Low Voltage Transformers

Aluminum vs Copper
Aluminum is the predominant
winding material in
transformers 15kVA or larger.
Issues such as
incompatibility with copper
line and load cables,
reliability, higher hot-spot
temperatures, and higher
losses are not applicable to
low-voltage, dry-type
transformers.

CODE: NEC Article 450
Overcurrent Protection: Article 450.4, Table 450.3B (see below)
Note: Protection is for the transformer, not the conductors. Conductors are protected
per Article 240.21(C)
Secondary
Protection

Primary Protection
Protection Method

FLA>9A

FLA<9A

FLA<2A

FLA>9A

FLA<9A

125%
167%
300%
N/A
N/A
Primary only
250%
250%
250%
125%
167%
Prim. & Sec.
Note: Protection is for the transformer, not the conductors. Conductors are protected per Article 240.21(C) If 125% does not correspond to standard rating,
the next size up shall apply for 125% only.

Secondary overcurrent protection is not required if requirements are met for Article 240.21 (for common
applications , see sections.(B)(3), (C)(2) and (C)(6).)See diagram
Grounding: Per Article 450.6 (C), Transformers are separately derives systems, and should be grounded per
Article 250.30. Grounding Electrode conductor sized per Table 250.66. Non-current-carrying metal shall be
grounded per 450.10.
Specific provisions (Dry Type), Article 450.21: Transformers 112.5 kVA or less shall have 12” separation from
combustible materials. Transformers over 112.5 kVA must be installed in a room with a 1 hour fire rating.
K-Factor Transformers
-K-Factor transformer coils are designed to minimize stray losses and
reduce core losses, and have a neutral sized at 200% of the rated
current feeders.
-UL 1561 defines standard K-factor ratings of 4,9,13,20,30,40, and 50,
where higher ratings provide greater non-linear load handling common
with electronic loads. Standard ratings are 4,13 and 20.
- The K-factor of a transformer is calculated per IEEE 1100 (The emerald
book pages 93-96)

Transformer Insulation Class and Winding Temperature-Rise Data
- Class 220 150°C rise transformers (if ambient temp is 40°C, then the
average temp the insulation will be exposed to is190°C but no greater
than 220°C.
- Class 220 115°C rise transformers can carry 15% continuous overload
without exceeding 150°C rise above ambient temp.
- Class 220 80°C rise transformers can carry 30% continuous overload
without exceeding 150°C rise above ambient temp.
To increase transformer life and to provide for overloads during
emergency, 115°C and 80°C may be specified. They have larger
conductors, lower heat dissipation, and reduced noise but are larger in
size and weight.

Sound Levels
Low sound-level transformers can be expected to have longer, more
trouble free lives, but cost more and are heavier.
Maximum sound ratings per NEMA ST 20
1. 0-9kVA: 40dB
2. 10-50kVA: 45dB
3. 51-150kVA: 50dB
4. 151-300kVA: 55dB
5. 301-500kVA: 60dB
For critical sound-level applications, consult manufacturers about
available options for sound mitigation. Manufacturers can perform tests
on production units at an additional cost.

)

)

Where
Ih(pu) is the rms current at harmonic h, in per unit of rated load current of
the transformer.
h is the harmonic order
An example calculation is at the right. As long as the transformer’s rated
K-factor is greater than the calculated K-factor of the load, the
transformer is in compliance with the NEC.

Harmonic
Order h

Nonlinear
Load
Current
Ih(%)

Ih2

Ih(pu)=
sqrt(Ih2/sum(Ih2))

Ih(pu)2

Ih(pu)2 x h2

1

100

1.000

0.913

0.833

0.833

3

33

0.109

0.301

0.091

0.817

5

20

0.040

0.183

0.033

0.833

7

14

0.020

0.128

0.016

0.800

9

11

0.012

0.100

0.010

0.817

11

9

0.008

0.082

0.007

0.817

13

8

0.006

0.073

0.005

0.901

15

7

0.005

0.064

0.004

0.919

1.000

6.737

K-factor

6.737

Total

1.200

Energy Efficiency
Surveys show average transformer is loaded to 35%. NEMA TP-1
specifies minimum efficiency at this load level. Energy efficient
transformers perform better at this load loading level, but become less
efficient than 115°C and 80°C at loadings above 35%.

