c
i nt r oduct i ons showi ng cl ear l y t hi r d per son nar r at i ons, and
4Ezr a 3: 1- 15; 5: 14- 15; 5: 19- 10; 5: 21; 5: 31; 6: 35; 10: 29;
59; 11: 1; 12: 3; 13: 1; 14; 14: 1- 3; 36. Gr Ezr a 1, ApAbr 8;
12: 1- 2; 32: 6, ApAdam 2: 1, ApEl 1: 1; 23- 27, ApZeph r ecA: 1;
Dn 2: 17- 20; 7: 15, 28; 8: 1, 16; 9: 1- 13 ar e l ess i mpor t ant
f or our pur poses.

2. 4. Al l eged 1st per son passages i n non- apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr apha
Al t hough t he pseudepi gr apha bel ow do not qual i f y as
apocal ypses ( at l east not as whol e i nt egr al apocal ypses) ,
t hey al l pr esent st ances of ASC- i nduci ng pr act i ces or ot her
i nf or mat i ve hi nt s on Second Templ e vi si onar y pr act i ces.
These ar e namel y Test Lv 2; Test J ob 2- 3; Test Sol 26: 6; J ub
i nt r o and 1: 2- 6, Mar t I s 1: 5- 6 ( 2: 7- 11 event ual l y of f er i ng
t he pr obl ems di scussed above r egar di ng i nduct i on of vi si ons
i n 4Ezr a) ; Li f e of Adamand Eve 26 and 27; Vi t Pr oph 4; LdJ b
2: 1- 4; 2: 6- 22; 4Br 4: 11; 5; 6: 7- 16; 6: 15; Si bOr 2: 1; 2: 340;
3: 1- 7; 5: 51; 11: 315- 324; 13: 1- 5 and f r agment 8.
Al t hough al l t he Si byl l i ne Or acl es passages di spl ay
onl y t wo of t he t hr ee char act er i st i cs t hat i nt er est us her e
- namel y, al l ar e f i r st per son passages i nvol vi ng t he

164
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



gi vi ng of commands - , at l east some of t hem deser ve a
cl oser l ook. The ext r eme di ver si t y of at t r i but i on of t hese
t ext s, r egar di ng t hei r dat e and pr ovenance shoul d be bor ne
i n mi nd. They ar e al so st r i ki ng i n t hat pseudepi gr aphy her e
r ef er s not t o J ews maki ng use of myt hi cal char act er s but t o
t he appr opr i at i on of a Pagan pr ophet ess f i t t ed t o wel l -
known or acl es. But t hey al l have some char act er i st i cs of
t he por t r ayed vi si onar y i n common, t he Sybi l , who has t he
added i nt er est of bei ng t he onl y Pagan seer i n al l t he
t ext s exami ned
28
; t he Si bOr al so pr esent t he addi t i onal
di f f i cul t y of bei ng const i t ut ed by ext ant or acl es put i n
t he mout h of a Pagan pr ophet i c f i gur e by a J ewi sh or
Chr i st i an hand – t aki ng al l t hese obser vat i ons i nt o
account , gr eat car e must be t aken i n exami ni ng t hei r
cont r i but i on t o our pr esent pur pose. Si bOr 2: 1- 5 r eads
29
:

When i ndeed God st opped my most per f ect l y wi se song
as I pr ayed many t hi ngs, he al so agai n pl aced i n my
br east
a del i ght f ul ut t er ance of wondr ous wor ds.
I wi l l speak t he f ol l owi ng wi t h my whol e per son i n
ecst asy
For I do not know what t o say, but God bi ds me ut t er
each t hi ng.

The passage emphasi zes t he f or cef ul char act er of t he
si byl ’ s i nspi r at i on, as wel l as conf essi ng t he “del i ght f ul ”
char act er of t he exper i ence - i n di r ect cont r ast wi t h ot her
si byl l i ne passages such as 2: 340:

28
I t i s not ewor t hy t hat t he Si byl i s al so t he onl y f emal e f i gur e i n
t he t ext s exami ned, al t hough women mi ght pl ay smal l er r ol es i n ot her
t ext s, such as Eve i n Li f e of Adam and Eve and t he woman of 4Ezr a 9-
10, t r ansmut ed i n heavenl y J er usal em.
29
Fol l owi ng Col l i ns’ di scussi on, t he ear l i er dat e f or books 1 and 2 of
t he Or Si b shoul d be 70 CE. The J ewi sh cor e of t hose t wo books shoul d
be ascr i bed a Phr ygi an or i gi n but not necessar i l y so t he Chr i st i an
par t s of t he t ext . We ar e deal i ng her e wi t h a J ewi sh passage ( books 1
and 2 must have f or med a uni t and i n t hi s case t he Chr i st i an
i nt er pol at i on r uns f r om1. 324- 400) . Cf . OTP 1, p. 330 f f .

165
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




Al as f or me, wr et ched one. What wi l l become of me on
t hat day
i n r et ur n f or what I si nned, i l l - mi nded one,
busyi ng mysel f about ever yt hi ng but car i ng nei t her f or
mar r i age nor f or r easons?
But al so i n my dwel l i ng, whi ch was t hat of a ver y
weal t hy man, I shut out t hose i n need
30
; and f or mer l y I
commi t t ed l awl ess deeds knowi ngl y [ . . . ]

The r ef er ence her e i s r at her t o gui l t and shame on t he
par t of t he si byl - not as ASC- i nduci ng mour ni ng, such as
f ound i n 4Ezr a 5: 20, but r at her as an af t er ef f ect of a
badl y- spent l i f e.
Si bOr 3: 1- 7 gi ves a pi ct ur e of vi vi d t i r edness
31
:

Bl essed, heavenl y one, who t hunder s on hi gh, who have
t he cher ubi m as your t hr one, I ent r eat you t o gi ve a
l i t t l e r est
t o me who have pr ophesi ed unf ai l i ng t r ut h, f or my hear t
i s t i r ed wi t hi n.
But why does my hear t shake agai n? and why does a whi p,
compel l ed f r omwi t hi n t o pr ocl ai m, l ash my spi r i t
an or acl e t o al l ? But I wi l l ut t er ever yt hi ng agai n,
as much as God bi ds me say t o men.

The t i r edness decl ar ed by t he seer i s f ol l owed by t he
compel l i ng t o pr ophesy and t o t he t r oubl i ng of t he spi r i t
( al so a commonpl ace among si byl l i ne ecst at i c passages) .
Si bOr 11: 315- 324 of f er s t he f ol l owi ng descr i pt i on
32
:

30
The i nf er ence may poi nt ei t her t o i l l egi t i mat e dwel l i ng wi t h a man
t o whi ch t he Sybi l was not mar r i ed, or j ust a compar i son t o t he
r i chness of a weal t hy man’ s home. The t heme of absence of sol i dar i t y
i s echoed i n Ol d and New Test ament s al i ke - cf . J ob 34: 19, 28, Lk
16: 20 and Test J ob 9. Her e i t adds t o t he gui l t of t he seer , appar ent l y
i n t r adi t i onal f ashi on. J ohn J . Col l i ns ascr i bes t he f i r st t wo books
of t he sybi l l i ne or acl es t o a per i od r angi ng f r om 30 BCE t o 250 CE
( cf . OTP 1, p. 331) .
31
Or Si b 3 i s usual l y at t r i but ed an Egypt i an or i gi n ( cf . Macedon
f ol l owed by t he ki ngdom of Egypt i n 155- 161) , and i nt er nal r ef er ences
poi nt t o a dat i ng of t he or acl es cont ai ned i n t hat book bet ween 163-
145 BCE.
32
Thi s i s one of t he most di f f i cul t Sybi l l i ne Or acl es t o dat e - an
over vi ew of t he many compl exi t i es i nvol vi ng t he dat i ng of Or Si b 11 i s

166
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




[ . . . ] t hough someone wi l l cal l me
a messenger wi t h f r enzi ed spi r i t . But when he
appr oaches t he books
l et hi m not shr i nk f r om t hem. He wi l l know bot h al l
t hat i s t o be and
t hat was bef or e
f r omour wor ds. Then no l onger wi l l anyone cal l
t he di vi nel y possessed seer an or acl e- monger of
necessi t y.
But , pr i nce
33
, now st op my ver y l ovel y speech,
t hr ust away t he f r enzy and t he t r ue i nspi r ed voi ce
and t he t er r i bl e madness, but gr ant a pl easant r ef r ai n.

The passage r epeat s a number of t hemes, t he t i r edness
and al so t he pl easant char act er of t he exper i ence i t sel f .
I t al so ascr i bes t o whol e ut t er ance t o an out si de power ,
conf i gur i ng i t as a case of possessi on.
Si bOr 13: 1 shows a r el uct ant seer
34
:

The hol y i mper i shabl e God bi ds me agai n
si ng a gr eat wondr ous wor d. He who gave power
t o ki ngs, and t ook i t away agai n, and del i mi t ed f or
t hem
a t i me of bot h t hi ngs, of l i f e and of wr et ched deat h.
The heavenl y God al so pr esses me har d, t hough I am
r el uct ant , t o pr ocl ai m t hese t hi ngs t o ki ngs about
r oyal domi ni on.

And f i nal l y f r agment 8 i s ver y shor t but f ul l of
i ndi cat i ons of t he seer ’ s vi si on of t he ecst at i c pr ocess
35
:

gi ven by Col l i ns, OTP 1, pp. 431- 432. However , t he ar gument s t her e
pr esent ed shoul d l ead t o an aut hor shi p i n t he begi nni ng of t he CE and
Egypt shoul d be consi der ed i t s or i gi n ( hi st or y begi ns and ends t her e) .
33
The same t r eat ment t o be f ound above, i n 11: 311, r ef er r i ng t o God
Hi msel f ( cf . al so Or Si b 5: 298 f or t he r epet i t i on of t he i dea t hat He
i s i mper i shabl e, al t hough wi t hout t he epi t het t hi s t i me) .
34
Ref er r i ng t o Odenat h of Pal myr a, dur i ng t he r ei gn of Gal l i enus ( 260-
268 CE) but f ai l i ng t o ment i on t he deat h of ei t her , i t shoul d be dat ed
f r om about 265 CE; cont i nui t y wi t h ot her sybi l l i ne books i ndi cat es a
possi bl e Al exandr i an or i gi n ( cf . Col l i ns, OTP 1 p. 453) .
35
A f r agment about whi ch we know ver y l i t t l e, t o be f ound i n
Const ant i ne’ s Speech t o t he Sai nt s. Gi ven t he out spokenness of t he
smal l passage, i t i s a pi t y we onl y have t hi s f r agment - whi ch coul d
be somehow r el at ed t o 3: 1- 5 and 296.

167
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




The Er yht hr ean [ t he Sybi l ] , t hen, t o God: ‘ Why, she
says, O mast er ,
do you i nf l i ct t he compul si on of pr ophecy on me and
not r at her guar d me, l i f t ed hi gh above t he ear t h,
unt i l t he day of your most bl essed comi ng?’

I n common, al l t he si byl l i ne passages di spl ay t he
at t r i but i on of t he gi f t of pr ophecy t o a power out si de t he
seer ( God) and poi nt t o t hi s gi f t as a compul si on or
obl i gat i on ( compar e t hat t o t he f eel i ngs expr essed by
J er emi ah r egar di ng hi s pr ophet i c gi f t s, f or exampl e; see J r
4: 19 f f . ) .

168
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Aut hor shi p of apocal ypt i c t ext s and di vi ne
mani f est at i ons

3. 1. Br i ef di scussi on
The act ual aut hor shi p of t he apocal ypt i c passages
i nt er est i ng us was al r eady di scussed i n t he begi nni ng of
each quot at i on. I t shoul d be not ed t hat t he passages
i nvol ved ar e basi cal l y J ewi sh i n or i gi n.
The exper i ences t hey descr i be ar e bot h vocal and
vi sual , and t he ones t hat l ook mor e deci dedl y st er eot ypi cal
( Vi sEzr a, f or exampl e) ar e r emar kabl y abr upt on t he ASC-
i nduci ng pr ocess and go st r ai ght t o t he cont ent . I n t hi s
way t hey r esembl e t he hi ghl y ar t i f i ci al endi ng t o t he
Syr i ac t ext of 4Ezr a, who adds a ver se st at i ng t hat Ezr a
had al so under gone a t r i p t o heaven - somet hi ng ent i r el y
st r ange f or t hi s char act er ( but ver y Enoch- l i ke) but whi ch
coul d, maybe, be expect ed by t he audi ence and one t ext
makes Ezr a l ook mor e l i ke ot her vi si onar i es
36
.
We can see t hat expl i ci t mani f est at i ons of di vi ne
i nt er f er ence - or , f or t hat mat t er , even possessi on - i n
mat t er s t hat ar e usual l y under st ood i n pur el y human t er ms
( or may have an expl anat i on ot her t han God’ s mani pul at i on)
ar e r el at i vel y spar se i n apocal ypt i c and pseudepi gr apha i n
gener al
37
. Besi des t he epi sodes di scussed i n t he pr evi ous
sect i on, passages di spl ayi ng di r ect i nt er f er ence over man-
wr i t t en t ext s wi l l be exami ned i n next sect i on.

36
The endi ng, af t er t he Chr i st i an i nt er pol at i on, st at es t hat Ezr a had
been “caught up, and t aken t o t he pl ace of t hose who ar e l i ke hi m,
af t er he had wr i t t en al l t hese t hi ngs [ . . . ] ”. Cf . St one, Four t h Ezr a,
p. 439.
37
One need onl y t o t hi nk of t he numer ous st ances i nvol vi ng possessi on
and exor ci smi n t he New Test ament , some exampl es of whi ch have al r eady
been gi ven above: i t i s by compar i son t o t hese t hat pseudepi gr apha
l ook poor sour ces f or t he t heme. A f ul l and up t o dat e di scussi on on
t he subj ect can be f ound i n Er i c Sor ensen. Possessi on and Exor ci sm i n
t he New Test ament and Ear l y Chr i st i ani t y. Tübi ngen: Mohr Si ebeck,
2002.

169
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. 2. Di vi ne i nt er f er ence mani f est i n t he t ext s
Separ at i on bet ween body and spi r i t of t en appear s i n
pseudepi gr apha i n connect i on t o t he r esur r ect i on of t he
f l esh - a l at e f i xt ur e i n J ewi sh t hought , by compar i son t o
t he mor e anci ent cor e of t he Ol d Test ament
38
. St ances
i l l ust r at i ve of t hat separ at i on appear , i n our t ext s, i n
ApAdam 2: 5; Test Abr 18: 1- 11; J b 1: 20- 23; Ps- Phoc 104- 115;
ApSed 9: 1- 10: 4; 4Ezr a 7: 75- 101.
So 4Ezr a 7: 75- 101:

I f I have f ound f avor i n your si ght , my l or d, show t hi s
al so t o your ser vant : whet her af t er deat h, as soon as
ever y one of us yi el ds up hi s soul , we shal l be kept i n
r est unt i l t hose t i mes come when you wi l l r enew t he
cr eat i on, or wi l l we be t or ment ed at once?

And ApSed 9: 1- 10: 4:

And God sai d t o hi s onl y begot t en Son, ‘ Go, t ake t he
soul of my bel oved Sedr ach, and put i t i n Par adi se’
[ . . . ] And Sedr ach sai d t o God, ‘ Fr om wher e wi l l you
t ake my soul , f r om whi ch member ?’ And God sai d t o hi m,
‘ Do you not know t hat i t i s pl aced i n t he mi ddl e of
your l ungs and your hear t and t hat i t i s spr ead out t o
al l t he member s? I t i s r emoved t hr ough t he phar ynx and
l ar ynx and t hr ough t he mout h; and whenever i t i s due
( t o go out of t he body) i t i s dr awn wi t h di f f i cul t y at
t he begi nni ng and as i t comes t oget her f r om t he
f i nger nai l s and f r om al l t he member s t her e i s, of
necessi t y, a gr eat st r ai n i n bei ng separ at ed f r om t he
body and det ached f r omt he hear t ’ .

Demons act di r ect l y over a man and a chi l d r espect i vel y
i n 1En 69: 12 and 3Br 16: 2. Bot h Eve and t he ser pent ar e
t aken by t he devi l i n Vi t a 17: 4; 16: 5; 17: 4; i n 3Br 9: 7 i t
i s onl y t he snake t hat i s possessed by t he devi l . The
Qumr an t ext s pr ovi de ot her exampl es, among whi ch 1QS 11: 11-

38
Russel l , Met hod and Message, p. 153 f f .

170
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



12 mi ght suf f i ce ( Bel i al i n t he hear t of a man who wor shi ps
i dol s) .
Regar dl ess of what can be i nt er pr et ed as vi si onar y
pr ocesses f r om t he seer ’ s poi nt of vi ew, i n Dn 4: 8- 9, 18;
5: 11- 12, 14 t he gi f t of pr ophecy i s gi ven by God Hi msel f ,
or by ot her gods i n Nebuchadnezzar ’ s vi ew see Dn 4: 8- 9:

At l ast Dani el came i n bef or e me - he who was named
Bel t eshazzar af t er t he name of my god, and who i s
endowed wi t h a spi r i t of t he hol y gods - and I t ol d hi m
t he dr eam: ‘ O Bel t eshazzar , chi ef of t he magi ci ans, I
know t hat you ar e endowed wi t h a spi r i t of t he hol y
gods and t hat no myst er y i s t oo di f f i cul t f or you. Hear
t he dr eamt hat I saw; t el l me i t s i nt er pr et at i on [ . . . ] ’

The i dea i s not new and i n t he Ol d Test ament ot her
exampl es can be f ound i n Ex 31: 1- 6; 35: 30; 36: 2 ( God pour s
Hi s spi r i t over t he ar t i sans i n char ge of t he Taber nacl e) ;
t he J udges act accor di ng t o God’ s i nf l uence i n J dg 3: 10;
11: 29; 6: 34; 14: 6, 19; 15: 14.
The i dea of t he wor ki ng of a spi r i t of some sor t ( not
onl y of God, as i n most of t he exampl es above - i t can be
si mpl y a spi r i t wi t h a char act er i st i c, l i ke t he l yi ng
spi r i t i n 1Kgs 22: 19- 24 - 2Chr 18: 18- 23) was a wel l - known
f eat ur e i n apocal ypt i c t ext s and pseudepi gr apha. Thi s does
not poi nt t o a di r ect l i nk t o t he i dea of possessi on by a
deceased aut hor - i f i t di d t he cr oss- cul t ur al appr oach
t r i ed i n t hi s t hesi s woul d be r edundant - , much l ess t o t he
not i on of r ei ncar nat i on. But i t opens way t o t he i dea of
wr i t i ng a sacr ed t ext i n t he cont ext of J ewi sh ( or
Chr i st i an) aut hor s by means of di r ect ( and not gener al )
spi r i t ual i nf l uence of a def i ni t e agent a ver y r eal
possi bi l i t y - and t hi s adds t o t he not i on t hat exper i ences
descr i bed may be, i n some cases, aut hent i c and r eveal i ng a
st at i c t r ance- l i ke exper i ence - an ASC - r el at ed t o t he

171
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



ver y wr i t i ng down of t he t ext . But bef or e comi ng t o t hat
t est we shal l see, i n t he next par t , some possi bi l i t i es of
spi r i t ual composi t i on pr esent i n wor ks known t o apocal ypt i c
seer s, or shar i ng wi t h t hem a common ambi ence and
backgr ound.

172
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Possi bl e evi dence f or aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n
t hr ee speci f i c anci ent cases

Under t hi s t opi c we shal l deal wi t h t ext s, or even
whol e books, t hat came t o be r egar ded as havi ng been
wr i t t en spi r i t ual l y or even l i t er al l y composed and wr i t t en
by ot her wor l dl y bei ngs. We shal l concent r at e on t hr ee cases
- a passage f r om t he Ol d Test ament , a book wel l - known t o
t he Mani cheans and a conf i r med case of i mpost ur e by a Gr eek
Fi r st - cent ur y myst i c. Gi ven t he scar ci t y of passages
deal i ng wi t h t hose i ssues, i t i s wor t h t aki ng a cl oser l ook
at t he passages sel ect ed.

4. 1. Wr i t i ngs f r om a deceased pr ophet vi a human hands: t he
case of 2Chr 21
We ar e deal i ng her e wi t h somet hi ng ent i r el y di f f er ent
f r ompseudepi gr aphy because t he t ext does not i mpl y t hat i t
may be a f aki ng devi ce ( t o wr i t e i n t he name of a deceased)
but r at her t hat somet hi ng wr i t t en came f r om a per son t hat
shoul d pr obabl y be dead ( or at l east no l onger among t he
l i vi ng; cf . 2Kgs 2: 11) at t hat t i me. Thi s i s of t he ut most
i mpor t ance and shows t hat wr i t i ngs i n t he name of t he dead
wer e, at l east i n t hi s st ance, possi bl e i n t he Ol d
Test ament .
The t ext r eads:

A l et t er came t o hi m f r om t he pr ophet El i j ah, sayi ng:
‘ Thus says t he Lor d, t he God of your f at her Davi d:
Because you have not wal ked i n t he ways of your f at her
J ehoshaphat or i n t he ways of Ki ng Asa of J udah
[ . . . ] ’
39

39
Ther e ar e no cont r over si al i ssues r egar di ng t he Hebr ew or LXX Gr eek
t ext s, whi ch I quot e her e due t o t he i mpor t ance of t he whol e passage
f or t he t heme di scussed: t he MT r eads ·:s· s·:.¬ ·¬··s: :-:: ‘···s s:··

and t he
Gr eek -at µìò.| au·a .,,ça|µ :aça Hìteu ·eu :çe|µ·eu ì.,a| [ . . . ] , bot h conveyi ng

173
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




The passage can be under st ood i n t er ms of aut omat i c
wr i t i ng - t he means by whi ch t he t ext came t o be ar e not
st at ed, how El i j ah made i t appear t o t he r eci pi ent - or as
a st yl i st i c / t heol ogi cal devi ce such as t he nar r at i ve i n
2Kgs 23: 24:

Mor eover J osi ah put away t he medi ums, wi zar ds,
t er aphi m, i dol s, and al l t he abomi nat i ons t hat wer e
seen i n t he l and of J udah and i n J er usal em, so t hat he
est abl i shed t he wor ds of t he l aw t hat wer e wr i t t en i n
t he book t hat t he pr i est Hi l ki ah had f ound i n t he house
of t he Lor d.

Al t hough we ar e t empt ed t o t r eat bot h cases equal l y, i t
appear s at f i r st si ght t hat i n 2Chr oni cl es one st at es
somet hi ng uni que i n t he Ol d Test ament - namel y t hat t he
deceased coul d, under cer t ai n ci r cumst ances, convey wr i t t en
messages t o t he l i vi ng. I t al so st at es t hat i t came i n t he
f or mof a wr i t t en t ext . I t can al ways be ar gued t hat , even
i f t he i dea of r ecei vi ng a l et t er f r omt he dead i s what t he
passage i mpl i es, t hi s coul d have been t he pr oduct of pi ous
f r aud or pl ai n decept i on. Be t hat as i t may, 2Chr 21: 12
const i t ut es pot ent i al evi dence i n t he Ol d Test ament t hat a
f or mof communi cat i ng wi t h t he beyond vi a wr i t t en t ext s was
known t o Second Templ e J ews vi a t he ( much mor e anci ent )
t ext s of t he Hebr ew Bi bl e ( a usual dat i ng f or Chr oni cl es
bei ng t he begi nni ng of t he Hel l eni st i c per i od, i . e.
somet i me af t er 300 BCE) . I t shoul d be not ed t hat t he
di scr eet t one of t he nar r at i ve and t he absence of comment s
wor t hy of t he i mpor t ance of t he f eat , shoul d we be deal i ng
wi t h t r ue aut omat i c wr i t i ng, al l ar gue i n f avour of t he

t he same meani ng - a wr i t i ng, or l et t er , came t o J ehor am, ki ng of
J udah.

174
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



passage bei ng not hi ng mor e t han a devi ce si mi l ar t o t he
2Kgs t ext .
A moder n comment ar y on t he passage t el l s us t hat
ar guabl y El i j ah coul d have st i l l been al i ve at t he t i me of
t he accessi on of J ehor am of J udah t o t he t hr one
40
, but i t
i s wor t h not i ng t hat nowher e el se does t he Chr oni cl er
ment i on pr opheci es ei t her by El i j ah or El i sha
41
. Myer s
pr oposes t hat t he whol e st or y coul d be apocr yphal .
The same aut hor pr oposes t hat t her e ar e si mi l ar st or i es
of

[ . . . ] pr ophet s pr edi ct i ng di sast er f or ki ngs bef or e t he
event , f or exampl e Shemai ah f or Rehoboam ( 12: 5 f f . ) ,
Hanani f or Asa ( 16: 7 f f . ) , J ehu f or J ehosaphat ( 19: 2
f f . ) , Zechar ai ah f or J oash ( 24: 20 f f . ) and Azar i ah t he
pr i est f or Uzzi ah ( 26: 17 f f . ) The l et t er coul d possi bl y
have some basi s i n f act [ . . . ] i n t hat st or i es and wor ds
ar e of t en shi f t ed f r om a l ess wel l - known t o a bet t er
known name
42
.

I n Rabbi ni c t r adi t i on, t he passage i s comment ed i n
Seder Ol am Zut a 58. 7 wi t hout any pr obl ems ar i si ng due t o
t he l et t er bei ng ascr i bed t o El i j ah
43
. I t shoul d be not ed
t hat t her e ar e no passages i n t he Ol d Test ament r ef er r i ng

40
Al t hough a st r ai ght f or war d r eadi ng of 2Kgs 2- 3 suggest s t hat he was
dead by t hat t i me; cf . Raymond B. Di l l ar d. 2 Chr oni cl es. Wor d Bi bl i cal
Comment ar y. Waco: Wor d Books, 1987. P. 167. The l et t er mi ght have had
“t he f or ce of a voi ce comi ng f r om t he dead”, what ever t hi s means,
accor di ng t o anot her comment ar y ( Fr ank E. Gaebel ei n ( ed. ) . The
Exposi t or ' s Bi bl e Comment ar y. Gr and Rapi ds: Zonder van, 1988. P. 507) .
41
J acob M. Myer s. I I Chr oni cl es. New Yor k: Doubl eday, 1965. Pp. 121-
122. Cf . al so Wi l hel m Rudol ph. “Pr obl ems of t he Books of Chr oni cl es”,
VT 4, 1954.
42
I dem, p. 122. Cor r espondence by t hi s means was al so usual at t he
t i me, i f we al l ow f or t he chr onol ogi cal di f f i cul t i es i n pr ovi ng t hat
El i j ah was al i ve; cf . Si mon J . Vr i es. 1 and 2 Chr oni cl es. The For ms of
t he Ol d Test ament Li t er at ur e. Gr and Rapi ds: Eer dmans, 1989. P. 333.
43
Aar on Hyman. Sef er Tor ah ha- ket uvah veha- mesur ah ‘ al Tor ah, Nevi ’ i m
u- Khet uvi m: mar ’ e mekomot ‘ al kol pesuke ha- Tanakh ha- muva’ i m be- r ov
si f r e Tor ah shebe- ‘ al peh, ve- ‘ od har beh si f r e Hazal ve- Ri shoni m. Tel
Avi v: Devi r , 1979 ( i n Hebr ew) . The absence of scandal or even
quest i oni ng poi nt s t o t he passage bei ng consi der ed as nor mal , t hough,
and does not hi ng t o r ei nf or ce t he aut omat i c wr i t i ng t heor y f or i t s
backgr ound.

175
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t o t he act i on of spi r i t s ent i r el y i ndependent of human
act i on ( t he epi sode of t he wi t ch at Endor - 1Sm 28: 6 f f ,
t he r est r i ct i ons on mani pul at i ng t he dead i n Dt 18: 11, al l
depend on anot her per son t o wor k)
44
.
I t shoul d al so be not ed t hat , apocr yphal , psychogr aphed
or wr i t t en i n usual f ashi on wi t h El i j ah st i l l al i ve, t he
genr e t o whi ch i t can be ascr i bed - t hat of t he or acul ar
l et t er - i s at t est ed i n ot her pl aces ( i n t he OT, J r LXX
36: 4- 23; 26- 28 or 29: 4- 23; 24- 28; 30- 32, and i n t he Anci ent
Near East we al so f i nd evi dence f or i t i n Mar i , i n t he
l et t er s sent t o Zi mr i l i m)
45
.
The f i gur e of El i j ah hi msel f woul d sui t wel l such an
epi sode, r el at ed as he i s t o al l sor t s of f ol kl or e i n
J udai sm
46
. The hi st or i cal set t i ng of t he bad ki ngshi p of
J ehor aml ends i t sel f t o t he use of El i j ah f or t he pur pose,
but hi s f ol kl or i c char act er al so seems t o have pl ayed a
par t i n t he whol e epi sode
47
; i t must be r emember ed t hat ,
si nce El i j ah was t he champi on of Yahwi sm agai nst t he cul t
of Baal he woul d sui t t he Chr oni cl er ’ s i dea of f or gi ng a
document i n hi s name especi al l y wel l
48
.

44
Edwyn Bevan. Si byl s and Seer s, a Sur vey of Some Anci ent Theor i es of
Revel at i on and I nspi r at i on. London: G. Al l en & Unwi n, 1928. P. 40.
45
Davi d Aune. Pr ophecy i n Ear l y Chr i st i ani t y and t he Anci ent
Medi t er r anean Wor l d. Gr and Rapi ds: Wi l l i am B. Eer dmans, 1983. Pp. 72-
73.
46
I t woul d be i nappr opr i at e t o di scuss al l t hat t r adi t i on her e, but
f or our pur poses a not e i n a Byzant i ne encomi um at t r i but ed t o J ohn
Cr ysost om says t hat “Whosoever shal l t ake t he pai ns t o have a book
made and wr i t t en i n t hy [ El i j ah’ s] name, and shal l dedi cat e i t t o t hy
shr i ne, I wi l l wr i t e hi s name i n t he book of l i f e, and wi l l make hi m
t o i nher i t t he good t hi ngs of t he ki ngdom of heaven”. Cf . Davi d
Fr ankf ur t er . El i j ah i n Upper Egypt : t he Apocal ypse of El i j ah and Ear l y
Egypt i an Chr i st i ani t y. Mi nneapol i s: For t r ess Pr ess, 1993. P. 75.
47
Of El i j ah much i s hi dden i n l egend - of hi s deat h f or exampl e we
r ead i n 2 Ki ngs 2: 11 t hat he was t aken up t o Heaven ( l i ke Enoch) ;
Mal achi makes hi m al i ve wi t h God t o ent r ust hi m wi t h an i mpor t ant
mi ssi on i n t he end of t i me ( Mal 4: 5- 6) . I n any case, we ar e not t ol d
by t he Chr oni cl er t hat El i j ah was dead when t he wr i t i ng came t o
J ehor am, but t hat was hi s appar ent i nt ent i on; cf . Bevan, Si byl s and
Seer s, pp. 112- 113.
48
Hugh G. M. Wi l l i amson. 1 and 2 Chr oni cl es. New Cent ur y Bi bl e
Comment ar y. London / Gr and Rapi ds: Mar shal l , Mor gan & Scot t /

176
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The r ecei ved wr i t i ng of 2Chr i s al so r emar kabl e among
anci ent r evel at i ons i n t hat , i f i t was an aut hent i c
exper i ence, i t woul d gi ve us an exampl e of a spi r i t of a
deceased comi ng back t o del i ver a message when t he usual
pr act i ce i n Ant i qui t y i s f or l i vi ng char act er s t o go t o t he
beyond and, on t hei r r et ur n, r eveal what t hey had seen
49
.
The f or mat of t he st or y put s i t cl oser t o moder n r evel at or y
j our neys of t he deceased back t o t he l i vi ng wor l d
50
.

4. 2. Text s handed down di r ect l y f r om above: t he Book of
El chasai
Thi s t ext , of whi ch we have l i t t l e mor e t han hear say
i nf or mat i on, i s i mpor t ant i n t hi s di scussi on because i t i s
a r emar kabl e exampl e of ascr i bi ng of aut hor shi p t o a
super nat ur al bei ng.
I n t he Book of El chasai we ar e deal i ng wi t h a somewhat
di f f er ent t r adi t i on i n t he pr oduct i on of sacr ed t ext s
i nasmuch as we shoul d be wi t nessi ng not human
i nt er medi at i on i n t he maki ng of t he f i nal t ext , but r at her
t he super nat ur al pr oduct i on of t he whol e ar t i f act . The
st or y of t hi s book can be summed up i n t he account gi ven t o
us by Hi ppol yt us ( c. 170- 236 CE)
51
. A Gr eek- Syr i an cal l ed
Al ci bi ades br ought t o Rome an El chasai t e book t hat he
r ecei ved f r om t he Chi nese ( apo\ Shr w=n) , but i ni t i al l y he

Eer dmans, 1982. Pp. 306- 307. Wi l l i amson r i ght l y poi nt s out t hat t he
absence of a wr i t t en mi ni st r y by El i j ah i n Ki ngs al so ar gues agai nst
t he aut hent i ci t y of t he l et t er ; however , he admi t s t hat t he passage i n
uncl ear i n t hi s r espect and t hat t he Chr oni cl er coul d, i n t heor y, have
t hought of a l et t er sent di r ect l y f r om El i j ah, even i f t hi s has no OT
par al l el s.
49
Ther e ar e many exampl es, but one needs onl y t o t hi nk about Er , t he
Ar meni an i n Pl at o’ s Republ i c, about Odysseus i n t he I l i ad or i n al l
t he “ot her wor l dl y j our ney” apocal ypses di scussed i n t hi s t hesi s.
50
Bevan, op. ci t . pp. 94- 95.
51
Al t hough t he book i t sel f i s ear l i er , bei ng hel d i n hi gh r eput e by
Ebi oni t es dwel l i ng i n l ower J or dan and t he Dead Sea.

177
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



cl ai med t hat i t had been wr i t t en by an angel , who was 96
mi l es hi gh.

A cer t ai n Al ci bi ades, who l i ved i n Apamea i n Syr i a
[ . . . ] came t o Rome and br ought wi t h hi m a book. Of i t
he sai d t hat El chasai , a r i ght eous man, had r ecei ved i t
f r om t he Ser es i n Par t hi a and had t r ansmi t t ed i t t o a
cer t ai n Sobi ai . I t had been communi cat ed by an angel ,
whose hei ght was 24 schoi noi [ . . . ]
52

The book announced a new ki nd of bapt i sm and pr ovi des
f or pur i f i cat i on t hr ough wat er , among ot her det ai l s t hat
need not concer n us her e. I t i s r emar kabl e f or t he
f ant ast i c t al e i nvol vi ng i t s concept i on, but i t does not
al l ow f or aut omat i c wr i t i ng or posessi onal medi umni st i c
phenomenon - bei ng mor e of an exampl e of how t ext s coul d be
super nat ur al l y concei ved i n Ant i qui t y ( al t hough i t appear s
f r om t he st or y t hat Al ci bi ades qui ckl y had t o change hi s
ot her wor l dl y aut hor i al cl ai ms a bi t t o t he mor e modest
assumpt i on t hat t he book was j ust handed over t o hi m i n a
nor mal f ashi on i n Par t hi a - i . e. t he super nat ur al sect i on
of t he st or y coul d t hus be saf el y r emi t t ed t o someone el se,
a t hi r d- par t y unknown t o anyone but t o Al ci bi ades hi msel f ,
t hat i s El chasai )
53
.

52
Hyppol i t us. El enchos 9. 13 i n: Paul Wendl and ( ed. ) . Hyppol i t us Wer ke
- Ref ut at i o omni um haer esi um. Di e gr i echi schen chr i st l i chen
Schr i f t st el l er der er st en J ahr hunder t e. Lei pzi g: J . C. Hi nr i chs, 1985.
Tr ansl at i on by J ohannes I r mscher , i n Wi l hel m Schneemel cher ( ed. ) . New
Test ament Apocr ypha. Vol . 2. London: Lut t er wor t h Pr ess, 1965. Pp. 745-
746. The hei ght of t he angel echoes t hat of Met at r on i n 3En; cf .
Rebecca M. Lesses. Ri t ual Pr act i ces t o Gai n Power : Angel s,
I ncant at i ons, and Revel at i on i n Ear l y J ewi sh Myst i ci sm. Har r i sbur g:
Tr i ni t y Pr ess I nt er nat i onal , 1998.
53
Cf . al so Samuel Li eu. Mani chaei sm i n t he Lat er Roman Empi r e and
Medi eval Chi na. Manchest er : Manchest er Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1985. Pp. 27-
28. Epi phani us i s t he ot her wi t ness t o t hi s amazi ng book, of whi ch we
onl y have meager f r agment s.

178
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The i dea t hat knowl edge coul d be di r ect l y gi ven f r om
angel s t o a man f i nds a par al l el i n Eupol emus
54
, who cl ai ms
t he same achi evement f or Enoch - whom he saw as a r eal
char act er , i n f l esh and bl ood
55
. The not i on of
pseudepi gr aphy as appl i ed t o t ext s di r ect l y wr i t t en by
ot her wor l dl y bei ngs mi ght have i t s ol dest exampl e i n t he
Hammur abi Codex, handed over by Shamash, j udge of Heaven
and Ear t h
56
.

4. 3. Fr aud and sat i r e: wr i t t en i nst r uct i ons f or t he Gr eek
cr edul ous
A br i ef ment i on of anot her case of super nat ur al l y
concei ved wr i t i ngs i n t he r el i gi ous spher e i s due r egar di ng
a f al se pr ophet f r om Asi a Mi nor , who pr oduced t ext s wi t h
t he mani f est i nt ent i on of decei vi ng an audi ence. I t i s not
r el at ed t o J ewi sh apocal ypt i c ( al t hough t o Si byl l i ne
Or acl es) , but show how cont empor ar y peopl e – al t hough Pagan
- woul d r eact t o super nat ur al aut hor shi p of t ext s.
A r emar kabl e account of t hose r eact i ons i s gi ven by
Luci an of Samosat a ( Second cent ur y CE) , i n hi s Al exander .
The whol e wor k t el l s us about t he wr ongdoi ngs of an
i mpost or i n Asi a Mi nor cal l ed Al exander , whose t r i cks ar e
expounded by Luci an i n det ai l ( he was even t hr eat ened wi t h
mur der on account of t hi s - cf . Al exander . 56) . One of t he
speci al t i es of t he char l at an was t o gi ve answer s t o t he
consul t ant ’ s questi ons put i n a l i ttl e scrol l seal ed speci al l y f or
t he pur pose:


54
Pr obabl y t o be i dent i f i ed wi t h Eupol emus son of J ohn son of Accos,
( 1Mc 8: 17; 2Mc 4: 11) ; he was sent on an embassy t o Rome i n 161 BCE t o
negot i at e a t r eat y bet ween t he Hasmoneans and Rome.
55
Eusebi us, Pr ep. Ev. 9. 17.
56
Mar t i n Ri st . “Pseudepi gr aphy and t he ear l y Chr i st i ans” i n: Davi d
Aune ( ed. ) . St udi es i n New Test ament and Ear l y Chr i st i an Li t er at ur e:
Essays i n Honor of Al l en P. Wi kgr en. Lei den: Br i l l , 1972. P. 75

179
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



[ . . . ] Al exander announced t o al l comer s t hat t he God
woul d make pr opheci es, and named a dat e f or i t i n
advance. He di r ect ed ever yone t o wr i t e down i n a scr ol l
what ever he want ed and what he especi al l y wi shed t o
l ear n, t o t i e i t up, and t o seal i t wi t h wax or cl ay or
somet hi ng el se of t hat sor t . Then he hi msel f , af t er
t aki ng t he scr ol l s and ent er i ng t he i nner sanct uar y
[ . . . ] pr oposed t o summon i n or der , wi th heral d and pri est,
those who had submi tted them, and af t er t he god t ol d hi m
about each case, t o gi ve back the scrol l wi th the seal upon i t,
j ust as i t was, and t he r epl y t o i t endor sed upon i t ; f or
t he god woul d r epl y expl i ci t l y t o any quest i on t hat
anyone shoul d put
57

Luci an goes on t o t el l us how t he decept i on wor ked, how
Al exander woul d undo t he waxed seal s et c. , mi nor det ai l
t hat needs not concer n us her e. The i mpor t ant t hi ng t o be
not ed i s t hat , al t hough i t appear s as ext r emel y r ar e t o t he
Gr eeks t hat same message coul d come f r omt he beyond i n such
f ashi on - and t hi s expl ai ns par t of Luci an’ s own
bewi l der ment - , nonet hel ess i t was an accept abl e enough
i dea t o ensur e Al exander ’ s success, not l ocal l y but
t hr oughout t he whol e Medi t er r anean – and he ended hi s
car eer mar r yi ng t he daught er of t he Roman gover nor of Asi a
Mi nor ( Al exander . 34- 37) . I n shor t , t he use of a
super nat ur al , f al se wr i t i ng by Al exander ( al t hough not
i mpl yi ng act ual possessi on) shows how easy i t coul d be t o
st ar t an or acul ar t r adi t i on f r omscr at ch, and t hat t he i dea
of wr i t t en sacr ed ut t er ances f r om beyond woul d f i nd r eady
l i st ener s
58
.

57
Al exander t he Fal se Pr ophet . LCL, 19.
58
Er i c R. Dodds. Pagan and Chr i st i an i n an Age of Anxi et y: Some
Aspect s of Rel i gi ous Exper i ence f r om Mar cus Aur el i us t o Const ant i ne.
New Yor k / London: Nor t on, 1970. P. 56. I t must be poi nt ed out t hat
opposi t i on t o hi s pr act i ces came onl y f r omSt oi cs and Chr i st i ans.

180
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



5. Summar y

The mai n i ssues di scussed i n t hi s chapt er can be
summar i zed bel ow:

1. The pr esence of di vi ne par t i ci pat i on i n t he
composi t i on of sacr ed t ext s i s a common f eat ur e i n J ewi sh
l i t er at ur e.
2. Lack of det ai l can gi ve a st er eot yped appear ance t o
t he descr i pt i on of exper i ences – but even her e gr eat car e
must be t aken, as t hi s appear s so i n Vi sEzr a but not i n
ApEl , an equal l y l aconi c t ext r egar di ng act ual aut hor i al
i nf or mat i on ( see next chapt er ) .
3. The i dea of a hi dden voi ce di ct at i ng or commandi ng
t he act ual wr i t er i s not unusual i n Second Templ e t ext s
( e. g. Phi l o, ApSed
59
)
4. Super nat ur al exper i ences may t ake t he f or m of a bi g
devel opment of Scr i pt ur al t ext ( LdJ b on Gn, Ap on Ez, Dn on
J r , 4Ezr a on Dn) .
5. Si byl l i ne or acl es, exot i c as t hey ar e – f or
pr ovenance, i dent i t y and f or pr esent i ng t he onl y t r ue
vi si onar y f emal e f i gur es i n t he l i t er at ur e anal yzed –
convey t he bi ggest i ndi vi dual gr oupi ng of f i r st per son
exper i ences, of t en i mpl yi ng compl ai nt on compul si on,
i ncl udi ng unpl easant af t er ef f ect s.
6. Wr i t i ng f r om t he deceased t o t he l i vi ng may wel l be
t he case i n 2Chr 21: 12 but i s by no means cer t ai n: t he
st or y of El i j ah may be apocr yphal or he mi ght have been
al i ve at t he t i me of del i ver y ( al t hough t hi s seems
i mpr obabl e) .

59
Thi s one, as di scussed above, di spl ayi ng a cl ear Second Templ e
cont ent and out l ook al t hough havi ng been composed, i n i t s f i nal f or m,
at a much l at er dat e. Cf . OTP 1, p. 605 f f .

