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Bachelor Paper I/II
Submitted by: Registration no: 0810278850
Bachelor‘s v Programme ‚Business Consultancy International‘ Marketing and Sales
Wiener Neustadt, 20.10.2010
Declaration of Integrity
I hereby confirm, 1. that I have written the essay at hand independently, that I have not used any sources or materials other than those stated, nor availed myself of any unauthorized resources, and 2. that I have not submitted this essay in any form as an examination paper before, neither in this country, nor abroad. 3. that the electronic copy of this essay and the printed version are identical. Wiener Neustadt, December 21, 2010
Abstract in English:
Opposed to the functional advantages of the product, the brand has to distinguish itself from others to be successful. In order to connect to the consumer, vie with the competition and to achieve the strategic goals, the company has to develop an independent identity. This brand identity is almost impossible to copy. The key facet of brand identity is the brand personality (Jansen 2006), a set of human characteristics associated with the brand(Aaker 1997). There is a number of approaches that analyzed the process of creating the brand personality. However, the increasing disappointment with traditional customer research is causing greater tolerance of non-traditional ideas. One of them, reaching into the past, is the theory of archetypes. In this paper I focused on strategies how to design a brand personality for a company. It is concerned with the topic on both theoretical and empirical level. In the introductory part it defines the role of brand personality as a part of the brand identity, researches and compares different theories in brand creation. The main body of this paper analyzes the steps of the setting the relevant archetype and demonstrates the strategy of creating brand personality by means of archetypes. Finally there is a case study as an application of the theoretical part of the paper. The overall goal of my work is to interpret a complex view on the given topic, richly illustrated by examples and applications.
Keywords (at least 3, max. 6):
Brand personality, archetypes, big five dimensions, Gameboard, Jung, Aaker
Abstract in German:
Im Gegensatz zu den funktionalen Vorteilen eines Produktes muss sich die Marke von anderen Marken unterscheiden, um erfolgreich zu sein. Um mit dem Verbraucher in Verbindung zu treten, mit der Konkurrenz zu wetteifern und die strategischen Ziele zu erreichen, muss das Unternehmen eine eigenständige Identität entwickeln. Der Schlüsselaspekt der Markenidentität ist die sogenannte Markenpersönlichkeit (Jansen 2006), eine Gruppe menschlicher Eigenschaften, die mit der Marke verbunden sind (Aaker 1997). Der zunehmende Verdruss über die Ergebnisse der traditionellen Kundenforschung führt jedoch zu einer größeren Toleranz unkonventioneller Ideen. Eine davon ist die ursprüngliche Theorie über die Archetypen. In meiner Bachelorarbeit werde ich mich auf die Strategien konzentrieren, die sich mit der Bildung einer Markenpersönlichkeit für ein Unternehmen befassen. In der Einleitung wird die Rolle der Markenpersönlichkeit als ein Teil der Markenidentität definiert, weiter werden verschiedene Theorien der Markenbildung untersucht und verglichen. Im Hauptteil analysiere ich die Schritte bei der Festlegung des entsprechenden Archetyps und stelle die Strategie der Bildung von Markenpersönlichkeit mittels Archetypen dar. Jeder Schritt in diesem Teil wird anhand eines praktischen Beispiels illustriert. Das Hauptziel meiner Arbeit ist, das vorgegebene Thema in seiner Komplexität darzustellen und mit Beispielen und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten zu belegen.