7 20. #12G 1/2" (3)#10.5 112. #2G (2) Sets (3)600kcmil.1 62.#8G 1" #8 (4)#6.#8G 1-1/2" #8 (5)#1/0. weights. KVA 25 37.1 41. #10G 1/2" (3)#8. #4/0G (4) 3" #4/0 1200 500 601 800 (2) 3" 1388 1800 (5) Sets (4)500kcmil. 350kcmil G (5) 3-1/2" #3/0 (5) Sets (4)600kcmil.5 1.5 312 271 135 108 50 417 208 104 83.8 10. 350kcmil G (5) 4" #3/0 (6) 4" 250kcmil 2000 (2) Sets (3)250kcmil.22 5. #4G 2" (3)#300kcmil.33 20 55.33 7.07 1.#4G 1-1/2" #4 100 45 54 70 (3)#4.#3/0G (2) 3" #3/0 400 150 180 225 (3)#4/0. .Often specified for electronic equipment sensitive to radio frequency interference. #8G 3/4" 83 100 (3)#2. #6G 1-1/2" (3)#2/0.1 28. consider the following -Transformers mounted directly to the building structure must be attached rigidly and with enough strength to resist seismic forces. #4/0G (2) 4" #3/0 600 225 271 350 (3)500kcmil.11 1. If Neutral is bonded to ground at transformers first disconnecting means.2 1. #12G 1/2" (3)#12. and mounting provisions be available.1 43.#6G 3/4" #6 60 9 11 20 (3)#12.Shielding can be specified for K-factor and harmonic canceling transformers. #3/0G (2) 4" #3/0 (3) Sets (5)500kcmil.5 31.61 2. #8G 3/4" 83 100 (4)#2.#8G 3/4" #8 (3)#10.77 2 16.6 12. KVA SINGLE PHASE KVA THREE PHASE 120V 240V 480V 600V 208V 240V 480V 600V 1 8.#8G 1-1/2" #8 (4)#1.#8G 1/2" #8 (4)#12.#1/0G 3-1/2" #1/0 (2) Sets (4)250kcmil.3 150 416 361 180 144 75 625 313 156 125 225 625 541 271 217 100 833 417 208 167 300 833 722 361 289 167 1392 696 348 278 500 1388 1203 601 481 480:208Y/120V THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS PRIMARY (480V) KVA RATING FLA PRI BKR COPPER CONDUCTORS SECONDARY (208Y/120V) ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS FLA WIRE (75°C) CONDUIT WIRE CONDUIT SEC BKR COPPER CONDUCTORS ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS WIRE CONDUIT GEC WIRE CONDUIT GEC PANEL BUS 3 4 15 (3)#12.22 3.#6G 2" #6 (5)#4/0.5 135 175 (3)#2/0. #3/0G Note: Secondary feeder schedule only applies if neutral is bonded to ground at the transformer.5 150 225 125 208 312 416 625 1 1 1.Transformers shall include full width copper electrostatic shield with ground wire to suppress high frequency signals and electrical disturbances from being transmitted to the load circuits on the secondary side of the transformer.#8G 1" #8 (3)#8. #8G 3/4" 42 60 (3)#6.8 16. #1/0G (2) 2-1/2" #1/0 (2) Sets (4)350kcmil.4 8.6 36. #2G (2) Sets (3)600kcmil.#4G 2" #4 100 45 54 70 (3)#2.9 10 83.5 6. #6G 1-1/4" 125 150 (5)#1/0.5 48.#2G 2-1/2" #2 225 75 90 125 (3)#1. #10G 1/2" 25 35 (4)#8.7 100 278 241 120 96. or trapeze mounting.2 16726 25088 300 500 750 1000 1500 361 602 903 1204 1806 1.#2G 2-1/2" #2 (4)300kcmil. #3/0G (3) 3" #3/0 (4) Sets (4)350kcmil.Mounting Transformers 75kVA or less shall be suitable for wall.2 25 208 104 52. #2G 2-1/2" 416 500 (2) Sets (4)250kcmil.#1/0G 3" #1/0 225 112. #1/0G (3) Sets (3)400kcmil.3 3. #8G 1" (3)#2.3 72. #1/0G (2) 3" #1/0 (2) Sets (5)500kcmil.5 30 83.#6G 3/4" #6 60 6 7 15 (3)#12. then standard feeder schedules apply . #12G 1/2" (3)#12. If Neutral is bonded to ground at transformers first disconnecting means. #10G 3/4" (3)#6.3 41.5 313 156 78.5 6. #2G 2-1/2" 416 500 (2) Sets (5)250kcmil.50 6 16.#8N. #1/0G (2) 2-1/2" (1) 3-1/2" (2) Sets (3)350kcmil.#8N. #4G 2" (3)#350kcmil. #4/0G (3) 4" #4/0 800 300 361 500 (2) 3" 833 1000 (3) Sets (5)400kcmil.25 5.7 45 125 108 54. then standard feeder schedules apply 480:208Y/120V THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS K-RATED PRIMARY (480V) KVA RATING FLA PRI BKR COPPER CONDUCTORS SECONDARY (208Y/120V) ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS FLA WIRE (75°C) CONDUIT WIRE CONDUIT SEC BKR COPPER CONDUCTORS ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS WIRE CONDUIT GEC WIRE CONDUIT GEC PANEL BUS 3 4 15 (3)#12.