181
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



7. Wr i t i ngs such as Luci an’ s and t he Book of El chasai
show what r ecept i on super nat ur al aut hor shi p mi ght have had
i n l at e Ant i qui t y, but not bei ng r el at ed t o J ewi sh
apocal ypt i c ( or even t o Chr i st i an r ecept i on of t hat
phenomenon) t hei r r el evance i s l i mi t ed.
8. Cor por at e i dent i t y does not appear t o be a val i d
concept t o under st and event ual i dent i t y bet ween act ual and
put at i ve aut hor s of apocal ypses and pseudepi gr apha i n
gener al . I t r est s on dubi ous t heor et i cal assumpt i ons and i n
t he gener al i zat i on of l egal aspect s of Hebr ew t r adi t i on t o
ot her spher es. Besi des, ot her exampl es i n apocal ypt i c t ext s
t hemsel ves i mpl y t hat communi cat i on wi t h t he di vi ne coul d
be open wi t hout t hi s meani ng t o l i ve i n a per manent pr esent
t ense. Communi on wi t h bi bl i cal f i gur es shal l be exami ned i n
t he next chapt er .
9. ASC- i nduci ng devi ces by Second Templ e myst i cs i mpl y
t he f act t hat t he myst i c al r eady knows what t o expect of
t he exper i ence, whi ch can nonet hel ess be r i ch and var i ed
si nce t her e i s some amount of space f or var i at i on ( t hi s
makes t he appl i cat i on of t he t heor y of t he vi si onar y
descr i pt i ons as l i t er ar y t opoi mor e di f f i cul t , or at l east
di smi sses si mpl i st i c expl anat i ons) .

182
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHAPTER 6: CONSI DERATI ONS ON RELI GI OUS PSEUDEPI GRAPHY
I N ANTI QUI TY


1. I nt r oduct or y r emar ks t o t he chapt er

I n t hi s chapt er we wi l l t ake a cl oser l ook at sour ces
t hat di spl ay f i r st - hand knowl edge of r el i gi ous
pseudepi gr aphy at wor k i n Ant i qui t y, i n sever al di f f er ent
st ances: as a l i st i ng of names chosen t o chr i st en
apocal ypt i c t ext s, as exami nat i on of some cases wher e
di r ect spi r i t ual at t r i but i on i s i nvol ved and as ar gui ng, i n
l at e Ant i qui t y’ s own t er ms, about pseudepi gr aphy i n t he
maki ng ( i . e. pseudepi gr apher s caught i n t he ver y act of
wr i t i ng and si gni ng up as someone el se) .
Fi r st of al l we wi l l exami ne a sur vey of t he names
under whose gui se apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e and r el at ed
mat er i al wer e wr i t t en: how many t ext s ar e ascr i bed t o a
gi ven char act er and how many t o anot her , and how t hese
choi ces ar e r el at ed - how t he names f i t or do not f i t t he
cont ent t hey si gn.
Next t he possi bi l i t y of r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy as
l i t er ar y f r aud - as opposed t o t he hypot hesi s t est ed i n t he
t hesi s, t hat of pseudepi gr aphy as myst i cal phenomenon - i s
sket ched. Thi s sect i on concent r at es on t wo wel l - document ed
cases of l at e Ant i qui t y epi st ol ar y pseudepi gr aphy, t hose of
Ter t ul i an ( r epor t i ng someone el se abusi ng Paul ’ s name as an
aut hor ) and t hat of Sal vi an of Mar sei l l e, caught i n t he act
of wr i t i ng under t he gui se of a r espect abl e pat r on,
Ti mot hy. The chapt er concl udes wi t h t he i mpor t ant
di scussi on on aut hor i al ascr i bi ng ver sus or t hodoxy of
cont ent s - a mai n i ssue i n Kar deci sm. I t appear s t hat
183

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



r i ght l y ascr i bed aut hor shi p was mor e i mpor t ant t o t he
anci ent r eader shi ps we ar e deal i ng wi t h t han t o moder n
ones, wher e Kar deci st sour ces and pr act i t i oner s ar e
unani mous i n consi der i ng doct r i nal cor r ect ness mor e
i mpor t ant t han pr eci se at t r i but i on of a gi ven t ext t o t hi s
or t hat spi r i t ual bei ng.
The cases exami ned pr ovi de an i nt er est i ng backgr ound
agai nst whi ch t o posi t i on t he cr oss- cul t ur al per spect i ve of
t he whol e t hesi s, si nce t hey ar e i nsi ght f ul r egar di ng how
r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy was per cei ved i n Ant i qui t y, at
l east i n some ci r cl es. Thi s compar i son i s not enough t o
pr ecl ude t he use of br oader cr oss- cul t ur al met hods f or t he
pur poses of t he t hesi s but hel ps t o show di f f er ences and
si mi l ar i t i es bet ween t he ways anci ent and moder n
pseudonymous r el i gi ous wr i t i ngs wer e per cei ved.

184

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. A sur vey of chosen names f or apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy

A f i r st at t empt on a syst emat i c appr eci at i on of t he
names chosen as put at i ve aut hor s i n anci ent ( i ncl udi ng
apocal ypt i c) pseudepi gr aphy was t r i ed by Br ocki ngt on f i f t y
year s ago
1
. I n hi s ar t i cl e we come t o t he concl usi on t hat ,
wi t h t he except i on of t he t wel ve pat r i ar chs, apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy r ef er s t o 8 names - Dani el , Enoch, Ezr a,
Bar uch, Moses, I sai ah, Abr aham and Noah. Br ocki ngt on does
not i ncl ude El i j ah, one of t he most i mpor t ant ones f or t he
quest i on, pr esumabl y because i t bel ongs t o a Chr i st i an
t ext , ApEl
2
.
I have not hi ng t o add t o t hat l i st ( except i ng El i j ah)
and woul d l i ke t o go i nt o f ur t her cl assi f i cat i on. Of t he 9
names, 2 ar e ant edi l uvi an char act er s ( Enoch and Noah) , 1 i s
a f oundi ng f i gur e r el at ed t o t he pat r i ar chs ( Abr aham) , 3
ar e pr ophet s ( Moses, I sai ah and El i j ah) , 2 ar e l awgi ver s
( Moses agai n and Ezr a) , 1 i s a f ol kt al e char act er t o whom
pr ophet i c deeds ar e at t r i but ed but i n a di f f er ent f ashi on
f r omcl assi cal pr ophecy ( Dani el ) and 1 i s a secr et ar y t o a
pr ophet ( Bar uch - cf . J r 45: 1) .
Fr omt hi s we can see t hat pr ophet s ar e t he most common
f i gur es ( al t hough t hi s does not l ead t o any st r engt hened
l i nks bet ween pr ophecy and apocal ypt i c) . But t he var i at i on

1
Leonar d H. Br ocki ngt on. “Pr obl em of pseudonymi t y”, J TS 4: 15- 22,
1953. P. 17.
2
An i mpor t ant i ssue t o r emember i s t hat , whi l e i n Ant i qui t y t he name
t aken i s usual l y f r om a gr eat f i gur e of t he past , i n t he moder n wor l d
t he r ul e i s t o i nvent pseudonyms. Cf . Davi d G. Meade. Pseudonymi t y and
Canon: an I nvest i gat i on i nt o t he Rel at i onshi p of Aut hor shi p and
Aut hor i t y i n J ewi sh and Ear l i est Chr i st i an Tr adi t i on. Gr and Rapi ds:
Eer dmans, 1987. Pp. 1- 2. I n Kar deci sm, however , t he t aki ng of past
names seem t o be t he r ul e as wel l , as i t at t est s t o t he t r ut hf ul ness
of t he message di spl ayed - and t hi s devi ce can even l ead t o gr eat
si mi l ar i t y of det ai l and st yl e, as we can obser ve i n Chi co Xavi er ’ s
f i r st poet r y book, di scussed above.
185

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i s ver y smal l - ant edi l uvi an char act er s ar e out number ed by
so l i t t l e so t hat no concl usi ons mi ght be dr awn f r om t hat
sur vey, ot her t han apocal ypt i c put at i ve aut hor shi p had a
st agger i ng amount of di ver si t y r egar di ng t he choosi ng of
names.
To t hat mat t er Br ocki ngt on r ai sed t he hypot hesi s t hat ,
whi l e t he Law was Mosai c by nat ur e, Wi sdomwas Sol omoni c -
t hus, l egal wor ks woul d be nor mal l y at t r i but ed t o Moses,
and sapi ent i al ones t o Sal omon
3
. The r eason f or t he
di ver si t y i n apocal ypt i c woul d be, accor di ng t o
Br ocki ngt on, t he ever - changi ng si t uat i on f aced by t hei r
aut hor s
4
. But t hi s woul d al so hol d t r ue f or t he ot her
genr es - l egal t ext s’ aut hor s and wi se men woul d al l have
suf f er ed t he consequences of pol i t i cal or soci al
i nst abi l i t y, whi ch seems t o be what Br ocki ngt on means.
Anot her mat t er woul d be t o put t hi s i n a posi t i ve way, i . e.
t o i magi ne t hat t he si t uat i on of t hi s or t hat past
char act er i s si mi l ar t o t hat of t he act ual wr i t er who
woul d, i n t ur n, be j ust i f i ed i n choosi ng hi s name
5
. But
t hi s wi l l al ways r emai n a supposi t i on si nce we cannot know
t he par t i cul ar si t uat i ons of ever y apocal ypt i c wr i t er and
i t woul d be r i sky t o i nf er t hem i n r ever se, i . e. f r om t he
chosen por t r ayed name t o a gi ven si t uat i on
6
.
Anot her possi bi l i t y woul d be t hat t he chosen aut hor s
wer e “new” i n t he sense t hat Moses and t he pr ophet s al r eady

3
I d. i bi d.
4
I dem, p. 22.
5
J er emy Duf f . A Reconsi der at i on of Pseudepi gr aphy i n Ear l y
Chr i st i ani t y. DPhi l . Theol ogy Facul t y. Oxf or d, Oxf or d, 1997. P. 176.
6
The same r easoni ng hol ds t r ue f or Kar deci st t ext s - t her e t he
di ver si t y of name pi cki ng i s, as we saw, st agger i ng and r anges f r om
Fi r st - cent ur y Roman senat or s t o Mar i l yn Monr oe. What does t hat f act
al one t el l us about Kar deci st s’ si t uat i on i n t he pr esent t i me? Not
much, I woul d say.
186

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



had t hei r books and so a r enewed message shoul d be
accor di ngl y del i ver ed i n t he name of “new” aut hor s
7
.
But t hi s does not ent i r el y expl ai n why peopl e who
al r eady had books ascr i bed t o t hem woul d al so pr ovi de
sui t abl e names t o be chosen. I t i s not ewor t hy t hat t he most
pr ol i f i c pseudepi gr aphed apocal ypt i c aut hor ( a t r ue “pat r on
sai nt ” of apocal ypt i c vi si onar i es
8
) , Enoch, had no book of
hi s own i n what woul d become t he Ol d Test ament . On t he
ot her hand, Ezr a i s a common f i gur e i n apocal ypt i c al t hough
he al r eady had hi s own book pr evi ousl y: I sai ah and Moses
had al so had t hei r own books f or a l ong t i me bef or e
apocal ypt i c came t o l i ght .
Thi s pr evi ous avai l abi l i t y as an aut hor ( such i s t he
case of Ezr a) cannot be t he onl y cr i t er i on f or assi gni ng
r espect abi l i t y t o a por t r ayed f i gur e i n t he apocal ypses.
Abr aham and El i j ah, f or i nst ance, di d not have books of
t hei r own i n t he cent ur i es bef or e t he bi r t h of apocal ypt i c.
But t he i dea t hat names pr evi ousl y unassi gned t o books wer e
mor e el i gi bl e f or pseudepi gr aphy t hat mor e common ones,
does not seemt o sol ve t he pr obl emsi nce we f i nd bot h names
common as aut hor s and ot her s t hat ar e not .
I t shoul d al so be not ed t hat whi l e i n Ant i qui t y i t
appear s t hat r el i gi ous wr i t i ng i n t he name of someone el se
was qui t e nor mal , t he nor m woul d be t o wr i t e ( anonymousl y)
i n t he f i r st per son
9
. At t r i but i on t o anot her per son - whi ch

7
Cf . Mor t on Smi t h. “Pseudepi gr aphy on t he I sr ael i t e l i t er ar y
t r adi t i on”, Pseud. I , p. 214. “What t hey had t o say was known; new
r evel at i ons shoul d be put i n t he mout hs of new, but pr est i gi ous,
speaker s”.
8
Al and, op. ci t . p. 21.
9
Fr eder i k Tor m. “Di e Psychol ogi e der Pseudoni mi t ät i mHi nbl i ck auf di e
Li t er at ur des Ur chr i st ent ums” i n: Nor ber t Br ox ( ed. ) . Pseudepi gr aphi e
i n der Hei dni schen und J üdi sch- Chr i st l i chen Ant i ke. Dar mst adt :
Wi ssenschaf t l i che Buchgesel l schaf t , 1977. P. 112. I n Eccl esi ast es t he
exhor t at i ve t one of t he di scour se i s al so der i vat i ve f r om t he f i r st -
per son speech, and cr eat es an i dent i t y f or t he f i ct i ve char act er under
whi ch t he t ext i s put . Cf . Samuel Cheon. “Anonymi t y i n t he Wi sdom of
Sol omon”, J SP 18: 111- 119, 1998. Pp. 111- 115; Br uce Met zger t akes t hi s
187

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



occur s i n a gr eat deal of t he New Test ament - cannot be
st r i ct l y consi der ed pseudepi gr aphy, but r at her mi st aken
at t r i but i on whi ch i s somet hi ng t hat does not concer n us
her e.

possi bi l i t y f ur t her i n hi s f amous ar t i cl e, “Li t er ar y f or ger i es and
canoni cal pseudepi gr apha”, J BL 91: 3- 24, 1972. P. 20.
188

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Pseudepi gr aphy and f or ger y

3. 1. Cent r al el ement s t o t he not i on of l i t er ar y f or ger y
To assume t hat pseudepi gr aphi c apocal ypses ar e an
i mi t at i on of somet hi ng el se assumes, evi dent l y, t hat t her e
ar e or i gi nal s t o be i mi t at ed
10
. Besi des, i t al so supposes
t hat t he J ews l i vi ng bet ween I I BCE and I CE had a cl ear
not i on of l i t er ar y pr oper t y, whi ch cannot be pr oved
11
. And
i f a f or ger y i s t o be successf ul i t depends upon t he
ski l l f ul i mi t at i on of t he or i gi nal
12
.
But t hi s t akes us t o f ur t her quest i ons. To be
i mi t at i ons, t he apocal ypses must ei t her be emul at i ng ot her ,
“t r ue” apocal ypses - and wi t h t he passi ng of t i me t he newer
ones become mer e l i t er ar y i mi t at i ons of a phenomenon t hat
was once al i ve. I t assumes t hat some apocal ypt i c t ext s ar e
a sor t of mat r i x f or ot her s, or t hat t he ol der ones ( 1En
and Dn) show si ncer e r evel at or y exper i ences cl umsi l y
i mi t at ed l at er i n, e. g. t he st er eot yped and makeshi f t
char act er of t he vi si ons i n Gr Ezr a. To make a f or ger y one
must , of cour se, have t he genui ne t hi ng i n pr evi ous
knowl edge, whi ch mi ght i n t ur n i mpl y knowl edge of myst i cal
exper i ences
13
.
I t coul d wel l be t hat apocal ypses emul at e not
t hemsel ves, but t r y t o i mi t at e what we consi der di f f er ent

10
Wi t h al l t he consequences t hat t hi s ent ai l s, e. g. a soci al
devel opment t hat al l ows f or a r eadi ng publ i c knowl edgeabl e enough t o
di scer n bet ween t r ue and f al se, and possi bl y wi l l i ng t o spend t i me and
r esour ces on r el at ed quest s. Cf . Ronal d Syme. “Fr aud and i mpost ur e”,
Pseud. I , P. 15. Cf . al so Ar cher Tayl or and Fr eder i ck J . Moshel . The
Bi bl i ogr aphi cal Hi st or y of Anonyma and Pseudonyma. Chi cago: Uni ver si t y
of Chi cago Pr ess, 1951 f or a gener al i nt r oduct i on t o t he pr obl ems
r el at ed t o t he st udy of l i t er ar y f or ger i es.
11
I t coul d wel l be t hat t hi s not i on was onl y acqui r ed f r omt he Gr eeks.
Cf . Wol f gang Speyer . Di e l i t er ar i sche Fäl schung i m hei dni schen und
chr i st l i chen Al t er t um: ei n Ver such i hr er Deut ung. München: Beck, 1971.
P. 150.
12
Al f r ed Gudeman. “Li t er ar y f r auds among t he Romans”, TPAPA 25: 140-
164, 1894. P. 141.
13
Syme, op. ci t . p. 15.
189

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



genr es - i . e. pr ophecy and wi sdom l i t er at ur e. Thi s r el at es
t o t he pr obl ems of t he l i nks bet ween apocal ypt i c and t hose
genr es and r ei nf or ces our per cept i on t hat apocal ypt i c was
never concei ved of as a separ at e genr e i n our per i od.

3. 2. I nt ent i on of f r aud
I f apocal ypses ar e i mi t at i ons of somet hi ng el se, t hen
t he act ual aut hor s must cl ear l y have had ei t her t he
i nt ent i on t o decei ve, or el se t hey wer e sur e t hat coul d not
f ool anyone and t hat t hei r i mi t at i on woul d i mmedi at el y be
t aken f or what i t was
14
. But t hi s quest i on can never be
answer ed def i ni t i vel y, whet her i t i s under st ood as pi ous
f r aud or as pl ai n decept i on
15
.
Speyer has di vi ded pseudepi gr aphy i nt o t hr ee
cat egor i es, accor di ng t o t he i nt ent i on of t he aut hor : i t
can ei t her be “ser i ous” ( echt e r el i gi öse Pseudepi gr aphi e) ,
t he ki nd f ound i n a f ew J ewi sh apocal ypses; f al se
( Chr i st i an l i t er at ur e i s her e) and f i ct i onal ( i . e.
pseudepi gr apha wr i t t en as ar t i st i c exer ci se)
16
.
But agai n t hi s t akes us t o t he quest i on of r ecept i on,
l i nked as i t i s t o t he i nt ent i ons of t he pseudepi gr apher -
wer e t hose “ser i ous” at t empt s of bor r owi ng ot her ’ s names
t aken ser i ousl y? Or wer e t hey j ust l i t er ar y convent i on t hat
f ool ed no one, much i n t he same f ashi on t hat we wat ch f i l ms

14
The r ecent t hesi s of Ter r y L. Wi l der seems t o gi ve a l ot of
at t ent i on t o t he t heme, al t hough devot i ng i t sel f t o New Test ament
pseudoni mi t y. Cf . Ter r y L. Wi l der . “New Test ament pseudonymi t y and
decept i on”, TB 50 ( 1) : 156- 158, 1999.
15
Ar mi n D. Baum. Pseudepi gr aphi e und l i t er ar i sche Fäl schung i m f r ühen
Chr i st ent um: mi t ausgewähl t en Quel l ent ext en samt deut scher
Über set zung. Tübi ngen: Mohr Si ebeck, 2001. P. 84. Ot her s have
at t r i but ed t o t he J ews t he pr ej udi ce of not l ovi ng t he t r ut h enough t o
make aut hor i al mat t er s cl ear i n apocr ypha: cf . Edmund K. Chamber s. The
Hi st or y and Mot i ves of Li t er ar y For ger i es. Oxf or d / London: Basi l
Bl ackwel l / Si mpki n / Mar shal l , 1891. P. 13.
16
Speyer , “Fäl schung, pseudepi gr aphi sche f r ei e Er f i ndung”, p. 340.
190

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



or pl ays knowi ng t hat t hey ar e f i ct i on?
17
I t shoul d be
poi nt ed out t hat , whi l e moder n audi ences somet i mes have
di f f i cul t y i n under st andi ng t he di f f er ence bet ween f act and
f i ct i on, t he f r ont i er bet ween t hem mi ght have been even
mor e bl ur r ed i n Ant i qui t y
18
.
What ever t he i nt ent i on of t he r eal aut hor was, t he t er m
“f or ger y” car r i es wi t h i t a st r ong connot at i on - namel y,
t hat t he per pet r at or i s somehow pr of i t i ng f r om i t s
decept i on
19
.
A common mi st ake her e i s t o conf use t he at t r i but i on of
aut hor shi p t o a f amous per son f or t he sake of pr of i t and
t he ascr i bi ng of a t ext t o a myt hi cal char act er
20
. I n t he
f i r st case t he i nt ent i on of pr of i t seems cl ear , at l east i f
we ar e t al ki ng about l ay t ext s; i n t he second, a wi de ar r ay
of mot i ves can be ar gued and shal l be devel oped bel ow.
Besi des pl ai n pr of i t i nt er est , a ver y commonl y ar gued
mot i ve f or pseudepi gr aphy i s t hat st udent s woul d be
ent i t l ed t o wr i t e i n t hei r mast er ’ s names out of r espect .
Appl i ed t o apocal ypt i c t ext s, t hi s i dea somehow i mpl i es t he
not i on of apocal ypt i c ci r cl es, wi t h mast er s and di sci pl es
t hat f ol l ow t hei r pr act i ces, somet hi ng whi ch cannot be
pr oved t o have ever exi st ed. I t has of t en been ar gued, on

17
Conr ad Gempf . “Pseudoni mi t y and t he New Test ament ”, Th. 17: 8- 10,
1992. P. 8 and Duf f , op. ci t . p. 197. Duf f suggest s t hat t he l i t t l e
evi dence we have shows us t hat t he pseudepi gr apha wer e under st ood
l i t er al l y, i n t er ms of t hei r at t r i but i on.
18
I t i s not uncommon t o see peopl e f ami l i ar wi t h Kar deci st t ext s t ake
t hemas f i r st - hand r epor t s of t hi ng past or even as hi st or i ogr aphy, i n
Br azi l - Chi co Xavi er ’ s book i s of t en under st ood as t he hi st or y of
what happened t o J esus Chr i st .
19
J ohn C. Fent on. “Pseudoni mi t y i n t he New Test ament ” i n: Theol ogy 58:
51- 56, 1955. P. 55.
20
Fel i x J acoby. “Di e Über l i ef er ung von Ps Pl ut ar chs Par al l el a mi nor a
und di e Schwi ndel aut or en”, Mnem. 3 ( 8) : 73- 144, 1940. P. 73. Anot her
cont r i but i ng f act or woul d be t hat t he mor e di st ant t he act ual
char act er i s i n t he past , t he easi er i t woul d seem t o at t r i but e
wr i t i ngs t o hi m, or even t o pr oduce t hem i n hi s name. The one hundr ed
year s af t er Pl at o’ s deat h and t he amount of f al se epi st l es at t r i but ed
t o hi m i n t he meant i me woul d be pr oof of t hat st at ement . Cf . Regi nal d
Hackf or t h. The Aut hor shi p of t he Pl at oni c Epi st l es. Hi l deshei m: Ol ms,
1985. P. 2.
191

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t he basi s of a passage f r om Ter t ul l i an ( Adv. Mar ci on 4. 5) ,
t hat pseudoni mi t y was even pr ai sed i n Ant i qui t y, al t hough I
cannot i nf er t hi s f r omt he passage
21
.
Ret ur ni ng t o t he t heme of whet her wr ong at t r i but i on of
t ext s woul d be nai vel y or cr i t i cal l y under st ood i n
Ant i qui t y, an i mpor t ant par al l el has been r ai sed i n t he
f or m of t he char act er di scour ses i n hi st or i ogr aphy
22
. But
her e t her e ar e t wo conf l i ct i ng cr i t er i a t o ascr i be wor ds t o
t he char act er s - t r ut h on one hand, and adequacy on t he
ot her
23
. I n t he most ext r eme case we have J osephus’
nar r at i ve of t he di scour se by El eazar ben Yai r t o t he
def ender s of Masada, t he l ast f or t r ess t o f al l t o t he
Romans. As i s wel l known t he t opos of t he def ender s who
woul d r at her commi t sui ci de t han sur r ender i s appl i ed by
J osephus i n hi s wor k - but we shoul d not assume t hat t her e
i s any ki nd of myst i cal exper i ence under l yi ng J osephus’
nar r at i on of t hei r l ast moment s, or t hat hi s audi ence woul d
suppose t hat t her e was any such t hi ng at wor k. Al t hough we
cannot appl y t hi s r easoni ng pl ai n and si mpl y t o apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy, i t shows t hat at l east a l ear ned audi ence
woul d not t ake at f ace val ue l i t er ar y “f al se” at t r i but i on
of di scour ses t o char act er s. These seem t o be a par t i cul ar
case of what appear s t o have been t he usual anci ent

21
Lesl i e Mi t t on. “The aut hor shi p of t he Epi st l e t o t he Ephesi ans”, ET
67: 341- 342, 1956 and t he r epl y i n t he same i ssue, Donal d Gut hr i e.
“Ter t ul l i an and pseudonymi t y”, ET 67: 341- 342, 1956. . I t appear s t hat
Ter t ul l i an i s j ust l i nki ng Mar k’ s and Luke’ s Evangel s t o Pet er and
Paul , r espect i vel y, r at her t han pr ai si ng pseudoni mi t y or consi der i ng
i t t o be t he nor m. As we shal l see, Ter t ul l i an i s one key aut hor f or
our under st andi ng of pseudepi gr aphy i n Ant i qui t y, al t hough r emoved i n
t er ms of t i me f r omt he wor l d of J ewi sh apocal ypt i c.
22
Gudeman, op. ci t . p. 144- 145. I t shoul d be poi nt ed out t hat Lat i n
hi st or i ans ar e l ess out spoken about t hei r i nt ent i ons r egar di ng t he use
of such devi ces possi bl y because i n t hei r t i me i t was so common a
devi ce t hat no one had t o be war ned about t hem i n t he same f ashi on
t hat Thucydi des does i n t he Hi st or y of t he Pel oponesi an War 1. 22. I t
i s al so l i st ed by Met zger as one of t he possi bl e r easons f or
pseudepi gr aphy, op. ci t . pp. 5012.
23
Fr ank W. Wal bank. Speeches i n Gr eek Hi st or i ans ( The Thi r d J . L. Myr es
Lect ur e) . Oxf or d: Bl ackwel l , s. d. P. 4.
192

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



r eact i on t o aut hor shi p i n t he per i od t hat concer ns us:
peopl e wer e ver y much i nt er est ed i n at t r i but i on and coul d
not consi der pseudepi gr aphy as a nor mal devi ce
24
. I t
appear s t hat a di scover ed pseudepi gr aphon, back t hen as
now, woul d be r egar ded as a f or ger y i f uncover ed
25
- whi ch
of cour se does not t ur n t hei r aut hor s i nt o ski l f ul f or ger s,
but mer el y successf ul appl i cant s of t he devi ce, when t her e
was no i nt ent i on of decei vi ng
26
.

24
For f ul l di scussi on on t he subj ect see Duf f ’ s t hesi s and al so Gempf ,
op. ci t . p. 10.
25
Met zger , op. ci t . p. 4. The same woul d hol d t r ue, al bei t i n a ver y
di f f er ent cont ext , f or al t er at i ons i n t ext of t r agedi es - we cannot be
sur e why peopl e - pr esumabl y act or s - i nt er pol at ed t hem, but t o say
t hat t hese changes i nt ended t o decei ve t he publ i c does not expl ai n
anyt hi ng and shows how compl ex r el at i ons bet ween t ext and publ i c coul d
be. Cf . Denys L. Page. Act or s’ I nt er pol at i ons i n Gr eek Tr agedy:
St udi ed wi t h Speci al Ref er ence t o Eur i pi des' I phi genei a i n Aul i s.
Oxf or d: Cl ar endon Pr ess, 1934 and Meade, op. ci t . p. 4.
26
Thi s i s a t hesi s espoused by many and f or a l ong t i me, t he mai n
pr oponent bei ng Rowl ey. A l ast r emar k on t he super f i ci al si mi l ar i t y
bet ween apocal ypt i c and hi st or i ogr aphy woul d be t hat t he
apocal ypt i ci st s’ i nt er est i n hi st or y i s mar ked by t he use of
pseudepi gr aphy as a pr i vi l eged vi ewpoi nt f r omwhi ch announce ex- event u
pr opheci es. Cf . J ohn J . Col l i ns. “Pseudoni mi t y, hi st or i cal r evi ews,
and t he genr e of t he Revel at i on of J ohn”, CBQ 39, 1977. Pp. 332- 333.
Thi s posi t i on goes agai nst Von Rad’ s i dea t hat apocal ypt i ci st s shar e
non- hi st or i cal t hi nki ng.
193

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Anci ent t est i moni es r egar di ng i ndi vi dual cases
of r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy

We have no cl ear case i n Ant i qui t y of someone who was
caught i n t he act of wr i t i ng an apocal ypse i n t he same of a
past , r espect abl e char act er
27
.
But we have t wo l at e t est i moni es of r eact i ons, i n
Chr i st i an ci r cl es, t o peopl e wr i t i ng i n t he name of past
her oes or sai nt s. For al l t he t i me span and di f f er ent
cul t ur al i ssues t hey i nvol ve, t hese must be t aken wi t h
gr eat car e, but t he scar ci t y of anci ent comment on t he
mat t er makes t hem wor t hy of our at t ent i on. Thi s i s not
J ewi sh mat er i al , i t i s l at er t han t he per i od of composi t i on
of most J ewi sh apocal ypses, but t hese t wo t est i moni es show
wi t h det ai l how t wo pseudepi gr apha wer e composed i n
Chr i st i an ci r cl es and t hus const i t ut e a sor t of cr oss-
cul t ur al appr oach on a smal l er scal e t han t he one t hat
per meat es t hi s t hesi s.
I t shoul d al so be not ed t hat we ar e deal i ng wi t h
epi st ol ar y pseudepi gr aphy i n bot h cases, and we cannot be
sur e i f t he r easoni ng appl i ed t o t hem i s al so val i d f or
ot her t ypes of pseudepi gr aphy. But t hey ar e t he cl osest we
can get t o f i r st - hand account s of r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy
i n t he maki ng, and f or t hi s r eason t hey deser ve a cl oser
l ook.

27
Al t hough t her e i s anci ent cr i t i ci sm di scussi ng aut hor shi p, i n a way
somet i mes si mi l ar t o our own: see e. g. Pophyr y’ s dat i ng of Dani el or
Di onysi us’ ( bi shop of Al exandr i a) r emar ks about Revel at i on, t hat coul d
not be possi bl y f r om t he same J ohn, aut hor of t he Gospel t hat bear s
hi s name. Cf . Eusebi us. Hi st or i a eccl esi ast i ca. 7. 25.
194

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. 1. Ter t ul l i an
The f i r st one r egar ds Ter t ul l i an, who ment i ons a pr i est
i n Asi a Mi nor who was caught as t he aut hor of t he Act s of
Paul and Thecl a
28
.

And i f t hose women [ i . e. who cl ai m t he r i ght t o
bapt i ze] i nvoke t he Act s t hat mi st akenl y t ake t he name
of Paul , and cl ai mt hei r r i ght t o bapt i ze f ol l owi ng t he
exampl e of Thecl a, may t hey l ear n her e: i t was a pr i est
of Asi a t hat f or ged t hi s wor k, cover i ng so t o speak hi s
own aut hor i t y under t hat of Paul . Gui l t y of f r aud, he
conf essed act i ng t hi s way out of l ove f or Paul and was
di smi ssed.

I t i s not ewor t hy t hat t he same Ter t ul l i an i s of t en
quot ed as a nai ve bel i ever i n pseudepi gr aphy, di scussi ng as
he does how Enoch’ s t ext s coul d have sur vi ved t he Fl ood ( De
cul t u f emi nar um1. 3. 1- 3) :

I know ver y wel l t hat some r ef use t he book of Enoch
[ . . . ] because t he J ews have not admi t t ed i t i n t hei r
col l ect i on. They do not bel i eve, I t hi nk, t hat t hi s
book composed bef or e t he Fl ood may have been pr eser ved
af t er t he di sast er t hat dest r oyed ever yt hi ng over t he
Ear t h. I f t hi s i s t hei r r easoni ng, t hey shoul d r emember
t hat Enoch’ s gr andson, Noah, sur vi ved t he Fl ood [ . . . ]
And i t i s not unl i kel y t hat Noah coul d assume, by hi s
t ur n, t he t r ansmi ssi on of t he pr ophecy [ . . . ]
29

I t must be not ed t hat Ter t ul i an r emar ks t hat t he
f or ger , no mat t er how gr eat hi s l ove f or Paul mi ght have
been, was al so condemned f or i ssui ng het er odox opi ni ons -
maki ng a woman bapt i ze, f or i nst ance
30
. Her e we have a

28
De bapt i smo 17. Cf . Raymond F. Ref oul é ( ed. ) . Ter t ul i en. Tr ai t é du
bapt ême. Sour ces chr ét i ennes. Par i s: Édi t i ons du Cer f , 1952.
29
Mar i e Tur can ( ed. ) . Ter t ul i en. La t oi l et t e des f emmes: ( de cul t u
f emi nar um) . Sour ces chr ét i ennes. Par i s: Édi t i ons du Cer f , 1971. Pp. 57-
59.
30
Met zger , op. ci t . p. 14.
195

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



cl ear case wher e unr est r egar di ng t he cont ent of a t ext
goes t oget her wi t h di scr edi t on pseudoni mi t y
31
.

4. 2. Sal vi an of Mar sei l l e
The ot her document i s i n many ways mor e f asci nat i ng, as
i t pr ovi des a uni que i nsi ght i nt o somet hi ng not ver y common
even i n our t i mes - a f i r st - per son r epor t by a f or ger
caught i n t he ver y act of pr oduci ng a pseudepi gr aphon,
compl et e wi t h hi s own def ence and, so i t appear s, an
admi ssi on of gui l t .
Al l t hat r ef er s t o Sal vi an of Mar sei l l e, a pr ol i f i c
aut hor of l at e Ant i qui t y who was di scover ed by Sal oni us,
hi s eccl esi ast i cal super i or , as t he aut hor of a spur i ous
l et t er i n t he name of Ti mot hy
32
.
The l et t er i t sel f i s an exhor t at i on t o t he Chur ch t hat
i t abandons r i ches and goes back t o apost ol i c pover t y et c.
and begi ns wi t h Ti mot hy speaki ng i n f i r st per son: but
Sal oni us had no di f f i cul t y i n f i ndi ng t he hand of Sal vi an
on i t . Sal oni us sent a l et t er t o Sal vi an pr ot est i ng agai nst
t he f act t hat t he l et t er woul d be t aken as comi ng f r om
Ti mot hy hi msel f , and i t i s t he r epl y of Sal vi an t hat
i nt er est s us her e
33
.
Sal vi an def ends hi msel f i n a var i et y of ways and i t i s
i mpossi bl e t o be sur e of t he si ncer i t y of hi s ar gument s,
but t he ascet i c di sci pl i ne he was r enowned f or woul d r ul e
out mal i ce as a f i r st mot i ve. The way he put s hi s poi nt s

31
Tor m, op. ci t . p. 119. I n cont r ast , a book wi t h a much mor e uni f or m
st yl i st i c l ook as I sai ah was never r egar ded, i n Ant i qui t y, as t he wor k
of mor e t han one aut hor . Cf . Ber nst ei n, “Pseudepi gr aphy i n t he Qumr an
Scr ol l s” ci t . by Baum, op. ci t . p. 63.
32
For Sal vi an’ s t ext , not es and gener al i nf or mat i on of hi s l i f e cf .
Geor ges Lagar r i gue ( ed. ) . Sal vi en de Mar sei l l e. Oeuvr es. Par i s: CERF,
1971. The t ext we ar e r ef er r i ng t o her e was cal l ed Ti mot hei ad
Eccl esi amLi br i I V, and i s dat ed ar ound 440 CE.
33
For gener al quest i ons on t hat document , cf . Al f r ed E. Haef ner . “A
uni que sour ce f or t he st udy of anci ent pseudoni mi t y”, ATR 16: 8- 15,
1934.
196

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



f or war d i s, nonet hel ess, sur pr i si ng. One of t he r easons f or
wr i t i ng i n t he name of Ti mot hy i s t hat t hen

[ . . . ] t he document wi l l not be suspect ed as apocr yphal
when i t i s r ecogni zed t hat i t i s not by t he Apost l e
Ti mot hy [ . . . ]
34

Sal vi an al so compl ai ns t hat many peopl e val ue not t he
cont ent of a gi ven t ext , but t he pr est i ge at t ached t o t he
name of i t s aut hor :

For i n t he case of ever y book we ought t o be mor e
concer ned about t he i nt r i nsi c val ue of i t s cont ent s
t han about t he name of i t s aut hor . And t her ef or e, i f
t he book i s pr of i t abl e r eadi ng and of f er s somet hi ng t o
edi f y t he r eader , what does i t mat t er whet her or not i t
happens t o sat i sf y someone’ s cur i osi t y about t he name
of t he aut hor ?
35

The wor r y t hat r eader s mi ght be mor e i nt er est ed i n
ascr i bed aut hor shi p t han i n t he cont ent i t sel f was pr esent
i n aut hor s ot her t han Sal vi an: an i nt er est i ng r emar k on i t
appear s i n Aul us Gel l i us At t i c Ni ght s 11. 4, wher e Eur i pi des
- Hecuba - and Enni us ar e quot ed on t he i ssue ( Enni us
havi ng successf ul l y dr awn poet i c emul at i on on t he f or mer
but , not bei ng near l y as r enowned, l ef t t o obscur i t y)
36
.
Sal vi an goes on candi dl y t o say t hat

For t hi s r eason t he pr esent wr i t er chose t o conceal hi s
i dent i t y i n ever y r espect f or f ear t hat hi s t r ue name
woul d per haps det r act f r om t he i nf l uence of hi s book,
whi ch cont ai ns much t hat i s exceedi ngl y val uabl e. That

34
I dem, p. 12.
35
I d. i bi d. Her e, as i n Ter t ul l i an’ s t est i mony we f i nd a char act er i st i c
shar ed by r eader s of anci ent t ext s suspect of pseudepi gr aphy and
moder n Kar deci st t ext s: conf or mi t y t o t he doct r i ne may be mor e
i mpor t ant t han pr eci si on r egar di ng aut hor i al i ssues ( cf . above,
chapt er s 2 and 3) .
36
J ohn C. Rol f e ( ed. ) . The At t i c Ni ght s of Aul l us Gel l i us. London /
Cambr i dge, Mass. : Hei nemann / Har var d Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1978.
197

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i s t he r eason - whoever want s t o know i t - why t he
pamphl et was publ i shed pseudonymousl y.
37

Among t he t hi ngs t hat r eal l y i nt er est ed Sal oni us wer e
bot h why Sal vi an used a pseudonym and why Ti mot hy was t he
one chosen. To t he f i r st quest i on we have seen t hat , by
i r ony or not Sal vi an cl ai ms t o be act i ng out of modest y and
at t he same t i me i s pr oud t hat hi s t ext shoul d be r ead by
peopl e t hat ot her wi se woul d not pay at t ent i on t o i t ,
wor r i ed as t hey wer e onl y about aut hor s’ names. And Ti mot hy
was t he name chosen out of r ever ence f or hi m
38
. Sal vi an
ends hi s r easoni ng by ar gui ng t hat , havi ng wr i t t en f or t he
honour of God, t he per son who l ed t he book t o be wr i t t en i n
t he f i r st pl ace - i . e. Ti mot hy - i s i t s r eal aut hor
39
.
A number of st r i ki ng f eat ur es shoul d be under l i ned i n
t he case. Fi r st of al l , no uni o myst i ca i s i mpl i ed: t he
r easons gi ven by Sal vi an, no mat t er how sent i ment al t hey
may sound, have not hi ng t o do wi t h f ul l spi r i t ual i dent i t y,
possessi on- l i ke ( i ndeed i t appear s t hat he i s mor e
concer ned about t he f i nal ef f ect of hi s own pseudepi gr aphy,
namel y t hat peopl e wi l l r ead a wor t hy message because i t i s
si gned by a wor t hy name, Ti mot hy) . “Ti mot hy” i s t he aut hor
i n a ver y f or ced sense, t hat he i nspi r ed Sal vi an i n hi s
exhor t at i on on pover t y.
The sour ce i s non- apocal ypt i c, non- J ewi sh and ver y l at e
but gi ves us a gl i mpse of how much aut hor i al at t r i but i on
had changed si nce t he Ol d Test ament t ext s - t he gr eat
maj or i t y of whi ch ar e anonym or pseudonym
40
. Wi t h Sal vi an

37
I dem, p. 14.
38
Ter t ul l i an’ s pr i est was mor e sangui ne i n hi s decl ar at i ons, but t he
f eel i ng of at t r act i on t owar ds bot h Paul and her e Ti mot hy seems t o be
ver y r eal i n bot h cases.
39
Haef ner , op. ci t . p. 15.
40
For speci f i c quest i ons r egar di ng f al se document s i n l at e Second
Templ e J ewi sh t ext s, wi t h speci al emphasi s on J osephus and t he books
of t he Maccabbees, cf . Hugo Wi l l r i ch. Ur kundenf äl schung i n der
198

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



we have a use of pseudoni mi t y qui t e si mi l ar t o our own and
i t i l l ust r at es how cl ar i t y r egar di ng t he aut hor shi p of
r el i gi ous t ext s - t o some ext ent i nt r oduced by Chr i st i ani t y
- put s pseudoni mi t y and i t s by- pr oduct , pseudepi gr aphy, f ar
away f r om t he i dea of possessi on by a deceased aut hor , of
r apt ur e and aut omat i c wr i t i ng
41
.

hel l eni st i sch- j üdi schen Li t er at ur . Göt t i ngen: Vandenhoeck & Rupr echt ,
1924.
41
Met zger , op. ci t . pp. 25- 26 and Haef ner , op. ci t . p. 11.
199

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



5. Psychi cal phenomena r el at ed t o pseudepi gr aphy

As a f i r st consi der at i on t o t hi s t opi c, i t must be
t aken i nt o consi der at i on t hat pseudepi gr aphy does not
necessar i l y i nvol ve psychi c phenomena - t hat i t may do so
i n some speci f i c var i et i es i s t he subj ect of t hi s t hesi s
but t her e i s never any obl i gat i on t hat i t shoul d. Pl ai n
f r aud, i l l - or wel l - i nt ended, or j ust sat i r e, ar e i mpor t ant
mot i ves as wel l .
I t has been st at ed t hat i nvest i gat i on i nt o
psychol ogi cal aspect s t ake t he r esear cher unnecessar i l y
away f r om l i t er ar y quest i ons, easi er t o obser ve and mor e
concr et e
42
. But i f l i t er ar y quest i oni ng i s a bet t er means
of deal i ng wi t h ASC- i nduci ng i ssues, we woul d by now have
come t o def i ni t e concl usi ons, gi ven t he enor mous amount of
t r ansl at i ons and comment ar y on most apocal ypses. That t hey
have not l ed t o usef ul i nsi ght s i nt o t he quest i on
under l i nes t he pur posef ul ness of t he psychol ogi cal
appr oach.
Ger man t heor i es have had a penchant f or t he
psychol ogi cal appr oach - we must onl y r emember t hose of
Si nt , Tor m and Speyer . Besi des t hese aut hor s one must not
f or get Russel l ’ s use of t he “cor por at e per sonal i t y”
appar at us. The quot ed aut hor s al l l i nk or acul ar or ecst at i c
i dent i f i cat i on t o pseudoni mi t y, i n r el i gi ous t ext s
43
. But
her e agai n t her e i s no i nt er nal evi dence t hat t he act ual
aut hor s wer e i n f act possessed by t he decl ar ed names t hey
use
44
.

