Pulse varieties of Pakistan

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PULSE VARIETIES OF PAKISTAN

Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department G-9/4, Islamabad

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1. Preface 2. Foreword 3. Acknowledgements 4. Introduction 5. Contents 6. Abbreviations 7. Summary list 8. Varieties 9. Descriptor & notes – chickpeas, lentils, etc 10. Procedures of crop inspection 11. System of pedigreed seed production 12. Seed standards – chkp, lentil others 13. Area and production trends for 30 years 14. Photographs / sketches 15. References

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CONTENTS
CONTENTS.......................................................................................................................3 PROLOGUE......................................................................................................................8 FOREWORD...................................................................................................................10 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................12 CAUSES OF LOW YIELD............................................................................................13 Common pulse crops....................................................................................................14

Nutritive Value of Certain Pulses and Other Foods............................................15
Chickpea, Gram, Chana (Cicer arietinum).................................................................15 Cowpea, Lobia (Vigna unguiculata)............................................................................16 Kidney bean, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) .................................................17 Lathyrus, Matri, Chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus)......................................................17 Lentils Masoor (Lens culinaris)...................................................................................18 Mash, Black gram, Mashbean, Urd (Vigna mungo)...................................................19 Moth bean, Mat bean (Vigna aconitifolia)..................................................................19 Mungbean Mung (Vigna radiata)................................................................................20 Pigeon Pea, Red Gram (Cajanus cajan) .....................................................................21 Chickpea varieties...........................................................................................................22 Bittal 98.............................................................................................................................23 Balkasar 2000...................................................................................................................24 Cm 72................................................................................................................................25 cm 88.................................................................................................................................26 cm 98.................................................................................................................................27 cm 2000.............................................................................................................................28 dusht 98.............................................................................................................................29 Dg 89.................................................................................................................................30

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dg 92..................................................................................................................................31 kark 98..............................................................................................................................32 hasan 2k............................................................................................................................33 kark 2................................................................................................................................34 kark 3................................................................................................................................35 kc 1....................................................................................................................................36 c 44.....................................................................................................................................37 NOOR 91..........................................................................................................................38 Nifa 88...............................................................................................................................39 Punjab 91..........................................................................................................................40 Paidar 91...........................................................................................................................41 nifa 95................................................................................................................................42 Punjab 2000......................................................................................................................43 wanhar 2000.....................................................................................................................44 lawaghar 2000..................................................................................................................45 parbat 98...........................................................................................................................46 sheenghar 2000.................................................................................................................47 Mung varieteis..................................................................................................................48 NM 28................................................................................................................................49 nm 13-1..............................................................................................................................50 nm 19-19............................................................................................................................51 nm 20-21............................................................................................................................52 nm 121-25..........................................................................................................................53

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nm 92.................................................................................................................................54 khalood..............................................................................................................................55 NM 98................................................................................................................................56 nm 54.................................................................................................................................57 nm 51.................................................................................................................................58 chakwal mung 97.............................................................................................................59 km 1...................................................................................................................................60 mash varieties...................................................................................................................61 Mash 97.............................................................................................................................62 mash 2...............................................................................................................................63 mash 3...............................................................................................................................64 chakwal mash...................................................................................................................65 mash 88.............................................................................................................................66 lentil (masoor) varieties...................................................................................................67 masoor 93..........................................................................................................................68 shiraz 96............................................................................................................................69 masoor 2002......................................................................................................................70 precose...............................................................................................................................71 masoor 85..........................................................................................................................72 mansehra 89.....................................................................................................................73 pulses PEDIGREED SYSTEM OF SEED PRODUCTION........................................74 PEDIGREED SEED INCREASE SYSTEM - Diagram................................................83 PROCEDURES FOR SEED CROP INSPECTION ....................................................84 1. OBJECTIVE.............................................................................................................84

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2. PRINCIPLES OF SEED CERTIFICATION............................................................84

1 Eligibility of varieties......................................................................................84 2 Generation system...........................................................................................85 3 Certification Standards...................................................................................85 4 Documentation................................................................................................86 5 Crop inspection...............................................................................................86 6 Seed testing.....................................................................................................86 7 Post control plots............................................................................................86
3. FIELD INSPECTION PROCEDURES....................................................................86

1. Requirements.................................................................................................87 2. Documentary checks and preliminaries..........................................................87 3. Number of crop inspections...........................................................................88 4. Crop inspection..............................................................................................88 5. Taking Counts...............................................................................................89 6. Number of Counts..........................................................................................89 7. Method of Taking Count................................................................................89 8. Final Inspection..............................................................................................91
4 Reporting results.......................................................................................................92 Field and seed certification standards...........................................................................93

CROP STANDARDS........................................................................................93 FACTOR...........................................................................................................94 II. SEED STANDARDS...................................................................................94 FACTOR...........................................................................................................94
LENTILS..........................................................................................................................96

FACTOR...........................................................................................................96 II. SEED STANDARDS...................................................................................97

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FACTOR...........................................................................................................97 FACTOR...........................................................................................................98 II. SEED STANDARDS...................................................................................98 FACTOR...........................................................................................................98 FACTOR...........................................................................................................99 II. SEED STANDARDS.................................................................................100 FACTOR.........................................................................................................100 LENTIL...........................................................................................................101 MASH.............................................................................................................102 MUNG.............................................................................................................102
REFERENCES............................................................................................................103 References..................................................................................................................103

Nutritive Value of Certain Pulses and Other Foods..........................................104

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PROLOGUE
The significance of proteins for preservation and up keeping of human health needs no emphasis. As the animal protein is becoming expensive, the pulses offer an excellent substitute of meat, which is reliable and comparatively cheaper source of proteins. Pulses are rich in proteins, low in fat, rich in fiber and complex carbohydrates, and good sources of vitamins. There are many types of pulse crops grown in Pakistan like chickpea, lentil, mungbeans, mashbeans, and cowpeas. Serious concern has been shown about their low yields as compared to other countries of the world. A brief comparison of yield with some of the other countries of the world follows:

Area and yield of Chickpea in some other countries during 2001-2002
Name of country Pakistan India China Australia USA Egypt Due to low production the country has to import large quantities of pulses from abroad. During the last year the pulse import bill exceeds Rs. 000000. The two most outstanding reasons of low production are lack of high yielding improved varieties and inadequate availability of certified seed. Against the target of 20% renewal of certifies seed the availability during the last year was 1% in chickpea and 00% mungbean and 0% for other pulses. Due to the limitations of the public sector seed organizations in making available sufficient quantities of quality seed, the privates sector was inducted and encouraged to enter seed business. The only purpose was to augment availability of certifies seed of all crops according to the requirements. The rights of seed production and marketing have been granted to about 450 organizations in private Area (000 ha) Yield/ha (mt)

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sector but the quantity of certified seed produced and made available to the farming community particularly of pulses has not increased proportionally. The major reasons of this failure may be the lack of awareness of the management about the availability of latest improved varieties of pulse crops, low production or market fluctuations. The efforts of the Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department for compiling the most important information in the form of, the “Pulse Varieties of Pakistan” are appreciated. Almost all the important aspects of pulse crops and seed production like breeding center, genetic background, phonological and physiological traits, distinctness, uniformity and stability and agronomic characteristics have been put together in this book. Pulse Varieties of Pakistan is the third book of the series after Wheat Varieties of Pakistan and Cotton Varieties of Pakistan. It is expected that this book will create awareness among the seed producers for selecting a particular pulse crop variety for a particular cropping pattern under varied growth and ecological conditions. I wish the department to continue work hard and bring out similar books on other farm and horticultural crops. The undersigned would also like to emphasize that we should develop a website from where all type of information required by the farmers regarding crop production should be available easily. SARDAR YAR MUHAMMAD RIND FEDERAL MINISTER MINISTRY OF FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK ISLAMABAD

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FOREWORD
The field crops in agricultural farming are generally divided in two groups. The crops like wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane and cotton form the group called major crops whereas pulses and small grain cereals are put together as minor crops. The major crops enjoy the top position because of their importance for providing almost all food for human being and also chief source of feed for animals. The major crops are just a few species whereas there is a wide range of diversity of cultivated crop species. According to some estimates the number of such species is over 6000. The most important reason seems that the major crop species succeeded in becoming the focus of human attention and developmental efforts for selection of superior ones; while relatively little attention has been given to minor crops. Pulse crops perhaps stand among those crops, which although ignored rather neglected for research and development yet have succeeded in having their nutritional value recognized in majority of countries and stressed marginal growing conditions. They have proved their significance in a variety of ways may it be for human or animal consumption. The major reasons for their low genetic potential are the lack of research efforts of the scientists and breeders and at the same time lack of appropriated production technologies not only in marginal areas but also for different farming systems and cropping patters. Due to over dependence of too few major crops the farmers are following the same cropping pattern since decades. The perpetual practice of the same pattern has resulted in severe and dangerous concentration of insects and pests and diseases. The present cropping pattern needs major diversification of crop species. It has become indispensable to break the continuous and unbroken chain of insect and disease concentrations. The soil conditions have also deteriorated very severely. To restore and renew the physical health of the soil, the cropping pattern have to be customized having suitable crop rotations with a fair representation of leguminous crops. Concerted and collaborative research efforts are needed to break the inherent low genetic potential of pulse crops and developing appropriate production technologies for different marginalized areas, cropping and farming systems. For this purposes it is imperative to strengthen our pulse breeding programs in men and materials backed by sufficient funding. Moreover in addition to exploring and utilizing untapped local genetic diversity, we must also import and incorporate in to our breeding programs the exotic germplasm from pulse growing countries all

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over the world. We must also identify constraints of low production and use of each crop and develop their possible solutions. The researchers must also concentrate upon critically reviewing the work done so far and possible gaps in various approaches. The efforts and collaborative research services being extended by International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria to out scientists and research institutions in the form of exotic germplasm, genetic information, modern technology and training facilities is highly appreciated. The Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department is appreciated for having compiled this book on Pulse Varieties of Pakistan. The book covers the basic information on development of the variety along with morphological description, physiological and phonological characteristics. It provides all necessary information about genetic features that is needed by the research workers in their diversification and improvement programs. Further the farmers will also find this book very useful as it furnishes thorough information about sandwiching pulse crops as catch crops in between the major cropping patterns in rice and cotton areas.