Keywords (at least 3, max. 6):
Brand personality, Archetypen, fünf Dimensionen, Gameboard, Jung, Aaker
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Table of Contents
THE IMPORTANCE OF CREATING BRAND IDENTITY 1.1 BRANDS WITH IDENTITY 1.2 BRAND IDENTITY VS. BRAND PERSONALITY
2 2 3
RESEARCH OF THE BRAND PERSONALITY 2.1 ASSESSING AND MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY 2.1.1 Traditional Processes 2.1.2 Non-traditional Processes 2.2 EXISTING THEORIES FOR CREATING BRAND PERSONALITY 2.2.1 The Former Scientific Methodologies and Scepticism 2.2.2 Aaker‟s dimensions 2.2.3 Jung‟s Behavioural Science
4 4 4 5 6 6 6 7
USE OF ARCHETYPES IN THE BRAND CREATION 3.1 DEFINING ARCHETYPES 3.1.1 The Definition of Archetypes in the Past 3.1.2 The Definition and Use of Jungian psychology today 3.2 CATEGORIZATION OF ARCHETYPES 3.2.1 Categorization of Archetypes according to the company’s motivations:
8 8 8 9 9
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3.2.2 Categorization of Archetypes within Specific Industry Sectors 12 3.2.3 Categorization of Archetypes in different cultures 12
STEPS IN CREATING BRAND PERSONALITY 4.1 DEFINING THE COMPANY‟S VALUES 4.2 SETTING THE BRAND POSITIONING 4.3 MATCHING THE VALUES AND POSITIONING WITH ARCHETYPES
13 13 14 15
4.4 ADVERTISING AND EVALUATION ACCORDING TO THE CHOSEN ARCHETYPE 16
THE CASE STUDY – PANTENE PRO V
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
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Opposed to the functional advantages of the product, the brand has to distinguish itself from others to be successful. In order to connect to the consumer, vie with the competition and to achieve the strategic goals, the company has to develop an independent identity. This brand identity is almost impossible to copy. The key facet of brand identity is the brand personality (Jansen 2006), a set of human characteristics associated with the brand(Aaker 1997). There is a number of approaches that analyzed the process of creating the brand personality. However, the increasing disappointment with traditional into the past, is the theory of archetypes. In this paper I am going to focus on strategies how to design a brand personality for a company. It is concerned with the topic on both theoretical and empirical level. In the introductory part it defines the role of brand personality as a part of the brand identity, researches and compares different theories in brand creation. The main body of this paper analyzes the individual steps of the setting the relevant archetype and demonstrates the strategy of creating brand personality by means of archetypes. Each step in this part is also applied to a practical example. The overall goal of my work is to interpret a complex view on the given topic, richly illustrated by examples and applications. customer research is causing greater tolerance of non-traditional ideas. One of them, reaching
1. The Importance of Creating Brand Identity
1.1 Brands with Identity
(Batey 2008) defined brand as a guarantee of a quality and trustworthy promise of performance, consumer‟s perception and interpretation of a cluster of associated attributes, benefits and values. Brand has developed into a very valuable marketing concept over a past few decades. In order to connect to the consumer, vie with the competition and to achieve strategic goals, the company has to develop an independent identity for its brand. The consumer wants to identify with the brand and feels connected with it. Paraphrasing Kapfrerer in(Jansen 2006), “Having an identity means being who you are, following your own, determined, but individual path”. The ability to distinguish itself will increasingly need to come from the brand itself, because as opposed to the functional advantages of the product, the brand identity is almost impossible to copy. The brand personality is one of the key facets of brand identity. (Jansen 2006) Associating the brand with the person, it saves consumers the effort of the brand quality considerations, claims (Chernatony 2006) in her book. The value added means no longer what the brand provides, but what it stands for symbolically. (Riesenbeck and Perrey 2007) At the turn of the century the concept of „identity‟ was the centre of attention. The concept of identity connected the „inside-out‟ way of thinking of corporate communication to the „outside-in‟ of marketing for years the predominant principle in business. (Cretu and Brodie 2007) An observation done by (Blanchart 2010) where he states: “A brand is a coherent set of ideas in your consumer‟s mind. It is a personiﬁcation of a product, service or even an entire company.” Now brands are becoming more like people. Like a person, it has its name, identity, personality and reputation. Furthermore, (Temporal 2010) found out that the brand strength is highly correlated with the perception of the brand personality.
1.2 Brand Identity vs. Brand Personality
What is the difference between brand identity and brand personality? (Jansen 2006) defined identity as “be who you are” and the personality “become who you should be”. So, the brand identity represents the active substance of the brand along with its enduring qualities reflected in a forward looking brand associations. As an outward expression of the brand, including its name and visual appearance is a fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors. As mentioned above, the brand personality is the attribution of human personality traits to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation. Usually done through long-term above-the-line planning and advertising, appropriate packaging and graphics. Although human and brand personality may share similar conceptualization, they differ in their formation. The human personality traits are based on individual behaviour, physical characteristics, attitudes and believes and demography. The brand personality traits are a readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations. (Schoormans 2009) showed that consumers prefer products with a personality that fit their own personality: extrovert consumers prefer extrovert products. Research furthermore has shown that people can recognize personality traits in products and brands. A consumer is a seeker of purely utilitarian benefit or a gain. In psychological terms, (Batey 2008) determined three major elements of a personality. Elements Private personality Drivers thoughts, feelings, ambitions, talents Public personality how I want others to see me Attributed personality how others see me The nature of the personality Table 1: Elements of a Personality, (Batey, 2008) The external aim In the brand terms Overlaps the brand identity
2. Research of the Brand Personality
2.1 Assessing and Measuring Brand Personality
2.1.1 Traditional Processes
Marketing professionals had become a bit too much mechanical, using already standardized accepted rules of brand building and marketing communication. Marketing itself became a mass produced product, a commodity lacking spirit and authenticity. The market research on brand personality was limited due to the blur definition of this concept and consumer preference kept being elusive. (Aaker 1997) More and more brand experts lacked the some generalizable scale to measure it. From the traditional efforts to measure and evaluate prevailed by ethnography. This is a scientific research strategy that studies people, ethnic groups and their material and spiritual culture. (Aaker 1997) points out that etnography gathers empirical data through ad hoc techniques, such as checklists, photo-sorts or symbolic. The focus shifted away from the stereotype marketing mantra: doing and
communicating whatever the consumer wants according to research. Business and marketing professionals started to pay attention to their own, company‟s and brand‟s inner values. (Schoormans 2009) Over the past fifty years the mentality and approach of companies has progressively evolved in several stages.