42
Lewi s Donel son. Pseudepi gr aphy and Et hi cal Ar gument i n t he Past or al
Epi st l es. Tübi ngen: Mohr , 1986. Pp. 8- 9. Cf . al so Kar l M. Fi scher .
“Anmer kungen zur Pseudepi gr aphi e i m Neuen Test ament ”, NTS 23: 76- 81,
1977. P. 78.
43
Meade, op. ci t . p. 7.
44
Smi t h, “Pseudepi gr aphy on t he I sr ael i t e l i t er ar y t r adi t i on”, p. 371
i n r esponse t o Speyer ’ s pr oposi t i on.
200

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



However , t he di smi ssal of t he l i nk bet ween f i r st - hand
myst i cal r apt ur e and pseudoni mi t y on t he gr ounds t hat , i f
t he act ual aut hor s had wi shed t o t hey woul d have wr i t t en
under t hei r own names
45
I f i nd i t i mpossi bl e t o sust ai n on
l ogi cal gr ounds - f or i t const i t ut es a mer e t ur ni ng ar ound
of t he quest i on, wi t h no f ur t her r easoni ng i mpl i ed. Why
t hey used ot her s’ names i s pr eci sel y t hat what we want t o
know: t o r epeat t he quest i on as Mor t on Smi t h does adds
not hi ng. Ther e ar e, besi des, sever al opt i ons as t o why t hey
di d not wr i t e i n t hei r own names.
I t has al r eady been poi nt ed out t hat t he aut hor i t y of
t he apocal ypt i ci st s’ message was mor e i mpor t ant t hen t hei r
own cl ai ms t o aut hor i t y: i t i s f or t hat cont ent t hat t he
act ual aut hor s seek aut hor i t y, not f or t hemsel ves
46
. I t may
even be ar gued t hat t he sani t y of t he act ual aut hor s i s t o
be doubt ed, at l east i n moder n t er ms; i t coul d al so be t hat
t he act ual wr i t er s woul d expect r evel at i ons t o come f r om
t he pr i vi l eged r el at i on wi t h t he f i gur e i n whose name t hey
wr i t e
47
.
The i dea t hat not onl y dei t i es’ ut t er ances but al so
t hei r wr i t t en f or mar e bot h di vi ne i s i ndeed qui t e ol d. We
f i nd i t al r eady i n Pl at o ( Ti maeus 72) and Pl ut ar ch ( On t he
Pyt hi an Or acl e 397c)
48
. Even i f apocal ypt i c t ext s ar e t he
pr oduct of “school s” of vi si onar i es, one i nst i gat i ng
anot her and r evi si ng t he t ext t o some ext ent , we woul d onl y
have a var i at i on of t he same i dea, namel y t hat i t was
pr eci sel y t he myst i cal exper i ence t hat l ed t he act ual
wr i t er t o si gn i n someone el se’ s name. But our l ack of
knowl edge about anci ent man’ s psychol ogy i mpai r s us of

45
Meade, op. ci t . p. 9.
46
Col l i ns, “I nspi r at i on or i l l usi on”, p. 31.
47
Al and, op. ci t . pp. 20- 21. I f so, t hi s i s r emar kabl y cl ose t o t he
Kar deci st par al l el .
48
Duf f , op. ci t . p. 152.
201

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



ascer t ai ni ng i f t hi s i s an ar t i f i ci al aut hor i t y devi ce or
genui ne exper i ence, our mai n poi nt of debat e
49
.
But her e agai n par al l el s can enl i ght en us t o t he
answer . Al t hough a r ecent i dea, even poet i c i nspi r at i on was
r egar ded i n anci ent Pagan ci r cl es as i nvol vi ng some sor t of
ASC
50
. Her e t oo i nspi r at i on and i t s wr i t t en out put depend,
t o a gr eat ext ent , on ver y har d wor k - i n ot her wor ds, of
t r ai ni ng
51
. Even i f pseudepi gr aphy wer e t r eat ed as j ust
anot her f or mal l i t er ar y el ement
52
, t he exper i ences
descr i bed and t hei r out come ar e cl ear l y t r ut hf ul ( i n i t sel f
not pr oof t hat t he exper i ences wer e f i r st - hand, but t hey
cannot be di smi ssed as f or ger i es any easi er because of
t hat ) .
To come t o t he i dea t hat t hi s exper i ence, aut hent i c but
cover ed by t he cl oak of pseudoni mi t y, i s si ncer e t wo
di f f er ent pat hs have been of f er ed: on t he f i r st , t he wr i t er
i s a vehi cl e f or t he spi r i t of God, t he Hol y Spi r i t or an
apost l e ( an expl anat i on mor e sui t ed t o New Test ament
pseudepi gr apha t han t o t he ones we ar e deal i ng wi t h)
53
; but
par al l el s t o t he pr ophet s ar e al so possi bl e, and t o a
wr i t er wor ki ng under t hese myst i cal condi t i ons t he i mage of
a di ct at e of di vi ne voi ce bei ng hear d can be ver y r eal
54
.

49
Even an obser ver sympat het i c t o t hi s i dea as Duf f i s r eady t o poi nt
out t hat di f f i cul t y on anci ent man’ s psychol ogy.
50
The i dea does not seemt o be ol der t han t he Fi f t h cent ur y BCE - t hus
i t can be ascr i bed ei t her as a post f act f abr i cat i on of Pl at o and
ot her s t o expl ai n and gi ve shape t o a t heor y of ar t i st i c i nspi r at i on,
or i t coul d be t he r esul t of t he devel opment of abst r act t hought used
t o expl ai n a phenomenon much mor e anci ent . Cf . Penel ope Mur r ay.
“Poet i c i nspi r at i on i n Ear l y Gr eece”, J HS 101: 87- 100, 1981. P. 87.
51
Thi s t akes us back t o t he ol d t heme of t he l i t er ar y t opoi and t he
st er eot yped char act er of apocal ypt i c vi si ons - t he amount of i mmer si on
i n st udy and exegesi s woul d account f or t hat wi t hout r ender i ng i t
f al se. Cf . Mur r ay, op. ci t . p. 88.
52
J ust l i ke t he t ast e f or symbol i c number s and ani mal s. Cf . J osef A.
Si nt . Pseudonymi t ät i m Al t er t um; i hr e For men und i hr e Gr ünde.
I nnsbr uck: Uni ver si t ät sver l ag Wagner , 1960. P. 77.
53
Al and, op. ci t . pp. 30- 31.
54
Wol f gang Speyer . “Fäl schung, pseudepi gr aphi sche f r ei e Er f i ndung und
‘ echt e r el i gi öse Pseudepi gr aphi e’ ”, Pseud. I , pp. 337; 339- 340. I n t hese
202

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



As Tor m put i t , t hi s i s t he semi - dar kness of t he
subconsci ous at wor k
55
.
Thi s semi - dar kness can wel l come t o t he sur f ace vi a
aut omat i c wr i t i ng - f or whi ch we have a f ai r amount of
r esear ch compl et ed and act ual obser vat i on of t he pr ocess i s
possi bl e. Ther e i s no way of get t i ng har d- pr oof on t hese
assumpt i ons, al t hough I must st r ess t hat somet hi ng can be
sai d about t he mat t er by means of cr oss- cul t ur al
compar i son.
I n t he end, t her e i s no par al l el i n t he Ol d Test ament
t o t he i dea of myst i cal uni on of an act ual wr i t er wi t h t he
decl ar ed aut hor
56
; i f t hi s di d i ndeed happen t he t ext s
t hemsel ves ar e al l t hat was l ef t of t he pr ocess. The amount
of i nf or mat i on t hey convey t o myst i cal pr ocesses does not
mean t hat al l t he sur vi vi ng apocal ypses ar e t he r esul t of
ecst at i c exper i ences
57
: i n t he most obvi ous cases - l i ke
Gr Ezr a or t he addendumi n t he Syr i ac t ext of 4Ezr a - i t i s
possi bl e t o devi se a cr uder emul at i on of f i r st - exper i ence
r epor t , but t he same cannot be sai d about t he most

cases, as seen above, Speyer t al ks about “ser i ous r el i gi ous
pseudepi gr aphy”. An i dea r ai sed by Speyer t o be devel oped f ul l y i n t he
concl usi on t o t hi s t hesi s i s how much t hi s i nvol ves aut osuggest i on.
Cf . al so Baum, op. ci t . pp. 14- 15.
55
Tor m, op. ci t . p. 125. The suggest i on of Tor m r egar ds si byl l i ne and
her met i c t ext s but coul d be ext ended t o apocal ypt i c as wel l . Ther e i s
one i mpor t ant di f f er ence however - vi si onar i es dr awi ng on or phi c,
her met i c or si byl l i ne mat er i al had a sour ce t o dr aw f r om, wher eas t he
aut hor of Dani el had not hi ng of t he ki nd t o hand, so says Tor m
( op. ci t . p. 120) . Thi s does not seem al t oget her cor r ect , si nce t hat
aut hor di d dr aw on J er emi ah and Ezeki el ; t he act ual wr i t er woul d al so
be i dent i f yi ng hi msel f wi t h a known past char act er l i ke Dani el , i f
psychol ogi cal exper i ence pl ays a r ol e her e.
56
Baum, op. ci t . p. 71. The i dea t hat exper i ences occur r ed i n t he “l i f e
and t i mes” span of , say, 1En make f i r st - per son account s of myst i cal
exper i ences i mpossi bl e, accor di ng t o Baum ( op. ci t . p. 88) , but t hi s
does not seem t o be t r ue i n t he l i ght of aut omat i c wr i t i ng - a
pr act i ce t hat pl aces cl ai ms r egar di ng exper i ences shar ed wi t h past or
myt hi cal char act er s at i t s ver y cor e. The passage of 2Chr 12: 21
r emai ns pr obl emat i c, as we saw above.
57
Duf f , op. ci t . p. 196.
203

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



si gni f i cant apocal ypses f or our pur pose ( 1En, Dn, 2Br and
4Ezr a)
58
.

58
A l ast case wor t hy of exami nat i on i n Ant i qui t y, but t hat deser ves at
l east a ment i on i n passi ng, i s t hat of t he Syr acusan doct or Menecr at es
( +- 390 BCE) , who al l egedl y i dent i f i ed hi msel f wi t h Zeus whi l e bei ng
“t he onl y cause of l i f e t o men”. Cf . Speyer , “Fäl schung,
pseudepi gr aphi sche f r ei e Er f i ndung”, p. 346. Cf . al so Pl ut ar ch, Li f e of
Agesi l aus. 21. 5 and Cl ement of Al exandr i a, Exhor t at i on t o t he Gr eeks.
4. 48. Pl ut ar ch condemns Menecr at es’ use of t he epi t het “Zeus” - i n a
l et t er t o Agesi l aus - on t he gr ounds of bad t ast e, but does not ent er
i nt o det ai l s about how much Menecr at es hi msel f bel i eved i n t hat
i dent i f i cat i on.
204

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



6. Aut hor i al ascr i bi ng, or t hodoxy and wi sdom

A l ast i mpor t ant aspect r egar di ng t he anci ent r eader ’ s
r egar d f or pseudepi gr aphy i n r el i gi ous cont ext deal s wi t h
t he or t hodoxy of wr i t i ngs. At l east t o pr i mi t i ve Chr i st i ans
i t appear s t hat i t was mor e i mpor t ant t o know whet her a
t ext was i nspi r ed t han about i t s act ual aut hor shi p
59
, t hat
an aut hor ’ s i ndi vi dual i t y i s l ess i mpor t ant t han t he
aut hor i t y of hi s message
60
. Thi s emphasi s on doct r i nal
cor r ect i on pr ovi des an i nt er est i ng par al l el t o Kar deci sm.
Thi s r easoni ng l eads t o t he i dea t hat i n Ant i qui t y
l i t er ar y cor r ect i on of a r el i gi ous book was def i ned not by
i t s aut hor shi p, but r at her by i t s cont ent - i . e. a t ext
woul d be consi der ed f al se when i t s cont ent coul d not be
somehow ascr i bed t o t he al l eged aut hor
61
.
However , t hi s r ai ses a number of i ssues. Fi r st of al l ,
i t assumes t hat pseudonymous aut hor shi p has t o be measur ed
agai nst an or i gi nal . Thi s woul d hol d t r ue f or most
apocal ypses, but not f or t he most i mpor t ant one, Dani el
62
.
I t al so makes one t hi nk whet her 1En can be consi der ed an

59
Speyer , Di e l i t er ar i sche Fäl schung, p. 151.
60
Echoi ng agai n Col l i ns’ r easoni ng about apocal ypt i c pseudoni mi t y not
bei ng a secur i t y devi ce f or aut hor s, si nce i t does not add t o t hei r
aut hor i t y - whi ch t hey di d not appear t o be seeki ng anyway - but
r at her t o t hei r message, as st at ed above. Cf . J ean Gr i bomont . “De l a
not i on de ‘ Faux’ en l i t t ér at ur e popul ai r e”, Bi b. 54: 434- 436, 1973.
P. 435, Eduar d Ver hoef . “Pseudepi gr aphy and canon”, BN 106: 90- 98,
2001. P. 91, Met zger , op. ci t . p. 19 and Meade, op. ci t . p. 91, who cl ai ms
t hat t he at t r i but i on of Dani el i s pr i mar i l y a cl ai m t o aut hor i t at i ve
t r adi t i on, not t o l i t er ar y or i gi ns.
61
Baum, op. ci t . pp. 3- 4.
62
The r emai ns at Qumr an poi nt t o t he di r ect i on t hat t her e once exi st ed
a much bi gger Dani el cycl e t hat i ncl uded t ext s i n hi s name ot her t han
t he ext ant apocal ypse - t he same bei ng possi bl e f or t he medi eval t ext s
bear i ng hi s name. But t he f r agment ar y st at e of t he evi dence and t he
f act t hat t hese had a much smal l er ci r cul at i on, pl us t he dat i ng
pr obl ems i nvol ved, make us t hi nk t hat i t woul d be i mpossi bl e t o posi t
an “or i gi nal ” Dani el f r om whi ch pseudonymous t ext s r i se. Exampl es of
t ext s f ound i n Qumr an poi nt i ng t o Dani el ar e 4Q243- 245, whi l e 4Q242,
4Q552- 553 and 4Q246, al t hough not ment i oni ng Dani el ’ s name, al l dr aw
on t hemes r el at ed t o hi m. Anot her exampl e i s t he Ni nt h- cent ur y
Byzant i ne Apocal ypse of Dani el ( cf . OTP 1, pp. 755 f f . ) .
205

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



“or i gi nal ” i n any sense
63
; nei t her woul d an i mmensel y
popul ar char act er l i ke El i j ah have an “or i gi nal ” t o be
measur ed agai nst . The r easoni ng al so t akes us t o t he
pr obl emof t he cl osi ng of t he canon of t he Ol d Test ament -
i t seems t hat ascr i bi ng “or i gi nal s” makes sense onl y i f
t hey coul d be r egar ded as canoni cal as compar ed t o ot her
t ext s.
Ther e i s no har d pr oof f or any of t hese mat t er s i n
J ewi sh apocal ypses, but agai n l ooki ng at Sal vi an we have a
( much l at er ) par al l el showi ng us t hat even when t heol ogi cal
or t hodoxy coul d be ascer t ai ned ( as i s t he case i n hi s 3Tm)
t ext s coul d be r ej ect ed on aut hor i al gr ounds. Af t er al l
Sal oni us went st r ai ght af t er hi m and, f r om t he t est i mony
l ef t , or t hodoxy di d not pl ay a r ol e i n maki ng hi many mor e
l eni ent t owar ds hi s f or mer mast er Sal vi an - al t hough i t
const i t ut ed par t of t he l at t er ’ s own def ence
64
.
Thi s does not mean t hat t he same r easoni ng woul d hol d
t r ue f or J ewi sh t ext s - among t he many di f f er ences an
i mpor t ant one i s t hat apocal ypses wer e quant i t at i vel y mor e
common i n J ewi sh ci r cl es t han i n Chr i st i an ones
65
.
Fi nal l y, an al t er nat i ve t o t he i dea of di r ect cont act
wi t h t he por t r ayed her o as a means t o expl ai ni ng
pseudepi gr aphy i s Meade’ s t hesi s l i nki ng aut hor shi p t o
t r adi t i on. Hi s hypot hesi s deal s not wi t h apocal ypt i c as a

63
That 1En, t oget her wi t h Dn, const i t ut es a “mat r i x” f or descr i pt i on
of myst i cal exper i ences i s somet hi ng qui t e di f f er ent and t akes us
agai n t o t he i dea t hat st er eot ypy does not necessar i l y i mpl y
decept i on, and t hat t he mat r i x woul d shape t he f or mof t he vi si onar y’ s
exper i ence but cannot be r egar ded as t he exper i ence i t sel f .
64
Baum, op. ci t . p. 112. I t was a di f f er ent case wi t h Ter t ul l i an, wher e
bot h t he di scover y of t he f r aud and het er odoxy pl ayed a r ol e i n
di squal i f yi ng t he Act s of Paul .
65
To be mor e pr eci se, i t means t hat al t hough most of t he ext ant OT
apocal ypses wer e pr eser ved by Chr i st i ans t hey wer e most l y wr i t t en by
J ews, i nt er pol at i ons excl uded. The popul ar i t y of t he l et t er genr e i n
Chr i st i an ci r cl es i s al so t o be not ed her e. Cf . Smi t h, op. ci t . p. 213.
206

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



whol e but r at her deal s wi t h t he most i mpor t ant apocal ypses,
Dn and 1En
66
.
Hi s ar gument r uns by sayi ng t hat t he pr edi cat i ve nat ur e
of a gr eat deal of apocal ypt i c wr i t i ng l ends i t sel f t o
i mmedi at e compar i son t o pr ophecy, and i t coul d wel l be
t hat , not bei ng r egar ded as a separ at e genr e i n Ant i qui t y,
apocal ypt i c t ext s wer e t aken t o be pr ophet i c books. But
Meade cal l s at t ent i on t o t he f act t hat t he por t r ayed her oes
ar e never cal l ed t o pr ophesi ze, but t hey ar e cal l ed scr i bes
or sages ( e. g. Dn 1: 4; 1: 17- 20; 2: 23 et c. ; 1En 12: 4; 92: 1;
4Ezr a 14: 50 Syr i ac ver si on; 14: 40; 4: 22; 5: 22; 2Br 38: 4;
50: 1) . The el ect ar e of t en r ef er r ed t o as sages ( Dn 12: 3;
1En 104: 12; 4Ezr a 14: 47; 8: 51- 52; 2Br 28: 1; 14: 5 et c. ) .
Thei r message i t sel f i s cal l ed “wi sdom” ( Dn 2: 20; 9: 22; 1En
37: 1; 82: 2- 3; 92: 1; 4Ezr a 14: 47; 8: 4; 2Br 14: 9; 51: 3, 7)
67
,
and i t i s di r ect ed t o t he gr oup of t he wi se
68
.
Al l t hi s poi nt s t o t he i dea t hat i n J ewi sh ci r cl es
pseudoni mi t y was used not i n pr ophet i c, but r at her i n
sapi ent i al cont ext s
69
. Thi s i dea i s f ur t her r ei nf or ced by
t he quest i on of a wi sdom t ext such as Pr over bs - “Who
cl i mbed up t o Heaven?” ( Pr 30: 4) . To t hi s quest i on t he
apocal ypt i ci st s woul d answer , “me” ( e. g. 1En 14: 8)
70
. Meade
cal l s t hi s r ecour se - not t o be t aken as a mer e aut hor i t y-
gai ni ng devi ce - “hi gher wi sdom” and i t woul d wor k as a
ki nd of updat i ng of wi sdom l or e
71
. I n br oader t er ms,
Meade’ s t hesi s i s about l i nki ng pseudepi gr aphy t o J ewi sh

66
Meade, op. ci t . p. 73.
67
I dem, p. 75.
68
I dem, p. 83.
69
I dem, p. 76. Agai n t hi s does not mean t hat r eader s woul d consi der t he
t ext s as sapi ent i al r at her t han pr ophet i c: J osephus i s t he cl assi cal
exampl e, i n hi s t r eat ment of Dani el i n t he J ewi sh Ant i qui t i es. Cf .
al so Amos Wi l der . “The r het or i c of anci ent and moder n apocal ypt i c”,
I nt er p. 25 ( 1971) . P. 446.
70
Meade, op. ci t . p. 77 and t he cr i t i c by Baum, op. ci t . p. 73.
71
I d. i bi d.
207

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



aut hor i al t r adi t i on on one hand, and t o “hi gher wi sdom” on
t he ot her .
But t hi s r ai ses a number of i ssues as wel l . The f act
t hat J ewi sh t r adi t i on was f ami l i ar wi t h t he concept of
pseudoni mi t y does not expl ai n i t s use except i n
t aut ol ogi cal t er ms: anci ent apocal ypt i ci st s wr ot e
pseudepi gr aphi cal l y because t hat i s t he way t hey knew, a
ver y poor ar gument . I t al so does not account f or t he
choosi ng of t he names - and t hi s quest i on i s, maybe, t he
most di f f i cul t one t o answer r egar di ng apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy. Last l y, t he r ecour se t o “hi gher wi sdom”
onl y cover s t he exper i ment al di mensi on i ssues of our
di scussi on: r egar di ng t hemsel ves as wi se or as new
pr ophet s, di d t he apocal ypt i ci st s r eal l y exper i ence
somet hi ng l i ke an ASC and, i f so, was t hi s exper i ence
t r ansl at ed i nt o pseudepi gr aphy whi ch woul d t hen be a case
of aut omat i c wr i t i ng?
To say t hat a f or m of wi sdom, or of updat ed wi sdom
pl ays any par t her e i s not an answer , but r at her anot her
aspect of t he apocal ypt i ci st s’ gui se t o be t aken i nt o
consi der at i on. What i s beyond doubt i s t hat pseudepi gr aphy
woul d have br ought ver i si mi l i t ude bef or e t he eyes of many
anci ent r eader s, whet her t hi s was i nt ended or not .
Ver i si mi l i t ude on t hei r descr i bed exper i ences cannot
demonst r at e t r ut h, i n any case
72
.

72
Duf f , op. ci t . pp. 187- 190.
208

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



7. Summar y

The mai n i ssues di scussed i n t hi s chapt er can be
summar i zed bel ow:

1. The sur vey of pseudepi gr aphed names i n J ewi sh
apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e shows no pr edomi nance of one
cat egor y over any ot her . Var i et y i s gr eat and we f i nd
pr ophet s, pat r i ar chs and ot her t ypes bei ng chosen, wi t h no
pr eponder ance of one t ype agai nst t he ot her s.
2. Cer t ai n genr es ar e especi al l y ascr i bed t o cer t ai n
char act er s - t he Law t o Moses, wi sdomt o Sol omon. The same
cannot be sai d about apocal ypt i c ( possi bl y because i t was
not r egar ded as a separ at e genr e i n Ant i qui t y) . I t shoul d
be not ed t hat Enoch and Ezr a ar e l eadi ng f i gur es among t he
por t r ayed her oes.
3. To t hi nk t hat apocal ypses ar e i mi t at i ons pr esupposes
or i gi nal s t o be i mi t at ed. Thi s cannot be pr oved i n t he
cases of Dani el or Enoch, and even t o Bar uch and Ezr a t hei r
“or i gi nal s” l ook qui t e di f f er ent t o t he pseudepi gr apha
bear i ng t hei r names. A var i ant of t hi s i dea i s t hat , whi l e
i t i s har d t o show t he exi st ence of “or i gi nal s”, some t ext s
may const i t ut e a mat r i x f or l at er ones - t hi s coul d be t he
case wi t h Dn and 1En.
4. I mi t at i ng or i gi nal s or f ol l owi ng a r eest abl i shed
mat r i x, t he act ual aut hor s must have had ei t her t he
i nt ent i on t o decei ve or el se t ook f or gr ant ed t hat t hei r
devi ce woul d not f ool anyone.
5. Apocal ypt i c wr i t er s mi ght have chosen pseudepi gr aphy
out of r espect f or anci ent mast er s ( a var i ant of t he i dea
t hat apocal ypt i c was t he pr oduct of “ci r cl es” especi al l y
devot ed t o i t ) . But t hi s pr oposi t i on, t oget her wi t h t he
supposed “ci r cl es”, cannot be pr oved.
209

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



6. An i mpor t ant par al l el t o t he boundar i es bet ween
f i ct i ve aut hor shi p and t r ut hf ul ness i s pr ovi ded by anal ysi s
of char act er s’ speeches i n anci ent hi st or i ogr aphy.
7. The best t est i moni es we have f or di f f i cul t i es
ar i si ng f r om pseudepi gr aphy ar e t hose of Ter t ul l i an and
Sal vi an. But bot h ar e l at e and r ef er t o Chr i st i an mat t er s,
at a t i me when t he i dea of pr oper l i t er ar y at t r i but i on was
much mor e devel oped t han i n l at e Second Templ e J udai sm.
8. I n Chr i st i an ci r cl es, aut hor i al at t r i but i on -
al t hough i mpor t ant - appear s t o be st r ongl y l i nked t o
or t hodoxy, as t he t est i mony of Ter t ul l i an shows us. But i t
i s not t he onl y way of deal i ng wi t h t he phenomenon, as
Sal vi an’ s ar gument shows. I n J ewi sh ci r cl es, t hi s l i nk wi t h
or t hodoxy may be r el at ed t o t he non- sect ar i an char act er of
t he t ext of Dn as opposed t o 1En.
9. Li nki ng apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy t o “hi gher
wi sdom” r at her t han pr ophecy does not answer t he
f undament al quest i on of t he l i nk bet ween pseudepi gr aphy and
myst i cal exper i ence. I t onl y shows t hat apocal ypt i c wr i t er s
r egar ded t hemsel ves and t hei r audi ence as cl oser t o
sapi ent i al t han t o pr ophet i c l or e, but t hi s does not
account f or t he t r ut hf ul myst i cal exper i ences descr i bed -
unl ess we assume t hat r ecour se t o wi sdom meant ecst at i c
pr act i ces as t hey appear i n t he apocal ypses, somet hi ng
hi ghl y unl i kel y and devoi d of par al l el s i n sapi ent i al
l i t er at ur e i t sel f .
210

PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSI ON


1. Summar y and assessment of t he t hesi s

I t has been my i nt ent t hr oughout t he t hesi s t o l ook f or
evi dence of si ncer e myst i cal exper i ences i n apocal ypt i c
t ext s, and t o do so expl or i ng one of many possi bl e pat hs -
t hat of t he possi bi l i t y of t he act ual , mechani cal wr i t er
i dent i f yi ng hi msel f wi t h t he por t r ayed her o. Si nce evi dence
on t hi s possi bi l i t y i s vi r t ual l y non- exi st ent i n t he
sour ces t hemsel ves, I have come t o cr oss- cul t ur al
compar i son i n or der t o measur e t hi s possi bi l i t y agai nst t he
backgr ound of a moder n- day exper i ence - t hat of Kar deci sm-
, wher e act ual i dent i f i cat i on wi t h anot her char act er ,
f amous or obscur e, i s not j ust possi bl e but desi r ed and
adver t i sed. I t i s t i me t o l ook at t he concl usi ons yi el ded
by t hi s at t empt .
I n par t 2 of t hi s chapt er we wi l l exami ne ar gument s
suppor t i ve of t he si ncer i t y of t he exper i ences descr i bed by
t he apocal ypt i c seer s, i n par t 3 we wi l l see ar gument s
agai nst i t .

211
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. Ar gument s suppor t i ve of act ual i dent i f i cat i on
bet ween mechani cal wr i t er and apocal ypt i c
vi si onar y

2. 1. Ef f ect s descr i bed
One way t o assess t he t r ut hf ul ness of t he vi si onar y
exper i ences descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c passages i s by means
of compar i ng t hem t o descr i pt i ons of ASCs r el at ed t o t he
sympt oms descr i bed, anot her t o compar e t he l at t er
descr i pt i ons t o what i s known about Kar deci st s’
af t er ef f ect s.
Begi nni ng wi t h t he l at t er , i t must be st at ed t hat t he
speci f i c ef f ect s descr i bed by Chi co Xavi er ar e nowher e t o
be f ound i n apocal ypt i c passages ( e. g. t he el ect r i ci t y
f l owi ng t hr ough t he ar ms)
1
. On t he ot her hand, t he
compul si on t o wr i t e ( aut omat i cal l y) has many par al l el s.
Chi co Xavi er ver y of t en st at ed t hat he f el t t he need t o
wr i t e whenever he was awake, and t hat he had t o di sci pl i ne
t hi s: t he l ast passages of 4Ezr a r el at ed t o t he wr i t i ng of
t he 94 books day and ni ght of f er a par al l el t hat can be
consi der ed as a compul si on t o act . The r emai ni ng ef f ect s,
t o be di scussed bel ow, ar e t oo vague ( al t hough t hi s does
not mean t hat t hey ar e f al se) t o pr ovi de a pr eci se
equi val ent ( i . e. t he af t er ef f ect s exhi bi t ed i n apocal ypt i c
passages i n most cases f ol l ow t he same pat t er n of awe
because of t he pr esence of a spi r i t ual bei ng) , but shoul d
not be di smi ssed on t he si de of t he ar gument s agai nst t he
aut hent i ci t y of t he exper i ences. They can be consi der ed as
vague because ot her ASC- i nduci ng pr act i ces not r el at ed t o
aut omat i c wr i t i ng can pr oduce t hem( ot her pr act i ces such as

1
Cf . above, p. 96.

212
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



danci ng can gener at e ASCs wi t hout any wr i t t en t ext comi ng
out as a r esul t of t hi s exper i ence) .
The passages wher e apocal ypt i c aut hor s descr i be t he
pl easi ng or negat i ve ef f ect s of t he exper i ences t hey have
under gone ar e ver y wi despr ead. I ndeed, some sympt oms - deep
sl eep ( Dn 10: 9) , f ear ( 4Ezr a 12: 3 et c. ) and t he f ant ast i c
i mager y descr i bed ( Dn 2, 7, 4Ezr a 4: 48 et c. ) ar e i n
t hemsel ves t o be f ound i n Kar deci st vi si onar y pr ocesses,
not t o ment i on i n cl i ni cal l y obser ved i ndi vi dual s
2
. A not e
of t r ut hf ul ness i s at t ached t o t hem, al t hough t hi s may
sur el y be par t of a decept i on pl an f r om t he par t of t he
mechani cal aut hor .
But al l t hi s does not mean t hat t he exper i ences
descr i bed ar e f i r st - hand, much l ess t hat t hey di d i ndeed
t ake pl ace. The mechani cal wr i t er s of t he apocal ypses wer e
obvi ousl y acquai nt ed wi t h r epor t s on t hem, but t hese
r epor t s const i t ut e a bl i nd al l ey f or our pur poses - we
cannot be sur e i f what i s descr i bed t ook pl ace wi t h anyone
or not
3
. But i t must be assumed t hat t he ef f ect s descr i bed
ar e possi bl e on t he basi s of i ndependent evi dence, and no
compel l i ng count er - evi dence i s pr esent ( i . e. t her e i s no
r epor t on apocal ypt i c exper i ences such as t hose of Luci an
about Al exander ’ s t r i cks wi t h t he snake, f or exampl e) , and
al l t hi s shoul d be put on t he si de of pr os and not cons
r egar di ng t he si ncer i t y of t he exper i ences descr i bed.
Apocal ypt i c wr i t er s knew what ef f ect s t hey wer e wr i t i ng
about , al t hough t hese const i t ut e i n t hemsel ves t opoi - i . e.
ever yone i nvol ved knew what t o expect ed f r om a gi ven
vi si on, but t hi s i s a common f eat ur e of myst i cs of al l
t i mes and does not i mpl y decept i on. I n f act conf or mat i on t o

2
Cf . Hear ne, op. ci t and Gr een, “Hypnot i zabi l i t y”, p. 69.
3
I mean t hat t he exper i ences mi ght have been l i ved by a per son, r at her
t han i mpl yi ng t hat what t he vi si onar i es descr i be i s t r ue or f al se i n
an empi r i cal sense.

213
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



cer t ai n commonpl aces i s a guar ant ee of t he cul t ur al
val i di t y of t he exper i ence i n quest i on.
Fr om t he poi nt of vi ew of Kar deci st exper i ence, t he
ef f ect s descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c vi si onar y epi sodes i n many
cases mat ch what has been sur veyed i n moder n medi ums. Al so,
t he pr esence of a gui di ng ent i t y such as t he angel i n
4Ezr a, l eadi ng t he dumb human who cannot under st and God’ s
ways, woul d f i nd a par al l el i n Emmanuel ’ s and Andr é Lui z’
gui dance of Chi co Xavi er . I n t he case of t he apocal ypt i c
vi si onar y, much as i n t hat of t he Kar deci st medi um, t he
enl i ght enment pr ocess equal s t he t heol ogi cal i ssues of t he
mechani cal wr i t er ’ s own t i mes: e. g. i n 4Ezr a t he puzzl i ng
nonsense of t he dest r uct i on of t he Templ e i s t he mai n
conduct i ng l i ne, i n Xavi er ’ s case t he most pr essi ng t heme
bei ng t he need f or conci l i at i on bet ween Chr i st i an et hi cs
and sci ent i f i c devel opment .
The pr esence of f ant ast i c i mager y i n apocal ypt i c
vi si ons, when compar ed t o dat a f r om moder n- day myst i cs,
woul d show t he same appar ent t endency descr i bed i n chapt er
3 as FPP
4
. Bot h see t hi ngs uncommon t o ot her s, bot h l i ve i n
a wor l d popul at ed by f ant ast i c bei ngs, and bot h appear
di ssat i sf i ed wi t h a pur el y et hi cal r el i gi ous concept i on.
And yet we cannot af f i r m t hat apocal ypt i c vi si onar i es wer e
FPPs, gi ven t he f act t hat t he ver y concept of FPP i s deepl y
r oot ed i n t he cul t ur al meani ngs and concept i ons of our own
t i me - l i ke any ot her concept . Even FPPs act accor di ng t o
cul t ur al t opoi - we do not f i nd FPP candi dat es i n Ant i qui t y
cl ai mi ng t o have been abduct ed by f l yi ng saucer s, f or
exampl e.
Thi s means t hat what woul d be consi der ed as a t ypi cal
FPP case i n our own t i me mi ght not have been so t wo
t housand year s ago. The l i mi t s bet ween what was consi der ed

4
Bar t hol omew, op. ci t . p. 216; Wi l son and Bar ber , op. ci t . p. 346 f f .

214
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



f anci f ul or f ant ast i c have changed and al t hough apocal ypt i c
i mager y f i t s FPP’ s descr i pt i on l ooki ng back i n hi ndsi ght ,
we cannot be sur e t hat t hey woul d have been consi der ed
abnor mal or f ant asy- pr one peopl e i n t hei r own t i me. But i n
any case t he ef f ect s and vi si ons descr i bed do f i t our own
concept i on of what cont empor ar y f ant asy- pr one per sonal i t i es
do.
Rel i gi ous exper i ence may be r egar ded as non- r educi bl e
t o psychol ogi cal obser vat i ons, but t hi s i s bet t er
under st ood i n r el at i on t o t hei r cul t ur al meani ng: i f we ar e
deal i ng wi t h, say, t he same al kal oi d, i t i s r easonabl e t o
i nf er t hat t he same chemi cal i nducement wi l l pr oduce t he
same chemi cal ef f ect s. However , i t i s not r easonabl e t o
assume t hat descr i pt i ons of exper i ences shoul d be t he same,
or t hat t he cul t ur al meani ng shoul d be i dent i cal . As wi l l
be seen i n t he appendi x, i t i s cul t ur e t hat changes, not
chemi st r y. The same r easoni ng can be appl i ed t o means ot her
t han chemi cal t o i nduce ASCs, l i ke f ast i ng, pr ayi ng,
mour ni ng et c. What r emai ns di f f er ent i s what t he
vi si onar i es ar e abl e t o see, not t he f act t hat t hese means
gr ant vi si ons. The ef f ect s of t hei r exper i ences can t hus be
descr i bed i n psychol ogi cal t er ms wi t hout any r i sk of
di mi ni shi ng t he si ncer i t y of t he exper i ence i n quest i on.

2. 2. Choosi ng of names
The names chosen i n J ewi sh apocal ypt i c t ext s as
put at i ve aut hor s woul d be f ur t her pr oof of t he l i nk bet ween
myst i c exper i ence and pseudepi gr aphy: one cannot i magi ne
2Br ascr i bed t o Moses, or 1En t o Ezr a. Somet i mes i nser t i ons
ar e made as t o make one t r adi t i on r esembl e anot her : t hi s
happens i n t he ver y end of t he Syr i ac mss of 4Ezr a, whi ch

215
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



af f i r ms t hat t he vi si onar y had an ot her wor l dl y exper i ence
i n t he manner of Enoch
5
.
As we di scussed above
6
, wi sdomwas ascr i bed t o Sal omon,
l egi sl at i on t o Moses. Text s equat i ng Fi r st or Second-
Cent ur i es soci o- pol i t i cal t ur moi l t o t he Exi l e ar e al so
appr opr i at el y ascr i bed t o Ezr a and Bar uch: t he speci al
f eat ur es of Enoch descr i bed i n Gn 5: 18- 24 gi ve r i se t o a
compl et e cycl e of st or i es r egar di ng t he ot her wor l dl y
exper i ences of t hi s char act er . Wer e we t o deal wi t h act ual
possessi on, t he spi r i t s t aki ng hol d of t he mechani cal
wr i t er s coul d har dl y be mor e f i t t i ng. Thi s ar gues agai nst
pseudepi gr aphy bei ng a mer e l i t er ar y t opos of t he ki nd
f ound i n t he quot ed l ast ver si ons of 4Ezr a i n t he Syr i ac
ver si on - wher e t he exper i ence descr i bed coul d easi l y be
i nt er changed wi t h any ot her past or myt hi cal char act er .
The same f eat ur e occur s i n Kar deci st t ext s - t he wor ks
by Emmanuel have a di st i nct l y humani st i c over t one, t hose of
Andr é Lui z ar e cl oser t o medi cal or bi ol ogi cal exposi t i ons.
Obvi ousl y t hese t wo over l ap f r omwor k t o wor k, but her e t oo
t he choosi ng of names i s f ar f r omgr at ui t ous - “hi st or i cal ”
pi eces f i t t i ng t o one spi r i t , “medi cal ” ones t o anot her .
Thi s ar gues f or t he l ogi c of t he ar r angement of t hemes i n
myst i cal aut hor s ( wi t h t he i mpor t ant di f f er ence t hat i n t he
case of Kar deci sm, speci al l y of Chi co Xavi er , we ar e
deal i ng wi t h a hi ghl y homogenous l i t er ar y cor pus ( i n f act
composed, or aut omat i cal l y wr i t t en, by one per son al one)
whi l e apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e compr i ses an ast oni shi ng
var i et y of t hemes, set t i ngs et c. ) .

5
Cf . t he ver ses i nser t ed af t er 4Ezr a 14 i n t he Syr i ac ver si on, “caught
up, and t aken t o t he pl ace of t hose who ar e l i ke hi m, af t er he had
wr i t t en al l t hese t hi ngs [ . . . ] ”. The passage l ooks ver y ar t i f i ci al i n
t he l i ght of al l t he epi sodes r el at ed t o t he vi si onar y i n 4Ezr a, and
does not appear t o descr i be a si ncer e exper i ence at al l gi ven t hat no
heavenl y j our ney i s i mpl i ed i n any ot her passage of t he book.
6
Cf . above, chapt er 6.

216
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



I n t he case of Kar deci sm, i t must be st r essed t hat
t her e i s al most al ways equi val ence bet ween t he degr ee of
evol ut i on of t he spi r i t and t hat of t he r ecei vi ng medi um:
al t hough per sonal l y t he medi ummay be i gnor ant of a var i et y
of t hemes on whi ch t he spi r i t di scour ses, a mi ni mum of
adequacy i s al ways assumed. So i t i s t hat al t hough Xavi er
can be r i ght l y consi der ed as l ess l ear ned t han t he spi r i t s
he cl ai ms t o r ecei ve, he cannot be consi der ed as “base” on
t hose gr ounds al one
7
.
Wi t h a di f f er ent appr oach, we have seen i n Ani t a Mühl ’ s
anal ysi s t hat , gi ven t he way she supposes memor y t o wor k,
i t i s no sur pr i se t hat al most anyt hi ng may come out of
anybody
8
. I f t hese assumpt i ons r egar di ng memor y r ecal l ar e
cor r ect , di f f er ences i n t he degr ee of f or mal educat i on
bet ween spi r i t and medi um ar e r ender ed even mor e
i r r el evant
9
.
I t r emai ns t o be i nvest i gat ed i f , as appear s i n ot her
r el i gi ons ( i n Af r o- Br azi l i an cul t s f or exampl e) t her e i s
any di f f er ence i n t he ASC as r el at ed t o t he ent i t y i n
quest i on: f r om what coul d be i nvest i gat ed i n Kar deci st
exper i ence, t hi s i s not t he case ( t her e i s no evi dence or
r epor t t hat t he ASC r el at ed t o t he pr esence of Emmanuel was

7
Al t hough Chi co Xavi er , l i ke any ot her medi um, coul d on occasi on be
possessed by ver y base spi r i t s, such as t he l ust f ul f r i ar s or t he
cor r upt j udges seen on t he r epor t on hi s vacat i ons. Cf . above, chapt er
2.
8
Mühl , Aut omat i c Wr i t i ng, p. 10.
9
I t i s i nt er est i ng t o not e t hat t he spi r i t s r ecei ved by Chi co Xavi er ,
r egar dl ess of t he sophi st i cat i on of t hei r degr ee of knowl edge, ar e
al ways f i t t i ng t o t he pur poses of hi s own l i f e and pr eachi ng. They
f al l i nt o def i ni t e cat egor i es: 1- Spi r i t s t hat conf i r mand appr ove t he
Kar deci st message, e. g. Emmanuel ; 2- Spi r i t s t hat l ook di sor i ent ed i n
t he l i ght of what t hey have f ound i n t he wor l d beyond ( deceased
pr i est s, t he Por t uguese wr i t er Eça de Quei r oz, Humber t o de Campos) ; 3-
Spi r i t s t hat , i n t hei r r evol t and l ack of under st andi ng, conf i r m t he
Kar deci st assumpt i on r egar di ng t he need of br ot her l y l ove t o pr omot e
evol ut i on ( e. g. t he ki l l ed sl ave i n Xavi er ’ s vacat i on, t he Fr ench ex-
bonapar t i st ) . Taken t oget her , al l of t hem act i n uni son i n conf i r mi ng
t he basi c t enet s of Kar deci sm, even when out war dl y some of t hem seem
t o oppose i t .

217
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i n any sense di f f er ent t o t hat r el at ed t o Andr é Lui z)
10
. By
t he same t oken, t her e i s no maj or di f f er ence i n ASCs or
t hei r ef f ect s as descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c t ext s ascr i bed t o
one put at i ve aut hor or anot her .

2. 3. Par al l el s i n ot her i dent i f i cat i on- t ype myst i cal
exper i ences
Her e we shoul d t ake i nt o consi der at i on 2 di f f er ent
aspect s of t he pr obl em: f i r st , t he r ol e of aut o- suggest i on
i n t he exper i ences descr i bed; secondl y, t he mar gi nal r ol e
t hat ASCs, such as t he ones we ar e deal i ng wi t h, pl ay
i nsi de t he soci al gr oup t o whi ch t he vi si onar i es bel ong.
1. I dent i t y by means of aut o- suggest i on, i n t ur n made
possi bl e by t he compl et e and per manent absor pt i on i nt o a
gi ven ment al f r amewor k ( i n our case, t hat of Bi bl i cal
st udi es) i s mor e t han a guess: Bi bl i cal t ext s and
pseudepi gr apha al i ke ar e f ul l of exhor t at i ons t o i t . Thi s
f ul l - scal e absor pt i on coul d easi l y l ead t o an ASC t hat i s
not necessar i l y myst i cal : ever yone has at t i mes f el t
di f f er ent when i n a st at e of hei ght ened awar eness or
concent r at i on. But at t he same t i me t hi s ASC, appar ent l y
non- r el i gi ous at f i r st si ght , can l ead t o vi si onar y
exper i ences or t o ASCs t hat r esembl e t hese exper i ences
11
.
I t i s t hen t he cul t ur al set t i ng and expect at i ons t hat make
an ASC- l i ke exper i ence be r egar ded as myst i cal or not .