SALIK NAZIR AHMED SECRETARY MINISTRY OF FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK ISLAMABAD

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INTRODUCTION

The pulses are defined as annual leguminous crops harvested solely for the dry grain used for food and feed and therefore excludes green beans and peas, which are considered vegetable crops and others, which are mainly grown for oil extraction, like soybeans and peanuts, and fodder crops like clovers and alfalfa etc. Pulses are very important food crops particularly in developing countries and vegetarian societies due to their high protein and essential amino acid contents and in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen. Pulses considered as best substitute of meat protein are grown on large areas all over the world. However India is both the world's largest producer and the world's largest importer of pulses. Pakistan also imports large quantities of pulses to meet the ever increasing gap between the domestic production and requirements. Considerably a large acreage estimated to be over 7% of the total cropped area is occupied by pulses. Area and production (5 year averages) for the last 2 decades follow: Sr. # 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . Year 1985-90 Area (000 h) 1417.3 Production (000 t) 710.8 Yield kg/ha (average) 501.5

1990-95

1480.8

675.4

456.1

1995-2000

1537.6

902.4

586.9

2000-2002

1379.5

593.8

430.4

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Agri. Statistics of Pakistan, 2001-2002 Pulse crops are generally considered hard crops and grown on marginal lands under low fertility and low moisture conditions. They not only are an important source of vegetable protein in the human diet, but also possess the unique ability of fixing atmosphere nitrogen into the soil through Rhizobia present in the nodules on their roots. Pulse crops, in spite of their importance in diet and agriculture have not received the attention in the breeding programs they deserved. This is why their yields are low and almost static for the last many decades. Despite of the dietary importance, increasing demand, huge imports and scarceness of foreign exchange the pulses have not been given the importance they deserved. The yields of pulse crops are very low rather static since long, whereas, significant improvement in yield of wheat and cotton has been achieved. Wheat yields rose from 1422 kg/ha in 1975-76 to 2491 kg/ha in 1999-200 and cotton yields improved from 277 kg/ha in 1975-76 to 769 kg/ha in 1991-92 (ASP 20012002). Possible major reasons for low pulse yields follow:

CAUSES OF LOW YIELD
1. Low yield potential of varieties: There is extreme scarcity of research and genetic information on pulse crops. Moreover the commercial varieties of pulse crops are normally developed for marginal soil conditions, poor management and minimum inputs. It has also been noticed that continued cultivation on marginal lands has resulted in the erosion of genetic variability. The varieties fail to respond positively to inputs like fertilizer and irrigation. It seems they lack both form and frame to support a more productive plant type. 2. Absence of sound seed program: There is no systematic seed production and distribution program for pulse crops. There have been very small quantities of certified seed of only chickpea made available to the farmers. Other pulses have not so far been included in the seed production program of seed corporations/agencies. 3. Stresses of rainfed conditions: Stresses of drought, heat and cold are common in these areas. Moreover commonly the farmers fail to conserve rain moisture. 4. Inadequate plant stand: Generally the farmer’s fields have very thin plant stands due to availability of low soil moisture, low seed arte and poor management. 5. Poor agronomic practices: Application of inadequate amounts of production inputs, traditional methods of land preparation, seeding and weeding and low seed rates. Non-availability of suitable package of

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production technology for rainfed areas, rice tract and other farm systems. 6. Damage from diseases, insects and pests: The disease causing serious yield losses include Ascochyta blight, Botrytis gray mold, Fusarium wilt and rots. A major insect is pod borer. Weeds also are a serious problem. 7. Socio-Economic conditions: Socio-economic factors include people’s preferences, support price policy and marketing system etc. Our marketing system favors the middlemen and not the producer. Pulses also known as grain legumes belong to the family Leguminosae. All of the pulse crops grown in Rabi and Kharif seasons are self-pollinating. Chickpea is the largest crop covering about 90% of the pulse area and the other pulse crops in the order of importance are mungbeans, lentils and mashbeans etc. General information covering chromosomes number, mode of pollination, nutritional status, and growing season along with importance and brief description follow:

Common pulse crops
1. 2. 9 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Common Name Chickpea, Gram, Chana Cowpeas, Lobia Kidney beans, Surkh lobia Lathyrus, matri Lentils, Masoor Mashbeans, Blackgram, Urd Mothbeans, Moth Mungbeans, Greengram Pigeon pea, Arhar Crop 1. Chickpea, Gram, Chana 2. Cowpeas, Lobia 9 Kidney beans, Surkh lobia 3. Lathyrus, Matri 4. Lentils, Masoor 5. Mashbeans, Blackgram Botanical Name Cicer arietinum Vigna unguiculata Phaseolus vulgaris Lathyrus sativus Lens culinaris Vigna mungo Vigna aconitifolius Vigna radiata Cajanus cajan Season Rabi Spring/autumn Spring/autumn Rabi Rabi Spring/autumn Chr. 2n 16 22 22 14 14 22 22 22 22 Protein % 24.2 24.6 22.0 25.9 24.8 25.1 24.0 25.3 21.5

Pollination Self Self Self Self Self Self

Germination Hypogeal Epigeal Epigeal Hypogeal Hypogeal Epigeal

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6. Mothbeans, Moth 7. Mungbeans, Greengram 8. Pigeon pea, Arhar

Self Self Self

Spring/autumn Spring/autumn Spring/autumn

Epigeal Epigeal Hypogeal

Nutritive Value of Certain Pulses and Other Foods Food Calories Calcium (mg/ Iron (mg/ Protein (%) (per100g) 100g) 100g) 341 343 358 342 343 346 370 360 360 338 198 163 360 22.1 23.4 20.1 23.4 20.9 24.2 10.9 6.7 9.3 1.5 19.0 12.4 36.0 137 90 149 76 129 56 16 10 6 12 11 50 1235 6.7 3.6 7.2 5.7 5.8 6.1 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.0 2.3 2.5 0.9

Kidney Beans Broad Beans Chick-peas Cow Peas Pigeon Peas Lentils Wheat (flour) Rice (milled) Maize (flour) Cassava Beef Eggs Milk Source: FAO

Chickpea, Gram, Chana (Cicer arietinum)
Chickpea, gram or chana (Cicer arietinum), is the most important member of the pulse family. It is an ancient crop, most probably grown in Turkey 7400 years ago. Chickpeas are native to the Middle East and are traditionally grown in the semiarid regions of Pakistan, India, Turkey and the Mediterranean countries. van der Maesen (1972) believed that the species originated in the southern Caucasus and northern Persia. However, Ladizinsky, (1975) reported the center of origin to be southeastern part of Turkey adjoining Syria. Botanical and archeological evidence show that chickpeas were first domesticated in the Middle East and was widely cultivated in India, Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and Ethiopia since antiquity. Brought to the New World, it is now important in, Australia, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Peru and the U.S. Wild species are most abundant in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia" (Duke, 1981). Kabuli

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types are grown in temperate regions while the desi type chickpeas are grown in the semi-arid tropics. As the third most important pulse crop in the world after dry beans and peas, chickpeas make up 20% of world pulse crop production. It is used as a food in many countries. Chickpea is valued for its nutritive seeds with high protein content, 25.3-28.9 %, after dehulling. The mature chickpea seeds are used as a dry bean as whole or dal and green immature seed are used as a vegetable. Dal or Dhal is the split chickpea without its seed coat. Also the chickpea flour (basin) is used to make pakoras, soups and a variety of other dishes and sweets. Crisp spicy Pakoras have gained a traditional status as an integral part of iftari during the fasting month of Ramzan. Animal feed is another use of chickpea in many countries. Gram husks, and green or dried stems and leaves are used for stock feed; whole seeds may be milled directly for feed. Acid exudates from the leaves can be applied medicinally or used as vinegar. Chickpea is also considered an effective hypocholesteremic agent; germinated chickpea was reported to be effective in controlling cholesterol level in rats. Glandular secretion of the leaves, stems, and pods consists malic and oxalic acids, giving a sour taste. Two types of chickpea are recognized, desi (colored, small seeded, angular and fibrous) and kabuli (beige, large seeded, ramshead shaped with lower fiber content) types. Chickpea is an annual plant generally requiring a cool season. The chickpea plant is 20–100 cm tall. Chickpea has a deep tap root and is considered drought tolerant.

Cowpea, Lobia (Vigna unguiculata)
Cowpea, Lobia (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), is an annual grain legume crop. It originated in Africa about five to six thousand years ago. Currently it is widely grown in Africa, Nigeria being the largest producer, Latin America, South East Asia and United States. In Pakistan it is not grown on large areas, but on very small scale. Lobia, cowpea is rich in protein and a very important nutritious component in the human diet, as well as a nutritious feed and fodder for livestock. Cowpea is a very useful plant. It can be used at all stages of growth. The young, tender green leaves can be used as potherb like spinach. Immature green pods can also be used as whole and green cowpea seeds as a fresh vegetable like peas. Mature and dried seeds are used as pulse commonly boiled as whole and not split to make dal. In some African countries green or dried cowpea hay is used as fodder and it is the only available high quality legume hay for livestock feed. It also is a suitable crop to be used as a green manure. Cowpea plant are semi-erect to prostrate, or climbers, indeterminate to semi determinate. The trifoliate leaves, variable in size and shape are smooth, dull to shiny, and rarely pubescent with terminal leaflet is bigger and larger. Flowers are multiple racemes with long peduncles arise from the leaf axil. Long peduncles are

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a distinguishing characteristic. Cowpea is a self pollinating crop but the presence of and open display of flowers above the foliage help attract insects and some cross pollination can occur. The pod ranges in size from short to vary long and seed (Lobia) from small to medium and bold. Seed color varies from white, cream, green, buff, red, brown, and black. Seed shape may be a kidney shape or globular with seed coat smooth or wrinkled and may be mottled. Seed hilum is surrounded by another color commonly referred to as “eye” and is distinctive to vary from black, pink, to purple etc. germination epigeal.

Kidney bean, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported to be domesticated in the new world more than 6,000 years ago and from there it spread to Europe, Africa and Asia. Common bean is susceptible to drought, high temperature and high rainfall and set little seed. It grows well in area of medium rainfall from the tropics to the temperate regions. In Pakistan It performs well in drier areas and conditions suitable for the cultivation of maize. The stem is slender, twisted and ribbed having purple streaks. The leaf trifoliate, the terminal leaflet subtended by a pair of tiny stipules and the other with one stipule. The flower is white, pink or purple with coiled style. The 4-6 seeded pod is slender, 10-20 cm long, straight or curved with a prominent beak. The seed is non-endospermic, vary greatly in size, shape and color from small black types to large white, brown, red, black, or mottled ones, oblong, globular or often kidney-shaped. Germination epigeal. Common bean is mainly grown for green immature pods which are eaten as a vegetable. Also it is grown for seed, which is used as whole, not as split dal. In some countries young leaves are used as potherb vegetable. The plant also makes a good fodder and straw is used as forage.

