# POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS UNIT I THE POWER SYSTEM – AN OVERVIEW AND MODELLING Structure of electric power system – Current

scenario – Complex power – Concepts of real and reactive power – Per phase analysis – Modeling of generator, transformer with off-nominal tap ratio, transmission line – Per unit system – One-line, Impedance and reactance diagrams – Change of base – Primitive network and network matrices – Y-bus formulation by direct inspection and singular transformation methods. UNIT II POWER FLOW ANALYSIS System model – The power flow equations (PFE) – System variables – PFE in real form – Basic problems, modified specification – Bus classification – Solution technique – Gauss-seidel method – Newton-raphson method – Fast-decoupled method – Comparison of solution techniques.

UNIT III SYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS Internal voltages of loaded machines under fault conditions – Balanced three phase fault – Fault calculations using bus impedance matrix – Algorithm for formation of the impedance matrix – Selection of circuit breakers.

UNIT IV SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS AND UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS Symmetrical component analysis of unsymmetrical faults – LG – LL – LLG faults – Open conductor faults – Unbalanced fault analysis using bus impedance matrix.

UNIT V POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Rotor dynamics and swing equation – Stability classification – Small signal stability – Large signal stability – Equal area criterion and solution of SMIB system problems – Solution of swing equation – Point-by-point method, R-K method and modified euler method – Techniques for stability improvement.

L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Grainger, J.J. and William D. Stevenson Jr., “Power System Analysis”, Tata McGraw Hill,

2005. 2. Gupta, B.R., “Power System Analysis and Design” S.Chand and Co., Ltd, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Gupta, J.B., “A Course in Electrical Power”, S.K.Kataria and Sons, 2002.

UNIT I THE POWER SYSTEM – AN OVERVIEW AND MODELLING

Structure of electric power system – Current scenario – Complex power – Concepts of real and reactive power – Per phase analysis – Modeling of generator, transformer with off-nominal tap ratio, transmission line – Per unit system – One-line, Impedance and reactance diagrams – Change of base – Primitive network and network matrices – Y-bus formulation by direct inspection and singular transformation methods.
Power system A Power system consists of Generation, Transmission and Distribution. Power system analysis The evaluation of power system is called as power system analysis Functions of power system analysis To monitor the voltage at various buses, real and reactive power flow between buses. To design the circuit breakers.

To plan future expansion of the existing system To analyze the system under different fault conditions To study the ability of the system for small and large disturbances (Stability studies) Components of power system The components of power system are Generators, Power transformers, Transmission lines, Distribution lines, Loads and compensating devices like shunt, series, and static VAR compensator. Modern power system A modern power system can be subdivided into four major parts: Generation, Transmission and Sub transmission, Distribution and Loads. Per phase analysis. A balanced three phase system is always analyses on per phase basis by considering one of the three phase lines and neutral. Infinite bus bar A large system whose voltage and frequency remain constant, independent of the power exchange between synchronous machine and bus, and independent of the excitation of the synchronous machine. Single line diagram A single line diagram is diagrammatic representation of power system in which the components are represented by their symbols and interconnection between them are shown by a straight line9eventhough the system is three phase system0.The ratings and the impedances of the components are also marked on the single line diagram. Purpose of using single line diagram The purpose of the single line diagram is to supply in concise form of the significant information about the system.

Impedance diagram & approximations made in impedance diagram The impedance diagram is the equivalent circuit of power system in which the various components of power system are represented by their approximate or simplified equivalent circuits. The impedance diagram is used for load flow studies. Approximation: (i) The neutral reactances are neglected. (ii) The shunt branches in equivalent circuit of transformers are neglected. Reactance diagram & approximations made in reactance diagram? The reactance diagram is the simplified equivalent circuit of power system in which the various components of power system are represented by their reactances. The reactance diagram can be obtained from impedance diagram if all the resistive components are neglected. The reactance diagram is used for fault calculations.

Calculate its per unit reactance for a base of 50 MVA and 10KV.u systems.u systems are ideal for the computerized analysis and simulation of complex power system problems. v. 11KV has a reactance of 20%. MVA old = 30 . (ii) The shunt branches in equivalent circuit of transformers are neglected. it is easier to assume its per unit value than its numerical value. However. The per unit value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the actual value of the any quantity to the base value of the same quantity as a decimal. Per unit data representation yields valuable relative magnitude information. Need for base values The components or various sections of power system may operate at different voltage and power levels. KV new = 10 . vi. vii. Advantages of per unit system i.Approximation: (i) The neutral reactances are neglected. Circuit analysis of systems containing transformers of various transformation ratios is greatly simplified.u impedance is the same on the two sides of the transformer. It will be convenient for analysis of power system if the voltage.2 p. (iii) The resistances are neglected. Equation for per unit impedance if change of base occurs. The ohmic values of impedances are refereed to secondary is different from the value as referee to primary. power. ii. iv. if base values are selected properly. A generator rated at 30MVA. (iv) All static loads are neglected. Per unit value. the p. current and impedance rating of components of power system are expressed with reference to a common value called base value. MVA new = 50 .u . Manufacturers usually specify the impedance values of equivalent in per unit of the equipments rating. (v) The capacitance of transmission lines are neglected.u = 20% = 20/100 = 0. KV old = 11 X p. The circuit laws are valid in p. If the any data is not available. iii. The p. and the power and voltages equations are simplified since the factors of √3 and 3 are eliminated.