10
Thi s i s an i nt er est i ng f eat ur e i n cl assi cal pr ophecy - t he ecst asi es
of each pr ophet somet i mes var yi ng consi der abl y. One needs onl y t o
t hi nk about t he di f f er ences bet ween t he compar at i ve cal m of Fi r st
I sai ah, t he f ear s of J er emi ah and t he al most sur r eal descr i pt i ons of
Ezeki el ’ s exper i ences. But her e we ar e deal i ng wi t h aut hor i al , f i r st -
hand exper i ences, and i n t he ver y di f f er ent cont ext of pr e- Exi l i c or
Exi l i c set t i ng. Cf . Andr é, op. ci t . p. 190 f f .
11
Ludwi g, op. ci t . p. 18 f f . Cf . al so J ason Gar dner . “Fr om a Chr i st i an
per spect i ve can t he use of dr ugs f or r ecr eat i on and wor shi p ever be
j ust i f i ed?” El ect r oni c sour ce. 2003. P. 10 f f . f or anal ysi s on ASCs
r el at ed t o dance cul t ur e i n t he Ei ght i es i n r epor t s t hat use r el i gi ous
i mager y and t er mi nol ogy.

218
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



I t seems def i ni t e t hat , i nasmuch as aut o- suggest i on i s
l i nked t o sel f - hypnosi s ( and t he l at t er i s known t o pl ay
such an i mpor t ant r ol e i n Kar deci st ASCs - cf . al l t he
anal ysi s i n chapt er 3 and t he out spokenness of Emmanuel
r egar di ng t he way sel f - hypnosi s i s i mpor t ant f or
psychogr aphy, at l east i n t he case of Chi co Xavi er ) , i t i s
cr uci al f or under st andi ng how PT comes i nt o bei ng i n a
gi ven gr oup, or how i ndi vi dual myst i cs consi der t hemsel ves
t o be ot her peopl e, or pr et end t o i ncar nat e t hemsi ncer el y.
Agai n i t must be st r essed t hat , f or t hi s channel of sel f -
suggest i on t o be a vi abl e pr oposi t i on, PTs must be a vi abl e
opt i on i n t he soci et y we ar e exami ni ng
12
. And t hi s i s ver y
much debat abl e i n t he case of Second Templ e J udai sm, as we
saw i n chapt er 4.
2. To di smi ss pseudepi gr aphy as havi ng not hi ng t o do
wi t h act ual possessi on by consi der i ng i t an al t oget her
mar gi nal exper i ence i n a gi ven gr oup does not hi ng t o
ef f ect i vel y deny t he possi bi l i t y of myst i cal aut hor i al
at t r i but i on of t ext s. To- day possessi onal exper i ences l i ke
t hose of Kar deci sm di scussed t hr oughout t hi s t hesi s ar e
non- mai nst r eam i n Br azi l i an soci et y and i t coul d wel l be
t hat i n Ant i qui t y t hei r posi t i on woul d be si mi l ar ( i . e.
t hose exper i ences coul d, i n t heor y, be as mar gi nal t o
J ewi sh apocal ypt i c wr i t er s as t hey ar e t o us) . That t hi s
may ef f ect i vel y have been so i s an al t oget her di f f er ent
mat t er whi ch shal l be di scussed i n t he sect i on agai nst
si ncer i t y of pseudepi gr aphi c exper i ence, bel ow. Epi st ol ar y
r el i gi ous pseudepi gr aphy may have f ol l owed t he same pat t er n
but , as sai d bef or e, t hi s wi l l not be deal t wi t h her e f or
i t woul d l ead us t oo f ar away f r om t he mai n i ssue. I n
shor t , mar gi nal i t y i s not , i n i t sel f , an ar gument agai nst

12
Bour gui gnon, Rel i gi on, p. 10.

219
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t he si ncer i t y of t he exper i ence ( al t hough i t may cont r i but e
t o pr ej udi ce agai nst i t i n mai nst r eamr el i gi ous ci r cl es) .

2. 4. Par al l el s i n ot her i dent i f i cat i on- t ype non- myst i cal
exper i ences
Exper i ences r el at ed t o past - l i ves t her apy have much i n
common t o Kar deci st t r ance ( i ndeed t he ver y i dea of
r ei ncar nat i on i s t he cor ner st one of t hi s ki nd of t r eat ment )
and yet i t can be ar gued t hat even i f t he pr emi ses ar e
f al se and t hat t her e i s no such t hi ng as anot her l i f e,
st i l l t he mer e act of engagi ng i nsi de one sel f and t al ki ng
about past - l i ves exper i ences has a t her apeut i cal val ue
13
.
I n t hi s sense i t can be ar gued t hat , f or moder n
exper i ences, one needs not buy t he whol e t heol ogy of
r ei ncar nat i on i n any of i t s gui ses - Kar deci smi s onl y one
possi bi l i t y her e - t o under st and a past - l i f e exper i ence. I n
t hi s f ashi on, exper i ences such as t hose of Xavi er ’ s
hol i days need not be l i nked t o t he r eal exi st ence of r eal
past char act er s - what t he myst i c was put t i ng f or war d can
be under st ood as sombr e aspect s of hi s own psychol ogi cal
f unct i oni ng, whi ch i ncl ude, as we have seen, cr i mi nal
st or i es and sexual l y pol ymor phi c i dent i t i es
14
.
Shoul d t hi s be possi bl e t o J ewi sh apocal ypt i c wr i t er s -
i . e. t o have an exper i ence so pr of ound as t o make t hemf eel
l i ke t he her o under whose name t he t ext i s bei ng wr i t t en -
i t woul d over come one of t he maj or di f f i cul t i es i n
ascr i bi ng aut hent i ci t y t o pseudepi gr aphy i n t he l i ght of
moder n exper i ences, namel y t he i mmense t heol ogi cal gap
r egar di ng past l i ves, mani pul at i ng of t he dead and
r ei ncar nat i on. But on t he ot her hand t her e i s no hi nt ,
ei t her i n our sour ces, or i n t he passages by J osephus and

13
Lander s, op. ci t . pp. 17- 20.
14
Mühl , “Aut omat i c wr i t i ng”, p. 168.

220
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Tal mudi c sour ces, t hat t he i mmense and compl et e absor pt i on
i nt o Bi bl i cal l or e has ef f ect i vel y l ed anyone i nt o a
t r ance- l i ke st at e
15
.
I n any case t he f r eedom f r om absol ut e cat egor i es l i ke
Heaven and Hel l associ at ed t o t he bel i ef i n r ei ncar nat i on
f i t s much bet t er wi t h such a hi gh degr ee of spi r i t
mani pul at i on: as Chi co Xavi er hi msel f once put i t , “t he
t el ephone onl y r i ngs f r om t he beyond t o us, not t he ot her
way r ound”
16
. By t hi s compar i son he was r eal l y meani ng, i n
hi s own t er ms, t hat communi cat i ng wi t h spi r i t s i s
i ndependent of pr opi t i at or y pr act i ces ( al t hough we have
seen i n ot her st ances t hat he, l i ke ot her medi ums, adopt ed
t hemeven i f i n mi l d f or ms) .

2. 5. Unmat chi ng st yl es
Bot h i n t he case of J ewi sh apocal ypses and i n t hat of
many Kar deci st t ext s t he end- r esul t ( i . e. t he f i nal t ext )
does not mat ch what woul d st yl i st i cal l y be expect ed f r om
t he “or i gi nal ” aut hor . I t i s t r ue t hat some messages f r om
t he beyond have t he f l avour of t hei r or i gi nal s ( not abl y t he
poet r y i n Par naso de al ém- t úmul o and t hat r el at ed t o t he
Humber t o de Campos’ l egal sui t ) , but t he bul k of Xavi er ’ s
out put ( books f r om Emmanuel and Andr é Lui z) does not mat ch
supposed or i gi nal s, does not have t he i nt ent i on of

15
For t he r ecor d, i t woul d possi bl y l ead t o what psychol ogi st s cal l
“f l ow- st at e”, a mode of par t i al det achment f r omr eal i t y because of t he
subj ect ’ s i nvol vement i n a pl easant and meani ngf ul act i vi t y, whi ch can
be anyt hi ng f r om r eadi ng books t o pai nt i ng or pr act i ci ng spor t s. Thi s
i s obvi ousl y an ASC wher e t he not i on of t i me becomes di f f er ent and t he
r el at i ons t o t he wor l d acqui r e at l east moment ar i l y anot her meani ng.
I t has al so been exper i enced by al most anyone r egar dl ess of myst i c
i ncl i nat i ons and l i es behi nd wr i t er s of al l t i mes, apocal ypt i c or not .
But i t does not f ol l ow t hat t he “f l ow- st at e” ent ai l s possessi on or t he
i dent i f i cat i on of t he sel f wi t h anot her per son ( al t hough f l ow- st at e
and PT shar e, t o some ext ent , t he same sympt oms of det achment f r om
i mmedi at e r eal i t y) . Cf . Mi hal y Czsi ksent mi hal yi . Fi ndi ng Fl ow: t he
Psychol ogy of Engagement i n Ever yday Li f e. New Yor k: Basi c Books,
1997.
16
Sout o Mai or , op. ci t . p. 152.

221
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



i mi t at i ng anyone or i s composed i n a way t hat makes i t
poi nt l ess t r yi ng t o f i nd par al l el s i n “or i gi nal s”. Thi s i s
speci al l y t r ue of Há 2. 000 anos. . . , whi ch never had t he
i nt ent i on of i mi t at i ng t he Gospel s; by t he same t oken,
al t hough many of t he books f r om t he Andr é Lui z ser i es can
be por t r ayed as moder n- day apocal ypses t hey do not mani f est
any i nt ent i on of i mi t at i ng Revel at i on or Dani el ( t ext s wi t h
whi ch Chi co Xavi er was acquai nt ed) .
And yet i n a sense t hese t ext s shar e a common her i t age
of knowl edge, t hat i s ver y f r equent l y r ead by t hei r publ i c
i n t er ms of t hei r mat r i xes: al t hough t her e i s no cl ai m t o
hol i ness i n Há 2. 000 anos. . . , a gr eat deal of peopl e r ead
t he book as i f i t was a hi st or i ogr aphi cal wor k on t he l i f e
and t i mes of J esus. How nai ve r eader s of past t i mes
r egar di ng apocal ypses wer e r emai ns an open quest i on.
By t he same r easoni ng, when anci ent J ewi sh aut hor s
want ed somet hi ng t o l ook ol d t hey woul d pr oduce somet hi ng
l i ke, say, t he Templ e Scr ol l f r omQumr an, and not wr i t e i n
moder n l anguages pr et endi ng t o emul at e “l ost ” Hebr ew
or i gi nal s
17
. The anachr oni sm i nvol ved i n t hi s pr ocess,
ar gui ng agai nst a t heor y of mer e del i ber at e decept i on,
woul d pr ove i ndeed t hat apocal ypt i c aut hor s knew f r om t he
st ar t t hat no- one woul d consi der t hei r r evel at i on t o be
cont empor ar y t o t he por t r ayed her oes, much as t he moder n
day r eader , r egar dl ess of t he f ai t h he devot es t o
Kar deci sm, accept s Há 2. 000 anos at r ás. . . as a pr oduct of
Chi co Xavi er ’ s capaci t y as medi um r at her t han a ki nd of
non- canoni cal Gospel . That t he cont ent s shoul d be
consi der ed as r ef er r i ng t o past t i mes ( and as such
const i t ut e excel l ent exampl es of ex- event u pr opheci es) i s a
di f f er ent mat t er : we ar e di scussi ng possi bl e ways of
deal i ng wi t h t he put at i ve aut hor shi p i ssue.

17
St one, “Apocal ypt i c - vi si on or hal l uci nat i on?”, p. 425.

222
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Ar gument s agai nst act ual i dent i f i cat i on bet ween
mechani cal wr i t er and apocal ypt i c vi si onar y

3. 1. Vagueness of t he essent i al l i nk, r ei ncar nat i on and
mani pul at i ng of t he dead
The f i r st and maj or obj ect i on agai nst pseudepi gr aphy as
const i t ut i ng par t of t he myst i cal exper i ences descr i bed i n
J ewi sh apocal ypses i s t hat t he most essent i al l i nk t o make
mani pul at i on of spi r i t s and del i ber at e possessi on by t hem
possi bl e ( what Kar deci st aut omat i c wr i t i ng i s al l about ) i s
r at her vague. I n f act , mani pul at i on of spi r i t s and al l t he
i ssues r el at ed t o r ei ncar nat i on wer e al l mar gi nal i n J ewi sh
t hought unt i l ver y l at e f or our pur poses
18
.
I t coul d be ar gued t hat i n a cr oss- cul t ur al st udy such
as t hi s one, t hese di f f er ences shoul d not mat t er . But t hey
do f or t he r eason t hat , r egar dl ess of t he f act t hat t he
f i nal out come may be si mi l ar - a t ext wr i t t en mor e or l ess
convi nci ngl y under t he name of a myt hi cal or past aut hor -
t he pat hs t aken t o r each t hi s wi l l be i ncompat i bl e gi ven
st r uct ur al di f f er ences of t hi s sor t . I woul d even ar gue
t hat cr oss- cul t ur al anal ysi s t akes us t o t he concl usi on
above by means of exami ni ng t hese i mpossi bi l i t i es.
I t has been seen above t hat i t coul d be t hat
r ei ncar nat i oni st s ar e behi nd Or i gen’ s di scussi ons i n
Ant i qui t y, and even t hat St . Paul ’ s exper i ences may be r ead
under t he l i ght of r ei ncar nat i oni st assumpt i ons
19
. But t hen
t wo t hi ngs shoul d be t aken i nt o consi der at i on:

18
Cf . above and Eyl on, op. ci t . passi m. I t can al ways be ar gued t hat
i nt er di ct i ons onl y make sense i f pr act i ces ar e cur r ent - i . e. i f
mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s was not st andar d pr act i ce i n pr e- Exi l i c t i mes
t her e woul d be no need f or f or bi ddi ng i t . That t he same pr act i ces
per si st ed i n l at e Second Templ e per i od i s mor e doubt f ul .
19
Cf . above, pp. 191 f f .

223
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



1. Even i f Paul t hought hi msel f t o be t he r ei ncar nat i on
of Chr i st , and i f Or i gen was di scussi ng wi t h non- heat hen
ci r cl es - t wo hi ghl y debat abl e af f i r mat i ons, t o say t he
l east - , t hey ar e def i ni t el y not deal i ng wi t h J ewi sh gr oups
who composed apocal ypses. Or i gen i s par t i cul ar i s ar gui ng
wi t h Pagan t hought f ounded on Pyt hagor ean and Pl at oni st
doct r i nes.
2. That J ewi sh aut hor s i n t he l at e Second Templ e per i od
wer e acquai nt ed wi t h t he i dea of r ei ncar nat i on has been
shown above
20
. Thi s f ami l i ar i t y i ncl udes not onl y Tal mudi c
sour ces ( wher e t he evi dence i s f ai nt and conf used) but al so
J osephus ( wher e t he ascr i bi ng of t he bel i ef i n
r ei ncar nat i on t o t he Phar i sees l ooks bi zar r e but t he
vocabul ar y l ooks cor r ect i n compar i son t o i t s Gr eek
sour ces) . However , i t i s not t o be f ound di r ect l y i n any
apocal ypt i c t ext wher e mor e t r adi t i onal bel i ef s r egar di ng
r esur r ect i on and af t er l i f e ar e cur r ent
21
.
For t hese t wo r easons i t appear s t o me t hat t o st r et ch
evi dence beyond t hi s poi nt and assume t hat J ewi sh
apocal ypt i ci st s ef f ect i vel y knew wel l t he doct r i ne of
r ei ncar nat i on, t hat t hi s ent ai l ed t he del i ber at e evoki ng
and mani pul at i ng of t he spi r i t s of t he dead under whose
names t he apocal ypses wer e wr i t t en and t hat al l t hat
pr opi t i at ed si ncer e myst i cal exper i ences i s excessi ve. That
l i t er ar y aut hor i al act i vi t y may i nvol ve ASCs l i ke t he f l ow-
st at e does not equat e i t t o PT, much l ess woul d i t i mpl y
channel i ng messages f r omspi r i t ual sour ces.
On t he mat t er , J osephus’ t est i mony i s not t o be
di scar ded: hi s wor di ng echoes unequi vocal l y t hemes and
concept s of mai nst r eamGr eek t hought on r ei ncar nat i on ( i . e.

20
Cf . above, pp. 176 f f .
21
Thi s ar gument woul d t ake us agai n t o t he poi nt emphasi zed i n chapt er
5, namel y t hat r esur r ect i on mi ght be t he J ewi sh mode of t hi nki ng about
r ei ncar nat i on.

224
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Pyt hagor eani sm and Pl at oni sm) , but t hat t hi s pr eci se
vocabul ar y equal s pr eci se knowl edge of t he subj ect r emai ns
doubt f ul . When J osephus i nsi st s on r ei ncar nat i on i n one
body al one, he i s cl oser i n cont ent t o doct r i nes such as
t hat of Dn 12 t han t o Gr eek met empsychosi s. To t hi s shoul d
be added t he uni queness of J osephus’ ascr i bi ng t he bel i ef
i n r ei ncar nat i on t o t he Phar i sees: t hi s i s t he wor d he
uses, but agai n he i s most l i kel y t hi nki ng about bel i ef i n
r esur r ect i on, i . e. one “r ei ncar nat i on” i n one body onl y.
Fr om t he i dea of r ei ncar nat i on as under st ood i n Gr eek
t er ms f ol l ows a compar at i ve f r eedom of act i ng and
mani pul at i ng of spi r i t s, as seen i n Seneca’ s passage
di scussed i n chapt er 4. Fi xed cat egor i es of Heaven or Hel l ,
t oget her wi t h t heol ogi cal i nt er di ct i ons, l i mi t or f or bi d
t he comi ng and goi ng of spi r i t ual bei ngs and messages so
essent i al t o any ki nd of spi r i t ual l y- or i ent ed aut omat i c
wr i t i ng. I n shor t , communi cat i ng wi t h t he dead, not bei ng
easy nor r ecommended, i s an essent i al par t of Kar deci st
psychogr aphi cal pr act i ce vi r t ual l y i n l at e Second Templ e
evi dence: onl y J osephus pr ovi des a gl i mpse of i t ( whi ch
cannot be di smi ssed) but agai n, he may be t al ki ng about
somet hi ng di f f er ent t o r ei ncar nat i on i n t he Gr eek sense,
and whose vocabul ar y he copi es t o some ext ent .

3. 2. Wei ght of st er eot ypi cal descr i pt i ons
I f on t he one hand st er eot ypi cal descr i pt i ons ar e
unavoi dabl e and make ever y per son - f r omt he psychoanal yzed
subj ect t o t he shaman - behave i n ver y def i ni t e pat t er ns
and accor di ng t o def i ni t e expect at i ons, t he st er eot yped
descr i pt i on of myst i c exper i ences i n apocal ypt i c poses a
f ew pr obl ems when r ead i n cr oss- cul t ur al per spect i ve.
The whol e t hesi s i s bui l t on t he not i on t hat ,
r egar dl ess of t he ef f ect i ve exi st ence of a wor l d beyond,

225
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



t he exper i ences r epor t ed by Kar deci st s - Chi co Xavi er as
t he ar chet ypi cal and most pr ol i f i c medi um - ar e not
f abr i cat ed. A vast ar r ay of f i r st and t hi r d- per son
t est i moni es has been exami ned f or t he pur pose, t o t he
concl usi on t hat , even i f t he whol e pr ocess i s but a
del usi on, Xavi er i s bei ng si ncer e bot h i n dogmat i c
adher ence t o bel i ef and i n r epor t i ng exper i ences. And i n
t hi s cor pus of evi dence t he wei ght of st er eot ypy i s i ndeed
smal l r egar di ng t he descr i pt i on of t he exper i ences
t hemsel ves.
Thi s means t hat , al t hough Chi co Xavi er was ver y wi l l i ng
t o t al k about what goes i nt o hi s mi nd whi l e psychogr aphi ng,
or how i t al l st ar t ed, or what hi s gui di ng spi r i t t hi nks
about i t al l , we ar e l ef t wi t h no ost ensi bl y ASC- i nduci ng
pat t er n on hi s r epor t s. Tr ue, t he use of l i ght sacr ed musi c
i s a f eat ur e of Kar deci st séances i n Br azi l , some medi ums
“ener gi ze” wat er t o obt ai n cur es and so on, but t hi s i s
not hi ng compar ed t o t he massi ve pr esence of ost ensi bl e ASC-
i nduci ng pr act i ces i n apocal ypt i c l i t er at ur e.
Fast s, pr ayi ng and mour ni ng ar e ever ywher e, i n a f ew
st ances i n 4Ezr a t her e i s even an appar ent l i nk bet ween
i ngest i on of subst ances and myst i cal vi si on
22
: t hese ar e
al l pr act i ces t hat can l ead t o ASCs. And yet i n Kar deci st
t r ance none of t hose i s t o be f ound ( except ver y mi l d
advi ce t o avoi d al cohol , dr ugs and ci gar et t es - not as
pr epar at or y measur es but as cl eansi ng pr act i ce) and we know
t he t r ances descr i bed t o be si ncer e; t he opposi t e happens
i n apocal ypt i c, wher e t he wei ght of st er eot ypy gi ves t he
i mpr essi on t hat t he wr i t er i s t r yi ng t o get t he r eader i nt o
bel i evi ng t hat t he vi si onar y exper i ence was l i nked t o t hose
pr act i ces, even when t her e may have been no f i r st - hand
exper i ence behi nd t he r epor t . I n t he end, ever yone l i ves

22
Cf . t he appendi x, i t em2. 4.

226
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



accor di ng t o cer t ai n t opoi and i t seems usel ess t o sear ch
f or pur e si ncer i t y unl i nked t o any pr evi ous cul t ur al
expect at i ons.
That t he pr act i ces descr i bed i n apocal ypt i c t ext s can
ef f ect i vel y l ead t o ASC i s beyond doubt - t hey do descr i be
ASCs. That t hese ar e f i r st - per son t r ue exper i ences i s t o be
doubt ed, and i n cont r ast t o t he aust er e pi ct ur e of
Kar deci st descr i pt i ons t he f l amboyant r epor t s i n
apocal ypt i c l ook exagger at ed as si ncer e f i r st - per son
exper i ences. Her e as i n anyt hi ng el se r el at ed t o t he t heme,
t her e can be no har d- pr oof of any sor t , but si nce t her e i s
such pr oof r egar di ng Kar deci st medi umni st i c pr act i ces,
apocal ypt i c vi si onar y epi sodes, i f r el at ed t o aut omat i c
wr i t i ng, l ook much mor e exagger at ed and ar t i f i ci al by
compar i son. I t must be sai d t hat t hese l ast aspect s may be
due t o mat t er s of st yl e or even of i nt er f er ence due t o
copyi st s’ i nt er pol at i ons, but t hese ar e onl y specul at i ons.

3. 3. Weak evi dence pr ovi ded by si mi l ar hypnot i c- l i ke
descr i pt i ons
Moder n- day hypnot i c st at es i nduced i n l abor at or y
condi t i ons or st udi ed under t hei r auspi ces pr ovi de dat a
t hat does not hel p much i n t er ms of under st andi ng ASC i n
anci ent myst i cs: t he ef f ect s l ook ver y si mi l ar but t he
st er eot ypi cal expect at i ons t hat pr esi de bot h ar e ver y
di f f er ent
23
. On t he ot her hand, t he br ut e dat a on t hose
ef f ect s must not be i gnor ed wi t hout t aki ng i nt o
consi der at i on t hat t he cause- ef f ect descr i bed i s i ndeed
si mi l ar t o t hose f ound i n anci ent r el i gi ous t ext s i ncl udi ng
apocal ypses. Agai n, t he t opoi i mbued by a l abor at or y

23
A si mi l ar poi nt was al r eady st r essed by MacDer mot , op. ci t . p. xi ,
r egar di ng t he di f f er ences i n r el i gi ous and ot her t ypes of ASC- i nduct ed
exper i ences.

227
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



subj ect ( no mat t er how “obj ect i vel y” t he r esear ch i s
conduct ed) ar e j ust ot her s t o be t aken i nt o account .
By t he same t oken, t he concept of FPP i s of ver y
l i mi t ed use r egar di ng anci ent myst i cs: i t i s a cul t ur al
pat t er n t hat al l ows t o deci de whet her t hi s or t hat peopl e
ar e FPPs. The same concept appl i ed t o Ant i qui t y woul d
r esul t i n anachr oni sm and t o t he i ncl usi on of al most ever y
aut hor i n t he cat egor y. An al t oget her di f f er ent possi bi l i t y
woul d be t o adapt t he concept so as t o f i t anci ent val ues
and at t i t udes, but t he r esul t i s l i kel y t o be so ar bi t r ar y
t hat i t i s t o be doubt ed whet her such an ef f or t makes
sense.

3. 4. Uncer t ai nt y of OT passages
The passage of 2Chr exami ned above pr ovi des onl y
appar ent cl ues t o t he pr act i ce of aut omat i c wr i t i ng i n t he
OT, f or a number of r easons.
Fi r st of al l , El i j ah coul d be al i ve at t he t i me of t he
wr i t i ng, al t hough t hi s i s not an obvi ous possi bi l i t y.
Secondl y, t her e ar e pr ecedent s t o t he case pr esent ed i n t he
t ext - namel y t hat books or scr i pt ur es i n gener al wer e
“f ound” i n mi r acul ous ci r cumst ances. The most f amous case
among t hose i s t hat of Deut er onomy.
Fi nal l y, t he compl et e si l ence r egar di ng t he passage i n
l at er and unquest i onabl y or t hodox sour ces makes us wonder
why i t i s t hat somet hi ng so i nnovat i ve and het er odox was
over l ooked by r abbi s, Chur ch Fat her s and J osephus. The most
l i kel y answer i s t hat t he passage was never r egar ded as
havi ng been wr i t t en “spi r i t ual l y” by El i j ah t hr ough t he
hands of a human medi um, but r at her t hat i t was i nser t ed i n
a t r adi t i on of t ext s “f ound” so as t o enhance t hei r
aut hor i t y. Al l t hi s seems t o i nval i dat e any cl ai m t o t he

228
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



exi st ence of aut omat i c wr i t i ng among Second Templ e J ews
usi ng 2Chr as har d pr oof .

3. 5. Psychogr aphy i s never i nt ended as decept i on or
conf usi ng evi dence
Anot her el ement t o be consi der ed as evi dence agai nst
si ncer i t y of apocal ypt i c vi si onar y exper i ences as r el at ed
t o pseudepi gr aphy as compar ed t o t hose of Kar deci st
aut omat i c wr i t i ng, i s t he i ssue of t he i dent i t y of t he
mechani cal wr i t er .
I n Kar deci sm, no mat t er how humbl e or i gnor ant t he
medi um al l eges t o be i n compar i son t o t he supposed
spi r i t ual wr i t er , i t i s al ways t he case t hat t he i dent i t y
of t he mechani cal wr i t er ( i . e. t he medi um) i s exhi bi t ed
( even when Kar deci st t ext s ar e pr esent ed as havi ng an
anonymous medi umas t he mechani cal wr i t er - a compar at i vel y
r ar e f i xt ur e - i t i s al ways cl ear t o t he r eader t hat t he
f i nal pr oduct , t he t ext , i s t he r esul t of a par t ner shi p
bet ween spi r i t and mechani cal wr i t er ) .
None of t hi s i s t o be f ound i n apocal ypt i c
pseudepi gr aphy: much t o t he cont r ar y, t he i dent i t y of t he
mechani cal wr i t er i s absor bed i nt o t hat of t he por t r ayed
her o. Not t o an ext ent t hat one cannot dat e a t ext ( at
l east dat e i t “negat i vel y”, i . e. el i mi nat i ng some dat i ng
possi bi l i t i es) f r omwhat ever evi dence t he mechani cal wr i t er
has l ef t ( exampl es woul d be t he r ef er ence t o t he eagl e or
t he r ei nt er pr et at i on of Dn i n 4Ezr a, or t he t hemes r el at ed
t o t he angel s and voi ces i n t he Templ e shar ed by 2Br ,
J osephus and Taci t us) .
Fr om t hi s poi nt of vi ew one can say not onl y t hat
psychogr aphy and pseudepi gr aphy f ul f i l di f f er ent needs
r egar di ng t hei r r espect i ve publ i cs, but al so t hat t hey
f ul f i l di f f er ent i nt ent i ons f r om t he par t of t he aut hor s:

229
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



whi l e Kar deci st psychogr aphy pr et ends t o br i ng dat a on t he
ot her wor l d and somet i mes on t he hi st or i cal past t o an
audi ence hungr y f or t hem, apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy seems
t o be mor e f ocused i n aut hor shi p i ssues t hemsel ves, i n t he
sense t hat f r om what l i t t l e we know about r eader shi p and
aut hor shi p i n Ant i qui t y, i t was ver y i mpor t ant f or r eader s
cor r ect ( or supposedl y cor r ect ) aut hor i al at t r i but i on of
t ext s
24
. Thi s needs not i ncl ude del i ber at e i nt ent i on of
decei vi ng, of cour se, but const i t ut es a maj or di f f er ence
bet ween t he t wo cat egor i es. I n Kar deci st psychogr aphy, by
compar i son, doct r i nal cor r ect ness l ooks much mor e i mpor t ant
t han aut hor i al i ssues.
I t shoul d al so be not ed t hat , al t hough epi st ol ar y
pseudepi gr aphy mi ght ( i n t heor y) have pr esent ed t he same
set of vi si onar y char act er i st i cs as t he apocal ypt i c one, i n
t he cases exami ned ( t hose of Sal vi an and Ter t ul i an) wher e
t he i dent i t y of t he mechani cal wr i t er i s known, t hi s ver y
knowl edge ended up i n di sgr ace wi t h t he pseudepi gr apher s.
Thi s can onl y mean t hat , at l east i n t hose t wo l at e
Ant i qui t y cases, pseudepi gr aphy was somet hi ng i nt ended not
t o r eveal t he i dent i t y of t he mechani cal wr i t er , but r at her
t hat ever y ef f or t was made t o conceal i t and t hat
successf ul pseudepi gr aphy woul d t ake t hi s hi di ng t o an
ext ent t hat i dent i f i cat i on of t he mechani cal wr i t er woul d
be i mpossi bl e. I n t hi s sense, t ext s such as 2En shoul d be
r egar ded as hi ghl y successf ul , si nce af t er al l t he ef f or t
t hat has been put i nt o i nvest i gat i ng i t s geogr aphi cal
or i gi ns and dat i ng, no one coul d come t o any def i ni t e
concl usi on. I n t hi s par t i cul ar case guesses on dat i ng and
aut hor shi p r ange f r om Chr i st i ans t o J ews, f r om t he
Byzant i ne Empi r e t o Al exandr i a and f r omI I I BCE t o XI V CE.

24
Cf . Duf f , op. ci t .

230
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



I n shor t , Kar deci st psychogr aphy i s never i nt ent i onal l y
decept i ve: one can doubt whet her t her e i s any spi r i t ual
r eal i t y beyond t he vei l of medi umshi p, but not about t he
concr et e act i vi t y of t he mechani cal wr i t er . I n addi t i on,
despi t e al l t he ost ensi bl y humbl e f eel i ngs of medi ums such
as Chi co Xavi er , t hey ar e t he ones t hat become f amous, and
onl y secondar i l y t he ent i t i es t hey pur por t t o r epr esent
acqui r e f ame. Not hi ng of t he ki nd can be sai d about
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy, not even about t he epi st ol ar y
f r auds of Sal vi an and t hat denounced by Ter t ul i an. I n bot h
cases aut hor i al pr eci si on was ver y i mpor t ant , much mor e
t han i n Kar deci st ci r cl es wher e, as has been sai d,
doct r i nal cor r ect ness has pr ecedence over aut hor shi p
i ssues. That t he opposi t e happened i n t he epi st ol ar y
pseudepi gr aphy of Sal vi an has been demonst r at ed; t hat
apocal ypt i c pseudepi gr aphy woul d have r el i ed on t he same
assumpt i ons l ooks l i kel y but cannot be ascer t ai ned.
Emphasi zi ng t hese l ast r ef l ect i ons, one poi nt hi t her t o
avoi ded must be st r essed – namel y t hat Kar deci st aut hor shi p
i s never hi dden. I n t hat sense, i t woul d be a mi st ake t o
cal l i t pseudonymous: no mat t er how much t he medi um
hi m/ her sel f r ej ect s mer i t s, aut hor shi p and i ncome r esul t i ng
f r om t he wr i t i ngs
25
, one i s never i n doubt about who t he
mechani cal aut hor of a gi ven t ext was.
Even i n t he pr odi gi ous case of Wal do Vi ei r a and Chi co
Xavi er al t er nat i ng chapt er s i n Mecani smos da medi uni dade,
we st i l l know t hat i t was t hey and no one el se who wr ot e
t he f i nal t ext .

25
Embl emat i c of hi s own r el at i on t owar ds hi s out put , Chi co Xavi er ,
dur i ng a TV pr ogr am t hat became f amous ( t he “Pi nga- f ogo” br oadcast on
J ul y 28
t h
1971) kept on r epeat i ng, when quest i oned about t hi s or t hat
t heme - “Emmanuel t el l us t hi s”, “Emmanuel t hi nks t hat ” et c. Cf . Sout o
Mai or , op. ci t . p. 171.

231
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Fi nal r emar ks

On t he basi s of Kar deci st compar i son, t he exper i ences
descr i bed i n t he apocal ypses shoul d not be consi der ed as
si ncer e as t hose of f i r st - hand account s. Thi s does not mean
t hat by ot her means t hey may be one day pr oved t o be
aut hent i c, al t hough t he ver y nat ur e of t he sour ces i nvol ved
makes t he t ask exceedi ngl y di f f i cul t – t hus t he necessar y
r ecour se t o cr oss- cul t ur al compar i son. I t i s i mpor t ant t o
not e t hat t he possi bi l i t y of i dent i f i cat i on bet ween act ual
( mechani cal ) apocal ypt i c wr i t er s and t hei r pseudonyms does
not pr ecl ude t he ver y t r ut hf ul second- hand r epor t s on
myst i cal exper i ences descr i bed, whi ch may possi bl y r ef l ect
aut hent i c exper i ence by peopl e who wer e pr obabl y unknown t o
t he act ual wr i t er . On t he ot her hand, no mat t er how
ef f ect i ve t he pr act i ces descr i bed may l ook, Kar deci st
medi ums avoi d t hem al t oget her i n or der t o ent er i nt o an
ASC. The l at t er appear s t o be mor e r el at ed t o sel f - hypnosi s
and i mmer si on i n a t hemat i c wor l d t han t o speci f i c
pr act i ces l i ke f ast i ng or mour ni ng. Besi des, exper i ment s of
sever al sor t s have shown t hem t o shar e sever al common
char act er i st i cs t hat al l ow t hem t o be gr ouped on what i s
cur r ent l y cal l ed FPP.
Ther e i s al ways t he possi bi l i t y t hat t he apocal ypt i c
wr i t er woul d al so f eel so i mmer sed i n hi s Bi bl i cal cul t ur al
r ef er ences as t o f eel hi msel f par t of t he pi ct ur e he
descr i bes. But i n t hi s case t he ASC- i nduci ng t echni ques and
event ual possessi on do not mat ch t he pr oposed compar at i ve
model , Kar deci sm.
As t he Ar ab pr over b goes, men r esembl e mor e t hei r t i me
t han t hei r par ent s. I n t hi s f ashi on, t he whol e r ange of
exper i ences avai l abl e t o myst i cs – be i t t he case of J ewi sh

232
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



apocal ypt i ci st s or moder n- day Kar deci st medi ums – i s an
i nt egr al par t of t hei r pr epar at or y pr ocesses.
I ndeed, i t coul d even be ar gued i f t he i mmedi at e
pr epar at i ons – f ast s, pr ayer s et c. – i s not j ust a
par t i cul ar case wi t hi n t he br oader f r amewor k of t hei r
wor l d- vi ew. And agai n t he exper i ences avai l abl e t o each
myst i c ar e onl y t hose made possi bl e by hi s cul t ur al mi l i eu,
i n a sense by hi s t r ai ni ng as a myst i c. The i dea of
possessi on ( i n i t sel f a ki nd of mani pul at i ng) by a spi r i t
and t he consequent r edact i on of a t ext l ooks unl i kel y t o
Second Templ e J ewi sh vi si onar i es, al t hough t he pr epar at or y
pr oceedi ngs descr i bed ar e accur at e and ef f i ci ent enough. I n
shor t , bot h set s of vi si onar i es - apocal ypt i ci st s and
Kar deci st s - use pr epar at or y devi ces, but t hi s does not
mean t hat any apocal ypt i c wr i t er ever f el t hi msel f as bei ng
possessed.
On t he ot her hand, Kar deci st t r ai ni ng put ver y l i t t l e
emphasi s on t hose i mmedi at e pr act i ces: r at her one get s t he
i mpr essi on t hat t he whol e sel f - hypnot i c scheme t hat l i es i n
t he backgr ound of Kar deci st exper i ences i s such an
i nvol vi ng and compl et e cul t ur al exper i ence t hat i t r ender s
such i mmedi at e devi ces ( f ast i ng et c. ) f ut i l e, even
undesi r abl e. I n t hi s case myst i cal aut hor shi p i s not onl y
al l owed, but mani pul at i on of spi r i t s i s an essent i al par t
of Kar deci sm, i t i s somet hi ng hi ghl y pr i zed. Thi s ver y
di f f er ent appr oach t o a phenomenon t hat l ooks t he same i n
bot h cases – i . e. i dent i f i cat i on wi t h someone el se due t o
sel f - hypnosi s – makes t he i dea of myst i cal exper i ences i n
J ewi sh apocal ypses as r el at ed t o t he i dent i f i cat i on bet ween
seer and por t r ayed her o ver y unl i kel y, gi ven t he t wo mai n
essent i al di f f er ences i n ASC- i nduci ng pr act i ces ( t hat l ead
t o sel f - hypnosi s and, as a consequence, t o Kar deci st
aut omat i c wr i t i ng) and t he cul t ur al di f f i cul t i es i n

233
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



accept i ng or even desi r i ng spi r i t mani pul at i on f or any
pur poses.

234



Appendi x

Visionary practices in Old Testament and
pseudepigraphical apocalypses and related
texts
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



1. Sur vey of chosen passages

In this appendix I will discuss the passages in
apocalyptic literature and related pseudepigraphic
material where preparatory visionary processes are
described.
In this section we will only look at proposed ways to
deal with the relation between apocalyptic pseudepigraphy
and mystic experience. Examples of the above would be the
vision of the weeping woman transfigured into heavenly
Jerusalem in 4Ezra 10:25-28 or the book eaten by the seer
in Rev 10:8. Of course one must bear in mind that in each
culture the phenomenon investigated - inducted by fasting,
mind-altering substances or prayer - will acquire a
distinct and specific cultural meaning for the group
involved.
We should consider the means of inspiration for the
apocalypticists as being rather psychical than physical
1
,
i.e. the spectacular examples of chemically induced visions
being comparatively rarer than visions obtained by more
normal means. The references to trances, visions and dreams
are much more frequent in the apocalypses than in other
revelatory literature in the Old Testament, especially
among the prophets. They are all the more remarkable in the
most important apocalypses, namely Dn, 2Br, 4Ezra and 1En
(which is not, as a whole, an apocalypse but has large
sections which can be considered as such); the same issues
can be raised regarding texts with strong points in common
with the apocalypses, such as the Testaments.
The use of vapors as a means of getting inspiration in
the oracle of Apollo, at Delphi, is a particularly famous

1
Russell, Method and Message, p.161.

236
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



example of preparation for a visionary process
2
. The Bible
gives us some examples of pagan visionary practices: the
prophets of Baal at 1Kgs 18:20 ff are an especially
eloquent example.
As a first remark, it should be noted that with the
exception of the Sibyl all of the visionaries portrayed are
men (which does not prove the gender identity of the
author, but is to be taken into account); and even the
Sibyl is quite exceptional not only for being a woman but
for all the other peculiarities of the oracles themselves
3
.
In terms of chronology I shall deal with texts ranging
from roughly 300 BCE until 200 CE; this is the period when
parts of Dn, lEn, 2Br, 4Ezra among other texts were
composed
4
. Of course the question arises whether many other
texts have not survived, and thus we have no clue about the
representativeness of the period selected. However, in
terms of what came down to us, the most important texts are
situated between the limits set above. I shall also deal
with pseudepigraphic texts that, while clearly not being
themselves apocalypses, (e.g. the Testaments, 4Br) can shed
light on the processes of preparing for visions in the
apocalypses “proper”, either by sharing common themes, or
by showing inspirational practices similar enough to
justify their inclusion here.
Trying to find general parallels for phenomena similar
to the visions of the apocalypticists
5
we should look with

2
But see Oesterreich, op.cit. p.316 ff. for arguments against this
idea.
3
Taking us back to the idea of the role of marginalized groups in a
given society where the ecstatic phenomenon takes place; cf. Lewis,
Ecstatic Religion, op.cit. p.77.
4
Even if, as I said above, this does not at all mean that they have
been preserved “purely” and without interpolations since their dates
of composition. I will come to the matter of dating again below.
5
I use the term here meaning the authors, pseudepigraphic as the
texts may be, rather than assuming that the apocalypses were consumed

237
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



particular attention to two specific cultures related to
Judaism, namely the Greco-roman world and Near Eastern
antecedents
6
.
In terms of “internal” Jewish references, prophets and
apocalypticists alike share the idea of a divine compulsion
to reveal things to men
7
; the means by which inspiration to
say those things was also varied and can be roughly
distinguished between the earlier prophets and the
classical ones. Instances of the effect of music to
prophesize can be found at 1Sm 19:20-24 and 10:5; Elijah
“drank the water of the river” in 1Kgs 17:2-6; the spirit
that animated the neviim is said to be the same as that of
Moses (Nm 11:24-30). Parallels to the activity of the
prophets can be found throughout the ancient Near East -the
remembrance of a baru, a Mesopotamian kind of seer, is
preserved in Nm 24, concerning Balaam; but the two things
that need concern us here regarding apocalypticism are its
relations to their ways of gaining inspiration as compared
to the prophets.
Regarding the ways of getting inspired, the earlier
prophets are conspicuously more violent in their ecstasies
than the classical ones - this, however, must be taken with
great care as it may be the deliberate result of the
compilers trying to depict classical prophecy as “calmer”
and thus as distinct from similar pagan practices as
possible (i.e. the practices of, say, Isaiah resemble those
of pagan diviners less than those of Elijah, in an earlier

by any definite group or groups of sectarians inside Jewish or
Christian groups.
6
These phenomena may be rooted outside Judaism, although this does
not exclude Jewish parallels, among which those related to prophecy
seem to be among the most important. Cf. Russell, Divine Disclosure,
p.21.
7
Russell, Method and Message, p.158.

238
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



period)
8
; but as examples we should cite that it was the
ruah from God that seized the “ecstatic” or earlier
prophets (cf. Jdg 14:6; 1Sm 16:14). This being the case, it
should be noted that the prophetic books themselves seem to
be less interested in the process of prophesizing than in
the message they convey
9
.
There are few hints about the way the prophets got
their inspiration, Ezekiel is apparently the most
astonishing example - he claims, in Ez 1-3 that Heaven
opened and he had a vision of God
10
. If this happened in
the Temple or not is to be debated
11
. Next, God gives
Ezekiel a scroll, which he eats in order to acquire the
gift of prophecy, also something to be doubted that
occurred literally. The vision of Jeremiah in Jr 1:11-12 is
again difficult to understand, but surely implies a pun in
Hebrew between shequed, a tree, and sequed, “to make
clear”; we do not know whether Jeremiah had an actual tree
in front of him, but that is how the word of God was sent
to him
12
. Isaiah is likely to have had his vision inside
the Temple (Is 6:1,2), but aside from those visual stimuli
little else can be said - even if we can be sure that the
coal did not physically touch his lips, otherwise he could
not go on to prophesy. However, all this relates
essentially to the messages conveyed and not really to
preparation for visions, this being the reason for not
discussing the matter further.