Lathyrus, Matri, Chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus)
Matri (Lathyrus sativus) was the commonest pulse crop after lentils, although absent from the Early Neolithic, and less popular in early Bronze Age times. It is not a common pulse in Pakistan mostly grown in Sindh on salaba lands in the river tract after rice. It is mostly fed as feed to the cattle. Due to its non acceptability as a good pulse among masses it has not been given any importance by the researchers. Hence there are no improved, registered and released varieties of this crop. The grass pea is a common pulse crop grown in rice belt in Sindh in

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Pakistan. Lathyrus is also grown in Bangladesh, India and other South East Asian countries. In Pakistan it is mainly grown for grain to be used as grain feed for livestock and to some extent as pulse for human consumption. Lathyrus sativus is liable to be somewhat neurotoxic. It is considered a poor or lesser degree pulse for human consumption. At green stage Lathyrus is also used as green fodder for animals and a suitable crop for green manure. The chaff stems and hay after thrashing is also considered a nutritive fodder for animals. Matri flour has also been reported being used to adulterate the basin the flour of chickpea. Matri also called grass pea is a much-branched trailing or climbing annual plant with a well-developed taproot system covered with nodules. The stem is slender up to 50 cm long with winged margins. Stipules are prominent, narrowly triangular to ovate with a basal appendage. The leaves are pinnate, with sessile leaflets 4-7 cm long and 1.0 cm wide. The tendril may be simple to much branched. The flower is axillary, solitary and may be white, red, purple, blue or pink. The peduncle is 3-5 cm long with two minute bracts. The pod is 3-5 seeded, oblong, flat, slightly bulging over the seeds, 2-5 cm long and up to 1 cm in width with short beak, weak curvature and two wings at dorsal end. The seed is wedge shaped angular, 4-7 mm in diameter of white, brownish-grey or yellow color with yellow to pinkish yellow cotyledons. The surface may be mottled. Germination is hypogeal.

Lentils Masoor (Lens culinaris)
Lentil (Lens culinaris) is one of the earliest cultivated crops in the world grown more than 8,500 years ago. It is a cool season annual pulse crop which spread from the Near East to the Mediterranean area, Asia, Europe and finally the Western Hemisphere. Canada is the world's largest lentil exporter. Varieties of lentils available include red, black, large green, medium green, small green, French green and white lentils. Lentil is a very popular pulse in Pakistan and India. It is also grown on large areas. The inherent low yield potential, susceptibility to diseases (blight, rust, wilt, root rot and stem rot), weed infestation and poor management are the main reason of low yields. Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad has developed some improved varieties which have been registered and released in the country. Further research is needed and the breeding programs can play an important role in the development of improved varieties with high yield potential, better adapted to local environmental conditions and resistant to diseases. For this purpose possibilities of using exotic germplasm and utilization of biotechnology and mutation etc. must be explored. Lentil is a protein rich (22-35%) pulse crop but the nutritional value is low

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because lentil is deficient in the amino acids methionine and cystine. Lentil is an excellent supplement to cereal grain diets because of its good protein/carbohydrate content. It is used in soups, stews, casseroles and salad dishes. Lentil can be used as a green manure crop. Lentil plants are slender, semi-erect, medium to much branched with compound leaves having a tendril at the tips. Plants normally short to medium tall depending on soil moisture and fertility. Flowering begins on the lowest branches, gradually moving up the plant and continuing until harvest. Each flower produces a short 1-2 seeded pod. Flowers can be white, lilac or pale blue in color. The seeds (2 to 7 mm in diameter) come in colors of tan, brown, or black, and sometimes purple or black mottled. Genetic improvement work on the lentil has been very limited and has lacked institutional support. It is essential to continue research with the aim of obtaining more productive high-yield cultivars, particularly through local breeding using local land races. Further appropriate production packages must also be prepared for different agro-ecological conditions and farming systems.

Mash, Black gram, Mashbean, Urd (Vigna mungo)
Black Gram, Mash Urd bean (Vigna mungo) has been cultivated for a long time in the Indian subcontinent as a drought resistant pulse crop. It can be grown both as a summer and winter crop; often in rotation with rice or sometimes in mixed cultivation with other crops. The Urd bean is mostly grown as pulse crop in Pakistan, Burma, Bangladesh, India and Thailand The plant is an erect, semi erect or prostrate annual herb which grows up to 80 cm in height. Flower is pale yellow. Pod is light or dark brown at maturity, cylindrical with weak to medium curvature. The seed is green, dark green or mostly black. Mash is one of the highly prized pulses in Pakistan used as a whole or in the form of Dal (split grains). The Urd bean is favored for production of bean sprouts in Japan, and valued for its high digestibility and freedom from the flatulence effect. It can also be used as green manure and a cover crop or fodder crop.

Moth bean, Mat bean (Vigna aconitifolia)
Moth or mat bean (Vigna aconitifolia) is native to Pakistan, India, and Burma. Moth bean is claimed to be one the most drought-tolerant legume grown in the world. The drought tolerance of this bean may be due to the well developed tap

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root and/or the manner in which the plant produces a thick, low-lying mat, covering the soil surface and apparently reducing moisture loss. Moth bean is currently grown in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Malaysia and Africa, and for fodder in the USA. The plant is much branched, spreading, and hairy up to 50 cm tall. The leaf have leaflets deeply lobed, terminal leaflet largest and five lobed, the lateral leaflets four lobed. The leaf also subtended by large stipules. The flower is small, yellow colored. The 4-10 seeded pods are thin, narrow, hairy and beaked. The seed is small, rectangular, gray, black or mottled. Germination epigeal. Moth bean seed is used as human food and cooked whole or split and the green pods can be cooked and eaten as vegetables. Seeds are also sprouted to form bean paste. Mash seed has 22-31% crude protein, with a biological value similar to that of mung bean but with lower digestibility. It has a short, compact plant habit which has advantages with soil erosion and weed control. It is also a good fodder for cattle and a green manure crop.

Mungbean Mung (Vigna radiata)
Mungbean or Mung (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek.) is also known as moong, mungo, green gram, golden gram. Its origin is said to be northeastern India, Burma (Myanmar) region of Asia. It is primarily grown in Asia, Africa, South and North America, and Australia principally for its protein-rich edible seeds. Human consumption of mungbean is as dry seeds or sprouts. Mungbean sprouts are high in protein (21%–28%), calcium, phosphorus and certain vitamins. For sprout mungbeans a high quality bold, glossy shining green color seed with excellent germination is required. but can be used as a green manure crop and as forage for livestock. Mungbean is grown in Pakistan on largest pulse area second only to chickpea. Mostly it is grown as a catch crop summer or autumn season. Its major concentration is found in the districts of Jhelem, Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar etc. Mungbean is a warm season annual, heavily branched with trifoliate leaves like the other legumes. The pale yellow flowers are borne in clusters of 10–15 near the top of the plant. Mature pods are variable in color, brown to black, about 1015 cm long, and contain 8-15 seeds. Self pollination occurs as a rule however there may be some cross pollination. Mature seed color vary from variety to variety e.g. brown, mottled black or green or yellow, depending upon variety. The seed is round to oblong drum shaped and vary in size. Germination is epigeal.

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Mung

Pigeon Pea, Red Gram (Cajanus cajan)
Pigeonpea, Arhar (Cajanus cajan) is one of the oldest food crops of the world and enjoys 5th position among edible legumes in worldwide production. Pigeonpea is said to produce more nitrogen per unit of plant biomass than most other legumes and can nodulate in most soils. It is a very hard, heat tolerant and drought resistant tropical legume crop highly suitable for growing in poor and marginal soils under hot and stressed dry conditions and can be used along contour barriers for erosion control. It is very ancient crop grown since times immemorial. Pigeon pea is grown on very small scale in Pakistan but it is a very popular pulse crop in India. In Africa pigeon pea is an important pulse crop. Pigeon pea is a nutritious, high-protein (18-25%) pulse crop. Seeds are rich in sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine, and cystine. It is mainly used as pulse for human consumption but can make a nutritious feed for animals. Pigeon pea plant is a multipurpose plant. It can make a good hedge crop, provides shade to sensitive and delicate crops, green pods used as vegetable, fuel for cooking etc. At young stage pigeon pea also makes a good green manure crop and fodder for animals. A few plants in the backyard can yield green pods throughout the summer season. The plant is medium tall growing woody shrub up to 2 meter high, can perenniate for a few years but susceptible to frost. The productivity starts declining after first year. The leaf is trifoliate. Leaflet narrow lanceolate and medium to strongly hairy. The flower is yellow, or purple, The pod is short, 4-6 seeded, medium to strongly pubescent. The seed is roundish, white, brown, red or black in color.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

Chickpea varieties

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

BITTAL 98
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross: Check: .C 44 Breeders: Ali, A. et al. Center: Pulses Research Institute (PRI), (AARI), Faisalabad. Maintainer: Pulses Research Institute, (AARI), Faisalabad. Status: Released 1998. Registered 1999. Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium maturing (160 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (60-70 cm), erect semi bushy in attitude and medium branched, stem anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green in color, medium hairy, leaflet length 1.4, width 0.9 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering early (105 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size large, 1-2 seeded, constrictions very weak, pubescence weak, beak very short, pods/plant 70-90, length 2.3, width 1.2, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 8.6, width 7.5, thickness 6.6 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color brown, wrinkles medium, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 287 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Bittal 98 a Desi variety of chickpeas. Plants medium tall
growing, semi- erect in attitude with dark green foliage, broad leaflets and pink flowers. Pod shape rhomboid, beak very short, and pubescence weak, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size bold, shape ramhead, beak medium, surface moderately wrinkled and brown colored.