X’’ = 30% 40MVA. 50MW+j68 MVAR Solution: Base MVA. X = 15% 30MVA. The ratings of the generator. MVAb.New p. 25KV. 11KV. Neglect resistance and use a base of 100MVA. X’’ = 20% 50MVA. 33 Y/ 220Y KV. KVb. 220KV in 50 ohms line. X = 15% 11KV. new = 100MVA Base KV. new = 220KV . 11 Δ / 220Y KV. motor and transformers are T1 j 50Ω T2 G1 M G: M: T1: T2: Load: 40MVA.u impedance if the new base MVA is twice the old base MVA Draw the per unit reactance diagram for the power systems shown below.

=? . = 33 Reactance of the Transformer T2: .Reactance of the transmission line: Actual reactance =50Ω Reactance of the Transformer T1: . =? = 33 KV Reactance of the Generator G: . . . .

5 j 0.= 11 KV Reactance of the Motor M: .287 j 0. = 11 Reactance Diagram j 0.375 j 0.8KV on generatorG1 T1 G1 Line 1 j80Ω Line 2 j100Ω T3 G3 T2 G2 . . Draw the reactance diagram using a base of 50MVA and 13.1033 j 0.6 Eg Em 1.

8KV. X =10% T2:3Single phase unit each rated 10MVA. new = 50MVA Base KV. X =10% Solution: Base MVA. G2: 30MVA.8 Reactance of the Transformer T1 :( Primary side) .8KV Reactance of the Generator G1: .0KV. KVb. . new = 13.0KV. X’’=20% . .G1: 20MVA. 20.8 Reactance of the transmission line j 80Ω: Actual reactance =80Ω . X’’=20% . X =10% T3: 35MVA. = 13. MVAb. 220/22 KV. 13. 220/13. = 13. 127/18 KV.8 KV. T1: 25MVA. 18. X’’=20% G3: 30MVA.

=220? 220/18KV Reactance of the Generator G2: . voltage rating: .= 220 KV Reactance of the transmission line j 100Ω: Actual reactance =100Ω = 220 KV Reactance of the Transformer T2:( Primary side) Connection. .

.333 .2 j 0.1033 j 0.5 j 0. =? = 18KV Reactance of the Transformer T3 :( Secondary side) . =? = 22KV Reactance Diagram j 0.1429 j 0.1667 j 0.. .0826 j 0. = 220 Reactance of the Generator G3: . .

new = 250V = 0.2 p. MVAb.06 p.u 2000VA 250V Z = j0.2 p.A simple power system is shown in fig.u G2 4000VA 250/800V Z = j0.25KV Impedance of the Generator G1: .u Solution: Base MVA.25 Impedance of the Generator G2: . = 0. new = 5000 VA = 5MVA Base KV. Redraw this system where the per unit impedance of the components are represented on a common 5000 VA base and common system base voltage of 250V. . KVb.u T1 T2 G1 2500VA 400V Z=40 + j 150Ω Load 8000VA 1000/500V Z = j0.3 p. 1000VA 250V Z = j0.

. = 0.. .25 Impedance of the transmission line Z= 40+ j 100Ω: Actual impedance = (40+j150) Ω = 800 V Impedance of the Transformer T2: (Primary side) . = 0. .25 Impedance of the Transformer T1: (Primary side) .8 Impedance of the Load Reactance Diagram . = 0.

220/11KV. KVb. X=10% : 80MVA.3125 + j 1. T3 T4:50MVA. MVAb. The single line diagram of a three phase power system is shown in fig. X=10% :50MVA. 13. Line 1 = j 50Ω . 13.j 1. = 13. Line 2 = j 70Ω Solution: Base MVA.8/220KV. 132/11KV.8KV on the generator side.0 j 0. X=20% T2:50MVA. M LOAD : 57MVA. new = 13. X=18% .8KV Reactance of the Generator G1: . 13.5 Load j 0. 0.8 Reactance of the Transformer T1 :( Primary side) . Select a common base of 100MVA and 13.45KV. new = 100MVA Base KV. .17 j 0. T1 :50MVA.75 2. Draw per unit impedance diagram T1 T2 j 50Ω 2 G T3 T4 M j70Ω 4 G: 90MVA.25 0. X=10% .0585 j0.f lagging at 10.8/132KV.8KV.45 KV . X=10% .8 p. 10.