8
For a good discussion on the issue, see Gunnel André. “Ecstatic
Prophesy in the Old Testament” in: Holm, op.cit.
9
Russell, Method and Message, p.159.
10
In later apocalypses of the “heavenly voyage” type this would be a
major influencing image - although it was then implicit that God
distanced Himself from men so much that now the heroes of the
apocalypses are the ones that should seek and see Him. Cf.
Himmelfarb, “From prophecy to apocalypticism” p.150.
11
André, op.cit. p.189.
12
Id.ibid.

239
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



We should consider the means of inspiration for the
apocalypticists as being rather psychical than physical
13
,
i.e. the spectacular examples of chemically-induced
visions, as we shall see, being comparatively rarer than
visions obtained by more conventional means. The references
to trances, visions and dreams are much more frequent in
the apocalypses than in other revelatory literature in the
Old Testament, especially among the prophets.
Outside those Jewish prophetic references, the theme of
voyages to Heaven or Hell is also well attested in the
Greek cultural world: this can be found from Homer to Plato
and, as satire, even in Lucian of Samosata. These are
rather special kinds of visions, but it should be noted
that throughout the Hellenistic world visions were regarded
as a quite sophisticated means of acquiring knowledge about
matters
14
(many could be quoted here, but Josephus and
Suetonius will suffice as exponents of the above
statements
15
); on the other hand no essential change can be
seen in Greek oracles from VIII BCE to III CE (here to be
understood as a variety of the visionary phenomenon)
16
. The
use of vapours as a means of getting inspiration in the
oracle of Apollo, at Delphi, was a particularly famous
example of preparation for a visionary process, although
discredited in recent research
17
. The Bible gives us some
examples of pagan preparatory practices, the prophets of
Baal at 1Kgs 18:20 ff being an especially eloquent one.
The visions that are discussed have been obtained in
various trance states, which the apocalyptic visionaries

13
Russell, Method and Message, p.161.
14
John J. Collins. The Apocalyptic Imagination. Grand Rapids: William
B.Eerdmans, 1998. P.117.
15
See e.g. Josephus, Jewish War 3.399 ff. and Suetonius, Life
of Vespasian 5.
16
David Aune. Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient
Mediterranean World. Grand Rapids: William B.Eerdmans, 1983. P.49.
17
Oesterreich, op.cit. p.316.

240
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



are very keen to describe, as compared to their canonical
counterparts - prophets, seers and the like
18
. For the
purposes of this appendix I shall treat “ecstasy” and
“trance” as synonyms, while being aware that some authors
may trace distinctions between them
19
. I will treat
visions, then, as a particular case of trance, since not
all trances purport visions although the reverse is not
true - i.e. all the visions dealt with in this appendix
were clearly obtained in ASCs, or claimed to have been so.
Not every mystical experience should be regarded as
ecstatic - in visions an individual receives personal and
intense new knowledge about the Universe; in the ecstasies
the emphasis is placed on the mental changes the seer goes
through, rather than in the revelation itself
20
.
Ecstatic practices, both Jewish and non-Jewish, are
sometimes strongly related to divination, and this may be
specially important to understand the revelations given to
apocalyptic visionaries - these being in themselves
practitioners of a kind of divination, where the seer
intends to get knowledge about future events, about their
meaning or about the secrets of Creation
21
. The Hebrew

18
This may imply deliberate censorship of the more spectacular or
pagan-like aspects of the “canonical trances”, although this is by no
means certain and may in fact be a false assumption, if we only
regard the nature of the visions of Ezekiel.
19
For a fairly complete state of the discussion until the beginning
of the Eighties, see the introduction by Nils Holm. “Ecstasy Research
in the 20
th
Century. An Introduction” in: Holm, op.cit. The term
“ecstasy” seems to have been more common among religion historians,
“trance” more favoured by anthropologists.
20
Idem, p.8. Of course it could be altogether different from the
point of view of the final consumers of the apocalypses - although we
cannot say anything definitive on the matter.
21
Here too one can see marked differences between Old Testament
prophecy and apocalyptic - both the promises and the geographical
scope of apocalyptic literature being much broader than those of the
prophets.

241
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Bible preserved several instances of ecstasies from seers
and prophets, as seen above
22
.
Besides divination, ecstasies are most obviously
related to possession - a taboo theme in the Hebrew Bible
and also in the New Testament, but worthwhile looking at if
we are to have a broader picture of the kind of sensation
the apocalyptic seers might have gone through in order to
get their visions
23
. A phenomenon that may well be
possession takes place within the prophets and also in some
apocalyptic writings, e.g. 4Ezra 14:40: “[...] and my mouth
was opened, and was no longer closed”. Note the passive
positioning of the subject in regard to the mechanism of
inspiration.
Since in this passage the seer apparently lost control
over his capacity to silence and began to speak without
pause, we can assume there is some degree of possessional
behaviour here. But it is a very light hint and does not
support the case for possessional phenomena being
commonplace in apocalyptic writings, and it remains, like
so much more in 4Ezra, a puzzling exception.
But it should be noted that the apocalypticist never
loses his identity to become one with God, much less with
the intermediary angel if this may be the case. This is all
the more important if we are to differentiate between
physical and psychic means of inspiration in the
apocalyptic seers
24
- it seems that the former tends
sometimes to be underlined due to its spectacular aspects,
not taking into account that the majority of the

22
Nm 24:17; it is interesting that the passage attributed to a pagan
diviner, Balaam, would have so important messianic connotations much
later.
23
Russell, Method and Message, pp.159; 160; 175.
24
For a good and already classic discussion on the dichotomy see John
Skinner. Prophecy and Religion: Studies in the Life of Jeremiah.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926. P.11 ff.

242
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



experiences described by the visionaries do not involve
artificial (i.e. pharmacological or chemically-induced)
means of inspiration
25
. It should be noted that even in one
of the most spectacular sequences of visions of an Old
Testament prophet, Ezekiel, he never loses his identity so
as to be confused or mingled with the deity
26
. I should now
add that “apocalyptic literature” has never been looked at
as a genre in Antiquity; in fact this treatment is quite
recent and does not reflect the way the apocalypses
themselves have been regarded by their public in
Antiquity
27
. So, while the texts only compose a definite
genre in our eyes, at the same time one will not find a
“theory of inspiration” for the apocalypses themselves
28
-
simply because explanation for visionary processes found
therein could easily be related, by the ancient reader, to
other sources and practices. I will use two basic
categories, which I think are more useful for the theme of
this appendix, namely whether the visions were obtained in
an awakened or sleeping state.
The spread of the theme of revelatory dreams ranging
from Mesopotamia to Homer and Virgil should also be
noted
29
. Dreams are sometimes to be confounded with visions
in the texts we are dealing with here, but I take the
“nocturnal visions” sometimes described as a special kind
of dream - forced by ecstatic practices, by chemical

25
Russell, Method and Message, p.161. But see 2.4 in this appendix for
discussion on chemical inducement.
26
André, op.cit. p.190. The same author makes the interesting
observation that all the cases dealt with - i.e. “classical prophets”
in the Old Testament - the seers were alone; in terms of ecstatic
practices, for the sake of comparison, it should be pointed out that
the pagan prophets of Baal in 1Kgs 18:20-40 are depicted as a group
and their self-mutilation in order to get an ecstasy are collectively
described.
27
John J. Collins. Daniel, with an Introduction to Apocalyptic
Literature. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1984. P.1.
28
Russell, Method and Message, p.158.
29
Collins, Daniel, p.15.

243
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



induction or whatever, but being meaningful to the seer in
terms of what he purports to be his mission
30
.
In short, were apocalyptic literature a definite
genre, with well-established clichés and practices, we
would have an altogether different picture, if there was
not the additional problem of the fragmentary nature of the
texts that have reached us (i.e. we have only a fraction of
the “original” apocalyptic output)
31
; besides, their often
striking parallels to pagan practices argues also in favour
of the experiences described being more than mere
clichés
32
, but in this, as in other aspects of the
discussion between Persian influence on Jewish practices
and thoughts, the difficulties remain due to the late
compilation of Persian texts
33
(of course no one should
confuse the date of a manuscript with the date of its
composition, but still the issue cannot be overlooked).
Summing up what I have discussed so far, I have
stressed the need for parallels and the “artificial”
element present in the description of the preparation for
visions in apocalyptic texts; while having to avoid the
“spectacular” element present in many analyses of
apocalyptic passages dealing with artificially induced
visions. One still has to take note, however, of the myriad
of possibilities preparing oneself for apocalyptic visions:
they can be obtained by several means, physical, chemical,
induced by prayer, by chastity or by combinations of the
items above.
In terms of the final presentation from the seer’s
point of view, they can be divided into visions during

30
Idem, p.8.
31
Anders Hultgard. “Ecstasy and vision” in: Holm, op.cit. p.218.
32
Russell, Method and Message, p.158.
33
Idem, p.223.

244
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



sleep or occurring in an awakened state of mind, as
proposed.
Reflection on other passages, although less appealing
in terms of cross-cultural comparisons, may also be very
important
34
and as we shall see nearer the end of the
thesis, may take us to more contemporary parallels. In fact
the re-evaluation of earlier passages in apocalyptic texts
is one of its most distinguishing features, the most well
known of those being possibly the theme of the “seventy
years” of Jeremiah read by Daniel
35
. The commonly stated
allegation of prayer by the visionaries, although not
synonymous to scriptural exegesis, seems to be related to
it, since it supposes a detailed and firsthand knowledge of
things divine, while hallucinations generated by external
induction do not. Of course it should be regarded as the
intimate link between the induction, where it appears, and
the vision itself - in other words, the form the
chemically-induced visions take is dependent on the whole
of the cultural references of the seer’s worldview.
In the brief survey that follows one must bear in mind
that the passages examined do not tell us all that we want
to know about preparation for visions - e.g. one passage
may tell about the fasting involved, and that the vision
obtained was during an awake state, but not whether it was
obtained at home or outside. This means that evidence
gathered and analyzed here is by no means complete and
exhaustive, although the passages collected try to catch
every reference to preparation for visions in the Old
Testament pseudepigrapha, Revelation, Daniel, with
occasional references to New Testament apocrypha (6Esd)

34
Russell, Method and Message, p.181; Cf. also Rowland, Open Heaven,
p.21 ff.
35
Dn 9:24 ff.

245
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



and to one Qumran Cave Four fragment (4Q246). The
Sibylline Oracles passages have also been taken into
account.
The total number of passages found which tell something
about preparation for visions is 114. I found three basic
forms of dealing with this amount of evidence: firstly
taking into account their form (i.e. visions where the seer
was in an awakened state, or a sleeping one, the presence
of angels etc.), in terms of their dating and finally by
evaluating the seer’s state of mind (awake/asleep) against
data provided by the alleged preparatory process. The three
kinds of analyses shall be cross-compared along the text,
however any conclusions regarding transformations along the
timeline must be dealt with with great care when
controversial dates of composition are at stake.
Of the total number of passages examined, 61 clearly
involved preparation for visions with an awakened seer -
lEn 1:2; 91:1; 2En 1:2-6; 3:1; 72:1, 10; 2Br 5:5-7; 6:2;
9; 12:5; 21:1-3; 26; 32:7; 37; 53:12; 55:1-4; 3Br Slavonic
introduction; Greek introduction; 1:3 in both recensions;
4Ezra 1:33; 5:14-15, 19-20, 21; 6:35; 9:23-25, 26-29;
12:3; 12:51; 13:14; 14:1-3, 36; ApAbr 8; 15-19; ApSed 2:1-
5; Rev 1:9-17; 4:1-2; Dn 1:8-21; 2:17-20; 7:15, 28; 9:1-3,
21; 10:1-17; Jub introduction; 1:2-6; Martls 1:5-6; 2:7-
11; Vita 25; 27; LdJb 2:1-3, 6-22; 4Br 4:11; 6:7-16, 15;
7:1; OrSib 2:1, 340; 3:1-7; 5:51; 11:315-320; 13:1, 5 and
fr.8 (with other 2 probable, 3Br 9:1-2 in the Greek
recension and Dn 8:1; 16) ; by comparison only 19 included
preparations for visions where the visionary was asleep,
lEn 13:6-10; 2En 1:2-6; 72:1, 10; 2Br 35-36; 52:7-53;
55:1-4; 4Ezra 3:1-5; 10:29, 59; 11:1; 13:1; GrEzra 1;
ApAdam 2:1; Test 12, Lv 2; Naph 5-7; Dn 7:1-2; LdJb 1:1

246
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



and 4Br 5 (also with 2 doubtful passages, 4Ezra 5:31 and
again Dn 8:1; 16).
Some of the above may be repeated (e.g. 2En 72:1, 10)
because in the same verse the seer may be first awake and
then asleep. The remaining 30 leave no clue about the
issue.
Preparations involving a domestic setting (i.e. the
seer is at home) total 6 confirmed (2En 1:2-6; GrEzra 1;
ApAbr 8; Dn 2:17-20; 7:1-2, 15 and 28) and 1 probable (2En
3:1); specific geographical locations related to the
preparations come to 10 confirmed (lEn 13:6-10; 2Br 5:5-7;
47-48:1; 3Br Greek introduction; 4Ezra 1:33; 3:1-5; 9:26-
29; Rev 1:9-17; Dn 10:1-17 and Jub 1:2-6), and natural
locations such as mountains, unnamed rivers and the like,
another 5 (2Br 6:2; 55:1-4; 3Br Slavonic introduction;
4Ezra 14:1-3 and Martls 2:7-11).
In 7 passages special locations are needed as a full
part of the seer’s preparation for the visionary experience
(such as the River Dan in lEn 13:6-10; the cave at the
valley of Kidron in 2Br 21:1-3; under a tree in 55:1-4; the
river Tigris in Dn 10:1-17; Mt Sinai in Jub introduction; a
mountain in MartIs 2:7-11 and a tomb in 4Br 4:11).
Tombs are mentioned only twice (both in 4Br, 4:11 and
7:1), and the presence of angels or otherworldly beings as
part of the preparation occurs 31 times in the passages
examined (lEn 1:2; 2En 3:1; 72:1, 10; 2Br 6:2; 55:1-4; 3Br
Slavonic introduction; 1:3 in both recensions; 4Ezra 5:31;
VisEzra 1; ApAbr 12:12; ApZeph A:l; TestLv 2; TestJob 2-3;
Test3 TestAbr recA 10:1; recB 10:3; TestSol 26:6; Rev 1:9-
17; 4:1-2; 18:1; 21:9-11; Dn 8:1, 16; 9:21; 10:1-17; 4Q246
I; Vita 25; 26; 4Br 4:11; 6:7-16, 15; OrSib 11:315-320 and
13:1).

247
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. Pr epar at or y pr ocesses f r om t he seer ’ s poi nt of
vi ew

For the purposes of the analyses of preparation for
visions in Jewish apocalypses, one must take into account
the nature of the visions themselves: in that sense, I
have divided them into two basic types, namely visions
where the seer is awake and asleep, respectively. Visions
occurring during sleep sometimes cannot be distinguished
from dreams, although this is not important at this stage
of the text.
The texts examined are, in their greatest part, of
Jewish authorship (although this does not by any means
imply that they were consumed only or mainly by Jews), and
can be situated, in terms of authorship, roughly between
the second century BCE - second century CE. Many of them
have their dating so controversial as to vary much more
than that - the extreme case involving dates between 200
BCE to XIV century CE (Slavonic Enoch, or 2En).

248
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. 1. I nduct i on t echni ques
In terms of the induction to get the visions, I have
arranged the evidence under 4 main categories: fasting
36
,
chemical induction, induction by prayer and by sexual
activity (or lack of), as mentioned above. By “chemical
induction” I understand the explicit alleged ingestion, by
the seer, of some mind-altering substance, identified or
not - such as the case with the fire-colored water drunk
by Ezra - not the abstinence from items that may,
biologically or from the seer’s point of view, interfere
with the process of the revelation of hidden things (such
as Daniel’s avoidance of meat and wine at Dn 1:8-21).

But Daniel resolved that he would not defile himself
with the king’s rich food, or with the wine which he
drank; therefore he asked the chief of the eunuchs to
allow him not to defile himself [...] Test your
servants for ten days; let us be given vegetables to
eat and water to drink. Then let our appearance and the
appearance of the youths who eat the king’s rich food
be observed by you, and according to what you see deal
with your servants [...] So the steward took away their
rich food and the wine they were to drink, and gave
them vegetables. As for these four youths, God gave
them learning and skill in all letters and wisdom; and
Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams
[...] And in every matter of wisdom and understanding
concerning which the king inquired of them, he found
them [the youths] ten times better than all the
magicians and enchanters that were in all his kingdom.
And Daniel continued until the first year of King
Cyrus.

It must be pointed out that here the borderline between
enlightenment given by bodily effects of the items
ingested and rewarding effects of following kashrut laws
is somewhat blurred.

36
For an informed discussion on the major psychological aspects of
fasting as related to religious phenomena, see Wulff, op.cit. p.61 ff.

249
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Among preparatory practices, sexual abstinence is by
far the least important in the passages evaluated, with 2
confirmed references (lEn 83:2 - “I saw two visions before
I got married”, i.e. before Enoch took a wife; Vitae
Prophetarum 4:2 states about Daniel that he “was a chaste
man, so that the Judeans thought that he was a eunuch”)
and one possibly in OrSib 2:340:

Alas for me, wretched one. What will become of me on
that day in return for what I sinned, ill-minded one,
busying myself about everything but caring neither for
marriage nor for reasons?
37

On the other hand, induction by prayer as part of the
process of getting a vision seems the most popular
practice in the passages examined - references to this
amount to 19 confirmed - lEn 13:6-10; 39:9-14; 2Br 21:1-3
is a particularly interesting combination of fasting and
prayer:

I went from there and sat in the valley of Kidron in a
cave of the earth and sanctified myself there and ate
no bread, but I was not hungry; I drank no water, but I
was not thirsty. And I stayed there until the seventh
day as he had commanded me [...]

See also 2Br 26; 38; 47-48:1 - also beginning with
fasting; 48:25; 54; 4Ezra 3:1-5; 9:23-25; GrEzra 1;
VisEzra 1; Dn 2:17-20; 9:1-3; 21; Vita 25; VitaProph 4 ;
LdJb 2:6-22 and 4Br 6:7-16) and 2 possible quotations (3Br
9:1-2 in the Greek recension; Fragment 8 of the Sibylline
Oracles). Among the above are especially worthy of closer
examination lEn 39:9-14:

37
Strangely, in the next verses the sibyl compares her house to that
of a wealthy man, not a woman - a hint that may point to the actual
author being a man stylistically disguised as the female sibyl.

250
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




In those days, I praised and prayed to the name of the
Lord of the Spirits with blessings and praises, for he
had strengthened me by blessings and praises in
accordance with the will of the Lord of the Spirits
[...]

Also 4Ezra 3:1-5:

[...] My spirit was greatly agitated, and I began to
speak anxious words to the Most High, and said, ‘O
sovereign Lord, did you not speak at the beginning when
you formed the earth [...]’

Praying may come as an immediate consultation, to
which follows counselling, as in GrEzra 1:

[...] I was in my house and I cried out, saying to the
Most High, “Lord, grant [me] glory so that I may see
your mysteries”. When night fell the angel Michael, the
archangel, came and said to me, ‘Prophet Ezra, lay
aside bread for seventy weeks’ [...]

This last passage points to an experience that may be,
in its core, authentic fasting but that has been coloured
with the clichés of the genre - it would not be physically
possible for the seer to fast for seventy weeks on end, and
the number, with its special connotations in apocalyptic
thought, makes it wholly improbable that we have here
effective description of preparatory fasting. Be that as it
may, fasting comes second in popularity among preparatory
techniques, with 14 confirmed references (3En 15B:2; 2Br
5:5-7; 9; 12:5; 21:1-3; 47-48:1; 4Ezra 5:19-20; 21; 6:35;
GrEzra 1; ApAbr 12:12; Dn 9:1-3; 10:1-17 and Martls 2:7-
11). The most interesting fasting passages are 4Ezra 5:19-
20:


251
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Then I said to him [to Phaltiel, a chief of the
people], ‘Depart from me and do not come near me for
seven days, and then you may come to me’. He heard what
I said and left me. So I fasted seven days, mourning
and weeping, as Uriel the angel had commanded me.

In the Apocalypse of Abraham 12 there is a surprising
reference to image and sound nourishing the seer:

And we went, the two of us alone together, forty days
and nights. And I ate no bread and drank no water,
because [my] food was to see the angel who was with me,
and his discourse with me was my drink.

And finally, the Daniel passages, which may be the best
known of all:

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, by
birth a Mede, who became king over the realm of the
Chaldeans in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel,
perceived in the books the number of years which,
according to the word of the Lord to Jeremiah the
prophet, must pass before the end of the desolations of
Jerusalem, namely, seventy years. Then I turned my face
to the Lord God, seeking him by prayer and
supplications with fasting and sackcloth and ashes. I
prayed to the Lord my God and made confession, saying,
‘O Lord, the great and terrible God, who keepest
covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and
keep his commandments [...]’

Chemically induced visions, spectacular as they may
appear, occurred only 5 confirmed times in the sources
(4Ezra 9:23-25; 26-29; 12:51; 14:38-48 and Martls 2:7-11),
with unconfirmed references in one instance (4Br 5, when
Abimelech still feels sleepy after a 66 year nap and
complains, on waking up, that he may have got lost because
he followed an unusual road to Jerusalem; the figs he was
carrying are not only intact but even drip milk - all this
pointing to a dream strange enough to make us suspicious of

252
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



chemical inducement, although this is stated nowhere).
These references will be dealt with below, see 2.4.

2. 2. Sensor y det ai l s i n pr epar at or y t echni ques
Although this part of the thesis shall deal only with
preparation for visions and not with the visions
themselves, I felt it necessary to take into account
passages where the effects of the vision on the visionary
are described, for this also entails knowledge about the
processes of preparation themselves as they are related to
the use of the senses. In fact I have divided the sensory
data about the preparation for visions into 3 main groups,
namely specific sensory details (in 15 passages this was
observed, 2Br 21:1-3; 48:25; 3Br 1:3 in both recensions;
4Ezra 3:1-5; 5:14-15 10:29; Rev 1:9-17; 10:8-11; Dn 7:15;
28; 10:1-17; Vita 26; 27; LdJb 2:1-3; OrSib 3:1-7 and
5:51), and the essentially vocal or visual character of
the experience described by the visionary.
Regarding this last issue, basically visual experiences
total 32 passages (lEn 13:6-10; 52; 70; 3En 1:1; 2Br 6:2;
21:1-3; 35-36; 52:7-53; 55:1-4; 4Ezra 10:29; 11:1; 13:1;
VisEzra 1; ApAbr 15-19; ApAdam 2:1; TestJob 2-3; TestAbr
recA 10:1; recB 10:3; 6Esd 28-34; Rev 1:9-17; 4:1-2; 10:8-
11; 18:1; 21:9-11; Dn 2:17-20; 7:1-2; Jub 1:2-6; MartIs
1:5-6; Vita 26; 27; LdJb 1:1 and 4Br 4:11) while
essentially vocal ones amount to 30 (lEn 1:2; 83:2; 91:1;
2En 3:1; 72:1; 10; 4Ezra 1:4; 33; 5:21; 9:26-29; 14:38-48;
GrEzra 1; ApAbr 8; 32:6; ApEl 1:1; ApSed 2:1-5; Rev 1:9-17;
14:1-2; 18:1; 19:1; Dn 10:1-17; 4Br 6:15; 7:1; OrSib 2:1;
340; 3:1-7; 5:51; 11:315-320; 13:1; 13:5 and fr.8), thus
presenting an evenly distributed picture if we remember
that another 52 provide no data available on them regarding

253
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



that issue. Two passages were at the same time vocal and
visual, both occurring in Rev (1:9-17; 18:1).
When we first compare the data available about the
timeline development as related to the type of vision (i.e.
with the seer awake rather than asleep), no clear picture
emerges: of the confirmed passages where the visionary is
described as being awake, it can be safely dated from the
second century BCE: lEn 1:2; 39:9-14; 83:2; 91:1 (lEn being
a late Second Temple text, whose emphasis on dualism and
the theme of the righteous against the wicked attest its
late date, being possibly due to Persian influence; the
reference to the Son of Man in lEn 62:6 also points to that
direction, as well as the references to the Maccabean
revolt and martyrs in chapters 89-90, disguised as sheep);
Dn 1:8-21; 2:17-20; 7:15, 28; 9:1-3; 9:21; 10:1-17 (Daniel
may have a primitive core regarding the short stories of
its protagonist, but in the form that it comes to us should
be considered as contemporary to the Maccabean Revolt or a
bit later; this can be seen in the references to the four
world empires, the last part being the Hellenistic
kingdoms; the reference to the resurrection of the dead,
likely to be related to the martyrs of the Revolt; and the
presence of Antiochus Epiphanes); Jub intro and 1:2-6 (the
Book of Jubilees is probably earlier than the earliest
fragments from Qumran, and CD 26:2-4 depends on it; on the
other hand, assuming that Qumran reflects a definite
rupture with the priestly establishment in Jerusalem, Jub
should be earlier since no clear-cut distinction of the
kind is to be found there).
Four passages with the visionary awake can be dated
with precision from I CE - Rev 1:9-17; 4:1-2 (the kind of
tribulation referred to the Church should ascribe it to the
persecutions of Nero or Domitian); Martls 1:5-6; 2:7-11

254
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



(the tradition that ascribed death by sawing to Isaiah is
already present in Heb 11:37; the notion of martyrdom on
similar lines can be seen in 2Mc 6:18-7:42; 4Br, if dated
from the beginning of I CE, depends from Martls 1-5).
Another 5 texts with the seer awake can be dated from
the period between I-II CE, namely ApAbr 8:15-19 (the
Apocalypse of Abraham is probably later than 70 CE, for it
describes the fall of the Temple) and 4Br 4:11; 6:7-16;
6:15; 7:1. 4Br tells us about the vineyard of Agrippa I,
king from 41 CE - cf. 4Br 3:14; 21; 5:22; talking about the
destruction of the Temple, it must be later than 70 but
earlier than the Second Revolt in 132 CE, for the
destruction of the Temple and the end of the sacrifices are
quite important throughout chapters 1-4 -not giving the
impression of a recent, traumatic event as would be the
case if it had been written just after 70. Its world
history view, in which God destroys the chosen people for
their own sins, is remarkably similar to that of Josephus
and 2Br.
4Ezra, which contains passages with the visionary awake
can be ascribed to the beginning of II CE, in any case
before the Bar-Kochba revolt: 4Ezra 1:33 (this
introductory passage, dealing with “the Son of God, whom
they confessed in the world”, 2:47, being clearly
Christian); 5:14-15; 5:19-20; 5:21; 6:35; 9:23-25; 9:26-
29; 12:3; 12:51; 13:14; 14:1-3 and 14:36 (these chapters
from 4Ezra can be dated from the end of I CE, in any case
before the Bar-Kochba revolt; the author refers to “thirty
years after the fall of Jerusalem”; the book of Daniel is
explicitly reinterpreted, and this also entails references
to Rome and to the Julio-Claudian and Flavian emperors;
the theme of the four world empires must also be later
than Daniel, since in 4Ezra the last world monarchy should

255
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



be Rome). The same dates can be ascribed to the
preparatory passages in 2Br where the seer is awake (2Br
5:5-7; 6:2; 9; 12:5; 21:1-3; 26; 32:7; 37; 53:12 and 55:1-
4; 2Br can be dated from the end of I CE, surely after the
fall of the Temple, since it deals with the theme of the
celestial beings leaving the Temple -also found in
Josephus, Jewish War 6.300 and Tacitus, Histories 5.13 -;
the idea that the fall of the Temple is the mere
consequence of the Jews’ own faults is also remarkably
similar to the point of view of Josephus).
3Br can be ascribed to a period ranging anywhere
between II-III CE (3Br Slavonic introduction; Greek
introduction; 1:3 in both recensions and possibly 9:1-2 in
the Greek text; 3Br seems to depend on the Apocalypse of
Paul, from II CE, or from a common source; the reference
to a “Temple in Heaven” also points to a date later than
70, when Jerusalem was already destroyed.).
The rest of the passages with the visionary depicted as
awake are either clearly later or cannot be dated with
enough precision to take part in the proposed evaluation of
pattern according to a timeline. These are 2En 1:2-6; 3:1
and the unclear reference at 72:1, 10 (Slavonic Enoch
having manuscripts not earlier than XIV CE, with no hints
of earlier strata, and no earlier text quotes it),- Vita 25
and 27 (the Life of Adam and Eve should be later than 400
or 500 CE, reflecting older traditions; it should be noted
that the theme of the fall of Satan was already known to
Mohammed but the theme is not to be found in the Greek
text) and LdJb 2:1-3; 2:6-22 - the Ladder of Jacob being
possibly the most difficult of the passages assessed to
date, since no hint of dating can be found in the text
itself. All the Sibylline Oracles passages assessed

256
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



describe the seer as awake, and their problems of dating
and of interpreting are many.
Passages of preparation for visions where the seer is
asleep are distributed more unevenly: 3 in II BCE (Testl2
Lv 2; Testl2 Naph 5-7; the Testament of the Twelve
Patriarchs should be later than 250 BCE, since its authors
use the Septuagint; Syria appears as the last world empire,
and thus it should be considered as earlier than the
Maccabean Revolt; and Dn 7:1-2), 4 to I CE (2Br 35-36);
52:7-53; 55:1-4), 8 to the period I-II CE (ApAdam 2:1 this
is a likely date for the Apocalypse of Adam, since it
refers to the eruption of Vesuvius in 79; 4Ezra 3:1-5 and
possibly 5:31; 10:29; 10:59; 11:1; 13:1 and 4Br 5).
Other passages with the seer asleep are of a later date
or cannot be dated precisely, namely GrEzra l(the Greek
Apocalypse of Ezra is dated by scholars from 150 to 850 CE,
the first date necessary because of its dependence on 4Ezra
and the last due to a reference to it in the Council of
Nicephorus) ; 2En 1:2-6; 72:1, 10 and LdJb 1:1.
When comparing the types of induction with the type of
vision - i.e. awake / asleep - the following picture
emerges (the total is much smaller than the complete sum of
all the passages analyzed, for the reason already stated -
there is not always a clear reference): fasting is referred
to 7 times in relation to preparation for visions where the
seer is awake (2Br 5:5-7; 9; 12:5; 21:1-3; 4Ezra 5:19-20;
21 and 6:35), while only once in their sleeping
counterparts (GrEzra 1) ,- chemically induced preparations
appear 5 times (4Ezra 9:23-25; 26-29; 12:51; 14:38-48 and
maybe Dn 1:8-21) in visions with the visionary awake, but
only one dubious reference where he is asleep (4Br 5);
prayer appears as an important part of preparation 9 times
(2Br 21:1-3; 26; 4Ezra 9:23-25; Dn 2:17-20; 9:1-3; 21; Vita

257
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



25; LdJb 2:6-22 and 4Br 6:7-16) plus 2 possible references
in awakened visions (3Br 9:1-2 in the Greek recension and
OrSib fr.8), but only 3 in sleeping experiences (lEn 13:6-
10; 4Ezra 3:1-5 and GrEzra 1); finally, sexual abstinence
has only one doubtful quotation (OrSib 2:340) on awakened
visionary experiences, and none in visions occurring during
sleep.

2. 3. St r ange behavi our and af t er - ef f ect s
Peculiar behaviour of the seer (such as trembling,
prostration, deep troubling of the mind) and specific use
of senses, including the basically vocal or visual
character of the experience versus the kind of vision give
us the following picture: in visions with the seer awake,
peculiar behaviour appears 11 times (2Br 21:1-3; 3Br 1:3
in both recensions; 4Ezra 5:14-15; Rev 1:9-17; Dn 7:15;
28; 10:1-17; Vita 27; LdJb 2:1-3; OrSib 3:1-7 and 5:51).
Worthy of note are 3Br 1:3, where the seer is especially
troubled about what the heathen will think of the Jews
after the destruction of the Temple:

Woe, now I Baruch (was) weeping in my mind and
considering the people and how King Nebuchadnezzar was
permitted by God to plunder his city, saying: ‘Lord,
why have you set fire to your vineyard and laid it
waste? Why have you done this? And why, Lord, did you
not requite us with another punishment, but rather
handed us over to such heathen so that they reproach us
saying, ‘Where is your God?’ And behold, while I was
weeping and saying such things, I saw an angel of the
Lord coming and saying to me, ‘Know, O man, greatly
beloved man, and do not concern yourself so much over
the salvation of Jerusalem [...]’

And LdJb 2:1-3


258
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



And when I heard (this) from on high, awe and trembling
fell upon me. And I rose up from my dream and, the
voice still being in my ears, I said, ‘How fearful is
this place! This is none other than the house of God
and this is the gate of heaven’. And I set up the stone
which had been my pillow as a pillar, and I poured
olive oil on the top of it, and I called the name of
that place the House of God [...]

What renders this passage so important (although the
text cannot be classified as an apocalypse) is the vivid
detail portrayed by the author where you can see the
actual metamorphosis of common everyday items (the pillow
and the olive oil) into altogether different and sacred
objects. It also makes one think how these would be
perceived by other people attending the scene.
All this compares to only one for asleep experiences
(4Ezra 3:1-5); basically vocal revelations occur 20 times
in awakened experiences (lEn 1:2; 91:1; 2En 3:1; 72:1; 10;
4Ezra 1:33; 5:31; 9:26-29; ApAbr 8; ApSed 2:1-5; Rev 1:9-
17; Dn 10:1-17; 4Br 6:15; 7:1 and of those, 8 only in the
Sibylline Oracles, namely OrSib 2:1; 340; 3:1-7; 5:51;
11:315-320; 13:1; 5; fr.8) against 2 in sleeping visions
(GrEzra 1 and possibly 2En 72:1; 10, which is also
cited as of the “awake” kind). Remarkable is the
description of God’s voice in ApAbr 8:

And it came to pass as I was thinking things like these
with regard to my father Terah in the court of my
house, the voice of the Mighty One came down from the
heavens in a stream of fire, saying and calling,
‘Abraham, Abraham!’ And I said, ‘Here I am’ [...]

Finally, essentially visual experiences are evenly
distributed in the assessed evidence, 11 in visions with
the seer in an awakened state (2Br 6:2; 21:1-3; 55:1-4;
ApAbr 15-19; Rev 1:9-17; 4:1-2; Dn 2:17-20; Jub 1:2-6;

259
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Martls 1:5-6; Vita 27 and 4Br 4:11) and 9 in sleeping
visions (lEn 13:6-10; 2Br 35-36 and again 55:1-4; 4Ezra
10:29; 11:1; 13:1; ApAdam 2:1; Dn 7:1-2 and LdJb 1:1).
Regarding the explicit need for a special place to
experience a vision (as something different from the
precise citing of places - like the seer sitting under a
tree to rest, in 2Br 55:1), awakened visions outnumber
sleeping ones 6-2 (2Br 21:1-3; 55:1-4; Dn 10:1-17; Jub
intro; Martls 2:7-11 and 4Br 4:11 vs. lEn 13:6-10 and again
2Br 55:1-4).
But the most astonishing picture emerges when we
consider the presence of angels or supernatural beings in
the preparation for visions (this is difficult to separate
from the visions themselves; however, since many of those
appearances occur at the beginning of the process of
getting a vision - when not its very explanation - I think
it reasonable to link them to the process of preparation)
. Here, the sources show 17 times the presence of
otherworldly entities as part of the preparation for
awakened visions (lEn 1:2; 2En 3:1; 72:1; 10; 2Br 6:2;
55:1-4; 3Br Slavonic introduction; 1:3 in both recensions;
Rev 1:9-17; 4:1-2; Dn 9:21; 10:1-17; Vita 25; 4Br 4:11;
6:7-16; 15; OrSib 11:315-320 and 13:1), while only 3
sleeping visions show their presence (Testl2 Lv 2; 2Br
55:1-4 again and 4Ezra 5:31). Once the reference is sure,
but coincides with their being present at a vision that is
unclear (2En 72:1; 10;), and once it is doubtful in
unclear visions (Dn 8:1; 16).
So far I have dealt with the quantitative aspects of
the passages involved; of course, their levels of
explicitness, relevance and enlightening to the theme vary
accordingly. It would make no sense to discuss visions

260
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



awakened or sleeping as a whole, but rather in the way
they have been compared above.
In terms of visions during sleep, the most important
passages are 4Ezra 3:1-5; 10:29; 10:59; 13:1; TestLv 2 and
TestNaph 5-7. Dn 7:1-2 should also be considered here.

In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel
had a dream and visions of his head as he lay in his
bed. Then he wrote down the dream, and told the sum of
the matter. Daniel said, “I saw in my vision by night,
and behold, the four winds of heaven were stirring up
the great sea [...]”

Concerning visions with the seer in an awakened state
of mind, some of the best-known passages are lEn 13:4; 2Br
55:3; Jub 14:1; ApMos 2:2 and 4Ezra 5:37.
For basically visual passages, which are, explicitly or
implicitly, to be understood as dreams, see Dn 10:9 and
specially 2Br 53:1, the “apocalypse of the clouds”:

And I saw a vision. And behold, a cloud was coining
from the great sea. And I was looking at it, and
behold, it was entirely filled with black water [...]
And because of my fear I awoke.

Equally worth looking at is 2En 1:6 in mss A, the
shorter recension:

I got up from my sleep, and the men were standing by me
in actuality. Then I hurried and stood up and bowed
down to them [...]

The theme of “enlarged vision”, i.e. the notion that
the seer has a privileged vision regarding things of the
otherworld, has a parallel idea already in Nm 24:2 ff.:
“Balaam looked up and saw Israel camping tribe by tribe.
Then the spirit of God came upon him, and he uttered his

261
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



oracle, saying: “The oracle of Balaam son of Beor, the
oracle of the man whose eye is clear, the oracle of one who
hears the words of God, who sees the vision of the
Almighty, who falls down, but with eyes uncovered: how fair
are your tents, O Jacob, your encampments, O Israel!
[...]”.
Allusions to physical or pharmacological induction of
trances are much more straightforward: those kinds of
stimuli as divided in the above categories give us the
following examples:
Fasting emerges in passages like Dn 10:2-3; 2Br 5:7;
9:2: 12:5; 21:1. The effect obtained by fasting seems equal
to any other of the inductions here described: however, 2Br
is particularly remarkable for the number and frequency of
the fasts Baruch goes through. In that apocalypse fasting
has an unparalleled importance. The sequence of fasts
begins in 5:7 and follows a “believable” pattern of a
number of days where the seer could really fast: “And we
sat there and fasted until the evening [...]” Then 9:2,
“[...] and we rent our garments, and wept and mourned, and
fasted for seven days”; finally 12:5 “And having said these
things I fasted for seven days”. 21:1 follows the same
pattern but has already been quoted.
Chemical induction related to the visionary present
the most “paganizing” reference to the means for
inspiration found among the apocalypticists (i.e. the
passages that most resemble pagan practices of artificial
ecstatic practices)
38
,- this may be so for the same reason
that “classical prophets” have a “calmer” ecstasy than
their pagan counterparts, i.e. for editorial reasons.

38
See the article of Hultgard, “Ecstasy and vision”, p.218 ff

262
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



A bit less appealing, but equally if not more
important, are references to special diets as equivalent
to chemical induction - e.g. Dn 1:12-17:

Please test your servants for ten days. Let us be given
vegetables to eat and water to drink. You can then
compare our appearance with the appearance of the young
men who eat the royal rations, and deal with your
servants according to what you observe.” So he agreed
to this proposal and tested them for ten days. At the
end of ten days it was observed that they appeared
better and fatter than all the young men who had been
eating the royal rations. So the guard continued to
withdraw their royal rations and the wine they were to
drink, and gave them vegetables. To these four young
men God gave knowledge and skill in every aspect of
literature and wisdom; Daniel also had insight into all
visions and dreams.

Special places appear throughout apocalyptic literature
(Daniel has his visions in Babylon, Ezra lies in the
field) but more significantly in 2Br 6:1; 55:1 reads

And it happened that when I had finished the words of
this prayer, I sat down there under a tree to rest in
the shadow of its branches. And I was astonished, and I
pondered in my thoughts about the multitude of the
goodness which the sinners who are on earth have
rejected from them [...]

Cf. also 2Br 77:18-19; TestAbr 2. A baru as early as
Balaam could also have his insights related to a certain
spot: “Now Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord to bless
Israel, so he did not go, as at other times, to look for
omens, but set his face toward the wilderness” (Nm 24:1).
A last mention must be made to a most common element in
preparation for visions, which is prayer. This is a
difficult issue to handle, because prayer is so important

263
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



in every aspect of daily life among Jews
39
(and
Christians). It may be just a commonplace theme pervading
every mystical revelation of the times, thus not indicating
any kind of special preparation - as opposed to the much
more radical practices of long fasting, ingestion of
certain foods or going to specific places, named or not, in
order to receive a revelation. Prayer may be common in
apocalyptic preparation for visions because of its
diffusion, and thus should not be taken into account as a
special means of preparation from the seer.
On the other hand, the frequency of allusions to prayer
forbids their dismissal as a commonplace resource,
stylistic or otherwise.
Some conclusions should be drawn from what has been
examined above, for all the problems regarding consumption,
copying and dating of the apocalypses themselves. However,
after taking these precautions, some interesting issues
arise, which can be taken as provisional conclusions of the
investigation.
Even if the authors were not real ecstatic who, in
fact, went through the experiences described and the
visions were just a stylistic commonplace, a very different
picture would emerge from divination and ecstasies as
described in the Old Testament, as seen
40
. The apparent
absence of “symbolic acts”
41
in the apocalypticists, while
so often found among the prophets, is striking: the
apocalyptic visionaries, whether their experiences are

39
Edward P. Sanders. Judaism. Practice and Belief 63 BCE - 66 CE.
London / Philadelphia: SCM Press / Trinity Press, 1992. P.202 ff.
40
This does not exclude parallels, which seem especially important in
the case of the Sinaitic revelation to Moses.
41
E.g. the 50 km run of Elijah that showed something “superhuman” to
be with him, a spirit or ruah. Hosea married a whore, symbolic of
Israel. With the “symbolic acts” the prophet aimed at a better,
fuller understanding of his message; the symbolic act seems to have
the same properties as the prophetic word.

264
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



authentic or not, seem to live in a much more lonely world,
in which publicly performed acts which may have a social or
political impact are apparently irrelevant
42
. It is
arguable that, were the device of pseudonymity a mere
stylistic topos, the imitation of Old Testament prophetic
or scribal figures would be much more mimetic.
In terms of patterns observed, we should note that:

1. It is striking that the proportion of awakened
visions, as opposed to those which occur during sleep or in
dreams, is overwhelming;
2. The presence of chemically induced ecstasies,
interesting and appealing in cross-cultural comparison as
it may be, is comparatively small, as opposed to more
“traditional” resources such as fasting and prayer;
3. The presence of angels or otherworldly beings as
part of the preparation is also virtually non-existent in
visions which occur during sleep; the prevalence of the
awakened visions together with this indication points to
the visionaries being conscious of the process they have
triggered (if the experiences described are in fact
authentic), this awareness being a common feature with Old
Testament prophecy. The apocalyptic visionary, like his
prophetic counterpart, does not lose his identity by
“becoming one with the deity”, but much to the contrary,
the differences between the processes themselves show a
striking diversity among the apocalyptic visionaries
themselves, whether the experiences are authentic or not.
4. The conclusions arrived at do not relate to
Collins’ well-known taxonomy between historical and

42
On the theme, an important observation is made by John Ashton,
drawing on the parallels between Jewish visionary experiences at the
time of Paul and Shamanism: cf. The Religion of Paul the Apostle,
p.33.