C 44 x (c 44 x C 87)

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

BALKASAR 2000
Type: Desi Chickpea, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: ILC 5928/{ILC5928/ILC72)(ILC3856/E-100 YM)} Check: PB 91 Breeders: Ramzan, M. C. et al. Center: BARI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: BAR, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (160-190 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (60-70 cm), medium branching, semi erect, stem hairs absent, anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 8-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 50-60, length 22-25, width 10-12 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium bold, length 8.5, width 6.0 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown, surface medium wrinkled rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 26.5 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Balkasar 2000 a medium duration chickpea variety.
Plants short, erect semi bushy, stem anthocyanin medium, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium bold, surface rough and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CM 72
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local mutant: 6153 (15 kr gamma rays) Check: .6153 Breeders: Haq, M. A. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad. Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad. Status: Released 1983. Registered 1984 Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium early maturing (185-190 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium (60-65 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, leaflet size large, length 1.8, width 1.0 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering early (103 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weekt. Pod: Size medium, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence strong, beak medium, pods/plant 60-70, length 2.2, width 1.2, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.5, width 6.5, thickness 6.0 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 195 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: CM 72 a Desi variety. Plants medium, erect semi bushy, medium green foliage and pink flowers. Pod rhomboid, beak short, pubescence strong and color light brown. Seed size medium, ramhead, beak medium, surface moderately wrinkled and light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CM 88
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local Mutant C 727 (10 kr) Check: CM 72. Breeders: Haq, A.et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1994 Registered 1996. Growth habit: Erect, semi bushy, medium duration (170-180 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (60-70 cm), medium branched, semi erect, stem anthocyanin medium, hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium, medium green in color, medium hairy, leaflet size medium, length 1.0, width 0.4 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium Flower: Flowering medium (110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence medium, beak short, pods/plant 60-70, length 2.2, width 1.2, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.7, width 6.8, thickness 7.1 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots medium. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 180 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: CM 88 a Desi mutant variety. Plants height medium, stem thin, anthocyanin medium, foliage medium green, flowers pink. Pod rhomboid, beak short, pubescence medium, light brown. Seed medium, ramhead, beak medium, moderately wrinkled and light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CM 98
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local Mutant K 850 (300 Gy) Check: CM 72 Breeders: Haq, A. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1998. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (170-180 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (55-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 7-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (100-110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium large, light brown at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 45-55, length 20-25, width 10-15 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1600-1700 Seed: Seed size medium, length 10-12, width 7.5 mm. Seed shape angular beaked, color reddish brown, surface rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 240 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: CM 98 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage dark green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed angular beaked, size medium, surface rough and color reddish brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CM 2000
Type: Kabuli Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local mutant ILC (150 Gy gamma rays) Check: CM 98 Breeders: Haq, A. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004. Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (160-165 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-20, width 10-12 petiole 15-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (100-110 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 60-70, length 20-25, width 10-12 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size bold, length 7.5, width 7.4 mm. Seed pea shaped, color beige, surface smooth, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 260 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: CM 2000 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants
short, erect semi bushy, foliage light green, sparsely hairy, flower white. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size bold, color beige, smooth and pea shaped.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

DUSHT 98
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross C 44/ ICC 7770 Check: CM 72 Breeders: Center: NARC, PARC, Islamabad Maintainer: NARC, PARC, Islamabad Status: Released 2003. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (65-70 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 8-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (80-85 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin strong. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 45-50, length 22-25, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 6.8, width 6.1 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown, surface medium smooth, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 24.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Dusht 98 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants
short, erect semi bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium, surface medium smooth and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

DG 89
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local selection: 6153 Check: .CM 72 Breeders: Oad, S. M. et al. Center: RRI, Dokri. Maintainer: RRI, Dokri Status: Released 1991 Registered 1990 Growth habit: Semi-bushy, early maturing (135-40 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (60-70 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, leaflet size medium, length 1.3, width 0.8 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering early (80 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 40-45, length 2.2, width 1.0, thickness 1.0 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.0, width 6.0, thickness 6.2 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color brown, wrinkles medium, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 230 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: DG 89 a Desi variety of chickpeas. Plants medium tall
growing, semi- bushy in attitude with medium green foliage and pink flowers. Pod shape rhomboid, beak medium, and pubescence weak, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size bold, shape ramhead, beak medium, surface moderately wrinkled and brown colored.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

DG 92
Type: Kabuli Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage:: L 550 x F 496 Check: Local Chana Breeders: Oad, S.M. et al. Center: RRI, Dokri `Maintainer: RRI, Dokri Status: Released 1993. Registered 1996 Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium early maturing (190-200 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (65-75 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem anthocyanin absent, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, weakly hairy, leaflet size medium, length 1.5, width 0.7 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin absent. Flower: Flowering medium (85 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size large, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence medium, beak short, pods/plant 40-50, length 2.8, width 1.2, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 9.0, width 8.0, thickness 8.5 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color beige, wrinkles weak, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 220 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: DG 92 a Kabuli variety. Plants medium tall, erect semi bushy, anthocyanin absent and foliage green, flower white. Pod rhomboid, beak short, pubescence medium, light brown. Seed bold, ramhead, beak medium, surface weakly wrinkled and color beige.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KARK 98
Type: Kabuli Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage:: Exotic selection: 1571-12A Check: DG 89 Breeders: Ahmad, B. et al. Center: ARS, Kark `Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 1993. Registered 1996 Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium maturing (180-190 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (45-55 cm), medium branched, erect semi bushy in attitude, stem anthocyanin absent, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, weakly hairy, leaflet size medium, length 1.5, width 0.7 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin absent. Flower: Flowering medium (85 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size large, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence medium, beak short, pods/plant 30-40, length 2.8, width 1.9, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 9.0, width 8.0, thickness 8.5 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color beige, wrinkles medium, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 220 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Kark 98 a Kabuli variety. Plants medium tall, erect semi bushy, anthocyanin absent, foliage light green, flower white. Pod rhomboid, beak short, pubescence medium, light brown. Seed bold, ramhead, beak medium, surface weakly wrinkled and color beige.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

HASAN 2K
Type: Kabuli Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local mutant ILC 195 (0.45 kGy) Check: Pb 1 Breeders: Hasan, S. et al. Center: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawar Maintainer: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawar Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi spreading, medium maturing (170-190 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-80 cm), medium branching, semi spreading in attitude, stem hairiness medium and anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-20, width 10-12 petiole 15-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (115 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak short, pods/plant 60-70, length 18-22, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium bold, length 8.2, width 6.5 mm. Seed ramhead, color beige, surface smooth, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 244 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Hasan 2k a medium duration Kabuli variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage light green, sparsely hairy, flower white. Pod rhomboid, light brown. Seed medium bold, beige, smooth and ramhead.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KARK 2
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local selection Check: CM 72 Breeders: Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 1992, Registered 1990 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-17, width 8-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (80-85 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions very weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 45-50, length 24-28, width 9-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.0, width 7.0 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color reddish brown, surface medium rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 26.5 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Kark 2 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage dark green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium, surface medium smooth and color reddish brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KARK 3
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local selection Check: CM 72 Breeders: Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark NARC Status: Released 1900. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 14-16, width 8-10 petiole 15-20 mm, anthocyanin medium, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (80-85 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions very weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 52-57, length 22-25, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1700 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.0, width 6.5 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color yellowish brown, surface rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 26.4 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Kark 3 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium, surface medium smooth and color yellowish brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KC 1
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local selection Check: CM 72 Breeders: Abdul Wadood, et al. Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 1998, Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (180-85 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-60 cm), medium branching, erect semi bushy in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-17, width 9-11 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (120-25 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak short, pods/plant 40-45, length 19-20, width 8-9 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 9.5, width 6.0 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color yellowish brown, surface wrinkled, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 190.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: KC 1 a medium duration Desi variety. Plants medium,
erect semi bushy, foliage dark green, flower pink. Pod rhomboid, light. Seed ramhead size medium, surface wrinkled and color yellowish brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

C 44
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Selection Check: C 727 Breeders: Tufaim, M. et al. Center: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 1983. Registered 1986 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium late maturing (170-75 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (55-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 7.2, width 2-3 mm, anthocyanin medium, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (100-110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium large, brownish at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 90-100, length 15-20, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8-9, width 6.6 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown, surface wrinkled, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 228 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: C 44 a medium long duration chickpea variety. Plants
medium tall, erect semi bushy, foliage light green, medium hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, brownish at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead, size medium, surface wrinkled and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NOOR 91
Type: Kabuli, White. (Cicer arietinum) Parentage: Exotic selevtion Check: Pb 1 Breeders: Tufail, M. et al. Center: Pulses Research Institute (PRI), (AARI), Faisalabad. Maintainer: .PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released, 1991. Registered 1992 Growth habit: Plants erect semi bushy, early maturing (165-175 days), Lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (75-80 cm), semi erect in attitude and medium branched. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, color light green, hairiness medium, leaflet length 1.5, width 1.1, stalk 1.1 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin absent. Flower: Flowering early (100 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium large, 2-3 seeded, with very short beak. Surface medium hairy, smooth, pods/plant 30-40, length 2.3, width 1.4, and peduncle 1.0 cm Yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 9.0, width 7.0 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color beige (commonly called white chana). Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 48.0 g, Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: NOOR 91: A Kabuli variety. Plants medium tall, erect
semi bushy in attitude, medium branched with light green foliage and white flowers. Pod 1-2 seeded, light brown at maturity. Seeds bold, ramhead, beak medium, wrinkles medium, color beige (Sufaid chana).