= 220 Reactance of the Transformer T3 :( Primary side) . = 13.. .8 Reactance of the transmission line j 50Ω: Actual reactance =50Ω = 220 KV Reactance of the Transformer T2 :( Primary side) . . .

. = 132 Reactance of the Motor M: . . =? = 11KV . . = 13.8 Reactance of the transmission line j 70Ω: Actual reactance =70Ω = 132KV Reactance of the Transformer T4 :( Primary side) .

The load is at 0.8 p.f lagging is given by Load impedance is given by Base impedance for the load is Reactance Diagram .

9. What is the purpose of using single line diagram? 11. motor and transformers are Draw the reactance diagram using a base of 50MVA and 13.Part-A 1. What is Power system? What is power system analysis? What are the functions of power system analysis? What are the components of power system? What is modern power system? Define per phase analysis. 5. The ratings of the generator. 3. What is impedance diagram? What are the approximations made in impedance diagram? 12. 7. 2. Explain the modeling of generator. 3. 220KV in 50 ohms line. What is reactance diagram? What are the approximations made in reactance diagram? Part-B 1. short circuit and stability studies.8KV on generatorG1 T1 G1 Line 1 j80Ω Line 2 j100Ω T3 G3 T2 G2 . What is an infinite bus bar?. 4. 6. What is single line diagram? 10. Neglect resistance and use a base of 100MVA. transmission line and transformer for power flow. Draw the per phase model or equivalent circuit model or representation all components of power system? 8. load. Draw the per unit reactance diagram for the power systems shown below.

X=20% T2:50MVA. 13. 220/11KV.0KV. G2: 30MVA. Select a common base of 100MVA and 13.8KV. X’’=20% G3: 30MVA. Redraw this system where the per unit impedance of the components are represented on a common 5000 VA base and common system base voltage of 250V.u 2000VA 250V Z = j0. 13. X =10% T3: 35MVA. 13. The single line diagram of a three phase power system is shown in fig.8/132KV. 127/18 KV.8/220KV. T1: 25MVA. 220/13.45KV. 13. T3 T4:50MVA.06 p. X=10% :50MVA. X =10% T2:3Single phase unit each rated 10MVA. 18. X’’=20% . A simple power system is shown in fig.8KV on the generator side. 220/22 KV.u 1. X=18% .8 KV.8KV. X=10% . 132/11KV. T1 :50MVA.2 p. M . X=10% : 80MVA.u G2 4000VA 250/800V Z = j0. X =10% 4. X=10% .2 p. 20. 10. X’’=20% . 1000VA 250V Z = j0.G1: 20MVA.3 p.0KV. Draw per unit impedance diagram T1 T2 j 50Ω 2 G T3 T4 M j70Ω 4 G: 90MVA.u T1 G1 T2 2500VA 400V Z=40 + j 150Ω Load 8000VA 1000/500V Z = j0.

Need for load flow study The load flow study of a power system is essential to decide the best operation of existing system and for planning the future expansion of the system. δ Slack or Swing or Reference bus Generator or Voltage control or PV bus Load or PQ bus P. The solution of non linear equations can be obtained only by iterative numerical techniques. reactive power (Q). The slack bus is assumed to generate the power required for losses. In a power system the total power generated will be equal to sum of power consumed by loads and losses.Q Q. Quantities associated with each bus in a system Each bus in a power system is associated with four quantities and they are real power (P). Mainly used for solution of load flow study The Gauss seidal method. δ Unknown quantities or quantities to be determined. and phase angle of voltage (δ). Iterative methods to solve load flow problems The load flow equations are non linear algebraic equations and so explicit solution as not possible. Different types of buses in a power system. magnitude of voltage (V). Since the losses are unknown the real and reactive power are not specified for slack bus. Newton Raphson method and Fast decouple methods. buses are classified and its types Types of bus Known or specified quantities V. Flat voltage start . P. δ V. In a power system only the generated power and load power are specified for buses. It is also essential foe designing a new power system. V P. Q Need for slack bus The slack bus is needed to account for transmission line losses.

Y matrix of the sample power system as shown in fig. Data for this system is given in table.

Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system network diagram as shown in fig.

Consider the system shown in fig. It shows a transmission network with impedance of transmission lines all in p.u as shown. Compute Ybus matrix. 1 0.02+j0.04 2

0.01+j0.03

0.0125+j0.025

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j 30 y32 = 16 .y12 = 10 .j 32 Ybus = Gauss seidel load flow problem. .j 20 y13 = 10 .

666-j2.6 .0 0.The following is the system data for a load flow solution.0 1-j4. Determine the voltages at the end of first iteration using Gauss-Seidel method.664 1-j4.0 . The line admittances: Bus code 1-2 1-3 2-3 2-4 Admittance 2-j8. Take α=1.