265
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



voyage apocalypses
43
. No significant distinction can be
made between the two in terms of preparation for visions
- this meaning that resources for comparison and cross-
cultural studies have to be sought elsewhere. While the
classification proposed by Collins offers a useful
taxonomy in terms of the content of the visions, the
basic distinction between a “history-meaningful”
apocalypse and an “otherworldly” one seems quite useless
in terms of preparation for the visions. On the other
hand, a study which should include closely related
phenomena in the period (e.g. the “prophets” described by
Josephus, New Testament literature) would be most useful,
but impossible in the current limits of this appendix.
Sometimes in the same apocalypse feasible and
apparently real experiences mix up with obviously
impossible feats, without this implying plural authorship
or truthfulness / falsehood of the whole work (e.g. the
drinking of a kind of hallucinogen by the seer in 4Ezra
as opposed to fasting forty days in 4Ezra 14. This may
also be a reason to believe in the actual experience
described by the seer in lEn 14 but to doubt the
following detailed descriptions of heavenly lights and of
hell (both could be just rewritings of earlier works and
not imply any degree of actual visionary experience)
44
.
As a last conclusion, I would like to stress that, from
the pieces of evidence that have come to us, the relevance
of visions, where the visionary is in an awakened state of
mind, is overwhelming compared to visions during sleep;
chemical induction is much less common than other types of
preparation and sexual prescriptions. The latter
constitutes an important part of legal prescriptions in the

43
Collins, Daniel, p.2.
44
Himmelfarb, “From prophecy to apocalyptic”, op.cit. p.154.

266
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Pentateuch, but are virtually excluded from the preparation
for visions in the evidence assessed.

2. 4. Chemi cal i nduct i on of vi si onar y exper i ences

2.4.1. The nature of stories about chemical inducement in
4Ezra
The term “chemical inducement” should be first defined
while dealing with the proposed theme, since ambiguity
might arise. By “chemical inducement” I understand that the
vision, as described by the seer, is a consequence of the
ingestion of some substance that has a mind-altering
character in the story subsequently told. Unorthodox
dietary practices such as vegetarianism might also have a
mind-altering effect (this is in fact described in Dn 1:8-
15 and, surprisingly, in some modern case-studies as we
shall see), but since in Jewish texts they are more likely
be related to plain kashrut laws, they shall not be
discussed here; fasting can have much the same preparatory
effect in the stories told about visions, but likewise
shall not be dealt with here
45
.
This leaves us with four passages in the corpus of
Second Temple Jewish literature, where the ingestion of
some substance appears to be related to mystical
experience: Fourth Book of Ezra 9:23-29; 12:51; 14:38-48
and Martyrdom of Isaiah 2:7-11. Of those, the last one
cannot be properly understood as portraying a cause and
effect relationship in terms of chemical inducement and the
seer’s vision, and shall be left out of this analysis.

45
The text of 4Ezra used is Metzger’s translation in OTP 1. “ASC”
stands, from now on, for “altered state of consciousness”. The
transliteration of Persian sources has been left as they stand in the
original editions, this accounting for differences in spelling of the
same word.

267
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The three passages of 4Ezra, on the other hand, provide
clear links between the ingestion of substances and
experiences undergone thereafter. It should be noted that
no significant variations in the passages examined were
found in the different readings of the manuscripts,
according to the textual discussion by Stone
46
.
The Fourth Book of Ezra is an apocalyptic text of
Jewish origin (with the exception of what came to be known
in the Vulgate as chapters 1-2 and 15-16 of II Esdras,
which are Christian interpolations), that was probably
written after 70 CE (because of the importance that the
author attached to the fall of the Temple) and the end of
the Second Century CE (where the first clear mention of it
is to be found in Clement of Alexandria)
47
. The text of
4Ezra is structured around seven different visions, of
which the fourth (explanation for the weeping woman) and
the seventh (the command to write the 94 books) are the
most important for us here. 4Ezra 12:51 is also of
importance and is attached to the context of the fifth
vision (the eagle), although it, in fact, introduces the
sixth - for after 12:51 the seer sleeps seven days and then
receives a vision.
In the first passage, 4Ezra 9:23-29, we have a dialogue
between God and Ezra where the seer is still perplexed
about the fate of the wicked in relation to the righteous.
For God to explain in further detail to Ezra why so many
will perish while He is only concerned about the fate of
the just, He orders Ezra to go to a field without any human

46
The mss. of 4Ezra can be divided in two main groups, the first
comprising the Latin and Syriac versions, the second the Georgian,
Ethiopic and Coptic. Some differences in detail are sometimes found,
and shall be noted. Cf. Stone, Fourth Ezra, pp.1-3.
47
Idem, p.9.

268
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



construction and not to fast
48
, but instead eat only the
flowers of the field and abstain from meat or wine (4Ezra
9:23-25).

But if you will let seven days more pass - do not fast
during them, however; but go into a field of flowers
where no house has been built, and eat only of the
flowers of the field, and taste no meat and drink no
wine, but eat only flowers, and pray to the Most High
continually - then I will come and talk with you.

Here again the theme of vegetarianism is present (maybe
as a reminder of the pre-diluvian diet that man once
enjoyed, thus closer to Edenic times), but the reference to
the eating of the flowers alone is striking and even absent
from some versions of the text
49
; since the Latin and
Syriac texts are the best mss of 4Ezra, it looks more
plausible that the reference to the flowers was already in
the Greek or Hebrew original and eliminated in the less
important versions than the other way round - it would make
little sense to think of them as later insertions. It
should be noted that Nabucodonosor also abstains from wine
and meat in his madness (in the account of the Vitae
Prophetarum 79:3-5)
50
.
After this, Ezra goes to a field called Ardat (4Ezra
9:26). This poses a few problems, since there are so many
variant readings for the name of the field as to dishearten
the search for an actual place; but anyway it is clearly
stated that the seer is commanded to go out of his house in

48
Idem, p.302. Variant readings in the Ethiopic text and in the first
Arabic version give a positive command, “do fast”; however, a witness
as ancient as Tertullian already dismissed Ezra’s practice in the
episode as full fasting (De ieiunio. 9.1), and called it a “partial”
one as in Daniel. Cf. also Stone, Fourth Ezra, p.36.
49
The reference to the flowers appears only in the Latin, Syriac and
Armenian versions. Cf. Stone, Fourth Ezra, p.302.
50
David Satran. “Daniel: seer, philosopher, holy man” in: George W.E.
Nickelsburg and John J. Collins (eds.). Ideal Figures in Ancient
Judaism: Profiles and Paradigms. Chico: Scholars Press, 1980. P.39.

269
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Babylon (as we can see from the very beginning of the
Jewish section of the text, 4Ezra 3:1 ff.), and the writer
pays great attention to location details in the text, such
as the name given to the field
51
. However, Ezra apparently
does not obey the command strictly, for he admits having
eaten flowers and the plants of the field (the well-being
described by Ezra after eating those echoes Daniel). It
would look from this passage that Ezra is keeping to a
vegetarian diet, rather than ingesting the flowers alone.
However, the reference to vegetables other than the flowers
may be casual and Ezra’s visions are apparently attached to
the eating of the flowers indeed, because the command and
the story themselves are strange (i.e. a command to avoid
meat or to observe kashrut would not seem strange in the
context). After seven days Ezra lies on the grass and
finally begins to question God about His justice, and then
receives the vision of the weeping woman who, in time,
turns out to be the heavenly Jerusalem (4Ezra 9:38 ff.).
In the whole complex of preparation for the vision
described in the last passages, it must be noted that the
seer possibly did not perceive vegetarianism and the
eventual inducement by the flowers as separate processes.
In this respect too, we may have another parallel between
Daniel and 4Ezra; both are men whose action takes place in
Babylon, one Danielic vision finds its way explicitly in
4Ezra and both would appear to have a diet of vegetables.

51
The name has so many variants in the versions as to make actual
identification almost impossible; “Arpad” in the Syriac version,
“Araab” in the Ethiopic, some Latin texts with “Ardad”, “Ardas”,
“Ardaf” or “Ardaph”. Cf. Stone, Fourth Ezra, p.304. The location of
the field shows that the author is willing to give detail about the
experience, and it is another element to be taken into consideration
in order to consider it authentic (compare the huge amount of detail
offered by Paul on his mystical experience, which gives a more real
outlook to it).

270
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The field without any human construction (“in campum
florum ubi domus non est aedificata”) echoes the stone cut
out “not by human hands” of Dn 2:34.
Besides the flowers, God commands Ezra to pray
“continually”, also a means of ecstatic inducement present
in many other texts (1En 13:6-10; 39:9-14; Dn 9:3; 3Br 1:1-
3; Test12Lv 2:3-6 etc.). However, Ezra himself does not
mention praying after God’s command - but just states that
he went to the field, ate the flowers and the plants and
“the nourishment they afforded satisfied me” (4Ezra 9:26);
then he speaks to God (this can be understood as a prayer,
in the terms it is formulated, but it comes as a result of
having sat in the field and eaten the flowers; this is what
makes Ezra’s heart troubled and is the cause of his mouth
being opened)
52
.
Regarding the theme that interests us here, it should
be noted that the eating of the flowers, far from being
casual, is a strict command from God to the seer; while it
is not stated that the vision arises as a consequence of
eating them (rather, the seer tells us that he was
nourished after eating - it could be a metaphor for
spiritual fulfillment), it is reasonable to link them both
because of the first command. Summing up the story told in
4Ezra:

1. The command comes together with other features (like
the need of the flowers to be in a field with no human
constructions);

52
The Ethiopic and the first Arabic versions have it in an active
meaning, i.e. Ezra opens his mouth by himself. Cf. Stone, Fourth Ezra,
p.304.

271
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



2. God commands Ezra to pray as preparation (which he
does, not earlier as he was ordered, but rather as a result
of “being nourished”);
3. Complete fasting is altogether absent;
4. Vegetarianism is commanded both in the form of
abstinence from meat and in the eating of the flowers, but
may be related to purity worries and not to health issues
(i.e. not to be related to gaining more concentration or
mental accuracy);
5. Wine is also forbidden to Ezra, and this is somewhat
strange when the reader already knows that he may take it
in the seventh vision;
6. Having eaten other unspecified plants together with
the flowers, the case for holding the latter responsible
for the whole process of preparation in chapter 9 is
somewhat weakened, although the reference may well have
been casual (i.e. flowers = plants);
7. Nevertheless, whether it is the effect of a proper
diet or of chemical inducement, from the seer’s point of
view it arrives as a consequence of God’s command.

The key preparatory themes of chapter 9 are resumed in
4Ezra 12:51: here Ezra consoles the people for his
prolonged absence due to the fifth vision (the eagle,
explicitly related to Dn 7).

So the people went into the city, as I told them to do.
But I sat in the field for seven days, as the angel had
commanded me; and I ate only of the flowers of the
field, and my food was of plants during those days.

The opposition between city and field location for the
visions of the text is present again in Ezra’s statement
that he would wait seven days more (as the angel commanded

272
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



him in 12:39) in the field, only eating the flowers (here
the text of 4Ezra has “flowers” and “plants” as equivalent
terms). Contrary to the visions of chapter 9, which are
likely to be describing experiences with an awakened seer,
the sixth vision in chapter 13 is described by Ezra as a
dream. Besides, it should be noted that the relation
between the flowers and the vision is far less clear in ch.
12: the angel simply pleads Ezra to wait seven more days to
see whatever more God would tell him besides the
interpretation of the eagle vision (4Ezra 12:38-39). The
cause-effect relationship is less clear here than in ch. 9,
if at all present.
Finally, the last passage of 4Ezra describing possible
inducement for visions by means of mind-altering substances
comes in chapter 14. There, in 14:38-48 Ezra is again in
the field (the “again” making it clear that it is referring
to Ardat or to the field named in a similar way in the
versions). Ezra shall not be disturbed for forty days
(echoing Moses’ experience
53
and possibly also that of
Abraham, although in ApAbr 9:7 the command is not exactly
to fast but “to abstain from every kind of food cooked by
fire, and from drinking of wine and from anointing
[yourself] with oil”
54
); and contrary to most visionary
experiences described in apocalyptic texts, Ezra is not
alone but has taken five scribes with him
55
.
What happens next is not a vision but an auditive
experience: Ezra hears a voice that commands him to drink
from a cup. This marks the beginning of the visual part of
the experience proper (4Ezra 14:38).

53
Idem, p.303.
54
Cf. also Ithamar Gruenwald. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism.
Leiden: Brill, 1980. P.52.
55
André, “Ecstatic prophesy in the Old Testament”, p.190 for the idea
of the relative “loneliness” of the classical prophet as related to
the pagan prophets, going together in groups.

273
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




So I took five men, as he commanded me, and we
proceeded to the field, and remained there. And on the
next day, behold, a voice called me, saying, ‘Ezra,
open your mouth and drink what I give you to drink’.
Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a cup was offered
to me; it was full of something like water, but its
color was like fire. And I took it and drank; and when
I had drunk it, my heart poured forth understanding,
and wisdom increased in my breast, for my spirit
retained its memory; and my mouth was opened, and was
no longer closed. And the Most High gave understanding
to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was
dictated, in characters which they did not know. They
sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate
their bread at night. As for me, I spoke in the daytime
and was not silent at night. So during the forty days
ninety-four books were written [...]

After having taken the drink Ezra undergoes a
transformation, and three things happen to what we would
call Ezra’s “mind”: his heart pours forth understanding,
his wisdom increases in his breast and his spirit retains
his memory
56
. His mouth was opened and did not close;
Ezra’s companions were also given the gift of understanding
by God (the means of which are not stated), so that they
might write down what Ezra was saying in “characters that
they did not know” (rather than describing some ecstatic
phenomenon like glossolalia, speaking in unknown tongues,
this reference probably implies the use of square Aramaic
script by the scribes
57
). We are not told that Ezra ate
anything after he drank from the cup (contrary to the
scribes who, we are told, ate at night); he does this for
forty days, with the final output of 94 books, of which 24

56
In Jewish apocalyptic writings “heart” can, among other things,
represent the intellectual function; “breast” is possibly related to
it. Cf. Russell, Method and Message, pp.142-144.
57
Stone, Fourth Ezra, p.439. Aramaic being also important in Daniel
and in the Persian world at large reinforces this idea on the part of
the author of 4Ezra.

274
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



would be made public and the remaining 70 not). This marks
the end not only of the visions of chapter 14 but also of
the chapter itself and thus, of the Jewish core of the book
except the last two chapters, of Christian origin. The
Syriac text adds two more verses, that say that Ezra was
“caught up, and taken to the place of those who are like
him, after he had written all these things...”, but this
reference alone does little to consider the revelatory
experiences described by the author as being essentially
concerned with heavenly journeys as e.g. 1En or 3En.
In the passage from ch. 14 there is the most clear
cause and effect relationship in the chemical practices
discussed: the seer states clearly that, when he drank the
liquid his heart poured understanding etc... The command,
the action and the vision are very clearly linked.
As a final balance of the ecstatic experiences
described in 4Ezra 14:38-48 we could say that:

1. The experience described involves people other than
the apocalyptic seer (the scribes);
2. The ingested substance resembles another one
hitherto forbidden (wine);
3. The subsequent experience is not exactly a vision,
but a prodigious deed (the writing of the books);
4. The scribes, although playing a secondary role and
although we do not have the same amount of information
about them, end up inspired in a very similar way to Ezra,
albeit with less impressive means and less intensity (for
they must stop to eat at night, while Ezra needs not)
58
.

58
All the considerations above are subject to one major difficulty
permeating the whole issue, namely the pseudepigraphic nature of
authorship: thus we cannot discuss properly who had the experience (if
there is any indeed), but nevertheless we can analyze the practices
described in the passages. For possibilities regarding the

275
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




The chemically induced experiences described by the
apocalyptic seer disguised under the name of Ezra can be
roughly divided into two groups: 4Ezra 9:23-29 and 12:51 on
one side and 4Ezra 14:38-48 on the other. The first group
involves certain foods and abstinence from alcohol,
together with prayer which, however, may be playing only a
conventional role in the visions described (i.e. while
being a major ASC-inducer in other texts, it is clearly
less important than the ingestion of substances in 4Ezra,
and not only from the modern scholar’s point of view; it
looks so stereotyped in 4Ezra that it appears after the
eating of the flowers, thus not being a cause of
inducement).
On the other hand the second group, 4Ezra 14:38-48,
involves a more fantastic and elaborate experience. Before
trying to find out what the drink was, we should bear in
mind that the theme of something “like fire” that gives
inspiration is and can be connected to the Holy Spirit
59
.
Besides, the mere idea that Ezra was “dictating” sacred
books (not yet canonical) implies that the Sinaitic
revelation still had room to be enlarged
60
, an idea that
may reinforce the presence of the Holy Spirit in Ezra as he
drank from the cup. The episode has parallels in the scroll
eaten by Ezekiel (Ez 2:8-3:3) and thus to the author of the
Book of Revelation (Rev 10:9-10), who also claims to have
had sensory experiences related to ingestion.
The cup may also have a negative connotation as the
means for God to madden peoples or nations (Jr 25:15-16);

relationship between the presumed and actual authors, see Stone,
“Apocalyptic - vision or hallucination?” and Torm, “Die Psychologie
der Pseudonimität”.
59
An association made by many, and well developed by Russell. See
Method, op.cit. pp.171-172.
60
Stone, “Apocalyptic”, p.424.

276
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



it may also be a symbol of vocation (MartIs 5:14; Mk 10:38;
14:36). There are also many parallels for describing
mystical experience in terms of drunkenness, the best known
perhaps being Philo’s De ebrietate 146-148:

[...] to many of the unenlightened it may seem to be
drunken, crazy and beside itself [...] indeed, it is
true that these sober ones are drunk in a sense [...]
and they receive the loving cup from perfect virtue
61
.

Even if there is no multiple authorship involved, the
spirit of both groups of visions analyzed is somewhat
diverse from each other. The theme will be resumed in the
“Conclusion” to this part of the thesis.

2.4.2. Persian parallels regarding chemically induced
altered states of consciousness
The material used in this section is mainly composed of
Persian texts. For reasons to be discussed in the
“Conclusion”, Persian influence in the theme of preparation
for visions in 4Ezra is a reasonable supposition; however,
it should be noted that the dating of all the Persian texts
listed below is much later than those possible for 4Ezra.
This is the greatest single reason that renders impossible
any definite conclusion about the influencing of Persian
sources on the apocalypse we are examining; it may indeed
present an untransposable barrier
62
. A different matter is
posed by the dating of the mythical themes contained in
them, which will be addressed in the end of this section
63
.

61
Translation by F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker, in the Loeb
Classical Library Edition, vol.III of Philo’s works (Cambridge, Mass.
/ London: Harvard University Press, 1968).
62
John J. Collins. Apocalypse: The Morphology of a Genre. Semeia 14,
1979. P.207 ff.
63
Examination of Mesopotamian relations to Jewish apocalyptic ecstatic
practices showed no similar means of preparation, but rather similar
contents of the visions, not to be dealt with here. Cf. Wifred G.

277
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The sources quoted here derive basically from eight
Persian texts, the Jāmāsp Namag, the Wizirkard i Denig, the
Zardush Nameh, the “Conversion of Vishtapa”, the apocalypse
called Zand-i Vohuman Yasn, the experience of Vishtapa
referred to in the Dinkard, a reference in the Book of
Artay Viraz, and passages of the Vidēvdāt
64
.
In the Jāmāsp Namag (also a pseudepigraphic text,
written in the name of an old wise man), Jāmāsp receives
from Zoroaster the gift of knowledge by means of a flower.
This is also the theme of the Pahlavi text Wizirkard i
Denig 19 (this text could be from the twelfth century -
there is a dated manuscript dated from 1123, referring to
another from 609, whose existence is far from sure -,
written in Persian “disguised” as Pahlavi or Middle
Persian)
65
; indeed, the tradition that described the
acquisition of mystical knowledge by Jāmāsp resembles very
much that of Ezra regarding the flowers, as the drinking of
the blessed wine looks similar to the experience of 4Ezra
14 - the main difference in the passage being the fact that
here we have two different seers:

(19) And behold: One day King Vištâsp, king of kings,
(willing) to challenge his [Zoroaster’s] prophetic
achievements, asked Zoroaster that he gives him what he
would ask: ‘That I may be immortal and exempt from old
age, that swords and spears be incapable of hurting my
body, that I may know all the secrets of heaven,
present, past and future and that I may see, in this
life, the better existence of the just!’ Zoroaster

Lambert. The Background of Jewish Apocalyptic. London: The Athlone
Press / University of London, 1978 and Helmer Ringgren. “Akkadian
apocalypses”, AMWNE, pp.379-386.
64
For a brief overview of the place of these books in relation to the
output of Zoroastrian texts, cf. Geo Widengren. Die Religionen Irans.
Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1965 and also Sven Hartman. “Datierung der
Jungavestischen Apokalyptik”, AMWNE, pp.61-76.
65
Tord Olsson. “The apocalyptic activity. The case of Jāmāsp Nāmag”,
AMWNE, p.32. For the dating, cf. Marijan Molé. La légende de
Zoroastre: selon les textes Pehlevis. Paris: Klincksieck, 1967. P.9.

278
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



said: ‘Ask any of these four things for yourself, and
the other three for three other people; the Creator
will grant them more easily’. So King Vištâsp wanted to
see in this life the better existence of the just. With
the help of Lord Ohrmazd, just Zoroaster [performed a
sacrifice rite] and laid down milk, a flower, wine and
a grenade. After having exalted and invoked the Well-
doing Creator, he gave the blessed wine to Vištâsp so
that he would fall asleep and see the better existence;
he gave the flower to Jamâsp, the best of men and he
was taught, by means of visions, about all events
present, past and future; he gave the grenade to
Spanddât whose body became sacred and invulnerable to
pointed swords; he gave the blessed milk to Pêšôtan son
of King Vištâsp who obtained immortality in the field
and eternal youth.
66

In the Zardush Nameh (after the ninth century, for it
quotes the earlier Dinkard, and written in Pahlavi
67
) it is
said that Jāmāsp acquired his gift by smelling the flower
consecrated by Zoroaster in a ceremony:

He gave to Jāmāsp some of the consecrated perfume, and
all sciences became understandable to him. He knew
about all things to happen and that would happen until
the day of resurrection
68
.

The form of the text also resembles 4Ezra because of
the question-answer form as introduced by Vishtapa (“This
pure religion, how long will it last?” etc.). In terms of
the visionary process itself, it is remarkable that Jāmāsp
interprets for king Vishtapa a dream in much the same
fashion that Daniel explained another one to

66
Molé, op.cit. p.133.
67
Edwin Yamauchi. Persia and the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker Book
House, 1990. P.410. It was probably written in the Thirteenth century.
68
Olsson, op.cit. p.32. In Mary Boyce’s translation (“On the antiquity
of Zoroastrian apocalyptic”, BSOAS 47, 1984. P.60) the flower is
rendered as “incense”: the mixture of the latter with wine has a
maddening effect not on visionaries, but on the elephants of 3Mc 5:45:
“Now when the animals had been brought virtually to a state of
madness, so to speak, by the very fragrant draughts of wine mixed with
frankincense [...]”.

279
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Nabucodonosor
69
. Drinking is alluded to also in the Pahlavi
Rivayat 47 (“Conversion of Vishtaspa”, the rivayats were
composed between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, in
Pahlavi
70
), when Vishtapa receives the perception on the
ways of religion after a visit by a divine messenger who
makes him drink a cup full of wine or haoma
71
mixed again
with a narcotic, mang (whose significance will be discussed
shortly):

(27) Ormazd sent Nêrôsang: ‘Go to Artvahišt and tell
him: Put mang in the wine and give it for Vištâsp to
drink’. (28) Artvahišt did so. (29) Having drunk it, he
evaporated into the field. (30) His soul was taken to
Garôtmân [Paradise] to show him what he could gain if
he accepted the Religion. (31) When he woke up from the
sleep, he cried to Hutôs: ‘Where is Zoroaster so that I
may accept the Religion?’ (32) Zoroaster heard his
voice, came and Vištâsp accepted the Religion.
72

In the Zand-i Vohuman Yasn (the text is in Pahlavi and
a zand purports to be an interpretation of a lost book of
the Avesta, the Bahman Yasht
73
; it is quite similar in
themes to the Oracle of Hystaspes, something which may
suggest its antiquity) 3:7-8. Zoroaster drinks the water
that Ahura Mazda gives to him and acquires his wisdom, in a
similar fashion to the cup episode in 4Ezra 14:


69
Anders Hultgård. “Forms and origins of Iranian apocalypticism”,
AMWNE, p.401.
70
Mary Boyce. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984. P.5.
71
An intoxicating mythical drink whose exact nature has yet to be
explained; it is generally identified with soma, or even with other
hallucinogenic plants, as we will see below.
72
Molé, op.cit. p.121.
73
However, efforts to reconstruct an Avestic Bahman Yasht from the
late commentaries we have are inconclusive: for a full discussion of
the many problems involved, cf. Carlo G. Cereti (ed.). The Zand i
Wahman Yasn: a Zoroastrian Apocalypse. Roma: Istituto italiano per il
Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1995. Pp.14 ff.

280
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. Zarduxšt, in thought, was displeased. 5. Ohrmazd,
through the wisdom of omniscience, knew that he,
Spitāmān Zarduxšt of the righteous frawahr, thought. 6.
He took the hand of Zarduxšt, he Ohrmazd, the bountiful
spirit, the Creator of the world of material beings,
holy [...] put his wisdom of omniscience, in the form
of water, on the hand of Zarduxšt and said “Drink”. 7.
And Zarduxšt drank of it. He blended the wisdom of
omniscience in Zarduxšt. 8. Seven days and nights was
Zarduxšt in the wisdom of Ohrmazd
74
.

In the Dinkard 7.4.84-86 Vishtapa drinks a mixture of
wine or haoma with some narcotic, possibly henbane. The
same episode in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasn, a later redaction,
has this potation replaced by water as we saw above,
possible evidence of the practice being rejected in later
times
75
.

[...] Ohrmazd the creator sent [...] to the residence
of Wishtāsp the divinity Nērōsang [...] to cause
Wishtāsp to consume the illuminating nourishment which
would give his soul eye vision over the spiritual
existence, by reason of which Wishtāsp saw great
mystery and glory. As it says in the Avesta, ‘Ohrmazd
the creator said to the divinity Nērōsang: ‘Go, fly on
[...] to the residence of Wishtāsp [...] and say this
to Ashawahisht: ‘Powerful Ashawahisht, take the
excellent bowl, more excellent than the other bowls
which are well made [...] for conveying for our own
sake hōm and mang [maybe henbane, see “Conclusion”] to
Wishtāsp and cause the lofty ruler Kay Wishtāsp to
drink it’
76
.


74
Cereti, op.cit. pp.150-151. The author suggests the passage implies
a reference to psychotropic drugs and refers to the parallel in Arda
Viraz Nāmag 3.15 (cf. the commentary on the Bahman Yasht by Cereti,
op.cit. p.179). Ezra also sits in the field for seven days in 4Ezra
12:51, as seen above.
75
Hultgård, “Ecstasy and vision” in: Holm, op.cit. p.222. The Dinkard
is probably not earlier than the 9th century.
76
David S. Flattery and Martin Schwartz. Haoma and Hermaline: the
Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “Soma” and
Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle Eastern Folklore. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989. P.18. An older and slightly
different translation can be found at Molé, op.cit. p.59.

281
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The Book of Artay Viraz (a late text, possibly late
Sassanian, in Pahlavi
77
) also talks about preparation of
the seer by means of taking wine with narcotic, in 2.25-31:

The priests of the religion filled three golden cups
with wine and with henbane of Vištāsp and presented to
Vīrāz one cup for the Good Thought, one second for the
Good Word and a third for the Good Deed
78
.

It must be noted that in the passage above no ascetic
practice similar to the ones of 4Ezra occurs (much on the
contrary, Viraz prepares himself by eating - not fasting -
and nothing of the ascetic practices of the seer in 4Ezra
seems present).
Finally, in the Vidēvdāt 4.14 (the text may have been
started during Vologeses III, 148-191, and completed under
the Sassanian Khosraw I, 531-579, in Pahlavi)
79
old women
bring henbane to cause abortion:

Thus this who [is] a girl [looks] for an old woman;
these girl-injurers consulted together; this who [is]
an old woman brings mang or šēt [one is called that of
Vištāsp, one that of Zartušt]; (it is something) that
kills [i.e. kills (the fetus) in the womb], or (it is a
means to) throwing off [i.e. (the fetus) comes,
afterwards dies], or whatever plant which is
aborfacient [a sort of drug]; (and she says) thus ‘with
this (drug) the son is killed’.
80


77
Walter Belardi. The Pahlavi Book of the Righteous Viraz. Rome:
University Department of Linguistics and Italo-Iranian Cultural
Centre, 1979. P.10.
78
Gignoux considers these three cups are merely symbolic of the fact
that Vīrāz observes those three virtues better than anybody else:
besides he translates mang for henbane (jusquiame in the French
translation). Cf. translation and notes in “Apocalypses et voyages
extra-terrestres dans l’Iran mazdéen” in: Claude Kappler (ed.).
Apocalypses et voyages dans l'au-delà. Paris: CERF, 1987. P.367. An
older version and commentary can be found at Translation and notes in
Belardi, op.cit. p.92; cf. also from Gignoux, “Notes sur la rédaction
de l’Ardāy Virāz Nāmag”, ZDMG, Supplementa 1, 1969.
79
Yamauchi, op.cit. p.407.
80
Belardi, op.cit. p.114.

282
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



In the passage above we apparently have two different
drugs, which may be vision inducing or aborfacient
81
.
It should be noted that the passages above, important
as they may be, do not suggest that chemical inducement was
the only means by which Persian seers might prepare
themselves for ecstatic experiences: here too such
references are comparatively rare - although outnumbering
by far the ones in Jewish apocalyptic - and do not replace
more traditional forms of preparation such as prayer or
fasting
82
. But the insistent mentioning both of wine and
plants as means of receiving inspiration deserves closer
attention.
Evidence from 4Ezra checked against Persian data gives
us the following items as being possibly chemical
stimulants for the visionaries - wine (in 4Ezra 14:38-48,
Zand-I Vohuman Yasn 3:7-8, Wizirkard i Denig 19), wine or
haoma with narcotics (Dinkard 7.4.84-86; Book of Artay
Viraz 2.25-28; Yasna 10.17; “Conversion of Vishtaspa” 47),
henbane (as abortive in Vidēvdāt 4.14), unspecified flowers
that could be henbane (4Ezra 9:23-29; 12:51; again Jāmāsp
in Wizirkard i Denig 19; Zardush Nameh) and a further
reference to haoma/soma in utterly unfavourable terms, that
shall be examined below. Since in these references we are
generally not guessing what the substance is, but the

81
Idem, p.115.
82
Hultgård, “Ecstasy and vision”, p.224. The voyages described here
have a non-historical flavour - i.e. they were supposedly performed by
mythical characters. This does not exclude allusions to historical
practices, but these should be taken with care - while the visionary
is taken to an otherworldly voyage in the Arday Viraz passage, by
contrast to the historical and earthly explanations given in 4Ezra.
Real mystical experiences similar to those described above can be
found in ancient Iran and will be discussed below. Cf. Philippe
Gignoux. “La signification du voyage extra-terrestre dans
l’eschatologie mazdéenne” in: Mélanges d’histoire des religions
offerts à Henri-Charles Puech. Paris: Presses Universitaires de
France, 1974. Pp.64-68 and Shaul Shaked. Dualism in Transformation:
Varieties of Religion in Sasanian Iran. London: University of London,
1994. P.49.

283
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



sources tell us in a much clearer way than in 4Ezra), we
should take a look at the possibilities of these mind
altering substances being available to the visionary of
4Ezra in the conclusion to this article.
The fact that the Persian texts related to practices
similar to 4Ezra are, without exception, later than the
Jewish text does not mean that their mythical cores cannot
be older.
First of all, the figure of Vishtaspa (or, in its Greek
form, Hystaspes) is much older than the earliest Jewish
apocalypses themselves, and came to be known in a variety
of syncretistic guises throughout the Mediterranean
83
. This
is no proof of the anteriority of the Persian texts (after
all we also have an “earlier” Ezra), but at least assures
that the figure of Vishtasp cannot be later than that of
Ezra. Secondly, there are a number of other mythical themes
portrayed in late Persian texts (like the Zand of the
Bahman Yasht) that are known through earlier sources (like
the four ages associated to metals and monarchies, already
quoted in Theopompus - fourth century BCE - or in the
fragments collectively known as the Oracle of Hystaspes).
This is indirect evidence that late Persian texts contain
cores that can be of an earlier date even if not of Persian
origin. The theme of the cup that gives wisdom, being
already present in the Yasna 10.17 is much older: the Yasna
preserves material from the Gathas (sacred texts
traditionally attributed to Zoroaster himself), including
Yasna 10.17 - which deals with the theme of the wisdom cup,
in this case related to haoma:

83
We have in fact two different characters that sometimes get mixed up
in later tradition - one being the king that protects Zoroaster, the
second the father of Darius I. In the texts here discussed we are
referring to the first. Cf. Hans Windisch. Die Orakel des Hystaspes.
Amsterdam: Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 1929.
P.10.

284
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




Thereupon spake Zarathushtra: Praise to Haoma, Mazda-
made. Good is Haoma, Mazda-made. All the plants of
Haoma praise I, on the heights of lofty mountains, in
the gorges of the valleys, in the clefts (of sundered
hill-sides) cut for the bundles bound by women. From
the silver cup I pour Thee to the golden chalice over.
Let me not thy (sacred) liquor spill to earth, of
precious cost.

The dating of the Yasna depends on the dating
attributed to Zoroaster, but even supposing the prophet to
be a figure living as late as the sixth century BCE
(unlikely, because of the many parallels of Gathic material
to the Rig Veda), the Yasna is much earlier than 4Ezra
84
.
For the relation between the flowers and disclosure,
however, no earlier parallel than that of the Jāmāsp Namag
was found (there is one reference to flowers in a similar
context in Yasna 42.4, related to haoma, but not exactly
the same as that of the later texts). It should be noted
that, if the mang put in the wine is henbane, we would be
deprived of long-duration links if it would be translated
instead as hemp, the latter being present in Scythian
rituals reported by Herodotus; this would give us an
earlier dating for shared Indo-Iranian ecstatic practices.

2.4.3. Conclusion
As a conclusion to this discussion on 4Ezra I should
begin by pointing out that the difficulties in establishing
a definite conclusion are overwhelming and that, unless
dramatic new evidence changes the current picture, we will
be left forever with no certainties on the matter of the
relation between 4Ezra and eventual Persian sources.

84
Boyce, Textual sources, p.2.

285
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



This being said, I am inclined to accept a relation
other than casual between them, for many reasons. First of
all, the themes of the flower and the drink that beget
knowledge are striking parallels: it is important to notice
that, contrary to other quotations of “cups” playing an
important part in stories both in the Old Testament and the
New, in 4Ezra the cup is part of a revelatory process: the
seer becomes enlightened after taking it (or rather
performs an amazing feat which is in itself some kind of
revelation, the writing of the 94 books).
These parallels leave us, as always, with three
possibilities: they can be either genealogically related,
structurally related or it may be simply a coincidence that
these themes are shared by our sources.
To say with certainty that there is any kind of
genealogical link is out of the question, for reasons
already stated
85
.
Structurally, it has already been said that different
societies attain a similar level of organization by means
of different institutions
86
; this would imply that the role
of Persian seers and the author of 4Ezra might be analogous
and independently achieved. While we know very little about
who wrote, read and/or consumed Jewish apocalyptic
literature and even less about its Hellenistic counterpart
(i.e. Persian, Egyptian and Babylonian apocalypses), it
should be noted that both Persian and Jewish visionaries
were subject to similar conditions as related to foreign
rule and oppression. In this sense the dating of the

85
A possible exception would be the shamanistic traces present in the
Testament of Abraham, according to Gignoux - the whole episode
resembling in fact the voyage of Arda Viraz. Cf. Philippe Gignoux.
“Les voyages chamaniques dans le monde iranien”, AI 21, 1981. Pp.263-
265. By the same reasoning the use of hallucinogens in Zoroastrian
mystical experiences is considered by Gignoux as having a key role to
establish a link with Siberian shamanism (op.cit. p.244).
86
Lewis, Ecstatic Religion, p.2.

286
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Persian sources may be less important than in a straight
genealogical approach, for even being late redactions,
their updating shows anomic conditions similar to those
experienced by the author of 4Ezra (e.g. the four kingdoms
in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasn, taken to mean Greek, Byzantine,
Muslim and Turkish rules)
87
. It must be stated that we know
almost nothing about the seers themselves, either Jewish or
Persian apocalyptic - while we have much information about
magoi and Zoroastrians at large, it is not possible to just
identify those groups with the seers of the texts examined.
Finally, the Persian seers and the visionary of 4Ezra
may have gone through similar experiences by pure chance:
taking the same ASC-inducers they had similar frames of
visions, although developed in fairly different ways due to
the cultural differences between their two worlds; after
all, it is culture that changes, not chemistry
88
. I do not
think that this is the case; similarities between
hallucinogenic cults both in the Old and in the New World
point to a common shared heritage that may go back to the
Paleolithic
89
.
In terms of the experience described in 4Ezra, we have
the additional difficulty of pseudepigraphy. Thus, even
while using O’Brien’s categories to understand our object
(i.e. if the object confronted by the mystic is definite,
if the confrontation is direct and if the experience goes
contrary to his/her own cultural frame of mind we should be
facing evidence of an authentic experience)
90
we are still
left with very little; however, if these criteria are

87
Samuel K. Eddy. The King is Dead. Studies in the Near Eastern
Resistance to Hellenism 334-31 B.C. Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Press, 1961. P.17 ff; Collins, Apocalypse, p.209 ff.
88
Peter Furst. Hallucinogens and Culture. San Francisco: Chandler &
Sharp, 1976. P.17.
89
Idem, p.2.
90
Elmer O’Brien. Varieties of Mystic Experience: an Anthology and
Interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. Pp.4-6.

287
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



applied to the text we have, we must bear in mind the
unique character of the preparatory practices described, in
terms of Second Temple Jewish literature.
The effects of one candidate plant described (henbane)
and its spread would make it quite possible that we are
referring to an actual preparatory process here
91
. Other
possibilities, such as hallucinogenic mushrooms, have been
discussed in the past with controversial methods and
results
92
. However, the use of the term mang has been
recently proved to refer not particularly to henbane or to
hemp, at least in the time of the writing of the later
sources, but it appears to be rather a generic term for
“psychoactive drug”
93
.
Discussing the substances quoted in the sources, I
think that wine should be omitted from this analysis as a
stand-alone ASC-inducer for the reason that its diffusion,
availability and use were nearly universal to Eurasian
peoples at the time of the writing of 4Ezra (wine with
narcotics is an altogether different matter and shall be
examined below); this universality renders it useless as
proof. Even if we were dealing with plain wine in 4Ezra
14:38-48, scholars consider it a comparatively weak ASC-
inducer
94
.

91
As opposed to the effects of hemp.
92
It is a pity that this specific theme lacks more bibliography; the
only major work devoted to the theme is John Allegro’s highly and
understandably controversial The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross; a
Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the Fertility
Cults of the Ancient Near East (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1970). In
his book Allegro says nothing about 4Ezra, Persian visionary processes
or even henbane at large.
93
We cannot know what the earlier use of the term was, but it should
be noted that the Arabic banj refers to henbane, to datura and to
intoxicating plants in general (al-Bīrūnī uses the term in the 11th
century to refer to datura. In the 13th century Persia mang means both
henbane and hashish. Cf. Flattery and Schwartz, op.cit. pp.16-17, 127.
Hultgård is also vague on the interchangeable use of hemp and henbane
regarding Persian texts; cf. “Ecstasy and vision”, p.223 ff.
94
Furst, Hallucinogens, p.17.

288
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Regarding the other agents cited, we should begin by a
definition of what they are and do: hallucinogenic drugs
have the power to induce visual or other kinds of
hallucinations and of divorcing the subject from reality
95
.
Most of these substances derive from plants, hemp being one
of the most common; its effects are disputed among modern
scholars, but ancient testimony gives credit to it as a
powerful ASC-inducer
96
. It looks possible (but unlikely) at
first sight that the experience described by the Persian
seer in the passages listed above is real, and even that
Zoroaster’s ecstatic experiences have been aided by hemp
97
.
It should be noted, however, that the Persian terms bang,
banj or mang only came to be used as a reference including
hemp after the Arab conquest, possibly in the 12th century:
according to Belardi, in the book of Artay Viraz this
virtually excludes the possibility that the seer is mixing
wine with hemp, but rather with henbane
98
.
Wine mixed with hemp has its use well attested in
ancient sources: Galen attests to its use mixed with wine
after meals as a digestive aid (De facultatibus alimentarum
100.49). Pliny says a lot about hemp in the Natural history
but mostly in therapeutic terms (20.97). However, the most

95
Norman R. Farnsworth. “Hallucinogenic plants” in: Science, New
Series, volume 162, issue 3858 (Dec 6 1968). P.1086.
96
Idem, p.1087; cf. William A. Emboder, Jr. “Ritual use of the
Cannabis Sativa L.: a historical-ethnographic survey” in: Peter Furst
(ed.). Flesh of the Gods: the Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. London:
Allen & Unwin, 1972. Pp.219-220.
97
H. Leuner. “Die toxische Ekstase” in: Theodor Spoerri (ed.).
Beiträge zur Ekstase. Bibliotheca psychiatrica et neurologica. Basel /
New York: Karger, 1968. Pp.87-88. For the textual reasons given below,
I find this not to be clear as Leuner puts it; Eliade’s explanation,
which simply accepts bangha and its derivation mang to mean “hemp”
already at Sassanian times I find even less convincing. Cf. “Ancient
Scythia and Iran” in: George Andrews and Simon Vinkenoog (eds.). The
Book of Grass; an Anthology of Indian Hemp. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Books, 1972.
98
Cf. Belardi, op.cit. p.114. See also the newer translation by
Fereydun Vahman. Arda Wiraz Nāmag: the Iranian “Divina Commedia”.
London / Atlantic Highlands: Curzon Press / Distributed in the U.S.A.
by Humanities Press, 1986. P.9.

289
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



important reference on the issue for our purposes comes
from Homer (Odyssey 4.220). Being received by Menelaus,
Telemachus is having a banquet and there Helen mixes
something in the wine which deserves our attention:

Then Helen, daughter of Zeus, took other counsel. At
once she cast into the wine of which they were drinking
a drug [nhpenqe/j ] to quiet all pain and strife, and bring
forgetfulness of every ill.
99

In the sequence of the text it is also stated that this
drug, nepenthes, had been given to Helen by Polydamna, a
woman from Egypt - a land prone to these drugs and where,
according to Homer, every man is a doctor. The nature of
nepenthe is far from clear, the reference to Egypt
especially obscure if it is to be understood as hemp, thus
matching the effects described by the poet
100
.
But the most important hallucinogenic plant in our
context is henbane. It was present in Palestine of the time
of 4Ezra (Datura, the genus of henbane has been present
since long millennia BCE all over the world, with the
exception of South America)
101
, but is not quoted in the
authoritative work on Biblical flora by Crowfoot and

99
Translation by A.T. Murray, in the Loeb Classical Library Edition
(Cambridge, Mass. / London: Harvard University Press, 1995). Shaked
makes the point that in Zoroastrian myth mang was also given to
Gayomart, the primordial ox, to soothe the pains of death; cf. Shaked,
Dualism, p.45.
100
I shall return to this issue of the effects described in the
passage; however the interpretation given by Pascal Brotteaux to the
whole text is worth mentioning, being so original. He claims that the
drug used must be either henbane, datura or belladonna (all of which
effectively cause a loss to the mnemonic faculties, according to the
author), while it cannot be hemp - according to him incapable of
causing the described effects. This is surprising when it is almost
commonsensical lore the effects on memory caused by hemp. Cf. “The
Ancient Greeks” in: Andrews and Vinkenoog, The Book of Grass, op.cit.
pp.27-28.
101
Richard E. Schultes and Albert Hoffman. Plants of the Gods: Origins
of Hallucinogenic Use. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. Pp.27-28.

