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Geophysical Lander Mission A Mission Concept from the 2003 NASA Planetary Science Summer School
Brian R. Shiro University of Hawaii Daniel W. Kwon Emily M. Craparo Samantha L. Infeld Orbital Sciences Corp. Naval Postgraduate School AnalyWcal Mechanics Assoc.

Abstract #1706

Jennifer L. Heldmann Fraser S. Thomson NASA Ames Research Center Space Systems Loral

An Early Insight
The Mars Geophysical Lander (MGL) is aimed at studying the MarWan interior in search of past habitability and future exploraWon support. Some of the design elements proposed for MGL have now been realized in NASAs recently selected InSight (Interior ExploraWon using Seismic InvesWgaWons, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission, which is scheduled to go to Mars in 2016. This poster summarizes the work of the 2003 NASA Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) student team 10 years aaer creaWng a mission proposal authorizaWon review for the Mars Geophysical Lander. 2013 marks the 25th anniversary of the NASA Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS), which is held every summer at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide postdocs and Ph.D. students with an intensive interdisciplinary experience in planetary roboWc mission design under the tutelage of JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X").

Mission Design
MGL was designed to be a Discovery class mission Met Station proposed for the Mars Scout Program. The esWmated mission cost without launch vehicle was $415M in FY2003 dollars. In comparison, InSight is capped at $425M in FY2010 dollars. MGL borrows from the Phoenix Mars Lander heritage. It is Solar Arrays not surprising that the upcoming InSight mission shares Thrusters this lander design heritage. Basing the spacecraa on Seismograph Phoenix provides for low risk entry, descent, landing, and Pressurant and Fuel Tanks mission operaWons.
Cruise solar array separation! (L - 10 min)! 2300 km! 4800 m/s! Atmospheric entry (L - 5 min)! 125 km! 5600 m/s! Parachute deployment (L - 2 min)! 8800 m! 490 m/s! Heat shield jettison (L 110 s)! 7500 m! 250 m/s!

Landing Sites
UHF Antenna Panning Camera Medium Gain Antenna Dart Antennae (5 Each)

La#tude: between 30-60S for power constraints, poleward of 30S for near surface water Geologic se1ng: sites of recent uvial acWvity where subsurface water may be expected (i.e. gully locaWons), sites of predicted seismic acWvity Eleva#on: maximum 1.3 km above the MOLA datum Site roughness: smooth at plains relaWvely devoid of large obstacles Landing ellipse: must t within at plateau region PotenWal Landing Site Dao Vallis Gorgonum Chaos Nirgal Valles Elysium PlaniWa Newton Crater LocaWon 33S, 267W 37S, 168W 30S, 39W 37N, 252W 41S, 160W

GRP Thin Walled Tube

Turn to entry attitude! (L - 12 min)! 3000 km! 4800 m/s!

Ground Penetrating Radar

Figure 2: MGL lander Launch and Earth-Mars Transit: The PSSS team calculated a trajectory based upon a Delta II-2925H launch from Cape Canaveral in Sept. 2011 to deliver the 1069 kg fueled MGL spacecraa to Mars in Sept. 2012 using MER heritage cruise and Figure 3: MGL spacecraV landing sensors.

Radar ground acquisition ! (altitude mode)! (L 58 s)! 2500 m! 85 m/s!

Radar ground acquisition (Doppler speed and direction mode) (L 44 s)! 1400 m! 80 m/s! Lander separation & ! powered descent (L 43 s)! 1300 m! 80 m/s!

Nirgal Valles

Search for liquid water aquifer Characterize crustal structure Characterize seismicity Characterize the atmospheric boundary layer Constrain global climate models Search for minor organic consWtuents

AcWve seismic refracWon, ground penetraWng radar Long-term passive seismic monitoring of mars quakes and impacts Long-term monitoring of temperature, pressure, wind velocity, solar ux, and humidity Infrared spectrometry

Figure 13: Candidate Landing Sites

Follow the Water Geology" Climate"

Touchdown! 2.5 m/s! Solar panel & instrument deployments!