Construct a power flow diagram showing the direction of line flow.3-4 2-j8.4 0.0) = 1.029248 .2 0. c.02888-1.0 The schedule of active and reactive powers: Bus code 1 2 3 4 Solution P in p.01187-j0.05 p. b.1034944 Fig shows that the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generation at bus 1.046208 V31 = 0.u 1.0+j0.0-j0. Determine the line flows and line losses.u.1 V in p.u on a 100MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected. determine the phasor values of the voltages at the load buses 2 and 3(P-Q buses) accurate to decimal places.5 0.u 0.3 0.0)+1.01899-j0. V31acc = 0.99059-j0. . Find the slack bus real and reactive power.01187-j0.3 Q in p.02888 V21acc = (1.06 1+j0.064684 . The scheduled loads at buses2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram.u 0. Line impedances are marked in n p.0 1+j0.9716032-j0.954565-j0. Using the Gauss-Seidel method.0467968 V41 = 0.6(1.The magnitude of voltage at a bus 1 is adjusted to 1. a.0 Remarks Slack PQ PQ PQ = = = 1. V41acc = 0.0 1+j0.994119-j0.

2 MVAR .2MVAR 3 138.03 Slack bus V1=1.6MW 0.0125+j0.04 2 256.05/_0º 0.02+j0.6 MW 45.01+j0.1 0.025 110.

.Newton raphson seidel load flow problem.

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What is bus admittance matrix? 3. What is a bus? 2.Part-A 1. What are the methods available for forming bus admittance matrix? .

When the generator buses are treated as load bus. 2. What are the informations that are obtained from a load flow study? 6. Part-B 1. 7.4. Data for this system is given in table. 1. 5. . What is the need for load flow study? . What do you mean by a flat voltage start? 13. What is power flow study or load flow study? . 14. What are the quantities associated with each bus in a system? 8. Why do we go for iterative methods to solve load flow problems? 11. What are the methods mainly used for solution of load flow study? 12. Discuss the effect of acceleration factor in load flow study. What are the different types of buses in a power system? Or how the buses are classified and what are its types? 9. Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system network diagram as shown in fig. Find out the Y matrix of the sample power system as shown in fig. What is the need for slack bus? 10.

Consider the system shown in fig.u as shown.03 0.0125+j0.04 2 0.3.025 3 .01+j0. Compute Ybus matrix.02+j0. 1 0. It shows a transmission network with impedance of transmission lines all in p.

Faults occur in a power system The faults occur in a power system due to Insulation failure of equipment Flashover of lines initiated by a lighting stroke Due to permanent damage to conductors and towers or due to accidental faulty operations.UNIT-III SYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS Internal voltages of loaded machines under fault conditions – Balanced three phase fault – Fault calculations using bus impedance matrix – Algorithm for formation of the impedance matrix – Selection of circuit breakers. The faults are associated with abnormal change in current. various types of faults (i) Series fault or open circuit fault One open conductor fault . voltage and frequency of the power system. Fault A fault in a circuit is any failure which interferes with the normal flow of current.

Bolted fault or solid fault . it is solved by per phase basis using Thevenins theorem or bus impedance matrix or KVL. It occurs infrequently. KCL laws.To estimate the magnitude of fault current for the proper choice of circuit breaker and protective relays.(ii) Two open conductor fault Shunt fault or short circuit fault. Symmetrical fault or balanced fault  Three phase fault Unsymmetrical fault or unbalanced fault  Line to ground (L-G) fault  Line to Line (L-L) fault  Double line to ground (L-L-G) fault Relative frequency of occurrence of various types of fault Types of fault Relative frequency of occurrence of faults 5% 10% 15% 70% Three phase fault Double line to ground fault Line to Line fault Line to ground fault . but it is the most severe type of fault encountered. Because the network is balanced. Symmetrical fault or balanced three phase fault This type of fault is defined as the simultaneous short circuit across all the three phases. Need for short circuit studies or fault analysis Short circuit studies are essential in order to design or develop the protective schemes for various parts of the system .

the fault is referred as bolted fault or solid fault. If the fault impedance is zero. This effect is called doubling effect. Doubling effect If a symmetrical fault occurs when the voltage wave is going through zero then the maximum momentary short circuit current will be double the value of maximum symmetrical short circuit current. Synchronous reactance or steady state condition reactance The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf and the steady state rms current. Reason for transients during short circuits The faults or short circuits are associated with sudden change in currents. DC off set current The unidirectional transient component of short circuit current is called DC off set current.A Fault represents a structural network change equivalent with that caused by the addition of impedance at the place of a fault. Most of the components of the power system have inductive property which opposes any sudden change in currents. It is the sum of leakage reactance (Xl) and the armature reactance (Xa). so the faults are associated with transients. Fault Sub transient reactance .

u. j0.15 j0.2 F j0.97 p. Short circuit capacity (SCC) or Short circuit MVA or fault level at a bus is defined as the product of the magnitude of the prefault bus voltage and the post fault current. if the prefault voltage at the fault point is 0. Fault short circuit capacity of power system or fault level..15 . SCC or Short circuit MVA = Or SCC = fault current in fig.The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf on no load and the sub transient symmetrical rms current. Fault Transient reactance The synchronous reactance is the ratio of induced emf on no load and the transient symmetrical rms current.