Figure 1: Stages of the Base in Brand Personality Design (Schoormans, 2009) There were two kinds of scales for measuring the bran personality, both relied on the relationship between human and brand personality. The first was a ad hoc scale and was of an non-theoretical nature. This means the traits was selected arbitrarily. They were used only for further researches. The second type was of a more theoretical nature, based on human personality traits not yet validated for the use of brands. Therefore those have also a questionable validity. (Aaker and Biel 1993)
disappointment with traditional customer research is causing greater interest in archetypes signals a
tolerance of non-traditional ideas and making it more acceptable to talk about archetypes in mainstream business. Growing major transformation in marketers‟ attitudes about the misty regions behind the curtains of consciousness. Everyone is looking for new answers. With functionality, reliability, convenience, or price no longer sufficing for
differentiation, brands must compete on meaning. The best way to create “emotional affinity” through meaning is to use archetypal images to fulfil basic human desires or motivations and evoke deep emotions.1 The narratives and meanings behind archetypes let customers relate to brands by making brands seem alive.(Pearson and Mark 2001) Very common methods for assessing brand personality are currently analogies (by qualitative depth interviews), drawings or free association.2 A visual tool based research is one of possible ways how to determine the right brand personality. (Schoormans 2009) suggests that by visualizing and image presentation of main personality traits we can avoid deviations in interpretations of the verbal concepts. Especially compared with verbal language, visual image represents the information consisting of spatial, non-arbitrary and continuous characteristics. Gradually, a selected group of applicants chooses the most fitting images to the associations of the company. The aim is to develop not one, but more personalities for the brand: valid view on the brand personality of the own brand, on an ideal brand personality for the brand, on the brand personality of competitors and on the brand personality as seen by customers. Next, (Riesenbeck and Perrey 2007) used the Gameboard Model proposed by McKinsey. It is designed to map the celebrities and the brand portfolios in a certain category to highlight affinities. (see Figure 2 and further description in the section 4)
1 For the definition of archetypes ,see the section 3. 2 The methods are discussed in more detail in section 4.
2.2 Existing Theories for Creating Brand Personality
2.2.1 The Former Scientific Methodologies and Scepticism
One of the most famous philosophers Rene Descartes claims in his books, that the pure mind has no connection to the body. This implies that only when pure mind operates independently of emotions is the mental output credible. “I think therefore I am”. But growing stream of research undermines this paradigm. The neurologist (Damasio 1994) monitored his patients and concluded that brains cannot form models of self and relationship with self to the world beyond their bodies. He set the base of the philosophy oppositely:”I am. Therefore I think.” Cognitive scientists have always argued that the consciousness is the sensation of self. The philosophy behind this claim is that the immaterial thought in our minds is linked to the material substance in our bodies – emotionally based consumer thinking.
In her research (Aaker 1997) developed a theoretical framework of the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of five dimensions. Each
Down to Earth
Table 2: "Big Five" Dimensions and their Facets (Aaker, 1997)
of the dimensions has its own facets drivers. The main objective was to identify brand personality dimensions as perceived in consumer minds rather than the individual differences among responses of people to the brands. framework and the scale are generalizable across all product categories. The model was based on the “Big Five” human personality dimensions
(Extraversion/introversion, Agreeableness, Consciousness, Emotional stability and Culture). Whereas agreeableness and sincerity both innate part of warmth and acceptance, extroversion and excitement capture the idea of social ability, energy and activity and conscientiousness and competence both connote dependability, responsibility and security. According to (Aaker and Biel 1993), her sincerity, excitement and competence shape human personality, sophistication and ruggedness indicates to the dimension that individuals want but not necessarily have. This encapsulates a focus on the upper class, sexy and glamorous. The model was developed for the American market. However, brands carry cultural meaning - specific personality traits among cultures. To answer to the cross-cultural differences (Aaker 1997) redefined her model for Japan and Spain. Further research was conducted by other researchers, who explored Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Korea. Although, the models all are culturally secific, they all show resemblance to Aaker‟s five-factor model that is still the most widely used brand personality model on worldwide scale.