Figure 4: Entry, Descent, and Landing Geodart Deployment: Aaer parachute separaWon, the lander trajectory covers approximately 1.6 km of ground surface distance during which Wme it drops the 5 kg geodarts for the GESA experiment (see below). Each geodart has its own 1.5 m diameter parachute to ensure it touches down at 30 m/s, which is sucient velocity to provide safe penetraWon into the substrate. This penetrator concept was developed by the 2003 PSSS team.
h$=$1300$m$ v$=$80$m/s$ L$.$43$s$

During an intensive week in summer 2003, the PSSS team developed the Mars Geophysical Lander (MGL) mission concept and gained valuable interdisciplinary skills in mission design. The recently selected NASA InSight mission shares MGLs seismometer payload and lander design.


h$=23$m$ v$=$9$m/s$ L$.$5$s$ v$=$30$m/s$

Figure 1: MGL Mission Goals

Figure 5: Geodart deployment

Payloads and Experiments

MGL explores geophysical properWes of Mars uWlizing a suite of instruments for determining the nature of the MarWan subsurface, and for characterizing the interacWon of the atmosphere with the MarWan surface. It carries ve scienWc experiments.

SEMI Seismic Explora#on of the Mar#an Interior

Very Broadband Seismometer (VBBS)
3-axis, low-power broadband sensor Frequency range 0.05 mHz 50 Hz Developed by IPGP, NetLander heritage Operates for 1 MarWan year Measures Wdes, free oscillaWons, and seismicity to characterize the MarWan core, mantle, and crust

MACE Minor Atmospheric Cons#tuents Experiment

Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS)
ConWnuously tunable Narrow spectral linewidth Wavelengths 0.5 3.5 m SensiWve to organic molecules

2003 PSSS Team 2003 Planetary Science Summer School Team

PSSS Team Role 2003 AliaWon 2013 AliaWon U. of Michigan MIT U. of Colorado USC Texas A&M Stanford U. Princeton U. Virginia Tech Stanford U. Purdue U. U. of Virginia UCLA U. of Arkansas Purdue U. MIT JHU/APL Orbital Sciences NASA Ames Photon Systems Bryan Res. Eng. NASA Langley Heli-One Raytheon/USC UCSD Space Sys. Loral Naval Postgrad Scl. U. MA Dartmouth Space Sys. Loral NASA Goddard NASA JPL AvMet Appl. Orbital Sciences Principal InvesWgator Washington U. NOAA/U. of Hawaii Program Manager Systems Science Instruments ProgrammaWcs Mission Design EDL Structures Telecom Propulsion Power Thermal

Brian (White) Shiro Elena Adams Daniel Kwon Jennifer Heldmann Everel Salas Ren Elms Samantha Infeld Christopher Wyckham Brel Williams Esperanza Nez

GESA Geophysical Explora#on for Shallow Aquifers

Short Period Micro-Seismometer (SPMS)
3-axis, low-power MEMS sensor Frequency range 0.1 10 Hz Developed by JPL, NetLander heritage Deployed within 12 geodart penetrators
Telecommunication Antenna" Telecommunication Hardware" Li-SOCl2 Batteries" Penetrator" SPMS or explosive" Parachute Deployment Hardware"

Figure 8: VBBS

High Res. CCD Camera (HRCC)

1024 x 1024 pixel resoluWon ObservaWon of dust dissipaWon and selling, charge detonaWon OrientaWon of TDLS and MAM

Figure 10: TDLS

(LeV) Figure 6: GESA and Geodart design

Computer/Data Sys. UC Berkeley Awtude Control Sys. MIT

Figure 11: HRCC

Fraser Thomson Emily Craparo Kelly Pennell Jonathan Sheeld Michael McElwain

Ground Penetra#ng Radar (GPR)

Frequency of operaWon 15 MHz Depth range: 10s of meters Developed by CETP, NetLander heritage

ISIE Inert Seismic Impactor Experiment

5 kg tungsten sphere
Released from spacecraa 10 weeks prior to Mars landing Impacts at a known locaWon to provide a large seismic source Seismic waves recorded by VBBS to help study the MarWan interior

BLAME Boundary Layer Meteorology Experiment

Meteorological & Atmospheric Monitor (MAM)
Characterize variaWons in temp, humidity, pressure, wind velocity, and solar ux Calibrate global climate models Developed by CSA, Phoenix heritage Figure 12: MAM

Melissa (Franzen) Jones Soaware Colleen (Henry) Reiche Ground Systems

Julien-Alexandre Lamamy

Cost and Budget

Figure 9: ISIE

Acknowledgements: The PSSS MGL team would like to thank JPLs Team X, CoCo Karpinski, Anita Sohus, Jason Andringa, Jean Clough, Daniel Sedlacko, and Bruce Banerdt for their assistance with this project.