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NIFA 88
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local Mutant: 6153 (10 kr) Check: .CM 72 Breeders: Hasan, S. et al. Center: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawar. `Maintainer: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawer Status: Released 1990. Registered 1990 Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium early maturing (170-80 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (75-90 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, hairs weak, leaflet size medium, length 1.6, width 1.0 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium early (120 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size large, 1-2 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence med, beak short, pods/plant 60-70, length 2.7, width 1.2, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 9.3, width 6.3, thickness 6.5 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 198 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: NIFA 88 a Desi variety. Plants medium tall, semi- erect,
foliage medium green flower pink. Pod rhomboid, beak short, pubescence weak, light brown, ramhead, beak medium, moderately wrinkled and light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PUNJAB 91
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross: NEC I 38-2/ RC 32 Check: CM 72 Breeders: Tufail, M. et al. Center: PRI, (AARI) Faisalabad `Maintainer: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 1991. Registered 1992 Growth habit: Semi-erect, medium early maturing (160-70 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (60-80 cm), medium branched, erect semi bushy in attitude, stem anthocyanin and hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, leaflet size medium, length 0.9, width 0.5 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering medium early (95 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size large, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence med, beak short, pods/plant 40-50, length 2.5, width 1.1, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 9.0, width 7.5, thickness 7.0 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots medium. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 260 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Punjab 91 a Desi variety. Plants medium tall, erect semi
bushy, anthocyanin medium, foliage medium green, flower pink. Pod rhomboid, beak short, and pubescence medium, light brown. Seed medium, ramhead, beak medium, surface moderately wrinkled and light brown in color.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PAIDAR 91
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross: C235 x ILC191-1 Check: CM 72. Breeders: Tufail, M. et al. Center: PRI (AARI), Faisalabad Maintainer: PRI (AARI), Faisalabad Status: Released 1991 Registered 1992 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (150-170 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (65-75 cm), medium branched, erect, semi bushy in attitude, hairiness medium, stem anthocyanin weak. Foliage: Foliage medium, light green in color, medium hairy, leaflet size medium, length 0.9, width 0.4 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin, weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium early (90 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak short, pods/plant 50-55, length 2.0, width 1.0, thickness 1.1 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.3, width 6.0, thickness 6.0 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots medium. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 185 Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Paidar 91 a Desi variety. Plants medium tall, stem thin,
anthocyanin weak, foliage light green, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, beak short, pubescence weak, light brown. Seed size medium, shape ramhead, beak medium, surface moderately wrinkled and light brown in color.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NIFA 95
Type: Desi Chana, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local Mutant 6153 (10 kr) Check: .NIFA 88 Breeders: Hasan, S. et al. Center: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawar Maintainer: NIFA, Tarnab, Peshawar Status: Released 1996. Registered 1997 Growth habit: Spreading, medium maturing (190-105 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (80-90 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem anthocyanin weak. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green in color, sparsely hairy, leaflet size medium, length 1.4, width 0.6 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin weak, senescence late. Flower: Flowering medium (90 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, 1-2 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence medium, beak short, pods/plant 80-100, length 2.5, width 1.2, thickness 1.0 cm with peduncle length 1.0 cm Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 8.9, width 6.6, thickness 6.0 mm, Seed shape ramhead, color light brown, wrinkles medium, dots present. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 186 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: NIFA 95 a Desi mutant. Plants medium tall, spreading, foliage dark green, flower pink. Pod rhomboid, beak short, light brown. Seed medium, ramhead, wrinkled, light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PUNJAB 2000
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross C 87/C 44 Check: Punjab 91 Breeders: Ali, A. et al. Center: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (160-170 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plant height medium (60-70 cm), medium branching, semi erect, stem hairiness sparse, and anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-18, width 8-10 petiole 15-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (112 days). Flower size medium, standard color blue, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 60-70, length 20-23, width 10-12 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size bold, length 7.5, width 7.4 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown, surface medium wrinkled rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 265 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Punjab 2000 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants
short, erect semi bushy, foliage light green, medium hairy, flower blue. Pod light brown, 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead bold, rough and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

WANHAR 2000
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Exotic selection: ILC 5928/{ILC5928/ILC72) (ILC3856/ E100YM)} Check: Punjab 91 Breeders: Chaudhry, G. A. et al. Center: BARI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: BARI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (160-190 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (55-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem nonhairy and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 7-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium large, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 45-60, length 24-27, width 10-12 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1600-1800 Seed: Seed size medium bold, length 8.5, width 6.0 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown, surface medium wrinkled rough, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 280 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Wanhar 2000 a medium duration Desi variety. Plants
mediumt, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower pink. Pod light brown, 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium bold, surface rough and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

LAWAGHAR 2000
Type: Kabuli Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Introduction (Exotic material) Check: KC 98 Breeders: Ahmad, B. et al. Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (180-190 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (50-65 cm), medium branching, semi erect, stem hairiness sparse, and anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 15-20, width 10-12 petiole 15-20 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (115 days). Flower size medium, standard color white, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium large, light brown at maturity, constrictions absent, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 40-45, length 25-27, width 15-20 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 10.0, width 7.0 mm. Seed ramhead, color beige, surface wrinkled, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 265 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Lawaghar 2000 a medium duration chickpea variety.
Plants medium, erect semi bushy, foliage light green, sparsely hairy, flower white. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size bold, color beige, medium wrikled and ramhead.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PARBAT 98
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local cross ICC 11514/ILC 3279 Check: Paidar 91 Breeders: Bakhsh, A. et al. Center: NARC, PARC, Islamabad Maintainer: NARC, PARC, Islamabad Status: Released 2003. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (55-60 cm), medium branching, erect semi bushy, stem hairiness and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 7-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (110 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin strong. Pod: Size medium large, light brown at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak short, pods/plant 45-55, length 20-24, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 6.5, width 6.1 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color beige, surface medium smooth, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 24.2 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Parbat 98 a medium duration chickpea variety. Plants
short, erect semi bushy, foliage light green, medium hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium, surface medium rough and color beige.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

SHEENGHAR 2000
Type: Desi Chickpeas, (Cicer arietinum). Parentage: Local selection Check: NIFA 88 Breeders: Ahmad, B. et al. Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 2000. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (180-185 days). Height and branching: Plant height medium (55-60 cm), medium branching, semi erect, stem hairiness sparse, and anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, obovate, length 16-20, width 7-10 petiole 18-20 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (100 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium large, light brown at maturity, constrictions weak, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 35-40, length 20-24, width 8-10 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1600-1700 Seed: Seed size medium, length 7.0, width 6.0 mm. Seed shape ramhead, color brown gray, surface medium wrinkled rough. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 230 g. Variants: Growth and branching habit varies significantly when sown early, late, plants spaced or topped. Leading characters: Sheenghar 2000 a medium duration Desi chickpea
variety. Plants short, erect semi bushy, foliage dark green, medium hairy, flower pink. Pod shape rhomboid, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed ramhead size medium, surface medium wrinkled, rough and color brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MUNG VARIETEIS

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 28
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage:: Mutant: Pak 17 (20 kr) Check: 6601 Breeders: Malik, I.A.; et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1983. Registered 1986 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, semi determinate medium early maturing (80-85 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (90-95 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem reddish green, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 9-10 cm, petiole 12-18 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (45 days). Flower size medium, standard color light yellow, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, round, curvature weak, shatter tolerant, 10-12 seeded, constrictions absent, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 25-30, length 8-9 cm, width 4.2 mm. Pods mostly on top. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 3.7, width 2.9 mm, Seed shape oval, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 28.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 28 a mutant. Plants medium tall, semi
determinate, erect bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod round, beak medium, curvature weak, pubescence medium, brown, and generally 1012 seeded. Seed medium, oval, shiny and light green.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 13-1
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage: Local Mutant 6601 (10 kr) Check: 6601 Breeders: Mali, I.A., et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1986 Growth habit: Erect, semi bushy, semi determinate, early maturing (55-65 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium short (55-60 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem reddish green, hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 10-13 cm, petiole 12-18 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence early. Flower: Flowering medium (35 days). Flower size medium, standard color light yellow, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, round with weak curvature, shatter tolerant, 10-12 seeded, constrictions absent, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 25-30, length 7-8 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size bold, length 4.5, width 3.6 mm, Seed shape oval, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 40.5 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 13-1 a short duration mutant. Plants
medium short, semi determinate, erect, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod round, beak medium, curvature weak and pubescence medium, brown. Seed medium, shape oval, shiny and light green. Pods on top.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 19-19
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage: Local Mutant Pak 22 (40 kr) Check: 6601 Breeders: Malik, I. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1986 Growth habit: Semi erect, semi determinate, early maturing (63-65 days). Height and branching: Plants medium short (60-65 cm), well branched, semi erect in attitude, stem reddish green, hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 10-13 cm, petiole 12-18 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence early. Flower: Flowering medium (90 days). Flower size medium, standard color light yellow, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, round with weak curvature, shatter tolerant, 12-13 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 35-40, length 7-8 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.5, width 3.5 mm, Seed shape oval, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 35 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 19-19 a short duration mutant. Plants
medium short, semi determinate, erect bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod round, beak medium, curvature weak and pubescence medium, brown, and generally 12-13 seeded. Seed medium, oval, shiny and light green.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 20-21
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiate). Parentage: Local Mutant Pak 22 (40 kr) Check: .NM 28 Breeders: Malik, I. A; et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1986. Registered 1986 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, semi determinate, early maturing (55-65 days). Height and branching: Plants short (45-50 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, stem reddish green, hairiness weak. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 10-13 cm, petiole 12-18 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence early. Flower: Flowering early (35 days). Flower size medium, standard color light yellow, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, round, curvature weak, shatter tolerant, 10-12 seeded, constrictions absent, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 30-32, length 7-8 cm, width 4-5 mm. Pods mostly on top. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 4.4, width 3.4, Seed shape oval, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 38.5 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 20-21 a short duration mutant. Plants
medium short, semi determinate, erect, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod round, beak medium, curvature weak, pubescence medium, brown. Seed size medium, oval, shiny and light green.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 121-25
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage: Local Mutant RC 71-27 (20 kr) Check: . Breeders: Malik, I. A. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad. Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1986. Registered 1986 Growth habit: Semi-erect, semi determinate, early maturing (70-75 days). Height and branching: Plants medium short (65-70 cm), much branched, semi erect in attitude, stem reddish green, hairiness weal. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 14-15 cm, petiole 12-18 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence early. Flower: Flowering early (40-45 days). Flower size medium, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, round with weak curvature, shatter tolerant, 12-13 seeded, constrictions absent, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 35-37, length 7-9 cm, width 4.2 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 4.0, width 3.4, Seed shape oval, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 38.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 121-25 a medium duration mutant. Plants
medium short, semi determinate, erect bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod shape round, beak medium, curvature weak and pubescence medium, brown at maturity, and generally 12-13 seeded. Seed size medium, shape oval, shiny and light green. Pods mostly on top.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 92
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage:: Local cross Check: NM 92 Breeders: Malik, I.A; et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 1996. Registered 1997 Growth habit: Semi bushy, semi determinate medium early (55-65 days). Height and branching: Plants short (40-55 cm), shy branching, semi erect in attitude, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, dark green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 9-10 cm, petiole 17-20 cm, leaf rachis purplish green, senescence early. Flower: Flowering medium (33 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size large, brown at maturity, roundish with medium curvature, shatter tolerant, 12-14 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 35-40, length 9-11 cm, width 6.0 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size bold, length 4.9, width 2.7 mm, Seed shape oblong, color dark green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 56.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NIAB Mung 92 a Mung mutant. Plants short, semi
determinate, erect, semi bushy, foliage dark green, sparsely hairy, top branching, flower light yellow. Pod roundish, beak medium, curvature weak and pubescence medium, brown, and generally 12-14 seeded. Seed bold, shiny dark green.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KHALOOD
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiata). Parentage: Mutant 6601 (200 krGy) Check: 6601 Breeders: Rajpoot, M. A. et al. Center: NIA, Tandojam Maintainer: NIA, Tandojam Status: Released 1996. Registered 1997 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, semi determinate, early maturing (90-95 days). Height and branching: Plants medium short (45-60 cm), medium branched, semi erect in attitude, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 10-13 cm, petiole 12-14 cm, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (40 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, brown at maturity, round with weak curvature, shatter tolerant, 8-10 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence medium, beak medium, pods/plant 40-45, length 7-8 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1700-1800 Seed: Seed size medium small, length 3.5, width 2.2 mm, Seed shape drum, color light green shiny, mottling absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 39.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Khalood a short duration mutant Mung. Plants medium,
semi determinate, erect, semi bushy, foliage green, sparsely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod shape round, beak medium, curvature weak and pubescence medium, brown at maturity, and generally 8-10 seeded. Seed size medium, shape drum, shiny and light green. Pods mostly on top.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 98
Type: Mung, Green gram (Vigna radiata). Parentage: Local cross: Check: .NM 92 Breeders: Sadiq, M. S. et al. Center: Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad. Status: Released 1998. Registered 1999 Growth habit: Plants semi-erect, early maturing (70-80 days), lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall growing (60-70 cm), semi erect in attitude and medium branched, stem hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, canopy spread medium, color green, medium hairy, leaflet (terminal) shape ovate, length 9.5, width 7.8, petiole 17-20 cm. Flower: Flowering early (40-45 days). Flower size medium, color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, 10-12 seeded, curvature weak, constrictions medium, pubescence medium, beak short, pods/plant 35-45, length 8.7, width 0.4 cm. Mature pod color brownish black. Seed yield kg/ha: 1800-2000 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.6, width 3.3 mm, Seed shape drum, color light green, surface smooth shiny, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 38 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Mash 9 plants medium tall, semi- erect in attitude,
canopy spread medium, foliage medium green, flower yellow. Pod medium long 10-12 seeded, beak short, and pubescence medium, brownish black at maturity. Seed size medium, shape drum, smooth shiny, color light green.