Jung’s Behavioural Science
Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist studied dreams. He pioneered the theory of archetypes in early 90s. Already at that time he found out that some themes recurring in the dreams of people everywhere – they were universal themes and characters that are found in myth and legend. His profound observations showed that this inward experience was essentially the same in all human beings - sharing the same instincts, the same impulses, conﬂicts or fears. These themes, in one word archetypes, are short-cuts to eternal truths.3 “Personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being. It is an act of courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal conditions of existence, coupled with the greatest possible freedom of self-determination.”(Jung 1963)
3 For the definition of archetypes, see the section 3.
In comparison with Aaker, Jungarian theory of archetypes has different perspective on human behaviour. It based the drivers of customer consumption on universal predetermined human patterns latent in all human beings. (Heding, Knudtzen, and Bjerre 2008) Jung in his work of art (Jung 1963)divided our psyche into three levels: 1. Ego – conscious mind 2. Personal unconscious - subjects that can become conscious, like memories 3. Collective unconscious - psychic inheritance, experiences as species, knowledge as we were born with “Archetypes are characteristic patterns that pre-exist in the collective psyche of the human race that repeat themselves eternally in the psyche of individual human beings and determine the basic ways that we perceive and function as psychological beings.”(Jung 1963) In our brains, they work as dispositions in clusters of dispositional neurons. These neurons then respond to the given stimuli by creating moods and relationships towards the stimuli. For example for caring for us (no matter if in real life or simulated in advertising), we develop the love chemical oxytocin, which uplifts our mood. Therefore a marketer should perceive the dispositional neurons as the trigger of predisposed responses to the content of his message. (Wolfe 2003) On the Jung‟s foundation was based the widely used Meyer Briggs personali ty assessment. It uses DRM – Developmental Relationship Marketing, using archetypal structures that predispose attributes of behaviour. DRM is then most effective when is based on consumers commonalities, rather than their differences. (Pearson and Mark 2001)
3. Use of Archetypes in the Brand Creation
3.1 Defining Archetypes
3.1.1 The Definition of Archetypes in the Past
An original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype: "'Frankenstein' , 'Dracula' , 'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde' , the archetypes that have influenced all subsequent horror stories" (New York Times).
The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype.
The Definition and Use of Jungian psychology today
In Jungian psychology, an inherited pattern of thought or symbolic imagery derived from the past collective experience and present in the individual unconscious. “Archetypes are like riverbeds which dry up when the water deserts them, but which can be found again at any time. Archetype is like an old watercourse along which the water of life has flowed in this channel, the more likely it is, the sooner or later the water will return to its old bed.”(Jung 1963) Archetypes are forms or images of a collective nature worldwide as constituents of myths and as individual products of unconscious. These are imprinted and hardwired into our psyches. A collectively inherited unconscious idea, pattern of thought or image, universally present in individual psyches. Jung divided our psyche into three levels: 1. Ego – conscious mind 2. Personal unconscious - subjects that can become conscious, like memories 3. Collective unconscious - psychic inheritance, experiences as species, knowledge as we were born with
3.2 Categorization of Archetypes
A detailed theory and definitions according to the Swiss psychologist Mr. Jung and mentioning the main traits of his 12 archetypes as an important stream in our pop culture. (Damasio 1994) The best way to create “emotional affinity” through meaning is to use archetypal images to fulfil “basic human desires and motivations and [evoke] deep emotions and yearnings”. (Pearson and Mark 2001) The narratives and meanings behind archetypes let customers relate to brands by making brands seem alive. The authors list 12 archetypes arranged along 4 groups of motivations. Each archetype fulfils a deepseated need: Motivation Stability and Control Archetypes Creator Drivers Craft something led by new, non-conformist, creating self-
expression, endeavored to tap into the human imagination, vision, something
tangible and endurable, give consumers choices, achieve immortality, innovative in artistic and design Caregiver One of most powerful archetypes, trusted, an icon of home, security and continuity, pure natural and gentle, altruist, moved by compassion, generosity, and desire to help others, feared of instability, hold promise of innocence, empathy, communication, consistency, Ruler Exerts control, leader, role model, administrator, knows what‟s good for people, avoids uncontrollable change, high-status products to enhance power, lays down the category law, standards, the ideal behaviour, security and stability in chaotic world Belonging and Enjoyment Jester Has fun, energy, irreverence, mischief, desire for change, interaction, great brand identification, impulsive, spontaneous, present, ridicule category conventions, dismiss of self-important