The motor is drawing 10MW at 0.66KV with leakage reactance of 10% each. the transformers are rated 20MVA.15 = Bus impedance matrix Bus impedance matrix is the inverse of the bus admittance matrix.66KV having 15% reactance are connected through transformers and a line as shown in fig. Methods available for forming bus impedance matrix Form bus admittance matrix and take the inverse to get bus impedance matrix. The matrix consisting of driving point impedance and transfer impedances of the network is called as bus impedance matrix.35 is in parallel with j 0. 12.j0.8 leading power factors and a terminal voltage 11KV when symmetrical three phase fault occurs at the motors terminals. Bus impedance matrix is symmetrical.66/66KV and 66/12. A synchronous generator and a synchronous motor each rated 20MVA. Also determine the fault current.35 J0. The line has a reactance of 8% on base of 20MVA. Using L-U factorization of Y-bus matrix. Solution .2 and j 0.15 are in series.12. 66 KV.2+ j 0. j0. Using bus building algorithm.15 = j 0. Determine the generator and motor currents.

Reactance diagram Equivalent circuit during fault condition .

Three 11.2 KV generators are interconnected as shown in figure by a tie -bar through current limiting reactors. .2 KV. Compute the maximum MVA that can be fed into a symmetrical short circuit at the far end of the feeder. Impedance of the feeder is (0.12+j0. A three phase feeder is supplied from the bus bar of generator A at line voltage 11.24) ohm per phase.

Assume a zero pre-fault current (no load pre-fault condition).Circuit model for the fault calculation is given .

X=0. 100MVA.u T1: 11/110KV.data are given below G1: 11.u G1: 11.06 p.08 p.06 p. 100MVA. 100MVA. X=0.08 p.u and prefault currents to be zero.A 4 bus sample power system is shown in fig.2KV. 100MVA. Perform the short circuit analysis for a three phase solid fault on bus 4.0 p.u Assume prefault voltages 1. X=0. .u T2: 11/110KV.2KV. X=0.

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11KV and 10MVA. 11KV respectively. Calculate the subtaransient current in each generator when a three phase fault occurs on the high voltage side of the transformer. . The generators are connected to a transformer as shown in fig.Two generators G1 and G2 are rated 15MVA.

. Determine the fault current and the line voltage at 11.8 KV bus under fault condition. a three phase balanced fault occurs at F.A radial power system network is shown in fig.

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the bus voltage at the motors is 33KV when a three phase balanced fault occurs at the point F.u and X’=0.u is connected through a transformer and line to a bus bar that supplies three identical motor as shown in fig.A 100MVA. and each motor has X’’=0. Calculate (a) subtransient current in the fault (b) subtransient current in the circuit breaker B (c) Momentary current in the circuit breaker B (d) The current to be interrupted by CB B in (i) 2 cycles (ii) 3 cycles (iii) 5 cycles (iv) 8 cycles .11KV generator with X’’=0.20 p.20 p.25 p.u on a base of 20MVA.33KV.

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Obtain impedance matrix ZBUS for shown in figure .Obtain impedance matrix ZBUS for shown in figure.

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What are the main factors to be considered to select a circuit breaker? 8.Find the momentary current through the circuit breaker if the initial symmetrical short circuit current through it is 5270. 5.What is meant by a fault? 2.The transformer is rated at 3MVA. A synchronous generator and motor are rated for 30.What is the need for short circuit studies or fault analysis? 6.000KW at 0.) A 3-phase . (8) 4) Explain about the symmetrical fault current estimation using kirchoff’s laws and using a Thevenin’s theorem.Part-A 1. (7) .9 kv. (16) ( (a)Explain in detail about bus impedance matrix in fault calculations (8).motor and at the fault point.Define short circuit interrupting of a circuit breaker.2KV and both have subtransient reactance of 20%.5MVA. when a 3-phase symmetrical fault occurs at a point 15km along the feeder.9A. 9.The line connecting them has a reactance of 10% on the base of machine ratings.13. Explain in detail about transients due to a short circuit in 3-Phase alternator and in transmission line. 4.6.000KVA.The terminal voltage of the motor is 12.find the subtransient current in generator. (16) 2.Write the relative frequency of occurrence of various types of faults.48ohms/phase per km. The motor is drawing 20.6KV/33KV and has a reactance of 5%. (b).8KV.12+j0.Write equation for subtransient internal voltage and transient internal voltage of motor and generator. Part-B 1).When a symmetrical three-phase fault occurs at motor terminals.6.How the faults are classified? 3.List the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.6KV alternator with a reactance of 8% is connected to a feeder of series impedance of ). 3. 10.Determine the fault current supplied by the generator operating under no-load with a voltage of 6.Explain in detail about selection of circuit breakers.8 pf leading.What is meant by doubling effect? 7.