NM 20-21 x VC 1482E

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 54
Type: Mung, Green gram (Vigna radiata). Parentage: 6601 x VC 1973 A- F1 irradiated with 10kr gamma rays Check: .NM 121-25 Breeders: Malik, I. A; et al. Center: Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad. Status: Released 1990. Registered 1992 Growth habit: Plants semi-erect, early maturing (70-75 days), determinate fruiting, lodge and shatter tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (65-75 cm), semi erect in attitude and medium branched, stem color green. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, color green, medium hairy, leaflet (terminal) shape deltoid, length 9.3 cm, petiole 10-13 cm. Flower: Flowering early (40-45 days). Flower size medium, color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, 10-12 seeded, curvature strong (crescent), shape flattish, attitude pendent, pubescence medium, pods/plant 20-30, length 10, width 0.8 cm. Mature pod color brownish black. Seed yield kg/ha: 1800-2000 Seed: Seed size bold, length 6.2, width 4.0 mm, Seed shape oval-oblong, color light green, surface smooth shiny, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 65 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NM 51 and NM 54 resemble each other as they share same origin. Plants of NM 51 are slightly shorter, seed smaller than NM 54. Pods of NM 51 have very slight curvature as compared to NM 54 having crescent shaped pods. Mung 6601 is indeterminate in fruiting habit, against determinate in NM 51 and NM 54.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

NM 51
Type: Mung, Green gram (Vigna radiata). Parentage: 6601 x VC 1973 A- F1 irradiated with 10kr gamma rays Check: NM 121-25. Breeders: Malik, I. A. et al. Center: Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad. Status: Released 1990. Registered 1992 Growth habit: Plants erect, semi bushy, medium maturing (65-70 days), determinate fruiting, lodge and shatter tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (50-60 cm), erect, semi bushy, medium branched, stem color green, anthocyanin medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, medium hairy, light green, leaflet (terminal) shape deltoid, length 9.9, petiole 14-15 cm anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering early (40-45 days). Flower size medium, color light green, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, 10-12 seeded, curvature weak, shape round, attitude pendent, pubescence strong, pods/plant 25-35, length 8-9, width 0.60.8 cm. Mature pod color blackish brown. Seed yield kg/ha: 1800-2000 Seed: Seed size medium, length 6.3, width 3.9 mm, Seed shape round cylindrical, color light green, surface smooth shiny, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 55 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: NM 51 and NM 54 resemble each other as they share same origin. Plants of NM 51 are shorter, seed smaller than NM 54. Pods of NM 51 have very slight curvature as compared to NM 54 having crescent shaped pods. Mung 6601 is indeterminate in fruiting habit, against determinate in NM 51 and NM 54.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CHAKWAL MUNG 97
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiate) Parentage: Exotic selection E321, ICARDA Check: NM 54 Breeders: Chaudhry, G. A. et al. Center: BARI, Chakawal Maintainer: BARI, Chakwal Status: Released 1998. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Semi erect, medium early maturing (60-65 days). Height and branching: Plants height medium (50-70 cm), medium branching, stem non hairy, anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, hairiness weak, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 9-10, width 9-10 cm, anthocyanin absent, weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (41 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, brownish black maturity, rounded with strong constrictions, weak curvature, shatter tolerant, 10-12 seeded, pubescence weak, beak short, pods/plant 80-100, length 8-10, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1600-1800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 3.0, width 2.0 mm. Seed shape drum, color light green shiny, surface smooth, dotless, cotyledon light yellow. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 56.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Chakwal Mung 97 a medium maturing Masoor. Plants
medium, semi erect, foliage light green, medium hairy, flower yellow. Pod shape rounded, brownish black at maturity, and generally 10-12 seeded. Seed size medium, bold, drum and light green shiny.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

KM 1
Type: Mung, (Vigna radiate) Parentage: Local selection Check: NM 92 Breeders: Ahmad, B. et al. Center: ARS, Kark Maintainer: ARS, Kark Status: Released 1900. Registered 1900. Growth habit: Semi erect, medium early maturing (60-70 days). Height and branching: Plants height medium (40-60 cm), medium branching, stem non hairy, anthocyanin absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, non hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 9-10, width 9-10 cm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (43 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellowish purple, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, brownish black at maturity, rounded with strong constrictions, weak curvature, shattering low, 10-12 seeded, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 40-50, length 8-10 cm, width 0.3-0.4 cm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1000-1200 Seed: Seed size medium, length 3.2, width 2.0 mm. Seed shape drum, color light green dull, surface smooth, dotless, cotyledon light yellow. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 320 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: KM 1 (Kark Mung 1) a medium maturing Mung.
Plants medium, semi erect, foliage light green, non hairy, flower color yellowish purple. Pod shape rounded, brownish black at maturity, and generally 10-12 seeded. Seed size medium bold, shape drum, surface smooth and color light green dull.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASH VARIETIES

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASH 97
Type: Mash, Urd, Black gram, (Vigna mungo). Parentage: Local cross: Check:. Mash 88 Breeders: Ali, A. et al. Center: Pulses Research Institute, (AARI), Faisalabad. Maintainer: Pulses Research Institute, (AARI), Faisalabad. Status: Released 1997. Registered 1999 Growth habit: Plants semi-erect in habit, early maturing (70-80 days), and lodge tolerant. Height and branching: Plants medium tall (40-50 cm), semi erect in attitude and medium branched, stem anthocyanin and hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, medium hairy, leaflet length 9.5, width 7.0 cm, leaf rachis anthocyanin medium. Flower: Flowering early (42-45 days). Flower size medium, color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, 5-6 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence absent, beak short, pods/plant 35-45, length 4.2, width 0.5 cm. Seed yield kg/ha: 700-800 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.4, width 3.4, mm, Seed shape drum, color light black, shiny, surface smooth, dots absent. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 42.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Mash 97 a variety of Mash, Urd. Plants medium tall
growing, semi- erect in attitude with light green medium hairy foliage. Flower color yellow. Pod medium long, beak short, and without pubescence, brownish black at maturity, and generally 5-6 seeded. Seed size medium bold, shape drum, surface smooth color black shiny.

Selection from local land races.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASH 2
Type: Mash, (Vigna mungo). Parentage: Local selection Check: Local mash Breeders: Ghafoor, A. et al. Center: NARC, Islamabad. Maintainer: NARC, Islamabad Status: Released 1993. Registered 1996 Growth habit: Semi erect, semi spreading, medium early maturing (70-75 days). Height and branching: Plants short (40-50 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, hairiness profuse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, profusely hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 6-8, width 4-5 cm, petiole 9-11 cm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (40 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, blackish brown at maturity, round with weak curvature, shatter low, 6-7 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence profuse, beak medium, hooked, pods/plant 35-40, length 4-4.5 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.4, width 3.1 mm. Seed shape drum, color dull black. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 48.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Mash 2 a short duration mash variety. Plants short, semi
erect, foliage green, profusely hairy, flower light yellow. Pod shape round, beak medium, hooked, pubescence profuse, blackish brown at maturity, and generally 6-7 seeded. Seed size medium, shape drum, dull and black.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASH 3
Type: Mash, (Vigna mungo). Parentage: Local selection Check: Breeders: Ghafoor, A. et al. Center: NARC, Islamabad. Maintainer: NARC, Islamabad Status: Released 1993. Registered 1996 Growth habit: Erect growing, medium early maturing (65-70 days). Height and branching: Plants short (40-50 cm), medium branching, spreading in attitude, hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 7-8, width 4-5 cm, petiole 10-11 cm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (35 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, blackish brown at maturity, round to semi flat, with weak curvature, shatter low, 6-7 seeded, constrictions weak, pubescence profuse, beak medium, hooked, pods/plant 30-40, length 4-4.5 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1000-1200 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.3, width 3.0 mm. Seed shape drum, color dull black, dote medium, cotyledon color whitish. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 46.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Mash 3 a short duration erect growing mash variety. 5-10
days earlier to Mash 2, growth habit erect growing as compared to semi spreading in Mash 2, plant canopy narrow as compared to medium in Mash 2. Seed black, surface dull and dotted.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