and overconﬁdent, established brands Regular Person Be fine with self, down to earth, friendly and supportive brands, unselfish, helpful, gives people a sense of belonging, or being part of a group, environment where everyone knows your name Lover Give/find love, romantic and glamorous, dreamlike, dashing, chivalrous, sensual, experiences joy, delight & ecstasy, sex and seduction, idealist, longing for a better world Risk and Mastery Hero Act courageously, strong, inspirational, motivational and disciplined, shows what‟s possible if we believe, represents power, honour, success and victory , create innovations that will have a major impact on the world and can solve a major social problem Outlaw Breaks the rules, rebel, challenges the convection, release of pent-up passions, lets us out off the stream, helps retain values, paves the ways for revolutionary new attitudes, excitement from being
“bad”, admired, but powerful and feared. Magician Affects transformation of idea into material reality, evokes amazement through intuition, makes impossible happen, exotic or ancient origin of the product, dynamic change of the category, highly innovative Independence and Fulfilment Innocent Retain/renew faith, feminine, seeking for the good in life, potential of beauty in all things, spontaneous, trusting dependent child, nostalgic, tapping into strongly into the emotions, purity, goodness, morality, simplicity, straightforward values, seen as truthful, honest and reliable Explorer Authentic, pioneer, individual, own values,
challenges to try new, independent, self sufficient, adventurous, daring, represents self-discovery, lifealtering experiences, trial, promotes new products, something they believe in Sage Understand the world, thoughtful, independent
attitude, represents wisdom, asceticism, freedom and destiny, tells the truth, original, holds own opinion, need for autonomy, enlightens consumers, provide expertise or information, or encourage customers to think.
Table 3:The Hero and the Outlaw, Building Extraordinary Brands through the Power of Archetypes from Centre for Archetypal Studies and Applications(Pearson and Mark 2001)
3.2.1 Categorization motivations:
Company motivation/driver Change, Risk Belonging, Care Structure Discovery, Knowledge
Archetype Outlaw, magician, jester Regular guy, caregiver, lover Ruler ,hero, creator Sage, Explorer, Innocent
Table 4 Categorization of Archetypes according to the Company's Motivation
Categorization of Archetypes within Specific Industry Sectors
Archetypes can be used to understand the dynamics of the category my brand operates in. Once a deep research done, the variables of the industry sector and its product categories within become clear. We either apply the archetypes which are commonly used in the category, or use competition. One of the great examples of the strategic use of archetypes is politics. Selecting from twelve archetypes, the respondents in the research chose four equally weighted character qualities for the ideal leader: Caregiver, Hero, Sage and Regular Guy. A leader composed from a mixture from these archetypes can provide clarity of vision, intelligence and analytical competence, while being genuine, practical and empathetic to the needs of the people. 3.2.3 Categorization of Archetypes in different cultures them as an distinguishing element to the
The focus will be given especially on comparison of cultures determined by their nature. The application of archetypes is based on the traits that are predominated in the specific country. Roughly, we can divide countries according to several areas: 1. Collectivistic vs. Individualistic 2. Past and Present orientation 3. High context vs. Low Context 4. Power distance For example In collectivistic countries where people value the interdependence, similarity and conformity, consumers are likely to choose brands similar to their group-members. On the other hand, in the countries of individualistic culture, in which 12
the autonomy, independence and uniqueness in dominant, consumers rather use brands to express their difference from the group-members. Overall, this implies that the use of archetypes is independent from the cultures across the world. The Aaker‟s model of the new “Big Five” dimensions was developed for the American market. However, brands carry cultural meaning, moreover specific personality traits among cultures. To answer to the cross-cultural differences Aaker gradually redefined her model for Japan and Spain. Further research was conducted by other researchers, who explored various brand personality models for different Western and Eastern countries. Although, the models all have their cultural specificity, they all show resemblance to the model on worldwide scale.
4. Steps in Creating Brand Personality
A brand without a personality has no warmth and the consumer will treat it likewise, no loyalty and high price sensitivity. Therefore the process of creating a strong brand identity is long approach of searching and finding company‟s values and goals as well as defining the reason the company offers for its customer to choose it instead of its competition. The personality traits are associated in both direct and indirect ways. The former is done by company‟s employees, the CEO and the brand product endorsers. The letter implies to the product category associations, product-related attributes, brand name, advertising style, symbol or logo, price and distribution channel. Going step by step through the procedure bellow helps us to be consistent in creating a great personality with a long-lasting effect in sales and customer satisfaction.