Also find the subtrasient current supplied by the generator connected to bus-2 by taking the subtransient reactance of generator as j0.5. UNIT.IV SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS AND UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS .u.find the subtransient current in the fault and voltages at all buses.2 p.u. ) The bus impedance matrix of four bus system with values in p. is given by If a 3-phase fault occurs at bus-1when there is no-load.

They are Positive sequence components Negative sequence components Zero sequence components Unsymmetrical fault analysis can be done by using symmetrical components. displaced each other by 120˚ in phase and having the phase sequence abc . Positive sequence components It consists of three components of equal magnitude. . Symmetrical components of a 3 phase system In a 3 phase system. the unbalanced vectors (either currents or voltage) can be resolved into three balanced system of vectors. displaced each other by 120˚ in phase and having the phase sequence acb .Symmetrical component analysis of unsymmetrical faults – LG – LL – LLG faults – Open conductor faults – Unbalanced fault analysis using bus impedance matrix. Ic1 120˚ 120˚ 120˚ Ib1 Ia1 Negative sequence components It consists of three components of equal magnitude.

Ib. we use sequence operator ‘a’. to find the relationship between phase voltages and phase currents.Ib2 120˚ 120˚ 120˚ Ic2 Ia2 Zero sequence components It consists of three phasors equal in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other.866 Unbalanced currents from symmetrical currents Let.0. Ia. Ia1. Ia2 be the symmetrical components of phase a . a = 1∠120˚ = = . Ia0.5+j0. Ic be the unbalanced phase currents Let. Ia0 Ib0 Ic0 Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0 Sequence operator In unbalanced problem.

Ia. Ia0. Let. Ia1. -ve and zero sequence current. Ia2 be the symmetrical components of phase a Sequence impedance and sequence network The sequence impedances are the impedances offered by the power system components or elements to +ve. The phase voltage across a certain load are given as . Ib. Ic be the unbalanced phase currents Let. The single phase equivalent circuit of power system consisting of impedances to current of any one sequence only is called sequence network.Determination of symmetrical currents from unbalanced currents.

Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig. If the fuse is one of the lines melts. . compute the symmetrical components of line currents. negative and zero sequence component of voltage Solution: A balanced delta connected load is connected to a three phase system and supplied to it is a current of 15 amps.Compute positive.

Data are given below. Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig.Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig. .

Assume zero sequence reactance for the generator and motors of 6% each.A 50MVA. both 10KV.The generator supplies two motors over a transmission line with transformers at both ends as shown in fig. The three phase transformers are both rated 60MVA. with leakage reactance of 10% each. with 25% sub transient reactance. The zero sequence reactance of the transmission line is 300 ohms. The motors have rated inputs of 30 and 15 MVA.5 ohms each are connected in the neutral of the generator and motor number 2. 10. synchronous generator has a sub transient reactance of 20%. 11KV. Current limiting reactors of 2. negative and zero sequence networks. . Draw the positive. The series reactance of the line is 100 ohms.8/121KV.

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u respectively. Determine the following: a) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that the fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance shall not exceed the rated line current? b) What value of resistance in the neutral will serve the same purpose? c) What value of reactance must be placed in the neutral of the generator to restrict the fault current to ground to rated line current for a double line to ground fault? d) What will be the magnitudes of the line currents when the ground current is restricted as above? e) As the reactance in the neutral is indefinitely increased. 13.05 p.2KV synchronous generator has a solidly grounded neutral.30. Its positive. negative and zero sequence impedances are 0.A 30 MVA. what are the limiting values of the line currents? .40 and 0. 0.

Two alternators are operating in parallel and supplying a synchronous motor which is receiving 60MW power at 0. Compute the fault current when a single line to ground fault occurs at the middle of the line through a fault resistance of 4.8 power factor lagging at 6.0 KV. Single line diagram for this system is given in fig. . Data are given below.033 ohm.2.

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negative and zero sequence network of all power system components.What are the symmetrical components of a 3 phase system? 2.Part-A 1.What are the positive sequence components? 3. -9. 6. .Draw the positive.8.What are the negative sequence components? 4. (Or) Determination of symmetrical currents from unbalanced currents. .7What are sequence impedance and sequence network? .Write the equation to determine fault current for L-G. L-L and L-L-G fault with impedance.Write down the equations to convert unbalanced phase currents into symmetrical components. (Or) Determination of unbalanced currents from symmetrical currents.What is sequence operator? 5.Write down the equations to convert symmetrical components into unbalanced phase currents.