CHAKWAL MASH
Type: Mash, (Vigna mungo). Parentage: Exotic selection Check: Mash 97 Breeders: Ahmad, G. et al. Center: BARI, Ckakwal Maintainer: BARI, Chakwal Status: Released 2002. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Semi erect, medium early maturing (70-80 days). Height and branching: Plants short (30-40 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, hairiness absent. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, nonhairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 7-8, width 4-5 cm, petiole 12-14 cm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (45 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, blackish brown at maturity, round to semi flat, with weak curvature, shatter low, 5-7 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 35-40, length 4-4.5 cm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1000-1100 Seed: Seed size bold, length 4.0, width 3.0 mm. Seed shape drum, color grayish black dots absent, surface medium rough. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 46.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Chakwal Mash a short duration mash variety. Growth
habit semi erect, plant canopy medium leaf color light green, narrow, non hairy, flower color yellow, pod brownish black at maturity, curvature weak and constrictions medium, seed drum shaped, bold, surface medium rough and dotless.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASH 88
Type: Mash, (Vigna mungo). Parentage: Local selection from farmer’s field. Check: Mash 80 Breeders: Ahmed, M. et al. Center: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 1990. Registered 1990 Growth habit: Semi erect, medium maturing (90-105 days). Height and branching: Plants short (20-30 cm), medium branching, semi spreading in attitude, hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, medium green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, length 12-15, width 4-5 mm, anthocyanin medium, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium early (40-50 days). Flower size medium, standard color yellow, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium, black at maturity, round to semi flat, with weak curvature, shatter low, 6-7 seeded, constrictions medium, pubescence weak, beak medium, pods/plant 40-50, length 4-5 cm, width 5-6 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1200-1300 Seed: Seed size medium, length 3.5, width 2.8 mm. Seed shape drum, color black, dots absent surface dull. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 41.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Mash 88 a medium long duration mash variety. Growth
habit semi spreading, plant canopy medium leaf color green, medium hairy, flower color yellow, pod black at maturity, curvature weak and constrictions medium, seed medium, drum shaped, dull black, and dotless.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

LENTIL (MASOOR) VARIETIES

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASOOR 93
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Local cross ILL 4400 x 18-12 Check: Breeders: Center: AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 1994. Registered 1996 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium early maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plants short (45-50 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, hairiness profuse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, stipule length 4-5, width 1-1.5 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (80-85 days). Flower size medium, standard color light pink, peduncle anthocyanin weak. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, flat with medium constrictions, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak medium, pods/plant 100115, length 8-9 mm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.1, width 3.5 mm. Seed shape roundish, color light brown, surface smooth, dotless. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 48.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Masoor 93 a short duration Masoor variety. Plants short,
semi erect, foliage green, medium hairy, flower light pink. Pod shape flat, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size medium, bolder than Masoor 85 shape roundish and light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

SHIRAZ 96
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Selection ICARDA Check: Masoor 85 Breeders: Ali, A. et al. Center: AZRC, Quetta Maintainer: AZRC, Quetta Status: Released 1996. Registered 1997 Growth habit: spreading, medium early maturing (140-220 days), prostrate in early stage. Height and branching: Plants very short (25-35 cm), medium branching, hairiness medium. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, light green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet medium, ovate, stipule length 5-6, width 3-4 mm, anthocyanin weak, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (spring 90 days winter 180 days). Flower size medium, standard color whitr with light purplish blue tinge, peduncle anthocyanin medium. Pod: Size medium, creamy at maturity, flat with medium constrictions, shatter tolerant, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak short, pods/plant 50100, length 10-12 mm, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1500-1600 Seed: Seed size medium, length 5.0, width 5.0 mm. Seed shape lense shaped roundish, color brown, surface smooth, dotless. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 30.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Shiraz 96 a short duration Masoor variety. Plants dwarf,
spreading, foliage light green, medium hairy, flower light pink. Pod shape flat, creamy at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size medium, bold, shape roundish and light brown.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASOOR 2002
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Local cross Precoz x Masoor 85 Check: Masoor 85 Breeders: Sadiq, S. et al. Center: NIAB, Faisalabad Maintainer: NIAB, Faisalabad Status: Released 2002. Registered 2004 Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (120-130 days). Height and branching: Plants short (35-40 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, sparsely hairy, terminal leaflet small, obovate, stipule length 10-12, width 1-1.5 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (70 days). Flower size small, standard color light violet, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, light brown at maturity, flat with weak constrictions, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak medium, pods/plant 7080, length 8-10, width 4-5 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1300-1400 Seed: Seed size medium, length 4.0, width 3.0 mm. Seed shape convex, color brown black, surface smooth shiny, doted, cotyledon red. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 23.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Masoor 2002 a medium duration Masoor variety. Plants
short, erect semi bushy, no tendrils, foliage green, non hairy, flower light violet. Pod shape flat, light brown at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size medium, shape convex, color brownish black and surface dotted, cotyledon color red.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PRECOSE
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Introduction Check: Masoor 85 Breeders: Hamidullah, j. et al. Center: ARS, Sarai Naurang, Bannu Maintainer: ARS, Sarai Naurang, Bannu Status: Released 1900. Registered 1900. Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (150-60 days). Height and branching: Plants short (30-35 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, pale green in color, hairiness weak, terminal leaflet small, obovate, stipule length 10-12, width 1-1.5 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence late. Flower: Flowering medium (85-90 days). Flower size small, standard color light blue. Pod: Size medium, pale at maturity, flat with weak constrictions, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak short, pods/plant 50-60, length 10-12, width 6-7 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1200-1300 Seed: Seed size medium bold, length 5.0, width 5.0 mm. Seed shape flat, color creamy white, surface smooth, doted, cotyledon red. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 23.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Precose a medium duration Masoor variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage pale green, hairiness weak, flower light blue. Pod shape flat, pale at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size medium bold, shape flat, creamy white and dotted.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MASOOR 85
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Local selection Check: Masoor 83 Breeders: Tufail, M. et al. Center: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Maintainer: PRI, AARI, Faisalabad Status: Released 1985. Registered 1986 Growth habit: Semi bushy, medium maturing (150-155 days). Height and branching: Plants medium high (40-50 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, green in color, medium hairy, terminal leaflet small, obovate, stipule length 5-7, width 1-2 mm, anthocyanin medium, senescence medium. Flower: Flowering medium (100-105 days). Flower size small, standard color pink, peduncle anthocyanin absent. Pod: Size medium, brownish at maturity, flat with weak constrictions, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak short, pods/plant 100150, length 8-10, width 5-6 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1200-1400 Seed: Seed size small, length 3.5, width 2.0 mm. Seed shape biconvex, color grey, surface smooth shiny, doted, cotyledon red. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 20.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Masoor 85 a medium duration Masoor variety. Plants
medium tall, semi bushy, slender, foliage green, medium hairy, anthocyanin medium, flower pink. Pod shape flat, brownish at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size samall, shape biconvex, brownish and dotted, and cotyledon color red.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

MANSEHRA 89
Type: Lentil, (Lens culanaris). Parentage: Introduction Check: Masoor 85 Breeders: Hamidullah, j. et al. Center: ARS, Sarai Naurang, Bannu Maintainer: ARS, Sarai Naurang, Bannu Status: Released 1900. Registered 1900. Growth habit: Erect semi bushy, medium maturing (150-160 days). Height and branching: Plants short (30-35 cm), medium branching, semi erect in attitude, stem hairiness sparse. Foliage: Foliage medium dense, pale green in color, hairiness weak, terminal leaflet small, obovate, stipule length 10-12, width 1-1.5 mm, anthocyanin absent, senescence late. Flower: Flowering medium (85-90 days). Flower size small, standard color light blue. Pod: Size medium, pale at maturity, flat with weak constrictions, shatter low, 1-2 seeded, pubescence absent, beak short, pods/plant 50-60, length 10-12, width 6-7 mm. Seed yield kg/ha: 1200-1300 Seed: Seed size medium bold, length 5.0, width 5.0 mm. Seed shape flat, color creamy white, surface smooth, doted, cotyledon red. Seed weight: (g/000 seeds) 23.0 g. Variants: Growth and branching varies when sown early, or late. Leading characters: Precose a medium duration Masoor variety. Plants short,
erect semi bushy, foliage pale green, hairiness weak, flower light blue. Pod shape flat, pale at maturity, and generally 1-2 seeded. Seed size medium bold, shape flat, creamy white and dotted.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PULSES PEDIGREED SYSTEM OF SEED PRODUCTION
Introduction
For running a successful seed program, which could deliver required quantities of quality seed, it is essential to establish an institutional infrastructure capable of: 1. Development, evaluation, registration and release of new improved varieties of crops. 2. Maintenance of variety seed stocks true-to-type as registered and cyclic production of pre-basic seed for further multiplication. 3. Production and marketing of certified seed of improved varieties according to the rules. 4. Quality control of production, processing and marketing of crop seeds. Starting from crossing and selection to the approval and final marketing and use of certified seed, all stages are integral components of the whole seed program. After registration and release of a new variety, the most important stages include maintenance of variety seed stocks true to registration and production of pre-basic seed for onward multiplication to basic and certified stages. Maintenance of crop varieties true to their registration is the most important task as its efficiency is manifested in later stages of multiplication in the form of varietal purity. The system of maintenance of pulse varieties is discussed here. Pedigreed seed production of pulse varieties demands a careful and continuous renewal system comprising of variety maintenance and cyclic production of pre-basic seed to be followed throughout the commercial lifetime of the variety. The Variety maintenance and seed renewal system are outlined here. Well-adapted, reasonably uniform and stable varieties of field crops are a basic requirement for a successful pedigreed system of seed production. Development of stable varieties is the responsibility of the breeder. It requires well-planned research efforts comprising of selection of suitable parents, appropriate selection of genotypes, comprehensive, strict and meticulous testing for adaptability, production and quality traits. Sufficient adaptability cannot be achieved unless new varieties are tested in the intended areas of commercial production for a minimum of 3 years. It has been experienced that crop varieties show a gradual deterioration soon after they enter commercial production. The deterioration is mainly caused by

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

mechanical and genetical factors. The more important of these and perhaps the most common is mechanical mixing caused by uncontrolled multiplication, careless handling in the field and processing etc. Mechanical mixing occurs mainly during harvesting, threshing, and cleaning, conditioning, storage, marketing and planting. The genetical factors may include out-crossing with other varieties, mutation and selection pressure etc. A pulse variety is generally taken to be a pure line with the plants almost homozygous, genetically pure and phenotypically alike. Sustainability in uniformity of morphological and agronomic traits can be achieved through proper maintenance of variety seed stocks and pedigreed seed production system. The commercial pulse varieties in general are not required to possess complete homozygosity and absolute uniformity. Some cross-pollination has been reported in pulses varying from 0-10%. Some cross-pollination occurs between plants growing side by side. Different crop varieties may exhibit different amounts of cross-pollination.