290
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Baldensperger
102
. In this work extensive reference is made
to the mandrake, a plant surrounded by bigger folklore.
Mandrake is also used as a narcotic
103
, and ancient
reference points to its use mixed with henbane and poppy
capsules in Diodorus Siculus and with wine in Homer
104
.
Henbane, besides being available throughout the Near
East, is also related to the Atropa belladonna (Nightshade)
and, more importantly, gives us many instances of its use
and effects in first person experiences, old and recent. We
should now take a closer look at these.
Hyosciamus niger is the scientific name of henbane and
it belongs to the family of the solanacae, which includes
common plants like potato and tobacco, and that comprises
the most important group of plants used to establish
contact with the other world, in terms of diffusion
105
. All
plants similar to henbane contain toxic substances in great
quantity. One such substance may be absorbed via the skin
(atropine), leading to many reports of its use in medieval
and modern times in witchcraft trials
106
. The use of
henbane and the practice of vegetarianism is even combined

102
Grace M.H. Crowfoot and Louise Baldensperger. From Cedar to Hyssop:
a Study in the Folklore of Plants in Palestine. London / New York /
Toronto: The Sheldon Press / The Macmillan Company, 1932.
103
Idem, p.118.
104
Emboden, Jr. op.cit. pp.218-219. In Diodorus, it appears in the
History 1.97, and in Homer in the Odyssey passage, if we should
understand nepenthe to be identical to it.
105
Michael Harner. “The role of hallucinogenic plants in European
witchcraft” in: Michael Harner (ed.). Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New
York / London: Oxford University Press, 1970. P.128.
106
Idem, 135-137. This explains the connection of witches with the
broom, something that may have phallic connotations because of its use
to apply the henbane ointment in the vagina. There are also accounts
like the one by Nider (1692) and Laguna (1545), which tell of the use
of henbane by suspects who claimed to travel to Sabbaths. Fray Diego
Durán, an early witness of Spanish rule in Mexico, (Book of the Gods
and Rites and the Ancient Calendar) establishes a link in terms of
their effects between henbane and the magical agaric of the Mexicans,
teotlacuali (“flesh of the gods”). Cf. Furst, Hallucinogens, pp.13-14.

291
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



in some reports
107
; this is remarkably similar to the
pattern of the first group of visions in 4Ezra (9:23-29;
12:51) and may be a technical issue related to enhancing
the effects of henbane.
Modern experiences with the use of henbane include
those of Kiesewetter (1907) and of Prof. Will-Erich Peukert
from Göttingen (1966). Both prepared ointments as Porta
suggested in the seventeenth century, and claimed to have
had ecstatic experiences similar to those described by
witches; Schenk breathed the smoke of burning henbane and
said he felt his body separated from his soul, and had
visions of rivers of molten metal (remarkably similar to
the Persian experience regarding the Final Judgment, e.g.
in Jāmāsp Namag 17.14)
108
. It should be noted that the
experiences described are notably similar even taking into
account that medieval reports have been informed via
inquisitorial processes whilst contemporary have not; there
is also a difference in pattern regarding witchcraft /
shamanism, for while both practices purport encounters with
the other world, witches, contrary to shamans, would not
manipulate spirits while in trance
109
.

107
See the reports by Porta, colleague of Galilei. Harner, op.cit.
p.138.
108
Harner, op.cit. p.139. On this issue it should be noted that, while
not everybody has the same experiences with the same drugs (people who
took LSD in controlled experiments in the Fifties claimed to have had
no experience at all, in contrast to the then fashionable accounts by
Huxley; cf. Ernst Arbman. Ecstasy or Religious Trance. In the
Experience of the Ecstatics and from the Psychological Point of View.
3 volumes. Stockholm: Bokförlaget, 1963-1970. Volume 1 - Vision and
Ecstasy. P.196), the visions described are seldom - if ever - much
different from the cultural environment of the seer. This means that,
knowing exactly why they were taking henbane, modern scholars were
consciously or unconsciously bound to have visions similar to the
medieval witches. This accounts at the same time for the stereotyped
visions of apocalyptic literature in general and specifically of 4Ezra
and gives an explanation for the same stereotype - the ancient seer,
like the modern, could only “see” what his cultural environment
allowed him to.
109
Harner, op.cit. p.146.

292
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Apart from hemp and henbane, there is a third group of
ASC-inducing plants that must be dealt with here, namely
fly agaric (Ammanita muscaria). This must be done - even if
briefly - for the reference in 4Ezra 9:23-25 to the flowers
in the field could mean the agaric. We should remember that
4Ezra 12:51 takes “flowers” to be synonymous to
“plants”
110
.
There is a number of references in Persian literature
that also point to the mushroom, namely the parallel
between the Indian passage in the Rig Veda 8.4-10 and the
Yasna 48.10 - both point to the drinking of urine, a
practice known from Chinese Manicheans
111
. It consists
basically in the ingestion of the urine of people who had
taken the fly agaric previously, and is attested in
Siberian shamans; the Persian passage in the Yasna condemns
it while the Rig Veda says that Indra was urinating soma.
It is known that Indians have for long used mushrooms for
hallucinogenic purposes, and it is possible then that the
Persian and Indian passages relate to this usage
112
.
We have seen that cross-cultural parallels offer
pictures where inductive processes similar to the ones
reportedly undergone by the seer in 4Ezra are abundant. The
question remains, however, if these help explain something
of the nature of the story told about the quoted vision
episodes in 4Ezra.
All these parallels in themselves do not prove direct
borrowing by Jewish apocalypticists from external sources.

110
Cf. above, p.13.
111
Robert G. Wasson. “What was the soma of the Aryans?” in: Furst,
Flesh, pp.204-206. So in the Yasna passage, “When, O Mazda, will the
nobles understand the message? When will thou smite the filthiness of
this intoxicant, through which the Karapans evilly deceive, and the
wicked lords of the lands with purpose fell?” (F. Max Müller (ed.).
The Sacred Books of the East. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1887. Vol.31,
translation by L.H. Mills).
112
Farnsworth, op.cit. p.1089. The article also points to the possible
identification of soma with Ammanita muscaria.

293
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



When it comes to Persian issues some specific points of
disagreement arise.
Possibly the most sharp criticism against the idea of a
Persian origin for Judeo-Christian apocalyptic comes from
the famous article by Philippe Gignoux
113
. In the text,
Gignoux points out some of the major issues that forbid us
to trace a direct - i.e. genealogical - line between
Persian and other apocalyptic environments. The major
issues raised in the article are that on the one hand the
content of the so-called “Persian apocalypses” is
composite, and on the other the dating offered, even by the
defendants of the influence-theory, is problematic
114
.
Besides, Gignoux raises the always relevant issue about
apocalyptic as a genre, something unheard of in Antiquity.
This gets worse when it comes to Persian apocalypses, due
to their lateness - Gignoux suggesting even that the
trajectory of the common topoi may have been quite the
reverse, i.e. Jewish-Christian ideas influencing Persian
texts
115
.
Taken seriously, Gignoux’s objections apparently make
no distinction between the text as manuscript and as
meaningful, cultural artifact - no matter how late the
manuscripts of a given tradition may be, the ideas therein
may be much older. Homeric epic may be the most famous
stance of oral tradition put down in writing centuries
after its composition, although Gignoux has a point in
claiming that a continuity between 1.400 BCE (an eventual

113
“L’apocalyptique iranienne est-elle vraiment la source d’autres
apocalypses?”, AAASH 31 (1-2): (1988).
114
Idem, p.71.
115
Id. ibid. This is also the theme of Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin’s
article, “Apocalypse juive et apocalypse iranienne” in: Ugo Bianchi
and Maarten J. Vermaseren (eds.). La soteriologia dei culti orientali
nell’Impero romano: atti del Colloquio internazionale su la
soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’Impero romano, Roma, 24-28
settembre 1979. Leiden: Brill, 1982. Cf. sp. p.759.

294
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



early date given for Zoroaster) and 900 CE (when a great
part of the Zoroastrian texts had already been put down in
writing), as proposed by Mary Boyce, may be an
exaggeration
116
. Even as we consider the latest evidence in
the texts dealt with here, we would only end up with a
second-century reference for the Vendidad - more likely to
be from the fourth -, which is very little to speak with
certainty about any Persian influence on the preparatory
processes of 4Ezra, a First or at latest Second-Century
text.
Another issue which we just hinted at above is that of
the non-historical character of the experiences described,
both for 4Ezra and for the Persian sources. A different and
important source altogether is provided by four
inscriptions, dated between 290-293 CE, which describe in
detail the otherworldly journey taken by a priest called
Kirdir. He asks for a visionary experience to reinforce his
beliefs, and is granted a tour of Heaven and Hell;
stereotyped as the theme is in ancient literature, here we
have dated evidence for people who claim to have undergone
experiences of the kind
117
. The inscription is in a sorry
state so we cannot know exactly what the preparations
undergone by Kirdir before his voyage were
118
, but we can
at least hint that they should not be dismissed, as a
whole, as late additions to Persian apocalyptic.
As it has been pointed out, the changing from fasting
to the eating of flowers marks a decisive stage in Ezra’s

116
Idem, p.76.
117
Gignoux, “La signification du voyage extra-terrestre”, p.65.
118
Shaul Shaked. “Jewish and Iranian visions in the Talmudic period”
in: Isaiah M. Gafni et al (eds.). The Jews in the Hellenistic-Roman
World: Studies in Memory of Menahem Stern. Jerusalem: The Zalman
Shazar Center for Jewish History / The Historical Society of Israel,
1996 (in Hebrew). P.481; for the inscription itself cf. Prods
Skjaervø. “Kirdir’s vision: translation and analysis”, AMI 16: pp.296-
306.

295
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



acquisition of understanding
119
. This takes us to the
process described in 4Ezra itself, which is surprisingly
overlooked in Gignoux’s article - we have a description of
practices that lead to visions, something especially
important when it comes to the use of the cup in 4Ezra
14:38-42.
The cup, in every significant stance where it appears
in the Old Testament and also in the New has all kinds of
meanings - but never the revelatory role ascribed to it in
the passage above.
Vegetarianism as cleansing practice or as kashrut
prescription also is not related to the ingestion of
flowers, as in 4Ezra 9 and 12. And resuming the issue of
the wine mixed with nepenthe, the author of 4Ezra is at
pains to make it very clear that whatever the supposed
experience he went through (or claims to have been
through), he retained the memory of it. This can be
understood as a negative conclusion regarding the use of
hemp, whose physiological effects, regardless of other
opinions seen above, include partial loss of memory
120
. The
passage may be a clue to the idea that the experience
described is real and involves actual ASC-inducing
substances, whose nature the author tries to disclose. In
some of the medieval cases quoted, the “witch” claimed to
have gone to Sabbaths while intoxicated with henbane
ointment, but since there were sober witnesses around, they
could ascertain to the “witch” that she did not go anywhere
but in fact stayed all the time still and unconscious. The
“witches” claimed to “remember” being away in the Sabbath
and not staying in the actual place where they sat; this

119
Earle Breech. “These fragments I have shored against my ruins: the
form and function of 4 Ezra”, JBL 92 (1973). P.272.
120
Cf. above and the discussion on the mixed wine taken by Helen in
the Odyssey.

296
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



would be a very different use of memory. But bearing in
mind that henbane - if it is the flower of chapters 4Ezra 9
and 12 and a mixer at 14 - is effectively hallucinogenic
and not a mere memory eraser, the emphasis of the author to
tell us about the persistence of memory could have a
different meaning, showing that he regarded the visionary
experience as so real that he could not forget it. In any
case, in 4Ezra we have a very different experience and
claim from that of Helen in Homer, which suggests that we
are dealing with different mixtures (wine with hemp in
Homer, wine with henbane in 4Ezra).
Taking seriously the hypothesis that there is no
relation whatsoever between 4Ezra and Persian sources is
rendered more difficult due to the fact that practices like
the ones examined above seem out of place and rare in both
Testaments - by comparison, much more common in the Persian
texts. A derivation of the idea, namely that it could have
been the practices described in 4Ezra that influenced
Persian texts, looks even more remote and leaves us with
the question of how such dim references to these
preparatory practices would have made their way to the
Zoroastrian world, and why the all-conquering Persians
would be so interested in Jewish practices and not the
other way round. In this sense, it is symptomatic that the
pseudepigraphic author of the apocalypse that bears most
resemblances to Persian practices should be someone so
closely related to Persia as Ezra; and while every location
has been suggested as birthplace of the text - including
Rome itself -, due to the insistent reference to wisdom and
its granting it could well be that 4Ezra was originally
composed in the sapiential milieu of Palestine or

297
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Babylon
121
. This would be another way of focusing on the
issue of the relations between Persian religion and Jewish
apocalyptic in 4Ezra, but may in fact be the same - the
appropriation of the pseudepigraphic authorship, the echoes
of actual ecstatic practices and the writing in an
environment familiar with Persian thinking make sense when
taken together, although this is far from constituting
definitive proof of Persian influence on 4Ezra.
The whole theme of the possible relationship between
the practices described in 4Ezra and similar ones in
Persian sources depends, of course, on the nature of actual
contact between Jews and Persians (if we are not to assume
structural similarities, which by their own nature are
independent of direct borrowing, or mere coincidence). Such
contacts are more than guesses, and in fact pose many
different possibilities. Jews lived beyond the Euphrates at
least since the big deportations of Assyrians and
Babylonians, and after the Persian conquest came in direct
contact with Iranian culture. Jewish communities also knew
Persian neighbours in Asia Minor during the greatest extent
of the Persian Empire and even before
122
; in later times,
the community that lived in Parthia was big enough to
deserve the attention of leading characters in the Jewish
Revolt such as Titus and Josephus. Before that, for a short
time (40-37) Judaea was even occupied by the Parthians
123
.

121
Hultgård, “Figures messianiques”, p.743.
122
This being another possible way of explaining the meeting and
exchanging of ideas between Persians, Jews and Greeks early on. Cf.
Eddy, op.cit. pp.13; 65 ff.
123
For the issues above see, among others, Emil Schürer. The History
of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C – A.D. 135).
Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1979. 3 volumes (Rev. by Geza Vermes, Fergus
Millar, Martin Goodman and Matthew Black). Vol.IIIa, p.5 ff. The
diffusion of Jews throughout the Mediterranean world is well attested
in many ancient sources, sufficing to quote Philo (In Flaccum 7) and
Acts 2:9-11, which specifically speak about Jews in Media.

298
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



The idea that we may have here a reverse process, i.e.
that the practices described in fact traveled from West to
East (originally part of Jewish or Greek religion
appropriated by Persians), I find rather improbable - we
should have more instances of the practices described in
4Ezra to see them make way for another complex and old
religious system such as Zoroastrianism (although this is
by no means obligatory). Also we have seen that, even if
the texts which have come down to us are quite recent, the
mythical complexes contained herein are not. All this tends
to support the idea that the two mythical themes examined
that find way in 4Ezra (namely, that of the cup and that of
the flower, both of which bestow wisdom) were, both by
their antiquity and their frequency, primarily Persian
ecstatic practices that found themselves echoed in a Jewish
apocalypse.
As last considerations, I would like to summarize the
arguments for and against Persian influence on the theme of
chemical induction in 4Ezra. Supporting the idea, it must
be pointed out that:

1. The preparation procedures in 4Ezra are quite odd in
the general picture of Second Temple Jewish literature;
2. The choice of Ezra as pseudepigraphed, a character
well-acquainted with Persian things, may point to
intentional absorbing of Persian lore;
3. The parallels occur, in Persian sources, both for
the flower and the drink;
4. Evidence for chemical induction, as we have in
4Ezra, is just what was left over in the course of time in
terms of survival of texts (i.e. in theory there could have
been many more apocalypses with the same practices, but
only 4Ezra came down to us). However, we cannot deal with

299
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



“if’s” here and the same criteria should apply (even more
so) to Persian texts - where the references are far more
common. It makes sense to think that, if this practice were
more common in Second Temple Jewish literature, we could
perhaps have more examples of it.

Against the influence between them, we must bear in
mind that:

1. The dating of the Persian texts poses a formidable
barrier; even when there are parallels in earlier myths, to
posit the existence of e.g. a pre-CE Bahman Yasht does
nothing to prove conclusively that Persian texts anteceded
4Ezra;
2. There is no direct mentioning of the relation
between those sets of texts, either in 4Ezra or in
commentators (like the citing of Daniel, which makes it
clear that 4Ezra must be later);
3. Strange as the idea of Jewish influence may
initially seem (a very odd Jewish preparation practice
finding its way to become quite popular in Persian
circles), the episode of the conversion of the royal house
of Adiabene (a Parthian buffer-state) shows that West-East
adoption of Judaism, in part or whole, was a very real
possibility in a period roughly corresponding to that of
the redaction of 4Ezra.

Even with the limitations stated above, I tend to
favour the idea of Persian influencing 4Ezra and not the
other way round - the theme appears with much greater
frequency in Persian texts than in Second Temple Jewish
literature (remembering that in both cases we have but a
sample of a larger output), the mentioning of the cup in

300
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



the Yasna passages puts the myth of the enlightening drink
way back from 4Ezra (and it is not present in the OT at
all) and the name of the pseudepigraphic writer (even more
if 4Ezra was indeed written in Babylon) suggest the link
with Persia being a clear one. The dating of most texts,
however, prevents any definite conclusion.

301
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



3. Vi si onar y exper i ence, sel f - hypnosi s and pur i t y
i n 3 Enoch and r el at ed l i t er at ur e

The memorizing of texts or formulae can, by means of
total immersion (not necessarily to be identified as self-
hypnosis), lead to prodigious feats of recitation -
Eusebius tells us about a martyr that recited all the
Biblical text by heart “as if he were a prophet”
124
.
Although possibly exaggerated, the tale underlines the
importance of oral transmission and the use of memory in an
atmosphere textually, chronologically and geographically
akin to that of many apocalyptic texts (without implying by
any means that we are dealing with the same phenomenon -
information about production and consumption of apocalyptic
literature always being scarce).
The larger context in which 3En is inserted, that is
hekhalot literature, is very different from other
apocalypses in terms of preparatory advice - it has none of
the esoteric character of Jewish apocalyptic texts of the
Second Temple period
125
. Indeed hekhalot literature, while
sharing a number of common features with apocalyptic (it is
also revelatory and pseudepigraphic), can be seen as a
series of manuals to attain ecstasy
126
.
An examination of hekahlot literature and of its
corresponding mystical form, merkabah mysticism, takes us

124
Martyrs of Palestine. 13.7, cit. by Frankfurter, Elijah in Upper
Egypt, op.cit. p.32.
125
Gruenwald, Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism, p.123.
126
Idem, p.99. In his comment to Hekhalot Zutreti (arguably the oldest
extant hekhalot text, with linguistic evidence pointing to Second or
Third CE composition) Gruenwald reminds us that “In contrast to the
apocalyptic writers who selected their fictitious heroes from the
gallery of biblical heroes, preferably from antediluvian times, the
Merkavah mystics were more selective in their choice and affiliated
themselves to the two great heads of halakhic schools in the Tannaitic
period”. This explains the role of Rabbi Akiba in such texts and is
considered by Gruenwald as a means of gaining authority. Cf.
Gruenwald, op.cit. p.147.

302
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



to a world quite different from that of typical apocalyptic
visionaries
127
. But it should be noted that while 3En has
some reason to be included in an analysis of late Second
Temple apocalyptic literature, it is singularly void of
interesting preparatory practices, this being the reason
why this brief analysis points more to other hekhalot texts
than to 3En itself.
It should be pointed put that there is no evidence
whatsoever of direct contacts between apocalyptic circles
and hekhalot mystics
128
and indeed the open character of
technical instruction given in the latter makes this
contact rather improbable (and makes one wonder why
hekhalot mystics were so outspoken in the telling of their
techniques, which could thus easily fall into wrong ears).
3En received its current name only after Odeberg’s 1928
edition
129
, but can be considered at least partially an
apocalypse because of the nature of the experience
described (the ascension of Rabi Yishmael to Heaven), well
fitting with texts such as ApAbr and, above all, 1 and 2En.
It could well be that the pseudepigraphical insertion of
Rabi Yishmael is intended to put the text into a hekhalot
proper setting
130
, but it might also be the other way round
- that Enoch, transfigured as Metatron, is the insertion to
make it fit into Enochic tradition.
Be that as it may, in 3En there is no mention of
special ascension techniques, nor of special formulae to

127
As operating definition, merkabah is the name given to Jewish
mysticism that has its origins in the vision of the throne by Ezekiel
in Ez 1. The basis of this mysticism is hekhalot literature, in Hebrew
or Aramaic, which takes its name from the name given to heavenly
places (hekhalot). Cf. Annelies Kuyt. The ‘Descent’ to the Chariot.
Towards a Description of the Terminology, Place, Function and Nature
of the Yeridah in Hekhalot Literature. Tübingen: Mohr, 1995. P.1.
128
Gruenwald, op.cit. p.127.
129
Hugo Odeberg. 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1928. Cit. by Kuyt, op.cit. p.333.
130
Gruenwald, op.cit. p.192.

303
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



protect the mystic (two distinctive features of hekhalot
literature)
131
. The identical formulae of 3En 8, 14, 18, 41
do not help much the study of visionary process, looking
rather stereotyped
132
- contrast these formulae with the
detailed comment on such techniques in Hekhalot Rabbati
(“What are the incantations which should be recited by him
who wants to behold the vision of the Merkavah, to descend
safely and to ascend safely?”)
133
, or to the even more
astonishing picture on line 23 of the Hekhalot fragments -
where the angel comes back to discuss certain mystical
proceedings with the visionary after he had taught them
134
.
Maaseh Merkavah offers a similar picture with the
introductory dialogue between Rabi Yishmael and Rabi Akiba,
“What prayer should be uttered to ascend to the
merkavah?”
135
In terms of the preparatory practices, it seems as if
the great importance attached to fasting or dieting relates
not so much to enhancing effects (psychological or
physical) that these practices might entail, but rather to
purity restrictions. So the allusion to avoiding women or
cooking one’s own bread should be read in this context of
avoiding contact with impurity, i.e. the visionary should
abandon practices and desires that would be considered
normal under circumstances other than mystical practice,
and these should all be seen as practices that allow the
gaining of power
136
. In this sense hekahlot texts do not
differ from others in Antiquity, from the ascetic practices

131
Idem, p.191.
132
Kuyt, op.cit. pp.335-336.
133
Gruenwald, op.cit. pp.150-151.
134
Idem, p.189. This is an exceptional picture, however, not to be
found in any other of the hekhalot texts that we have.
135
Idem, p.181.
136
Lesses, op.cit, pp.117-118. Cf. also Anthony Meredith. “Asceticism
– Christian and Greek”, JTS 27 (1976). P.320. Cf. also Gruenwald,
op.cit. pp.100-101, where the author contrasts these interdictions to
commands such as the ones given to the visionary in 4Ezra.

304
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



of Anthony seen above, or from Pagan figures such as
Apollonius of Tyana
137
. It should be pointed out that
motivation can be very different in each case.
An additional note of interest is that another hekhalot
text, Reuyot Yehezkel
138
, makes the seer use the
contemplation of water as a means of attaining mystical
ecstasy: “Ezekiel was standing on the River Chebar looking
down at the water and the seven heavens were opened to him
and he saw the Glory of the Holy One”
139
. The parallel with
the frequent reference to rivers in apocalyptic literature
cannot be ignored (e.g. Dn 7:2-3, 8:2, 10:4-5; 4Ezra 9-11;
2Br 21:1; 3Br 2:1; 1En 13:7); this might imply that we are
dealing here with self-hypnosis
140
. The effects of long-
standing contemplation of objects (including rivers or
water at large) can lead to anxiety attacks, prostration
and other symptoms
141
.
But the main difference from what we have seen in terms
of self-hypnosis so far - be it in the context of Kardecism
or in the emphasis of the Desert Fathers in the recitation
of psalms - is that in hekhalot texts this process seems to
be attached to the repetition of formulae: this is of the
utmost importance in many passages, e.g. Hekhalot Rabbati
14:4-5
142
. ApAbr 16-17 also insists in the singing of hymns

137
Lesses, op.cit. p.145.
138
Not considered as hekhalot by some authors, since the term hekhal
does not occur in it. The names of rabbis quoted in the text
apparently ascribe it to the Fourth or Fifth Century CE; cf.
Gruenwald, op.cit. pp.134-135.
139
Idem, p.135.
140
Id. ibid.
141
Joseph Reyher. “Spontaneous visual imagery: implications for
psychoanalysis, psychopathology, and psychotherapy”, JMI 1 (2): 253-
274, 1977.
142
Gruenwald, op.cit. pp.102, 104. Cf. also Moshe Idel. The Mystical
Experience in Abraham Abulafia. Albany: State University of New York
Press, 1988. P.14. Obviously the experiences related to Abulafia, a
Sefardi mystic (1240-1291) can only have very secondary interest for
the main discussion in this thesis.

305
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



(the angel bids Abraham to do so, rather as a calming than
a propitiating device):

And I said to the angel, “Why is it you brought me
here? For now I can no longer see, because I am
weakened and my spirit is departing from me” And he
said to me, ‘Remain with me, do not fear’ [...] And he
said, ‘Only worship, Abraham, and recite the song which
I taught you’ [...] And he said, ‘Recite without
ceasing’. And I recited, and he himself recited the
song [...]
143

These hymns and formulae may have self-hypnotic
character, but in 3En none of this is to be seen. And if
there is indeed a sincere self-hypnotic experience to be
devised beneath the instructional character of hekhalot
texts, we would be left with the same problem that led to a
cross-cultural approach in the first place - no link
between apocalyptic and hekhalot literature can be
established, with the conditional acceptance of 3En in the
apocalyptic corpus for the reasons stated above
144
. In
short, self-hypnosis may be more varied than a mere state
induced more or less automatically by the repetition of
formulae (although this appears, in the Desert Fathers’ and

143
OTP 1, p.697.
144
I cannot agree with Gruenwald, however, when he dismissed
apocalyptic mysticism as somewhat less-authentic than merkavah
practices - “[...] the richness of the style and the vividness of the
description may give the impression that, after all, lying behind the
text, were real visionary experiences of the sort known from
apocalyptic writings. Compared to the parallel experiences in the
Hekhalot literature, the relevant experiences found in apocalyptic
literature are, so-to-speak, proto-mysticism, that is they contain all
the necessary elements which could easily turn into mysticism. But we
must remember that it was not the ultimate goal of the apocalypticists
to experience the Deity. Some of them experienced ascensions in the
course of which they also had a vision of the Deity [...] When a
vision of the Deity occurred, this only added a mystical ingredient
but did not turn the whole of the apocalyptic experience into
mysticism” (op.cit. p.156). “Experiencing” the Deity first-hand is by
no means the only possible form of sincere mystical experience; if
this objection was to be taken seriously even the prophets’
experiences could be easily diminished as lesser ones, something I
find very difficult to support.

306
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



hekhalot mystics descriptions as a valid means of attaining
ecstasy), as we shall see in the “Conclusion” to this
thesis.
As a final remark I should like to stress that although
3En entails comparison with other hekhalot texts it is
singularly poor in giving detail about preparatory
practices, even being part of a religious tradition so
generous in displaying them as is hekhalot literature. For
this reason, and for the stereotyped character of the
formulae involved, with the exception of the introductory
remarks in 3En 1:1 and 15B:2 there is not much of interest
to the theme of our investigation.

307
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



4. The st udy of Scr i pt ur e

Two main trends to understand the immersion of the
visionary in a mystical atmosphere propitiating visionary
experience as identification with a traditional character
emerge from what we have discussed so far.
One possibility is that the identification of the
mystic with the character may be understood as an integral
part of the cultural world in which the seer lives. This
holds true e.g. for the experiences described in ApEl (with
the support of all Egyptian data provided by Frankfurter)
and possibly of Dn, 4Ezra and others where reflection on
Scripture is implied.
On the other hand, the inductive technique might take
the form of repetitive practices, essentially praying and
repeating formulae. Both possibilities will be discussed
below.

4. 1. Vi si onar y exper i ence and mar t yr dom
An indirect means of assessing the possibility of
authentic experiences being described in apocalyptic texts
is provided by data related to willingness of ancient Jews
and Christians to be martyred. This holds true not only for
discarding pseudepigraphy as mere convention, but can be
examined regarding conscious identification of martyrs with
traditional characters. When this happens in an ambience so
close to apocalypticism as that of the Egyptian chora,
where ApEl was probably composed and most consumed, it
deserves a closer look.
Eusebius tells us that many Christians, accused by some
Firmilian (possibly during the persecutions by Diocletian),
took prophets’ names as their own to the accuser; they
rejected their former names as pagan and instead declared

308
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



themselves to be Elijah, Jeremiah, Isaiah, Samuel and
Daniel
145
. An even more explicit case is that of a monk who
retired to the desert and about whom it was said that the
spirit of Elijah lived with
146
.
Finally, one of the most explicit claims of writing in
the name of some past religious figure is given in a
Byzantine encomium which says that

Whosoever shall take the pains to have a book made and
written in thy [Elijah’s] name, and shall dedicate it
to thy shrine, I will write his name in the book of
life, and will make him to inherit the good things of
the kingdom of heaven
147
.

It could well be that this remarkable passage - that
not only admits but indeed praises writing in the name of
Elijah - portrays automatic writing
148
.
And again this blend of aural consumption /
impersonation, together with millenarian expectation and
the absolute immersing in the world of scriptural
characters, history and landscapes could lead to the
creation of a world of their own among Egyptian mystics.
The mnemonic development arising from this
149
is both cause

145
William H. Frend. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: a
Study of a Conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus. London: Basil
Blackwell, 1965. P.466 and Frankfurter, Elijah in Upper Egypt, p.66.
This does not imply that actual identification took place, much less
that this was to be understood as a usual phenomenon for the whole
group.
146
Frankfurter, Elijah in Upper Egypt, p.68.
147
Budge, “Fragments of a Coptic version of an encomium”, 369; 394.
Cit. by Frankfurter, Elijah in Upper Egypt, p.75.
148
This is indeed proposed by Frankfurter, who goes further: “The
Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah is, for all intents and purposes, a
prophecy of the end and may indeed have been delivered as the words of
Elijah incarnate to an audience quite prepared for such a concert”.
Cf. Elijah in Upper Egypt, p.75. This may in turn have originated with
the aural consumption of apocalyptic by the Jewish community in Egypt
prior to the massacres of 117 (cf. Frankfurter, “Legacy”, p.163.
149
Frankfurter, “Legacy” p.183.

309
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



and consequence of the prodigious effort to live among
Biblical characters.
Anyway, we can see from the examples above that to some
extent identification with the Biblical Elijah was more
than a possibility for Egyptian ascetes, who may even have
impersonated the prophet in the way of identifying and
opposing an eschatological adversary
150
.

4. 2. Vi si onar y exper i ence as sel f - cont r ol
An important, controversial and often neglected aspect
of the mystical experiences here discussed relates to the
visionary phenomenon described by Egyptian ascetics in the
first centuries of the Common Era, in the sense that these
do not imply hallucination but much on the contrary,
absolute self-control as to the mystic states to be
obtained. In those reports and in their interpretation by a
modern scholar such as Violet MacDermot
151
, there is no
room left for spectacular turns such as we find in 4Ezra,
or to after-effects claims such as those of other
apocalypses.
Summarizing MacDermot’s ideas, it can be said that she
argues, on the one hand, that corporate identity is a valid
concept to understand ancient visionary experience (at
least in the case of ascetes imbued with Biblical lore in
Egypt)
152
, and on the other that their mystical visions do
not arise as spectacular results of hallucinatory

150
Idem, p.76, 78.
151
The Cult of the Seer in the Ancient Middle East: a Contribution to
Current Research on Hallucinations Drawn from Coptic and Other Texts.
London: Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, 1971. Given the
scope of its scholarship, it is surprising that this is a book still
so much overlooked. I disagree with the author on a number of points
and the title is misleading – the book deals not with Near Eastern
visionary experiences at large, but rather with very definite aspects
inside primitive Christian desert monasticism, which is not what the
title implies.
152
Idem, pp.16-17, 56.

310
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



induction, but rather as an obsessive search for self-
control (in which case visions are to be recognized and,
with proper training, rejected by the seer)
153
. A third
important point in MacDermot’s ideas (to be properly
discussed in the conclusion to this thesis) is that ancient
visionary experiences are irreducible to modern
conceptualization or laboratory conditions
154
.
But MacDermot’s analysis has much in common with what I
can observe myself so far in the object proposed. While the
notion of corporate identity looks flawed from many points
of view, the idea that there can be a true identity
experience between seer and biblical hero can be seriously
maintained on other grounds, even by MacDermot herself.
First, identities run at large as common group property
in her analysis:

Thus, as in Egypt, the name of a man was the
possession, not only of the individual but of the
family or group. A father gave his name to his son and
continued to live in the son; the qualities attached to
a famous name were received by whoever inherited the
name. In this way, to adopt the name of a seer of the
past, was to be identified with him, to re-experience
his vision and to continue, in new circumstances, to
proclaim his message
155
.

This tradition is, in turn, developed by Neo-Platonism
with its emphasis in experiences related to immaterial
reality (how it could have influenced mystical practices in
the illiterate and millenarian milieu of Egyptian backlands
MacDermot fails to explain); it is also related to the idea
that prophecy had ceased in post-Exilic times, and

153
Although the ascetics were revered by the rest of the Egyptian
rural community precisely for their ability to have visions; cf.
MacDermot, op.cit. pp.94-95.
154
Idem, p.xi, 48 and 236.
155
Idem, pp.16-17.

311
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



experiences such as the apocalypticists’ were a way of
keeping it alive
156
.
This is, in my opinion, highly debatable. The notion
that “prophecy ceased” is no longer tenable, although it is
obvious that the form mystical experiences took to late
Second Temple mystics is, at least to our eyes, very
different from prophetic ones. But it is also noteworthy
that a writer such as Josephus is unaware of these
distinctions – he considers Daniel a prophet and equals his
own work and duty to that of Jeremiah. Even a traditional
insult launched at his enemies (pseudoprof hth/j ) echoes such
perception that prophecy has not ceased after all
157
.
But whether we posit a continuum between pre-Exilic
prophecy and Egyptian Christian experiences or not, the
case for the ascetics identifying themselves with past
biblical heroes is certainly strong. MacDermot argues that
the Egyptian ascetic, free from the traditional obligations
of communal life, created for himself a whole new world,
populated by biblical characters with whom he could have
full intercourse and identification, and that could be
shared with other mystics as well.

This was the ‘vision’ of the ascetic; it was not ‘seen’
in a dream or trance, it could be shared with others,
and it concerned this life as well as the next. It was
a world, not only of thought, but of emotion
158
.

This inner life would have, according to MacDermot, an
effect equal to that of Homeric poetry among Greeks – it
could be seen both as emotional experience and also as a
form of self-knowledge: it would also place the mystic in

156
Idem, pp.19-20.
157
Jannes Reiling. “The use of ΨΣΕΥΔΟΠΡΟΦΗΤΗΣ in the Septuagint, Philo
and Josephus”, NT XIII (2), 1971.
158
MacDermot, op.cit. p.52.

312
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



the situation of an actor performing according to biblical
precedent
159
. All that was seen not as consequence of self-
discipline, but rather as a divine gift.
One important observation must be made here, however:
MacDermot’s examples are only indirectly related to
apocalyptic tradition, in the sense that both stem from the
common origin of biblical lore. We should take a closer
look at some of the sources she uses as examples of the
ideas defined above.
The first of them comes in Palladius, who refers to the
immersion of the saints in study and recitation of Psalms,
that would make them live in a world fashioned after their
imagination.

[The fathers] applied all the Psalms to their own lives
and works, and to their passions, and to their
spiritual life and to the wars which the devils waged
against them. Each man did thus according to his
capacity, whether he was engaged in a rule of life for
the training of the body, or of the soul, or of the
spirit [...] he acquires daily the faculty of singing a
song mingled with the meditation of God and with the
gaze (which is fixed) upon Him [...] and which is like
that of the angels
160
.

The same holds for Cassian, Conference 10.11:

He will make the thoughts of the psalms his own. He
will sing them no longer as verses composed by a
prophet, but as born of his own prayers [...] fulfilled
in his daily life
161
.

159
Idem, p.53 and 56. This would in turn imply the idea of literary
topoi, which do not imply necessarily falsehood, as I suggested above.
160
Active in the fifth century, but with some uncertainty regarding
precise dates; he developed missionary activity in Britain and
Ireland. Cf. also from Palladius, Sayings of the Fathers 11.17; 7.20.
161
The relation between abba (an older, fully trained ascetic) and
student, while being the key to understanding Egyptian monasticism,
might be resumed in the proposed interaction between reader and text
as Cassian puts it – and could lie behind Cassian’s report on Gallic
audiences as well. The idea of mingling the thoughts of the Psalmist

313
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka




The same theme appears in Conference 14.10, with the
exhortation that

Over time, the continual repetition of a text will
enable its words and images to fill our mind day and
night so that it increasingly resembles the text it
contains.

Cassian emphasizes the importance of humility rather
than instruction, and in his perspective the act of reading
is indeed a way of getting closer to God: commending
reading, Cassian is indeed praising a particular form of
contemplative life
162
.
Philo himself gives a similar account regarding ecstasy
induction among the therapeutae, in the Vita 2.11:

But it is well that the Therapeutae, a people always
taught from the first to use their sight, should desire
the vision of the Existent and soar above the sun of
our senses and never leave their place in this company
which carries them on to perfect happiness. And those
who set themselves to this service [...] carried away
by a heaven-sent passion of love, remain rapt and
possessed like bacchanals or corybants until they see
the object of their yearning.

This would be a common feature throughout cults
spreading in the Mediterranean world, all emphasizing the
diminishing of self-consciousness through consciousness
states that lead to possession. And although MacDermot is

as if these were the reader’s own is also to be found in Origen. Cf.
Steven D. Driver. John Cassian and the Reading of Egyptian Monastic
Culture. New York / London: Routledge, 2002. Pp.6-8. The Conferences,
in a total of 24, expose Cassian’s views on Egyptian monasticism as
examples of virtue to a Western audience.
162
Driver, op.cit. p.118. For related reading on the ways memory and
study can fashion a world of their own, with special regard to
Antiquity, cf. Georgia Frank. The Memory of the Eyes: Pilgrims to
Living Saints in Christian Late Antiquity. Berkeley / London:
University of California Press, 2000.

314
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



eager to stress the differences between hallucinations and
mystical experiences as described by Egyptian mystics, she
has to concede that “States of possession and mystical
states had in common the fact that full self-consciousness
was not maintained”
163
. In short, MacDermot’s main idea is
that not every hallucinatory induction is the same – the
Egyptian ascetics being especially careful, as just
mentioned, to avoid visions (in particular unwanted ones)
and to concentrate on one main object of meditation. Among
these, the Psalms seem to hold a more important position
than prophetic literature in the examples gathered by her
(but not so by the groups related to the ApEl: cf. the
discussion of Frankfurter’s ideas above).
However, it is not clear to me what essential
distinction between exaggerated concentration and
hallucination there might be here. First of all the amount
of information we do have is not enough to allow for a
full-scale discussion of such techniques, in the way that
it could be done regarding shamanic studies or, for that
matter, even Kardecism. In the second place, MacDermot’s
defence of the specificity of the Egyptian’s seers
experiences has the look of an effort driven by full
sympathy with the object – i.e. making it so peculiar as to
be irreducible and incomparable to anything else, instead
of making an impartial assessment of the sources. In short,
it is not clear why their experiences are not typologically
related to other, better-known ones.
The idea that the ascetic lives in a world of his own
does not need the dubious theoretical apparatus of
“corporate identity” either. In the conclusion to her book
MacDermot even stresses the strong individualism attached –
indeed, born with – the Egyptian ascetics. How such a feat

163
Idem, p.235.

315
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



related to a world where there is no room for individual
identity but only to oneness with the community MacDermot
fails to explain
164
.
Much more interesting in our view is the underlining of
the importance of Psalms recitation and memorization as
related to mystical experiences. This might find a possible
parallel in the relevance of psalm-reciting in Qumran.
A last and important issue to be taken into account are
the parallel examples of assumed identity between actual
mystics and martyrs: it is an aspect that looks altogether
similar to the psalm-like identity discussed by MacDermot
but which derives from a different aspect of religious
psychology, that of martyrdom.
It could also be that martyrological worries led to the
idea that “[...] an Egyptian Christian of the third century
might assume the role of prophet and the task of exposing
an eschatological Adversary in the person of a religious or
civil authority - and thus consider himself (or suggest to
others the persona of) Elijah redivivus”
165
.
It is also to be found in a reference by Epiphanius
(310-320?-404 CE) that the sect of the Borborite made
rhetorical use of apocrypha in the name of Elijah – these
are to be understood in the same context of the experience
he had on top of Mount Carmel (1Kgs 18:14-20), as seen
above
166
.
Frankfurter is thus the only known author outside this
thesis that allows room for the possibility of automatic
writing as part of the usual activities of apocalypticists,
i.e. the ones linked to the writing or consumption of ApEl.
The detailed analysis of the conditions of writing and

164
Idem, p.236.
165
Frankfurter, Elijah in Upper Egypt, p.76.
166
Idem, p.65.

316
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



reading of texts such as ApEl, together with the evidence
seen above regarding early desert ascetics shows indeed
that plain identification with biblical characters was more
than just a possibility at the time, leaving us with a
plausible hypothesis that first-person narratives were,
after all, suited to a true impersonating of the character
described, both by the audiences and possibly by the
authors
167
. In all of the cases examined above the
conclusion to be reached is that the people involved in
such mystical ambience were actually living in a world of
their own, constructed with biblical material and lending
itself to a very special kind of retreat, in which the
mystic sees himself as part of the communities of saints
past (how much he would consider himself to be living among
actual people of his own times is, strangely, more
difficult to ascertain). Direct evidence for the same
practices in late Second Temple texts such as 4Ezra or 2Br
is non-existent (and even in the case of ApEl it is not
very clear, coming from indirect sources), but being to a
wide extent of biblical characters the common heritage of
Jews and Christians, there is no a priori to forbid us to
imagine similar devices being used on both sides. It should
be noted that the use Jews and Christians make of this
common heritage can be markedly different, as the
millenialist use of Elijah in Egypt has shown.

167
This should be assumed as a logical follow up of the idea already
defended by Collins (“Inspiration or illusion”), namely that the
ethical content of apocalyptic literature is so serious as not to
allow itself to be a mere game of delusion or debauchery, where fake
impersonating of characters would play a part.

317
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



BI BLI OGRAPHY

AHLSTRÖM, Gösta W. “Oral and written transmission” in:
Harvard Theological Review 59: 69-81, 1966.
ALAND, Kurt. “Das Problem der Anonymität und Pseudonymität
in der christlichen Literatur der ersten beiden
Jahrhunderte” in: ALAND, Kurt (ed.). Studien zur
Überlieferung des Neuen Testamentes und seines Textes /
Arbeiten zur neutestamentliche Textforschung. Berlin,
1967.
ALLEGRO, John. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross; a Study of
the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the
Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East. London: Hodder
& Stoughton, 1970.
ANDRÉ, Gunnel. “Ecstatic Prophesy in the Old Testament” in:
HOLM, Nils (ed.). Religious Ecstasy. Based on Papers read
at the Symposium on Religious Ecstasy held at Abo,
Finland, on the 26th-28th of August 1981. Stockholm:
Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1982.
ARBESMANN, Rudolf. “Fasting and prophecy in Pagan and
Christian Antiquity” in: Traditio 7: 1-71. 1951.
ARBMAN, Ernst. Ecstasy, or Religious Trance, in the
Experience of the Ecstatics and from the Psychological
Point of View. Stockholm: Bokförlaget, 1963-1970.
ARMOND, Edgard. Mediunidade. São Paulo: Aliança, 1956.
ASHTON, John. The Religion of Paul the Apostle. New Haven /
London: Yale University Press, 2000.
AUNE, David. “The Apocalypse of John and the problem of
genre” in: Semeia 36, 1986.
______. Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient
Mediterranean World. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans,
1983.