The three phase transformers are both rated 60MVA.10. Current limiting reactors of 2.Draw the equivalent sequence network diagram for L-G.The generator supplies two motors over a transmission line with transformers at both ends as shown in fig. L-L and L-L-G fault . with 25% sub transient reactance.8/121KV. with leakage reactance of 10% each. synchronous generator has a sub transient reactance of 20%.Draw zero sequence network of the power system as shown in fig. The series reactance of the line is 100 ohms. Draw the positive. compute the symmetrical components of line currents 2. . The motors have rated inputs of 30 and 15 MVA. negative and zero sequence networks. 10. Assume zero sequence reactance for the generator and motors of 6% each. both 10KV.A balanced delta connected load is connected to a three phase system and supplied to it is a current of 15 amps. Part-B 1. The zero sequence reactance of the transmission line is 300 ohms.5 ohms each are connected in the neutral of the generator and motor number 2. If the fuse is one of the lines melts. 11KV.A 50MVA. 3.

13. Determine the following: f) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that the fault current for a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance shall not exceed the rated line current? g) What value of resistance in the neutral will serve the same purpose? h) What value of reactance must be placed in the neutral of the generator to restrict the fault current to ground to rated line current for a double line to ground fault? i) What will be the magnitudes of the line currents when the ground current is restricted as above? j) As the reactance in the neutral is indefinitely increased.30. 0.A 30 MVA.2KV synchronous generator has a solidly grounded neutral.4. Its positive. negative and zero sequence impedances are 0. what are the limiting values of the line currents? .u respectively.40 and 0.05 p.

R-K method and modified euler method – Techniques for stability improvement. . power system stability The stability of an interconnected power system means is the ability of the power system is to return or regain to normal or stable operating condition after having been subjected to some form of disturbance. Power system stability is classified Rotor angle stability Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism.V POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Rotor dynamics and swing equation – Stability classification – Small signal stability – Large signal stability – Equal area criterion and solution of SMIB system problems – Solution of swing equation – Point-by-point method.UNIT.

transient stability limit The transient stability limit is the maximum power that can be transferred by a machine to a fault or a receiving system during a transient state without loss of synchronism. Steady state stability limit The steady sate stability limit is the maximum power that can be transferred by a machine to receiving system without loss of synchronism Transient stability Transient stability is defined as the ability of the power system to bring it to a stable condition or remain in synchronism after a large disturbance. . Transient stability limit is always less than steady state stability limit Dynamic stability It is the ability of a power system to remain in synchronism after the initial swing (transient stability period) until the system has settled down to the new steady state equilibrium condition Voltage stability It is the ability of a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all buses in the system under normal operating conditions and after being subjected to a disturbance.steady state stability Steady state stability is defined as the ability of the power system to bring it to a stable condition or remain in synchronism after a small disturbance.

Receiving end voltage XT . Vr.Causes of voltage instability A system enters a state of voltage instability when a disturbance.Rotor angle. Power angle equation and draw the power angle curve Where. Swing equation for a SMIB (Single machine connected to an infinite bus bar) system. Maximum power transfer. increase in load demand. or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in voltage The main factor causing instability is the inability of the power system to meet the demand for reactive power. P – Real Power in watts Vs – Sending end voltage. M Where H = inertia constant in MW/MVA .Total reactance between sending end receiving end .

. G2. G3 – MVA rating of machines 1. and 3 Gb = Base MVA or system MVA Assumptions made in stability studies. G2 and G3 and inertia constants M1. Machines represents by classical model The losses in the system are neglected (all resistance are neglected) The voltage behind transient reactance is assumed to remain constant. 2. 3 machine system having ratings G1.u Swing curve The swing curve is the plot or graph between the power angle δ and time t. Controllers are not considered ( Shunt and series capacitor ) Effect of damper winding is neglected. Where G1.f = frequency in Hz M = inertia constant in p. Equal Area Criterion The equal area criterion for stability states that the system is stable if the area under P – δ curve reduces to zero at some value of δ.What is the inertia constants M and H of the equivalent system. From the nature of variations of δ the stability of a system for any disturbance can be determined. M2 and M3.