4.1 Defining the Company’s Values
I order to create a powerful and long-lasting brand, first we need a strong foundation. In a corporate terms, the foundation is a set of company‟s values. This means, to define ways in which all organization‟s member will work together. When planning them, we should avoid They include beliefs about teamwork, commitment to quality, integrity and customer orientation. vague statements of intent, rather state concrete action plans, detailed timing and accomplishment criteria. By doing this we ensure that the values are shared on both, the corporate and job-specific level, to make them come alive. The next step would be outlining the external appearance to the customer – the brand values – to strengthen and reinforce the effect of corporate values. (Jansen 2006) As 13
an example, if the reliability was a corporate value, the brand value could be dependability. The company values and the brand personality should be clearly defined, without using any professional lingo. By simple words create a lively picture of a personality that is absolutely clear to anyone. Avoiding the strategic words that are too abstract to manage a brand in daily business we avoid also the strict guidelines that are too inflexible. The characteristic is to be also multi-dimensional, which means, concentrating on more traits at the same time, to create more powerful and richer image in peoples‟ minds. In case, the corporate and brand values do not match, it might cause confusion among both, the employees and the customer. Therefore the integration and the transparency of information among involved people at all levels is required. When developing an extensive training, is by analyzing the behaviour of employees who have been identified as performing to very high standard on a particular value.
4.2 Setting the Brand Positioning
Setting the marketing positioning and the brand positioning are close related terms, but does not mean the same. As briefly mentioned earlier in section 2, the Gameboard by McKinsey (Riesenbeck and Perrey 2007)enables to easily identify the brand positioning according to the brand personality. It lists archetypes describing brands in their entirety, method of multidimensional scaling to map bran personalities and their interdependencies. The distance between points reflects the degree of similarity of perceived profiles. The distance from the edge of the Gameboard indicates the degree of uniqueness. Particularly this Gameboard mirrors the positions of selected brands in German market alongside with the personalities of contemporary celebrities. The closer the brand to a certain person, the stronger the brand perceived in terms of this characteristic relative to companies. As example: L‟Oreal represents Charm therefore inclines to the personality of the celebrity of Julia Roberts.
Figure 2:McKinsey Brand Personality Gameboard Map Using the Gameboard we specify also the position of our competitors‟ personalities. By knowing the competitive landscape from this perspective, it makes us easier to differentiate. On the other hand by the help of Gameboard we determine partnerships according to their values, resulting in high synergies in both parties. The model is used mainly: 1. as a first step by mergers, acquisitions and consolidations 2. by designing the brand architecture and umbrella brand management
3. setting dimensions of brand personality
4.3 Matching the Values and Positioning with Archetypes
The positioning of the brand has to be credible an achievable and to embody the brand promise. Therefore if the positioning is reliable and good manners and honesty, as its core traits it must also be reflected in appearance and behaviour of the sales team. Not instead being a wild bunch of spirited passionate fellows. (Schoormans 2009) showed that consumers prefer products with a personality that fit their own personality: extrovert consumers prefer extrovert products. Research furthermore has shown that people can recognize personality traits in products and 15
brands. It is probable that due to the abstractness of the brand personality, different stakeholders have a different interpretation of personality traits might be suboptimal 4. By means of qualitative in-depth interviews, as mentioned in section 2 we aim to determine the concrete personality traits using archetypes as stereotypes. There is a number of methods how to achieve this. 1. Analogies – a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target) 2. Drawings – the visual image first appeared in our mind when hearing the brand in some context
Free associations – a stimulation of an associative pattern by a word or the connection and production of other words in response to a given word, done spontaneously as a game, creative technique, or in a psychiatric evaluation.
4.4 Advertising and Evaluation according to the Chosen Archetype
Generally, the advertising are to increase the awareness and promote products by audio-visual communication. In case of advertising with the use of archetypes, the main principle is that the thoughts that arise in consumer minds do not rise consciousness only. They tend to work in the background, shaping the consumer‟s archetypal reactions to those ads. Those are the stereotypic ways the marketer expects according to the predetermined behaviour towards the specific archetype.(Wolfe 2003) After completing the process the process of the brand personality design, it is necessary to ask a number of important questions, which help us check, whether the direction of our approach matched the overall business and marketing strategy. Do our brand values and personalities „fit‟ with the archetypal values outlined? Is there any disparity in communication? What is my archetype‟s vice? What does this say about my brand? What are the other archetypes within the category? The process of evaluation is one of the most significant steps in creating a meaningful and aligned brand personality.