#2/0N. #12G 1/2" 8 15 (4)#12.7 8.5 135 175 (3)#2/0.89 1.00 15 41. .3 25. 120/ 208 3 phase Shielded Isolation Transformers . -Unless rigidly attached to its base. the location of the center of gravity. #12G 1/2" 17 25 (3)#10.6 1.5 135 1 15053 150 225 181 271 1.24 3. #4G 2" 208 225 (4)#4/0.5 3.11 1.5 33451 51463 28672 38230 57345 2000 2500 2408 3011 4 4 66902 83628 120/ 240 1 phase If installing transformers in areas where seismic events may occur.3 15.5 FLA 104 156 %Z 1. #12G 1/2" 17 25 (4)#10.33 9 25. 120/ 208 3 phase The manufacturer’s functional performance certification assumes that the equipment is rigidly anchord to the building support system. #1G (2) 2" 625 800 (2) Sets (5)600kcmil.#6G 1-1/4" #6 100 30 36 50 (3)#6. anchor-bolt type and location . #8G 3/4" 42 60 (4)#6.#6G 1-1/2" #6 (4)#3/0.#6G 3/4" #6 60 15 18 30 (3)#10. Design of the support system requires that detailed dimensional data.0 21. #1G (2) 2" 625 800 (2) Sets (4)500kcmil. TRANSFORMER FULL LOAD CURRENT Transformer Short Circuit Data (Bussman) Voltag e& Phase Transformers larger than 75kVA shall be suitable for floor or trapeze mounting.#6G 1" #6 100 30 36 50 (3)#8.#6G 1/2" #6 60 6 7 15 (3)#12.#8G 3/4" #8 (4)#10.17 3.2 37. #10G 1/2" (3)#8. #1/0G (2) 2-1/2" (1) 3-1/2" (2) Sets (3)350kcmil. #6G 1-1/4" 125 150 (4)#1/0.5 83357 124364 66091 1000 1500 2000 2500 75 2776 4164 5552 6940 90 3.5 4 4 1 88121 132181 154211 162764 10035 112.5 23706 75 100 167 313 417 696 1.2 72.#6G 1" #6 60 15 18 30 (3)#10.0 14. #3/0G (2) 3" #3/0 600 225 271 350 (3)500kcmil.6 34639 42472 66644 45 75 112.5 3. #2G 3" (2) Sets (3)#4/0.1 18.#4N. #2G 3" (2) Sets (3)#4/0.3 15 125 62. 450kcmil G (5) 4" 250kcmil 2000 (2) Sets (3)250kcmil.#1/0G 4" #1/0 (2) Sets (5)300kcmil.#2G 2-1/2" #2 (5)350kcml. #1/0G (3) Sets (3)400kcmil.#2G 2" #2 225 75 90 125 (3)#1.#6N.5 Short Circuit Amps 12175 18018 50 208 1.7 20.4 7.5 31.17 2. #3/0G (3) 3-1/2" #3/0 (4) 42" #4/0 1200 500 601 800 (2) 3" 1388 1800 (5) Sets (5)500kcmil.67 3 8.08 1.5 1. #6G 1-1/2" (3)#2/0.2 1.#6N.5 62.5 3.13 2. floor.#2N. #6G 2" (3)#4/0.2 36.#6G 3/4" #6 60 9 11 20 (3)#12. #4/0G (3) 3-1/2" #4/0 800 300 361 500 (2) 3" 833 1000 (3) Sets (4)300kcmil. #2/0G (2) 3-1/2" #2/0 (3) Sets (4)400kcmil.25 3.1 24.1 19. #6G 2" (3)#4/0. #12G 1/2" (3)#12.8 8. #8G 3/4" (3)#4.33 4.#1N. a transformer core assembly may detach from its housing during a seismic event.#1/0G 3" #1/0 225 112.12 13879 23132 31259 43237 61960 300 500 750 833 1388 2082 1. #12G 1/2" (3)#10.0 75 208 180 90. 250kcmil G (6) Sets (5)600kcmil.5 12.4 5 41. #3/0G (4) Sets (5)500kcmil.33 4. #6G 2" 312 400 (4)500kcmil.7 14. -Transformers suspended with rod hangers must have supports that can resist lateral seismic forces and the secondary buckling of vertical supports that can result from lateral seismic forces. and anchor installation and testing are critical components of seismic-restraint systems. #6G 2" 312 400 (5)600kcmil. #3/0G (2) 3" #3/0 400 150 180 225 (3)#4/0. #4G 2" 208 225 (5)#4/0.66 3 25. or mounted to resist vertical and horizontal forces. #10G 1/2" 25 35 (3)#8.#8G 1-1/4" #8 (3)#4.#2/0N. #6G 1-1/4" (3)#2. Concrete strength. #12G 1/2" 8 15 (3)#12.7 10.#8G 3/4" #8 (4)#8. 500kcmil G Note: Secondary feeder schedule only applies if neutral is bonded to ground at the transformer.2 7.0 12.#8G 1/2" #8 (3)#12. #12G 1/2" (3)#12.