This is possible if the positive (accelerating) area under P – δ curve is equal to the negative (decelerating) area under P – δ curve for a finite change in δ.It can be defined as the maximum time delay that can be allowed to clear a fault without loss of synchronism. Modified Euler method iv. without loss of synchronism. Methods of improving the transient stability limit of a power system. The time corresponding to this angle is called critical clearing time. Reduction in system transfer reactance Increase of system voltage and use AVR Use of high speed excitation systems Use of high speed reclosing breakers Numerical integration methods of power system stability i. Euler method iii. The critical clearing angle . hence stability criterion is called equal area criterion. is the maximum allowable change in the power angle δ before clearing the fault. Critical clearing angle. . Point by point method or step by step method ii. Runge-Kutta method(R-K method) .

.swing equation for a single machine connected to infinite bus system.

A 400 MVA synchronous machine has H1=4.6 MJ/MVA and a 1200 MVA machines H2=3.0 MJ/MVA. Two machines operate in parallel in a power plant. Find out Heq relative to a 100MVA base. .

The per phase line impedance is j14 ohm. .A 100 MVA. 50Hz generator has moment of inertia 40 x 103 kg-m2. two pole. Calculate the maximum steady state power that can be transmitted over the line.what is the energy stored in the rotor at the rated speed? What is the corresponding angular momentum? Determine the inertia constant h. The sending end and receiving end voltages of a three phase transmission line at a 200MW load are equal at 230KV.

Equal area criterion in transient stability. .

80 power factor lagging. Neglect all losses.u at 0. Obtain the power angle equation and the swing equation for the system. .A single line diagram of a system is shown in fig. The power delivered into bus 2 is 1.0 p. All the values are in per unit on a common base.

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Explain critical clearing angle and critical clearing time in transient stability. .

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. determine (a) the time in which the fault must be cleared if the maximum power angle is to be -85˚ assume H=7MJ/MVA on a 100MVA base (b) the critical clearing angle.A 50Hz synchronous generator capable of supplying 400MW of power is connected to a larger power system and is delivering 80MW when a three phase fault occurs at its terminals.

0 p.3 + 0.line X = 0. and the faulted line is isolated. A three phase fault occurs at the sending end of one of the lines. Initially.u.The direct axis transient reactance of the machine is 0.A 2220 MVA. the fault is cleared.u. The infinite bus voltage V=1.074 p. 24KV and 60 Hz synchronous machine is connected to an infinite bus through transformer and double circuit transmission line.30 p. the machine is delivering 0. The current flowing into the infinite bus is The transfer reactance between internal voltage and the infinite bus before fault is X = Xg +XT +Xtr.u . The inertia constant H=5MJ/MVA.65 The transient internal voltage is . and the reactance of each the transmission line is 0.u.u real power and reactive power is 0.0 p.3/2 = 0. Determine the critical clearing angle and the critical fault clearing time. as shown in fig.8 p.all to a base of the rating of the synchronous machine.u.2 +0.3 p.u with a terminal voltage of 1. All resistances are neglected.20 p. the transformer reactance is 0.

δ0 = 153.612 =2.8.681rad Critical clearing angle δc = Critical clearing time tc = = = 0.45 pu MW of its maximum power capacity.17 Since both lines are intact when the fault is cleared.j0. A three phase fault occurs and the effective terminal voltage of the generator becomes 25% of its value before the fault. Determine the critical clearing angle.8 δ0 = 26.65) (0. When the fault is cleared.E = V +j X I = 1.0+ (j0.26 second A synchronous generator is connected to a large power system and supplying 0.46055 rad δmax =180º .074) = 1. . the power angle equation before and after the fault is The initial operating angle is given by = 0. generator is delivering 70% of the original maximum value.388 = 0.

for a three phase fault at the point F.u MW power under pre-fault condition. Generator is supplying 1. .0 p.Find the critical clearing angle of the power system shown in fig.

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Modified Euler method viii. v.Factors influencing transient stability Numerical integration methods of power system stability? Explain any one methods. Point by point method or step by step method vi. Euler method vii. Runge-Kutta method(R-K method) .

Step by step method .

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What is voltage stability? 10.What is transient stability limit? 8.Derive swing equation for a single machine connected to infinite bus system 1. two pole.What is steady state stability limit? 6.What is steady state stability? 5.The per phase line impedance is j14 ohm.What is rotor angle stability? 4. 50Hz generator has moment of inertia 40 x 103 kgm2. . Find out Heq relative to a 100MVA base.Part-A 1What is power system stability? 2. Calculate the maximum steady state power that can be transmitted over the line. Part-B 1. 2. .What is transient stability? 7.How power system stability is classified? 3. Two machines operate in parallel in a power plant.State the causes of voltage instability. The sending end and receiving end voltages of a three phase transmission line at a 200MW load are equal at 230KV. A 100 MVA.Write the power angle equation and draw the power angle curve. 11. A 400 MVA synchronous machine has H1=4.what is the energy stored in the rotor at the rated speed? What is the corresponding angular momentum? Determine the inertia constant h 3.What is dynamic stability? 9.6 MJ/MVA and a 1200 MVA machines H2=3.0 MJ/MVA.