4 Not the highest standard or quality.
5. The Case Study – Pantene Pro V
5.1 Company background
When P&G bought the brand Pantene, there was no brand in hair care that was bigger than a 5% share, and the category leader basically changed every three years. After a complete re-launch of the brand identity, 20% share has been achieved with the category leadership for 15 years. Now let us take a look into their concept of the archetypal brand personality strategy.
5.2 Designing the brand personality step by step
The challenge was to go beyond the left brain, the product attributes, to create an emotional connection with their consumers, based on an breakthrough idea. The emotional contribution that the brand brings is completely anchored into what the product does. When Pantene transforms women‟s‟ hair, she feels inspired to turn an everyday moment into a shining moment. 1. Defining company‟s values The Pantene‟s values can be characterized as innovation, nature and transformation. This all should be applied not only to their marketing strategy, but to the principal corporate motivation that drives employees on each organizational level. Everyone in the company knows their main objectives: the commitment to help women in their search for beauty, bring them the true beauty, allow them to be transformed to be strong and confident as they want to be. (Pantene updated 2010) 2. Setting the positioning The Pantene shampoos were repositioned from regular hair care products into a set of professional hair styling treatment. When choosing the archetype, Pantene instead of following competition in the category by being either Caregiver, Innocent or Lover, they positioned themselves as Magician. An dynamic transformer of the unimaginable to the real. They can promise women‟ dreams come true using their products. The use of this brand personality serves as an effective differentiator. This archetype was aligned with a strategic target group of young women. They represent the symbol of a change and are themselves less reluctant to change. The brand department tried to reconnect the hair to the woman, because a woman wants beautiful hair as an expression of her own beauty, she doesn ‟t want it to have a life of its own that exists separate from her. She wants it to express who she is. 17
Moreover they separate their portfolio of shampoos into 7 categories so that they can make each woman happy and confident. The categories: Fine Hair Solutions, MediumThick Hair Solutions, Colour Hair Solutions, Curly Hair Series, Classic Care Solutions, Restoratives and Nature Fusion. Here is the new Pantene marketing campaign: “Think your hair is too rough and tough to tame? Put Pantene Smooth and Strong to the test and your hair will have found its match. It gently detangles your unruly hair making it smooth and strong so you can be the boss again! Pantene's nourishing Pro-V shampoo formula with Amino-S, when used with Pantene Pro-V conditioner helps evenly restructure hair from root to tip detangling your unruly hair making it strong, silky and noticeably smoother in 10 days or less! Pantene is the first step to irresistibly smooth hair”. (Pantene updated 2010) bringing Pantene values to life: Sense of well being Feel good about self Good mood On top of things Selfrespect Respect of others Friendship, warmth Innovative formula Help to shine among others More confident outgoing Look good/ look best Feel clean Neat touch Wow effect Easier to work with hair Makes hair feel clean/ smell nice Makes hair soft silky, weighty shiny Table 5 Hierarchical Value Map for Shampoo Category 3. Advertising in accordance with the brand personality 18 Immediate effect No residue/ easy rinse Lathers hair quickly Conditions hair/ treats hair Feel clean Gives self confidence Quick visible change Feel healthy Feel refreshed More confident Feel good about self Others relate to me better More time for other things Professional design effect Make a good impression Self-belief Enjoyment of life Feel good about self On top of things
Advertising concentrated mainly on the “wow” hair visuals. Expressing the Magician archetype is clear and coherent across all advertising vehicles. (see the Figure 4 and Figure 3). From mass media communication through direct advertising the message evokes imagery and sophisticated innovation. Use of famous endorsers, such as One of the key personality promoting tools is the product design. Everyone connects the brand with the characteristic pearl bottle with new logo including golden hair in it. Next, the use of endorsers plays an incredible role in the advertising.