73 2.1 3.76 2.97 2.72 %Z 3.27 3.8989 4.16 1.6623 5.COORDINATION Short Circui Amps (FLA/%Z) Impedance Dimensions H (in.22 208V 214 518 480V 93 224 W (in.78 966 1498 419 649 19 20 12 16 15 27 235 200 666 529 1280 2270 2.75 2.82 2.07 4.56 1.) 120 145 No Load 376 495 Full Load 563 939 KVA 3 6 %R 3.7 3.31 1.94 1.8 4.42 112.58 2.95 1.18 5.51 5.96 4.72 %X 1 1.69 4.) 9 9 9 15 2.2 1951 3710 6497 845 1308 2815 20 20 30 16 20 20 27 30 30 250 340 500 854 1024 1366 6128 5753 8654 30 45 75 2.89 3.04 1. .) 14 14 BTU Heat Loss Weight (lbs.37 3.24 6953 9235 12054 15882 3013 4002 5224 6882 30 32 35 41 24 27 29 32 37 44 50 50 750 800 1025 1450 2048 2390 3073 3755 13073 15124 19784 24120 500 750 1 1 4.75 48274 20919 72 54 94 6300 Transformer Equivalent Circuits Fig.) 15 15 D (in.8989 5 5 27758 41636 12028 18042 48 56 36 41 71 74 2100 3950 5121 7169 23471 34447 1000 1 5.5 150 225 300 2.49 4.1 4. 1: Transformer Equivalent Circuit.