318
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



BAKER, Robert. “The effect of suggestion on past-lives
regression” in: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 25
(1): 71-76. 1982.
BARTHOLOMEW, Robert E.; BASTERFIELD, Keith; HOWARD, George S.
“UFO abductees and contactees: Psychopathology or fantasy
proneness?” in: Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice 22 (3): 215-222 URL-JOURNAL: http://www apa
org/journals/pro html. 1991.
BARTON, John. Oracles of God: Perceptions of Ancient
Prophecy in Israel After the Exile. London: Darton,
Longman and Todd, 1986.
BASTIDE, Roger. “Le spiritisme au Brésil” in: Archives de
sociologie des religions 24: 3-16. 1956.
BAUM, Armin D. Pseudepigraphie und literarische Fälschung
im frühen Christentum: mit ausgewählten Quellentexten
samt deutscher Übersetzung. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001.
BELARDI, Walter. The Pahlavi Book of the Righteous Viraz.
Rome: University Department of Linguistics and Italo-
Iranian Cultural Centre, 1979.
BEVAN, Edwyn. Sibyls and Seers, a Survey of Some Ancient
Theories of Revelation and Inspiration. London: G. Allen
& Unwin, 1928.
BEZERRA DE MENEZES, Adolfo. A loucura sob novo prisma: estudo
psíquico-fisiológico. Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita
Brasileira, 1983.
BIETENHARD, Hans. Die himmlische Welt im Urchristentum und
Spätjudentum. Tübingen: Mohr, 1951.
BILDE, Per. “Josephus and Jewish Apocalypticism” in: Mason,
Steve (ed.). Understanding Josephus: Seven Perspectives.
Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.
BLENKINSOPP, Joseph. “Prophecy and priesthood in Josephus”
in: Journal of Jewish Studies 25: 239-262, 1974.

319
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



BLISS, Eugene L. “Multiple personalities, related disorders
and hypnosis” in: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
26 (2): 114-123, 1983.
BOAS, Franz. “The limitations of the comparative method of
Anthropology” in: BOAS, Franz. Race, Language and Culture.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
BOURGUIGNON, Erika. “The self, the behavioral environment,
and the theory of spirit possession” in: SPIRO, Melford E.
(ed.). Context and Meaning in Cultural Anthropology. New
York: Free Press, 1965.
BOURGUIGNON, Erika (ed.) Religion, Altered States of
Consciousness and Social Change. Columbus: Ohio State
University Press, 1973.
______. “Cross-cultural perspectives on the religious uses
of altered states of consciousness” in: ZARETSKY, Irving;
LEONE, Mark. Religious Movements in Contemporary America.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
BOYCE, Mary. “On the antiquity of Zoroastrian apocalyptic”
in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African
Studies 47: 57-75, 1984.
______. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
BREECH, E. “These fragments I have shored against my ruins:
the form and function of 4 Ezra” in: Journal of Biblical
Literature 92 (1973).
BROCKINGTON, Leonard H. “Problem of pseudonymity” in: Journal
of Theological Studies 4: 15-22, 1953.
BROTTEAUX, Pascal. “The Ancient Greeks” in: ANDREWS, George;
VINKENOOG, Simon. The Book of Grass; an Anthology of Indian
Hemp. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972.
BROWN, Diana. Umbanda: Religion and Politics in Urban
Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1986.

320
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



BRYAN, William. “The techniques of age regression,
progression, and time distortion” in: Journal of the
American Institute of Hypnosis 15 (1): 21-31. 1974.
BUCHANAN, George. Revelation and Redemption: Western North
Caroline Press, 1978.
BÜCHSEL, Friedrich. “P al i ggenesi /a” in: KITTEL, Gerhard et al
(eds.). Theological Dictionary of the New Testament.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1974.
BUTTENWORTH, G. W. (ed.). Clement of Alexandria. Exhortation
to the Greeks. London: Heinemann, 1919.
CAMARGO, Cândido Procópio Ferreira de. Kardecismo e umbanda;
uma interpretação sociológica. São Paulo: Livraria
Pioneira Editora, 1961.
CARNEIRO, Edison. Candomblés da Bahia. Rio de Janeiro:
Conquista, 1961.
CAVALCANTI, Maria Laura. O mundo invisível: cosmologia,
sistema ritual e noção de pessoa no espiritismo. Rio de
Janeiro: Zahar, 1983.
CERETI, Carlo G. (ed.). The Zand i Wahman Yasn: a
Zoroastrian Apocalypse. Roma: Istituto italiano per il
Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1995.
CERVIÑO, Jayme. Além do inconsciente. Rio de Janeiro:
Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1979.
CHAMBERS, Edmund K. The History and Motives of Literary
Forgeries. Oxford / London: Basil Blackwell / Simpkin /
Marshall, 1891.
CHARLESWORTH, James H. (ed.) The Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha. New York: Doubleday, 1983-1985. (2
volumes).
______. “The Jewish roots of christology: the discovery of
the hypostatic voice” in: Scottish Journal of Theology 39
(1): 19-41, 1986.

321
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



CHEON, Samuel. “Anonymity in the Wisdom of Solomon” in:
Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 18: 111-119,
1998.
CLEOBURY, F. H. “The theory of selective telepathy” in:
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 44(737):
326-333. 1968.
COLLINS, Adela Y. The Apocalypse. Dublin: Veritas
Publications, 1979.
COLLINS, John J. “The place of the Fourth Sybil in the
development of the Jewish Sibyllina” in: Journal of
Jewish Studies 25. 1974.
______. “Pseudonimity, historical reviews, and the genre of
the Revelation of John” in: Catholic Biblical Quarterly
39, 1977.
______. Apocalypse: the Morphology of a Genre. Missoula:
Scholars Press, 1979.
______. Daniel, with an Introduction to Apocalyptic
Literature. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1984.
______. “Inspiration or illusion: biblical theology and the
book of Daniel” in: Gammie, John G. and Perdue, Leo G.
(eds.). The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East.
Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
______. Daniel: a Commentary on the Book of Daniel.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
______. The Apocalyptic Imagination. Grand Rapids: William
B. Eerdmans, 1998.
CONSCIÊNCIA ESPÍRITA [group]. “Vinte e seis maneiras de
indentificar se uma mensagem provém de um bom espírito”.
Conciesp Electronic source, http://www.conciesp.org.br,
2002.
______. “Allan Kardec, o codificador da terceira
revelação”. Conciesp Electronic source,
http://www.conciesp.org.br, 2002.

322
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



______. “Os espíritos podem nos fazer conhecer o futuro?”
Conciesp Electronic source, http://www.conciesp.org.br,
2002.
______. “Os três tipos de comunicação com os espíritos”.
Conciesp Electronic source, http://www.conciesp.org.br,
2002.
______. “Psicografia: o intercâmbio consolador”. Conciesp
Electronic source, http://www.conciesp.org.br, 2002.
CRABTREE, Adam. Multiple Man: Explorations in Possession and
Multiple Personality. London: Grafton Books, 1985.
CRAPANZANO, Vincent and GARRISON, Vivian (ed.) Case Studies in
Spirit Possession. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977.
CROWFOOT, Grace M.H. and BALDENSPERGER, Louise. From Cedar to
Hyssop: a Study in the Folklore of Plants in Palestine.
London / New York / Toronto: The Sheldon Press / The
Macmillan Company, 1932.
CULIANU, Ioan P. Psychanodia I. A Survey of the Evidence
Concerning the Ascension of the Soul and its Relevance.
Leiden: Brill, 1983.
CULLEY, Robert C. (ed.). Oral Tradition and Old Testament
Studies. Semeia, 1976.
CULLEY, Robert C. “Anthropology and the Old Testament: an
introductory comment” in: Semeia 21: 1-5. 1981.
CZSIKSENTMIHALYI, Mihaly. Finding Flow: the Psychology of
Engagement in Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
DAVILA, James R. Descenders to the Chariot: the People
Behind the Hekhalot Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
______. “Shamanic initiatory death and ressurrection in the
hekhalot literature” in: MIRECKI, Paul and MEYER, Marvin
(eds.). Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World. Leiden /
Boston / Köln: Brill, 2002.
DE VAUX, Carra. “Tanāsukh” in: Encyclopedia of Islam.
Leiden: Brill, CD-Rom edition.

323
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



DEISMANN, Adolf. Light from the Ancient East: the New
Testament Illustrated by Recently Discovered Texts of the
Graeco-Roman World. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1927.
DELCOR, Mathias. Testament of Abraham. Leiden: Brill, 1973.
DIAS-CORREA, Paulo. “A psicografia (escrita automática) à
luz da psicologia médica” in: Hospital Rio de Janeiro 32:
121-131. 1947.
DILLARD, Raymond B. 2 Chronicles. Word Biblical Commentary.
Waco: Word Books, 1987.
DONELSON, Lewis. Pseudepigraphy and Ethical Argument in the
Pastoral Epistles. Tübingen: Mohr, 1986.
DRAGUET, René (ed.). La vie primitive de S. Antoine:
conservée en syriaque. Louvain: Secrétariat du CorpusSCO,
1980.
DRIVER, Steven D. John Cassian and the Reading of Egyptian
Monastic Culture. New York / London: Routledge, 2002.
DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, Jacques. “Apocalypse juive et apocalypse
iranienne” in: BIANCHI, Ugo and VERMASEREN, Maarten J.
(eds.). La soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’Impero
romano: atti del Colloquio internazionale su la
soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’Impero romano,
Roma, 24-28 settembre 1979. Leiden: Brill, 1982.
DUFF, Jeremy. A Reconsideration of Pseudepigraphy in Early
Christianity. DPhil. Theology Faculty. Oxford, 1997.
DUMMER, Jürgen (ed.). Epiphanius III Panarion haer. 65-80 /
De fide. Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der
ersten Jahrhunderte. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1985.
EARLE, Brian and THEYE, Frederick W. “Automatic writing as a
psychiatric problem” in: Psychiatric Quarterly Supplement
Vol. 42(2): 218-222. 1968.
EDDY, Samuel K. The King is Dead. Studies in the Near
Eastern Resistance to Hellenism 334-31 B.C. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1961.

324
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



EDGETTE, John and EDGETTE, Janet-Sasson. The Handbook of
Hypnotic Phenomena in Psychotherapy. Philadelphia:
Brunner/Mazel, Inc, 1995.
ELIADE, Mircea. Patterns in Comparative Religion. London:
Sheed & Ward, 1958.
______. Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries: the Encounter Between
Contemporary Faiths and Archaic Realities. London:
Harvill Press, 1960.
______. “Ancient Scythia and Iran” in: ANDREWS, George and
VINKENOOG, Simon (eds.). The Book of Grass; an Anthology of
Indian Hemp. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972.
______. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. London:
Arkana, 1989.
EMBODER, JR., William A. “Ritual use of the Cannabis Sativa
L.: a historical-ethnographic survey” in: FURST, Peter
(ed.). Flesh of the Gods: the Ritual Use of
Hallucinogens. London: Allen & Unwin, 1972.
ERICKSON, Milton H. and KUBIE, L. S. “The permanent relief of
an obsessional phobia by means of communication with an
unsuspected dual personality” in: Psychoanalytical
Quarterly 8: 471-509, 1939.
ERICKSON, Milton H. “Hypnosis: a general review” in:
Diseases of the Nervous System 2: 13-18, 1941.
EYLON, Dina R. Reincarnation in Jewish Mysticism and
Gnosticism. Lewiston / Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press,
2003.
FARIA, Osmard. Manual de hipnose médica e odontológica. Rio
de Janeiro: Atheneu, 1961.
FARNSWORTH, Norman R. “Hallucinogenic plants” in: Science
162 (3858): 1086-1092, 1968.
FEDERAÇÃO ESPÍRITA BRASILEIRA [group]. “Chico Xavier - traços
biográficos”. Electronic source,

325
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



http://www.espirito.org.br/portal/download/pdf/index.html
, 2002.
FELDMAN, Louis. Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
FENTON, John C. “Pseudonimity in the New Testament” in:
Theology 58: 51-56, 1955.
FESTUGIÈRE, André J. Discours sacrés. Rêve, religion,
médecine au II
e
siècle après J.-C. Paris: Macula, 1986.
FINLEY, Moses. The World of Odysseus. London: Chatto &
Windus, 1956.
FISCHER, Karl M. “Anmerkungen zur Pseudepigraphie im Neuen
Testament” in: New Testament Studies 23: 76-81, 1977.
FLATTERY, David S. and SCHWARTZ, Martin. Haoma and Hermaline:
the Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred
Hallucinogen “Soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language,
and Middle Eastern Folklore. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1989.
FLUSSER, David. Judaism and the Origins of Christianity.
Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988.
FODOR, Nandor. Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science. London:
Arthur Press, 1933.
FORMIGA, Luiz C. “Por que considero inteligente, o Cândido,
Francisco Xavier?” [sic] Electronic source,
Http://zap.to/neurj, 2002.
FRANCO, Divaldo P. “Características da mediunidade”.
Electronic source, http://www.conciesp.org.br, 2002
(excerpts from Sardano, Miguel de Jesus. Divaldo, mais
que uma voz, uma canção de amor à vida! Santo André:
Centro Espírita Dr. Bezerra de Menezes, /s.d./)
FRANK, Georgia. The Memory of the Eyes: Pilgrims to Living
Saints in Christian Late Antiquity. Berkeley / London:
University of California Press, 2000.

326
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



FRANKFURTER, David. Elijah in Upper Egypt: the Apocalypse of
Elijah and Early Egyptian Christianity. Minneapolis:
Fortress Press, 1993.
______. “The legacy of Jewish apocalypses in early
Christianity: regional trajectories” in: VANDERKAM, James
C. and ADLER, William. The Jewish apocalyptic heritage in
early Christianity. Assen: Van Gorcum / Fortress Press,
1996.
FREND, William H. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early
Church: a Study of a Conflict from the Maccabees to
Donatus. London: Basil Blackwell, 1965.
FURST, Peter. Hallucinogens and Culture. San Francisco:
Chandler & Sharp, 1976.
GARDNER, Jason. “From a Christian perspective can the use of
drugs for recreation and worship ever be justified?”
Electronic source. 2003.
GEMPF, Conrad. “Pseudonimity and the New Testament” in:
Themelios 17: 8-10, 1992.
GIGNOUX, Philippe. “Notes sur la rédaction de l’Ardāy Virāz
Nāmag” in: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen
Gesellschaft, Supplementa 1, 1969.
______. “La signification du voyage extra-terrestre dans
l’eschatologie mazdéenne” in: Mélanges d’histoire des
religions offerts à Henri-Charles Puech. Paris: Presses
Universitaires de France, 1974.
______. “Les voyages chamaniques dans le monde iranien” in:
Acta Iranica 21: 244-265, 1981. Pp.263-265.
______. “Apocalypses et voyages extra-terrestres dans
l’Iran mazdéen” in: KAPPLER, Claude (ed.). Apocalypses et
voyages dans l'au-delà. Paris: CERF, 1987.
______. “L’apocalyptique iranienne est-elle vraiment la
source d’autres apocalypses?” in: Acta Antiqua Academiae
Scientiarum Hungaricae 31 (1-2), 1988.

327
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



GINZBURG, Carlo. Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches’
Sabbath. London: Hutchinson Radius, 1990.
GLASSON, Thomas F. Greek Influence in Jewish Eschatology:
with Special Reference to the Apocalypses and
Pseudepigraphs. London: SPCK, 1961.
GOODMAN, Felicitas D. Speaking in Tongues. A Cross-Cultural
Study of Glossolalia. Chicago / London: University of
Chicago Press, 1972.
GOODMAN, Felicitas D.; HENNEY, Jeanette H.; PRESSEL, Esther.
Trance, Healing, and Hallucination; Three Field Studies
in Religious Experience. New York: Wiley, 1974.
GOTTWALD, Norman K. “Problems and promises in the
comparative analysis of religious phenomena” in: Semeia
21: 103-112. 1981.
GRAY, Rebecca. Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple
Jewish Palestine. New York; Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1993.
GREEN, Joseph. “Hypnotizability, the dissociative
experiences scale, HGSHS:A amnesia, and automatic
writing: is there an association?” in: International
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 45 (1): 69-
80. 1997.
GRIBOMONT, Jean. “De la notion de ‘Faux’ en littérature
populaire” in: Bib. 54: 434-436. 1973.
GRUENWALD, Ithamar. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism.
Leiden: Brill, 1980.
______. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism: Studies in
Apocalypticism, Merkavah Mysticism and Gnosticism.
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1988.
GRÜNHOLZ, Gerhard. “Vom LSD zur Selbsthypnose in
‘psychedelischer’ Erfahrung, Kunst und Therapie” in:
Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie
19 (1): 34-41, 1971.

328
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



GUDEMAN, Alfred. “Literary frauds among the Romans” in:
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological
Association 25: 140-164. 1894.
GUTHRIE, Donald. “Tertullian and pseudonymity” in:
Expository Times 67: 341-342, 1956.
HACKFORTH, Reginald. The Authorship of the Platonic
Epistles. Hildesheim: Olms, 1985.
HAEFNER, Alfred E. “A unique source for the study of ancient
pseudonimity” in: Anglican Theological Review 16: 8-15,
1934.
HALLPIKE, Christopher R. “Some problems in cross-cultural
comparison” in: BEIDELMAN, Thomas O. The Translation of
Culture. London: Tavistock, 1971.
HARNER, Michael. “The role of hallucinogenic plants in
European witchcraft” in: HARNER, Michael (ed.).
Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New York / London: Oxford
University Press, 1970.
______. Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New York / London:
Oxford University Press, 1973.
HARRIMAN, Philip L. “The experimental production of some
phenomena related to the multiple personality” in:
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 37: 244-255,
1942.
HARTMAN, Sven S. “Datierung der Jungavestischen Apokalyptik”
in: HELLHOLM, Daniel (ed.). Apocalypticism in the
Mediterranean World and the Near East: Proceedings of the
International Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala,
August 12-17, 1979. Tübingen: Mohr, 1983.
HEAD, Joseph and CRANSTON, Sylvia L. (eds.). Reincarnation in
World Thought. New York: Julian Press, 1967.
HEARNE, Keith M. “A questionnaire and personality study of
self-styled psychics and mediums” in: Journal of the
Society for Psychical Research 55 (816): 404-411. 1989.

329
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



HENGEL, Martin. The Zealots. Investigations into the Jewish
Freedom Movement in the Period from Herod I until 70 A.D.
Edimburgh: T & T Clark, 1989.
HESS, David J. Spirits and Scientists: Ideology, Spiritism,
and Brazilian Culture. University Park: Pennsylvania
State University Press, 1991.
HEYWOOD, Rosalind. “Notes on Rosemary Brown” in: Journal of
the Society for Psychical Research 46: 213-217, 1971.
HILGARD, Ernest R. Hypnotic Susceptibility. New York:
Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965.
______. “The hidden observer and multiple personality” in:
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental
Hypnosis 32 (2): 248-253. 1984.
HIMMELFARB, Martha. “From prophecy to apocalyptic” in:
Green, Arthur. World Spirituality. London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1986.
_______. “The experience of the visionary and genre in the
Ascension of Isaiah 6-11 and the Apocalypse of Paul” in:
Semeia 36: 97-111, 1986.
HULTGÅRD, Anders. “Ecstasy and Vision” in: HOLM, Nils (ed.).
Religious Ecstasy. Based on Papers read at the Symposium
on Religious Ecstasy held at Abo, Finland, on the 26th-
28th of August 1981. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell
International, 1982.
______. “Figures messianiques d’Orient comme sauveurs
universels dans le monde gréco-romain” in: BIANCHI, Ugo and
VERMASEREN, Maarten J. (eds.) La soteriologia dei culti
orientali nell’Impero romano: atti del Colloquio
internazionale su la soteriologia dei culti orientali
nell’Impero romano, Roma, 24-28 settembre 1979. Leiden:
Brill, 1982.
______. “Forms and Origins of Iranian Apocalypticism” in:
HELLHOLM, Daniel (ed.). Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean

330
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



World and the Near East: Proceedings of the International
Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala, August 12-17,
1979. Tübingen: Mohr, 1983.
HYMAN, Aaron. Sefer Torah ha-ketuvah veha-mesurah ‘al
Torah, Nevi’im u-Khetuvim: mar’e mekomot ‘al kol pesuke
ha-Tanakh ha-muva’im be-rov sifre Torah shebe-‘al peh,
ve-‘od harbeh sifre Hazal ve-Rishonim. Tel Aviv: Devir,
1979.
IDEL, Moshe. The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia.
Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.
JACOBY, Felix. “Die Überlieferung von Ps Plutarchs Parallela
minora und die Schwindelautoren” in: Mnemosyne 3 (8): 73-
144, 1940.
JANSSEN, Otto. “Zum Problem des Unterbewusstseins und der
sinnhaften Automatismen” in: Jahrbuch fuer Psychologie
und Psychotherapie 2: 283-296. 1954.
JOHNSON, Gary L. “Josephus: heir apparent to the prophetic
tradition?” in: SBL Seminar Papers 22: 337-346. 1983.
JOYNES, Christine E. The Return of Elijah: An Exploration of
the Character and Context of the Relationship between
Elijah, John the Baptist and Jesus in the Gospels. DPhil.
Theology Faculty. Oxford, 1998.
KAPELRUD, Arvid S. “Shamanistic features in the Old
Testament” in: EDSMAN, Carl M. Studies in Shamanism.
Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967.
KARDEC, Allan. O Evangelho segundo o espiritismo. Rio de
Janeiro: Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1944.
KARDEC, Allan. O livro dos médiuns. Rio de Janeiro:
Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1944.
KIM, Wonsik. “A further study of Korean Shamanism and
hypnosis” in: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 11
(3): 183-190, 1969.

331
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



KOUTSTAAL, Wilma. “Skirting the abyss: A history of
experimental explorations of automatic writing in
psychology” in: Journal of the History of the Behavioral
Sciences 28 (1): 5-27, 1992.
KUGEL, James L. “The Ladder of Jacob” in: Harvard
Theological Review 88: 209-227, 1995.
KUYT, Annelies. The ‘Descent’ to the Chariot. Towards a
Description of the Terminology, Place, Function and
Nature of the Yeridah in Hekhalot Literature. Tübingen:
Mohr, 1995.
LA BARRE, Weston. The Ghost Dance: Origins of Religion.
London: Allen and Unwin, 1972.
LAGARRIGUE, Georges (ed.). Salvien de Marseille. Oeuvres.
Paris: CERF, 1971.
LAMBERT, Wifred G. The Background of Jewish Apocalyptic.
London: The Athlone Press / University of London, 1978.
LANDERS, Frederick. “Past lives therapy: A metaphor from the
subconscious” in: Australian Journal of Clinical
Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis 7 (1): 17-21. 1986.
LESSA, William A. and VOGT, Evon Z. (eds.) Reader in
Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach.
Evanston: Row, Peterson, 1958.
LESSES, Rebecca M. Ritual Practices to Gain Power: Angels,
Incantations, and Revelation in Early Jewish Mysticism.
Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 1998.
LEUNER, H(anscarl). “Die toxische Ekstase” in: SPOERRI,
Theodor. Beiträge zur Ekstase. Basel; New York: Karger.
iv, 207, 1968.
LÉVY, Isidore. La légende de Pythagore de Grèce en
Palestine. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion,
1927.

332
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



LEWIS, Ioan M. Ecstatic Religion: an Anthropological Study
of Spirit Possession and Shamanism. London / New York:
Penguin, 1971.
______. “Prophets and their publics” in: Semeia 21: 113-
120. 1981.
LIEU, Samuel. Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and
Medieval China. Manchester: Manchester University Press,
1985.
LITTLEWOOD, Roland. Reason and Necessity in the
Specification of the Multiple Self. London: Royal
Anthropological Institute, 1996.
LITVAG, I. Singer in the Shadows: the Strange Story of
Patience Worth. New York: MacMillan, 1972.
LODGE, Oliver. “Evidence of classical scholarship and of
cross-correspondence in some new automatic writings” in:
Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 25:
113-175, 1911.
LODGE, Oliver; VERRALL, Arthur W.; et al. “Discussion of
Professor Richet’s case of automatic writing in a
language unknown to the writer” in: Journal of Nervous
and Mental Disease 43: 195-266, 1905.
LUDWIG, Arnold. “Altered states of consciousness” in: TART,
Charles (ed.). Altered States of Consciousness. San
Francisco: Harper, 1990.
MACDERMOT, Violet. The Cult of the Seer in the Ancient
Middle East: a Contribution to Current Research on
Hallucinations Drawn from Coptic and Other Texts. London:
Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, 1971.
MARRIOTT, Judith. “Hypnotic regression and past lives
therapy: fantasy or reality?” in: Australian Journal of
Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis 5 (2): 65-72. 1984.

333
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



MASON, Steve. Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees: a
Composition-Critical Study. Leiden / New York / Kobenhavn
/ Köln: Brill, 1991.
MATHESON, George. “Hypnotic aspects of spiritual experience”
in: Pastoral Psychology 35 (2), 1986.
MEADE, David G. Pseudonymity and Canon: an Investigation
into the Relationship of Authorship and Authority in
Jewish and Earliest Christian Tradition. Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1987.
MEREDITH, Anthony. “Asceticism – Christian and Greek” in:
Journal of Theological Studies 27, 1976.
MERKUR, Daniel. “The visionary practices of Jewish
apocalypticists” in: Boyer, L. Bryce and Grolnik, Simon
(eds.). The Psychoanalytic Study of Society. Hillsdale:
Analytic Press, 1989.
METZGER, Bruce. “Considerations of methodology in the study
of the mystery religions and early Christianty” in:
Harvard Theological Review 48: 1-20. 1955.
______. “Literary Forgeries and Canonical Pseudepigrapha”
in: Journal of Biblical Literature 91: 3-24. 1972.
MILANI, Marco. “Possessão” in: Boletim GEAE. 445,
30/10/2002, 2002.
MITTON, Leslie. “The authorship of the Epistle to the
Ephesians” in: Expository Times 67, 1956.
MOLÉ, Marijan. La légende de Zoroastre: selon les textes
Pehlevis. Paris: Klincksieck, 1967.
MONTEFIORE, Claude G. and LOEWE, Herbert (eds.). A Rabbinic
Anthology. London: Macmillan, 1938.
MOORE, Clifford H. Ancient Beliefs in the Immortality of
the Soul. London: George G. Harrap, 1931.
MOSES, William S. Psychography: by M.A., Oxon. London:
Lond. & Co., 1882.

334
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



______. Ensinos espiritualistas. Rio de Janeiro: Federação
Espírita Brasileira, 1981.
MOSS, Steven A. “Ecclesiastes 1:4: a proof text for
reincarnation” in: Jewish Bible Quarterly 21: 28-30,
1993.
MÜHL, Anita. “Automatic writing as an indication of the
fundamental factors underlying the personality” in:
Journal of Abnormal Psychiatry 17: 166-183. 1922.
______. Automatic Writing. An Approach to the Unconscious.
New York: Garrett / Helix, 1964.
MÜLLER, F. Max (ed.). The Sacred Books of the East. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1887. Vol.31.
MURDOCK, W.R. “History and revelation in Jewish
apocalypticism” in: Interpretation 21. 1967.
MURPHY, Frederick J. The Structure and Meaning of Second
Baruch. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1985.
MURRAY, Penelope. “Poetic inspiration in Early Greece” in:
Journal of Hellenic Studies 101: 87-100, 1981.
MYERS, Frederick W. H. “Automatic writing: the daemon of
Socrates” in: Proceedings of the Society for Psychical
Research 5: 522-547, 1889.
MYERS, Jacob M. II Chronicles. Anchor Bible Commentary. New
York: Doubleday, 1965.
NEGRO, Paulo-Jacomo, Jr.; PALLADINO-NEGRO, Paula; LOUZA, Mario-
Rodrigues. “Do religious mediumship dissociative
experiences conform to the sociocognitive theory of
dissociation?” in: Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 3
(1): 51-73, 2002.
NEMOY, Leon. “Biblical quasi-evidence for the
transmigration of souls” in: Journal of Biblical
Literature 59: 159-168, 1940.
NETHERTON, Morris and SHIFFRIN, Nancy. Past Lives Therapy.
Oxford: William Morrow, 1978.

335
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



NEWBOLD, William R. “Experimental induction of automatic
processes” in: Psychological Review 2 (4): 348-362, 1895.
NICKELSBURG, George W. Ressurrection, Immortality, and
Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism. Cambridge
(Mass.) / London: Harvard University Press / Oxford
University Press, 1972.
______. Studies in the Testament of Abraham. Missoula:
Scholars Press, 1976.
NIDITCH, Susan. “The visionary” in: NICKELSBURG, George W.E.
and COLLINS, John J. (eds.) Ideal Figures in Ancient
Judaism: Profiles and Paradigms. Chico: Scholars Press,
1980.
NIELSEN, Eduard. Oral Tradition. London: SCM, 1954.
O’BRIEN, Elmer. Varieties of Mystic Experience: an
Anthology and Interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1964.
ODEBERG, Hugo. 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.
OESTERREICH, Traugott K. Possession, Demoniacal and Other:
Among Primitive Races in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and
Modern Times. Seacaucus: University Books, 1966.
OLSSON, Tord. “The Apocalyptic Activity. The Case of Jamasp
Namag” in: HELLHOLM, Daniel (ed.). Apocalypticism in the
Mediterranean World and the Near East: Proceedings of the
International Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala,
August 12-17, 1979. Tübingen: Mohr, 1983.
OVERHOLT, Thomas. “Prophecy: the problem of cross-cultural
comparison” in: Semeia 21: 55-78. 1981.
______. Prophecy in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A
Sourcebook for Biblical Researchers. Atlanta: Scholars
Press, 1986.

336
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



PAGE, Denys L. Actors’ Interpolations in Greek Tragedy:
Studied with Special Reference to Euripides’ Iphigeneia
in Aulis. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934.
PARKER, Simon. “Possession trance and prophecy in pre-Exilic
Israel” in: Vetus Testamentum 28 (3): 271-285, 1978.
PARRY, Adam (ed.) The Making of Homeric Verse: The
Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1987.
PATON, Lewis B. Spiritism and the Cult of the Dead in
Antiquity. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1921.
PERANDRÉA, Carlos A. A psicografia à luz da grafoscopia. São
Paulo: Editora Jornalística Fé, 1991.
PRINCE, Morton. “An experimental study of the mechanism of
hallucinations” in: British Journal of Psychology 2: 165-
208, 1922.
PRINCE, Raymond (ed.) Trance and Possession States.
Montreal: R. M. Bucke Memorial Society, 1968.
RAJAK, Tessa. Josephus. London: Duckworth, 1983.
REFOULÉ, Raymond F. (ed.). Tertulien. Traité du baptême.
Sources chrétiennes. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1952.
REILING, Jannes. “The use of ΨΣΕΥΔΟΠΡΟΦΗΤΗΣ in the Septuagint,
Philo and Josephus” in: Novum Testamentum XIII (2), 1971.
REYHER, Joseph. “Spontaneous visual imagery: implications
for psychoanalysis, psychopathology, and psychotherapy”
in: Journal of Mental Imagery 1 (2): 253-274, 1977.
RINGGREN, Helmer. “Oral and written transmission in the OT”
in: Studia Theologica 3: 34-59. 1950.
______. “Akkadian Apocalypses” in: HELLHOLM, Daniel (ed.).
Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near
East: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on
Apocalypticism, Uppsala, August 12-17, 1979. Tübingen:
Mohr, 1983.

337
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



RINGGREN, Helmer. “Oral and written transmission in the OT”
in: Studia Theologica 3: 34-59. 1950.
RIST, Martin. “Pseudepigraphy and the early Christians” in:
AUNE, David (ed.). Studies in New Testament and Early
Christian Literature: Essays in Honor of Allen P.
Wikgren. Leiden: Brill, 1972.
ROBERTS, Alexander and DONALDSON, James (eds.). The Ante-
Nicene Fathers. Translations of the Writings of the
Fathers down to A.D. 325. Edinburgh / Grand Rapids: T & T
Clark / Eerdmans, 1989.
ROBERTS, Jimmy J. M. “The hand of Yahweh” in: Vetus
Testamentum 21: 244-251. 1971.
ROGERSON, John W. “Hebrew conception of corporate
personality: a re-examination” in: Journal of Theological
Studies 21: 1-16, 1970.
ROLFE, John C. (ed.). The Attic Nights of Aullus Gellius.
London / Cambridge, Mass.: Heinemann / Harvard University
Press, 1978.
ROWLAND, Christopher. The Open Heaven. London: SPCK, 1982.
RUSSELL, David S. The Method and Message of Jewish
Apocalyptic. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1964.
______. Divine Disclosure: an Introduction to Jewish
Apocalyptic. London: SCM, 1992.
SADLER, William. Practice of Psychiatry. St. Louis: Marby,
1953.
SAMPAIO, Jader. “Um estudo comparativo sobre a psicografia”.
Electronic source, http://www.geae.inf.br, 2003.
SANDERS, E[dward] P. Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah:
Five Studies. London: Philadelphia: SCM; Trinity Press
International, 1990.
______. Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE-66 CE. London
/ Philadelphia: SCM / Trinity Press International, 1992.

338
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



SANTAROSA, Leandro. “Formação dos médiuns”. Electronic
source, http://www.espirito.com.br, 2002.
SARBIN, Theodore. “Role theory” in: LINDZEY, Gardner; ARONSON,
Elliot. The Handbook of Social Psychology. Reading, Mass
/ London: Addison-Wesley, 1968.
SARGANT, William W. The Mind Possessed: a Physiology of
Possession, Mysticism and Faith Healing. London:
Heinemann, 1973.
SATRAN, David. “Daniel: seer, philosopher, holy man” in:
NICKELSBURG, George W.E. and COLLINS, John J. (eds.). Ideal
Figures in Ancient Judaism: Profiles and Paradigms.
Chico: Scholars Press, 1980.
SAUSE, Henri. Biografia de Allan Kardec.
http://www.espirito.org.br/portal/download/pdf/index.html
, 2002.
SCHAFF, Philip and WACE, Henry (eds.). A Select Library of
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church.
Edinburgh / Grand Rapids: T & T Clark / Eerdmans, 1989.
SCHNECK, Jerome M. “Dreams in self-hypnosis” in:
Psychoanalytic Review 41: 1-8, 1954.
SCHNEEMELCHER, Wilhelm (ed.). New Testament Apocrypha.
London: Lutterworth, 1965.
SCHULTES, Richard E. and Hoffman, Albert. Plants of the
Gods: Origins of Hallucinogenic Use. New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1979.
SCHÜRER, Emil. The History of the Jewish People in the Age
of Jesus Christ (175 B.C – A.D. 135). Edimburgh: T & T
Clark, 1979. 3 volumes. (Rev. by Geza Vermes, Fergus
Millar, Martin Goodman and Matthew Black)
SHAKED, Shaul. Dualism in Transformation: Varieties of
Religion in Sasanian Iran. London: University of London,
1994.

339
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



______. “Jewish and Iranian visions in the Talmudic period”
in: GAFNI, Isaiah M. et al (eds.). The Jews in the
Hellenistic-Roman World: Studies in Memory of Menahem
Stern. Jerusalem: The Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish
History / The Historical Society of Israel, 1996 (in
Hebrew).
SIIKALA, Anna-Leena. The Rite Technique of the Siberian
Shaman. Helsinki: Suomalainen tiedeakatemia / Akateeminen
kitjakauppa, 1978.
SINT, Josef A. Pseudonymität im Altertum; ihre Formen und
ihre Gründe. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner, 1960.
SKINNER, John. Prophecy and Religion: Studies in the Life of
Jeremiah. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926.
SKJAERVØ, Prods. “Kirdir’s vision: translation and analysis”
in: Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 16: pp.296-306.
SMITH, Huston. “Do drugs have religious import?” in:
Journal of Philosophy 61: 517-530. 1964.
SMITH, Morton. “Pseudepigraphy on the Israelite literary
tradition” in: FRITZ, Kurt von (ed.). Pseudepigrapha I:
huit exposés suivis de discussions. Vandouvres-Genève:
Fondation Hardt, 1972.
SOARES, Luiz E. “O autor e seu duplo” in: Religião e
sociedade 4: 121-140. 1979.
SORENSEN, Eric. Possession and Exorcism in the New Testament
and Early Christianity. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002.
SOUTO MAIOR, Marcel. As vidas de Chico Xavier. Rio de
Janeiro: Rocco, 1994.
SPEYER, Wolfgang. Die literarische Fälschung im heidnischen
und christlichen Altertum: ein Versuch ihrer Deutung.
München: Beck, 1971.
______. “Fälschung, pseudepigraphische freie Erfindung und
‘echte religiöse Pseudepigraphie’” in: FRITZ, Kurt von

340
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



(ed.). Pseudepigrapha I: huit exposés suivis de
discussions. Vandouvres-Genève: Fondation Hardt, 1972.
SPOERRI, Theodor (ed.) Beiträge zur Ekstase. Bibliotheca
psychiatrica et neurologica. Basel; New York: Karger,
1968.
STAUDENMAIER, Ludwig. Die Magie als experimentelle
Naturwissenschaft. Leipzig: Akademische
Verlagsgesellschaft, 1922.
STEVENSON, Ian. “Some comments on automatic writing” in:
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 72
(4): 315-332, 1978.
STOLL, Sandra J. Entre dois mundos: o espiritismo da França
e no Brasil. DPhil. Departamento de Antropologia.
Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 1999.
STONE, Michael. Scriptures, Sects and Visions. Oxford:
Blackwell, 1980.
______. “The metamorphosis of Ezra: Jewish apocalypse and
medieval vision” in: Journal of Theological Studies 33:
1-18, 1982.
______. “Coherence and inconsistency in the apocalypses:
the case of ‘The End’ in 4 Ezra” in: Journal of Biblical
Literature 102: 229-243, 1983.
______. Fourth Ezra: a Commentary on the Book of Fourth
Ezra. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.
______. “Apocalyptic - vision or hallucination?” in: STONE,
Michael (ed.). Selected Studies in Pseudepigrapha and
Apocrypha with Special Reference to the Armenian
Tradition. Leiden / New York / Kobenhavn / Köln: Brill,
1991.
______. “A reconsideration of apocalyptic visions” in:
Harvard Theological Review 96 (2): 167-180, 2003.
SURYANI, Luh K. and JENSEN, Gordon D. Trance and Possession
in Bali. A Window on Western Multiple Personality,

341
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Possession Disorder and Suicide. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford
University Press, 1993.
SYME, Ronald. “Fraud and imposture” in: FRITZ, Kurt von
(ed.). Pseudepigrapha I: huit exposés suivis de
discussions. Vandouvres-Genève: Fondation Hardt, 1972.
TART, Charles (ed.) Altered States of Consciousness. San
Francisco: Harper, 1990.
TAYLOR, Archer and MOSHEL, Frederick J. The Bibliographical
History of Anonyma and Pseudonyma. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1951.
TEBECIS, Andris K. and PROVINS, K. A. “Accuracy of time
estimation during hypnosis” in: Perceptual and Motor
Skills 39 (3): 1123-1126, 1974.
THESLEFF, Holger. An Introduction to the Pythagorean
Writings of the Hellenistic Period. Abo: Abo akademi,
1961.
TORM, Frederik. “Die Psychologie der Pseudonimität im
Hinblick auf die Literatur des Urchristentums” in: BROX,
Norbert (ed.). Pseudepigraphie in der Heidnischen und
Jüdisch-Christlichen Antike. Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche
Buchgesellschaft, 1932-1977.
TURCAN, Marie (ed.). Tertulien. La toilette des femmes: (de
cultu feminarum). Sources chrétiennes. Paris: Éditions du
Cerf, 1971.
VAHMAN, Fereydun. Arda Wiraz Nāmag: the Iranian “Divina
Commedia”. London / Atlantic Highlands: Curzon Press /
Distributed in the U.S.A. by Humanities Press, 1986.
VANDERKAM, James. “The putative author of the Book of
Jubilees” in: Journal of Semitic Studies 26: 209-217,
1981.
VANDERKAM, James C. and ADLER, William (ed.) The Jewish
Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity. Compendia

342
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum. Assen /
Minneapolis: Van Gorcum / Fortress Press, 1996.
VERHOEF, Eduard. “Pseudepigraphy and canon” in: Biblische
Notizen 106: 90-98, 2001.
VOIPIO, Aarni. Sleeping Preachers, a Study in Ecstatic
Religiosity. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1951.
VON FRITZ, Kurt (ed.) Pseudepigrapha I: huit exposés suivis
de discussions. Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique.
Vandouvres-Genève: Fondation Hardt, 1972.
VRIES, Simon J. De. 1 and 2 Chronicles. The Forms of the
Old Testament Literature. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.
WARREN, Donald Jr. “Spiritism in Brazil” in: Journal of
Inter-American Studies 10 (3): 393-405. 1968.
WASSON, Robert G. “What was the soma of the Aryans?” in:
FURST, Peter (ed.). Flesh of the Gods: the Ritual Use of
Hallucinogens. London: Allen & Unwin, 1972.
WENDLAND, Paul (ed.). Hyppolitus Werke - Refutatio omnium
haeresium. Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller
der ersten Jahrhunderte. Leipzig: J.C.Hinrichs, 1985.
WEST, Louis J. (ed.) Hallucinations. New York: Grune &
Stratton, 1962.
WHITEMAN, J. H. M. “Dream and dreamlike states seen as kinds
of possession: implications for mediumship, ESP and
survival” in: Journal of the Society for Psychical
Research 62 (852): 407-416. 1998.
WIDENGREN, Geo. Literary and Psychological Aspects of the
Hebrew Prophets. Uppsala: Lundequistska bokhandeln, 1948.
______. Die Religionen Irans. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer,
1965.
WILDER, Amos. “The rhetoric of ancient and modern
apocalyptic” in: Interpretation 25, 1971.
WILDER, Terry L. “New Testament pseudonymity and deception”
in: Tyndale Bulletin 50 (1): 156-158, 1999.

343
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



WILLIAMSON, Hugh G. M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. New Century Bible
Comentary. London / Grand Rapids: Marshall, Morgan &
Scott / Eerdmans, 1982.
WILLRICH, Hugo. Urkundenfälschung in der hellenistisch-
jüdischen Literatur. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,
1924.
WILSON, Robert. “Prophecy and ecstasy: a reexamination” in:
Journal of Biblical Literature 98: 321-337. 1979.
______. Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel.
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.
______. “From prophecy to apocalyptic: reflections on the
shape of Israelite religion” in: Semeia 21: 79-98. 1981.
______. “The problems of describing and defining
apocalyptic discourse” in: Semeia 21: 133-136. 1981.
WILSON, Sheryl C. and BARBER, Theodore X. “The fantasy-prone
personality: for understanding imagery, hypnosis, and
parapsychological phenomena” in: SHEIKH, A.A. Imagery:
Current Theory, Research, and Application. New York:
Wiley, 1983.
WINDISCH, Hans. Die Orakel des Hystaspes. Amsterdam:
Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam,
1929.
WULFF, David. Psychology of Religion: Classic and
Contemporary Views. New York: Chichester / Wiley, 1991.
XAVIER, Francisco C. [dictated by several spirits]. Parnaso
de além-túmulo. Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita
Brasileira, 1932.
______. “Explicando...” in: Emmanuel. Rio de Janeiro:
Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1938.
______. [dictated by the spirit of Emmanuel]. Há 2000
anos... Episódios da história do cristianismo no século
I. Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1939.

344
PEJ - Tese de doutorado 2005 - Vicente Dobroruka



______. [dictated by the spirit of André Luiz].
Missionários da luz. Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita
Brasileira, 1943.
______. [dictated by the spirit of André Luiz]. Nosso lar.
Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1944.
______. [dictated by the spirit of Emmanuel]. Vinha de luz.
Rio de Janeiro: Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1952.
______. [dictated by the spirit of André Luiz]. Nos
domínios da mediunidade. Rio de Janeiro: Federação
Espírita Brasileira, 1955.
XAVIER, Francisco C. and VIEIRA, Waldo [dictated by the
spirit of André Luiz]. Mecanismos da mediunidade. Rio de
Janeiro: Federação Espírita Brasileira, 1964.
YAMAUCHI, Edwin M. Persia and the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker
Book House, 1990.
ZAEHNER, Robert C. Drugs, Mysticism and Make-Believe.
London: Collins, 1972.
ZARETSKY, Irving. “Theoretical formulations: I”, idem.
ZARETSKY, Irving and SHAMBAUGH, Cynthia (eds.) Spirit
Possession and Spirit Mediumship in Africa and Afro-
America. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. New
York / London: Garland Publishing, 1978.
ZUCKERMAN, Marvin. “Hallucinations, reported sensations, and
images” in: ZUBEK, John P. Sensory Deprivation: Fifteen
Years of Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,
1969.

345