6. Conclusion and Recommendations
(Aaker and Biel 1993)authors of Building Strong Brands, say: "One way to be more efficient in marketing is just to do things right the first time around. It starts with getting the identity right. If you have a brand identity that works, you‟re just monumentally efficient.” This paper attempted to illustrate the importance of how imbuing personality into a brand can enhance consumer bonding and the interaction between consumer self and the brand personality. Creating a coherent personality through the wide array of brand activities is done by ensuring that brand personality is expressed in all the behavior and communication of the brand. It is necessary to pay a close attention to pioneer brand users and target consumers, because as described in the chapters of this paper the brand personality is created through a cyclical interaction between the brand and consumers. By analyzing several processes for creating the brand personality I expressed the need for the new non-traditional ideas in the brand personality research comparing them to the traditional customer researches. Profoundly I focused on the theory of archetypes and their application to the brands in different industry sectors and cultures. The different techniques to discover archetypes and making clear connections between a key archetypal persona and the preliminary brand- product- or consumer-related findings can put an entirely new spin on study insights and next steps with these benefits: 1. Provide revolutionary yet imaginative mean for the creation of a new or the recreation of an existing brand‟s personality and essence 2. Introduce and further explore new dimensions of a creative campaign once the right archetype is established 3. Generate new, breakthrough ideas in unexpected ways by using a comparative archetypal approach
4. Develop and evaluate new products, creative concepts, and strategic marketing tactics for deeper resonance and motivation Last but not least, both internal and external variables are manipulated systematically which requires profound and consistent control and measurement of the brand personality. The brand personality increases the brand preference and usage, emerges emotions in consumers and increases trust and loyalty. Although more and more marketers and scientists are concerned with the issue of the brand personality, there is still gap in the knowledge and further research needs to be done. Quite few is known about the attitude formation under conditions of low motivation ability, or the psychological mechanisms by which brand personality works across cultures.
List of Figures
Figure 1: Stages of the Base in Brand Personality Design Figure 2:McKinsey Brand Personality Gameboard Map Figure 3: Thailand Pantene Ad Figure 4: Pantene Ad Violistin
4 15 25 26
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List of Tables
Table 1: Elements of a Personality Table 2: "Big Five" Dimensions and their Facets 3 6
Table 3:The Hero and the Outlaw, Building Extraordinary Brands through the Power of Archetypes from Centre for Archetypal Studies and Applications Table 4 Categorization of Archetypes according to the Company's Motivation Table 5 Hierarchical Value Map for Shampoo Category 11 12 18
Aaker, A.D., and A Biel. 1993. Brand Equity and Advertising, Advertising's Role in Building Strong Brands. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. . Aaker, J.D. 1997. Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research XXXIV (3):347-356. Batey, M. 2008. Brand Meaning. London: Psychology Pess. Blanchart, Robert T. 2010. Creating Brand Value Through Customer Intimacy. Impact, 14-15. Chernatony, Leslie de. 2006. From the Brand Vision to Brand Evaluation. 2nd ed. NY: Butterworth-Heinemann. Cretu, Anca E., and Roderick J. Brodie. 2007. The influence of brand image and company reputation where manufacturers market to small firms: A customer value perspective. Industrial Marketing Management (36):230-240. Damasio, Antonio R. 1994. Descartes Error: Reason and The Human Brain. New York: Putnam Berkley Group Inc. Heding, Tilde, Charlotte F. Knudtzen, and Mogens Bjerre. 2008. Brand Management: REsearch Theory and Practice. Routledge. Jansen, M. 2006. Brand Prototyping: Creating Meaningful Brands. Amsterdam: Kluwer. Jung, Carl Gustav. 1963. Mysterium Coniunctionis Edited by B. S. XX. Vol. 14, Collected Works of C.G. Jung Vol.14. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pantene. Pantene Corporate Web Page, 2010 updated 2010. Available from
http://www.pantene.com/en-US/Pages/index.aspx. Pearson, Carol S., and Margaret Mark. 2001. The Hero and the Outlaw, Bulding Extraordinary Brands through the Power of Archetypes New York: McGraw-Hill. Riesenbeck, Hajo, and Jesko Perrey. 2007. Power Brands: Measuring, Making and Managing Brand Success. Weinheim: Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH&Co KGaA. Schoormans, Jan P.L. 2009. A Visual Tool for Brand Personality Develpoment. http://www.uigarden.net/english/a-visual-tool-for-brand-personality-development. Temporal, Paul. 2010. Advanced Brand Management: Managing Brands in a Changing World. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
Wolfe, David. 2003. Brand Personality: Sensitive management of a brand‟s archetypal image is critical to the well being of a brand and key to reversing the tide of ebbing brand loyalty.
Typical Pantene ad, promoting the magician archetype through the visionary transformation. Magician highly The shampoo is endorsed by Thailand brands celebrities. are also
innovative, and are often related to a very new, contemporary product. As you can see, the visual of the new effect of contemporary ingredients
and formulas included in the ad. Tagline: transform your hair in fourteen days. Figure 3: Thailand Pantene Ad
Another example which
brands core values. In this case, however, indirectly: It is a story about a young deaf violinist with a dream. She wants to succeed on a music contest, but nobody believes in her. The ad ends up with happy end and gives the consumer an insight from a creative angle about the shampoo.
The tagline: „You can Ad shine.“ Figure 4: Pantene Violinist