VARIETY MAINTENANCE
1. Variety maintenance may be carried out in many ways e.g. 2. Roguing of off-types. 3. Mass selection. 4. Maintenance of seed stocks of the original seed increase. 5. Progeny selection. For running a successful seed program, which could deliver required quantities of quality seed, it is essential to establish an institutional infrastructure capable of:

1. Development, evaluation, registration and release of new improved varieties of crops. 2. Maintenance of variety seed stocks true-to-type as registered and cyclic production of pre-basic seed for further multiplication. 3. Production and marketing of certified seed of improved varieties according to the rules. 4. Quality control of production, processing and marketing of crop seeds.
Starting from crossing and selection to the approval and final marketing and use of certified seed, all stages are integral components of the whole seed program. After registration and release of a new variety, the most important stages include maintenance of variety seed stocks true to registration and production of pre-basic

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

seed for onward multiplication to basic and certified stages. Maintenance of crop varieties true to their registration is the most important task as its efficiency is manifested in later stages of multiplication in the form of varietal purity. The system of maintenance of pulse varieties is discussed here. Pedigreed seed production of pulse varieties demands a careful and continuous renewal system comprising of variety maintenance and cyclic production of pre-basic seed to be followed throughout the commercial lifetime of the variety. The Variety maintenance and seed renewal system are outlined here. Well-adapted, reasonably uniform and stable varieties of field crops are a basic requirement for a successful pedigreed system of seed production. Development of stable varieties is the responsibility of the breeder. It requires well-planned research efforts comprising of selection of suitable parents, appropriate selection of genotypes, comprehensive, strict and meticulous testing for adaptability, production and quality traits. Sufficient adaptability cannot be achieved unless new varieties are tested in the intended areas of commercial production for a minimum of 3 years. It has been experienced that crop varieties show a gradual deterioration soon after they enter commercial production. The deterioration is mainly caused by mechanical and genetical factors. The more important of these and perhaps the most common is mechanical mixing caused by uncontrolled multiplication, careless handling in the field and processing etc. Mechanical mixing occurs mainly during harvesting, threshing, and cleaning, conditioning, storage, marketing and planting. The genetical factors may include out-crossing with other varieties, mutation and selection pressure etc. A pulse variety is generally taken to be a pure line with the plants almost homozygous, genetically pure and phenotypically alike. Sustainability in uniformity of morphological and agronomic traits can be achieved through proper maintenance of variety seed stocks and pedigreed seed production system. The commercial pulse varieties in general are not required to possess complete homozygosity and absolute uniformity. Some cross-pollination has been reported in pulses varying from 0-10%. Some cross-pollination occurs between plants growing side by side. Different crop varieties may exhibit different amounts of cross-pollination.

VARIETY MAINTENANCE
Variety maintenance may be carried out in many ways e.g.

1. Roguing of off-types. 2. Mass selection. 3. Maintenance of seed stocks of the original seed increase.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

4. Progeny selection. 1. Roguing out off-type plants

Roguing and purification of seed crops reduce the mixture of off-types and miss-behaving plants. Off-types, visually different plants from the variety type are rogued out of the seed crops.

2.

Mass selection

Mass selection is limited to identifying superior plants by visual examination in the seed crop. Greater number of representative plants of the variety is selected and bulked. It can be applied during initial stages of variety approval particularly in urgent situations.

3.

Maintenance of seed stocks of the original seed increase

The Preservation and subsequent utilization of original seed stock is also being used as a procedure for maintenance of varietal purity. Sufficiently large quantities (several tons) of the original seed increase are stored in an environmentally controlled cold room to maintain germination over a period of many years. Each year sufficient seed is removed from the reserved stock to provide the nucleus seed for a new seed increase.

4.

Progeny Selection

Progeny selection is widely used in maintenance of varietal purity and seed multiplication of commercial pulse varieties. It provides additional chances for assessing morphological and phenological uniformity, production potentials and quality traits of plant progenies. In this method:

.1 Each year progeny rows are grown from single head selections made in a pure seed increase. .2 The Progeny Rows closely conforming to the varietal type and description are harvested and bulked. Pedigreed seed production system
To maintain uniformity of genetic characteristics based on distinctness,

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

uniformity and stability (DUS) requirements, the system based on progeny selection is recommended. This system starts with mass selection of single heads and progeny testing. It is also expected that this will help maintain genetic base of the population sufficiently broad and wide:

Year 0 1. Select a sufficient number (about 3000-5000 for the first cycle and subsequently 200-500) of single plants representative of the variety. The selected plants must be true to the registration and varietal description. The selection must be based on the uniformity of morphological characteristics. This mass selection of truly representative plants is of great importance as it will be the sole source for further development of seed production system. 2. It is preferred not to restrict the field selection only to maturity stage but start type selections as early as pre-flowering stage. The seed stocks must be regularly field inspected for the selection of representative single plants. Examine carefully all plants in the population and select only those plants, which truly represent the characteristics of the variety at all the growth stages. The plants showing any variability at any growth stage are unselected. In pulses, the single plant selections (SPS) may be performed at the following three growth stages: i) Pre-flowering stage: Single Plant Selections may be based on height, size and waxiness of the leaves, leaf color, attitude, leaflet size and shape etc. Flowering stage: At this stage the selection may be made on height, stem and rachis anthocyanin, flower emergence time, flower size and color. Maturity stage: The selection at this stage may be based pod shape, color and size, pubescence, beak size and shape

ii)

iii)

3. At maturity, carefully cut all selected single plants individually. Keep each plant in a separate paper, polythene or cloth bag. 4. Examine carefully all the selected plants in the laboratory for uniformity of variatal characteristics like stem color and

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

thickness, pod shape, size, hairiness, beak size and shape etc. Discard all plants showing any variability. 5. Thrash the selected plants individually by hand or preferably by a single plant thresher and keep the seed from each plant in a paper or polythene bag of uniform size. 6. Find out seed weight per plant by weighing each seed bag individually in the laboratory and discard all plants giving yield of seed less than the average yield of all selected single plants of the variety. 7. Examine thoroughly the seed of each plant for seed characteristics with special emphasis on seed color, size, beak, texture, surface etc. Reject all seed bags having clear differences for these characters. Also reject any seed bag having any off-type grain in it. 8. Extreme care must be exercised to avoid mixing during all operations specially threshing of plants, and laboratory testing of seed samples. 9. The seed bags must be carefully closed, counted, and numbered, labeled and stored in well-protected cool dry place. Year 1 1. Select a suitable piece of land and arrange sowing of seed of single plants individually in plants rows of equal length. The sowing can be done by single row hand drill keeping double the normal distance from plant to plant and row to row. Wide spaced planting will facilitate inspection and examination of individual plants and assessment of uniformity of Plant Rows. 2. Visit frequently the Plant Rows and examine carefully the plant characteristics throughout the growth and development period especially at pre-flowering, flowering, pod formation, grain filling and maturity stages. 3. Plant Rows shall be examined for assessment of uniformity in morphological and phenological characteristics like plant height, leaf color, size, hairiness and attitude, stem anthocyanin, flowering time, waxiness of leaf, plants shape, size and color,

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

primary and secondary branching and attitude and earliness in maturity etc. 4. The plant rows found to contain any off-type plant at any growth stage shall be declared a rogue line and rejected as a whole. 5. The selected plant rows shall be harvested and thrashed individually keeping the seed from each row separately in a suitable cloth bag. 6. Evaluate the yield of individual plant rows by weighing the seed and discard all plant rows giving less than the average performance. 7. Examine the seed characteristics and reject lines having variable seed size, color and shape. 8. Bulk the seed of selected plots to form the Breeders’ Seed for sowing as Breeders’ Nucleus Stocks (BNS). To start an early cycle of seed multiplication, in case of first multiplication, fast track varieties or some other urgent situations, a part of the bulked seed can be passed on to the multiplying agency as prebasic seed for starting regular seed increase cycle to Basic and Certified categories. Year 2 1. The Breeders’ seed shall be sown as Breeders’ Nucleus Stocks (BNS) for the production of pre-basic seed. It is the starting material for subsequent production of pre-basic, basic and certified seed classes. 2. The BNS will be planted under normal field conditions following optimum inputs and standard field and husbandry practices. For facilitate thorough inspection and purification row spacing can be increased to double the normal. 3. The BNS stocks will be kept under constant observation and purified at each stage. All off-types and misbehaving plants must be rogued out. 4. When there is more than one variety being maintained at the same station, a minimum of 10m isolation distance all around

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

the seed field is recommended to keep it separate from fields of other varieties and uncertified fields of the same variety. 5. At maturity the crop will be harvested at right stage to avoid excessive post harvest losses and taking care that there is no mixing with other varieties. 6. After harvest, extreme care shall be taken to avoid contamination from threshing floor or farm machinery. Thresh the seed with a thoroughly cleaned thresher and bag the cleaned seed in new uncontaminated cloth bags or well protected containers. 7. This is the pre-basic seed, the starting material for subsequent categories of seed: basic, certified and approved. The containers must be properly, sealed, marked and labeled and stored under well-protected and best storage conditions. The label color for pre-basic seed is white with violet diagonal line. The BNS will be field inspected by the Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department to assess genetic purity and certify to produce Pre-basic seed. 8. The single plant selection for running a new cycle for the maintenance and renewal of seed is to be made from Breeder’s Nucleus Stocks. Year 3
The pre-basic seed will be grown in bigger blocks using wider plant-toplant distance and most excellent agronomic practices. To avoid mechanical mixing the seed fields must be properly isolated from other variety fields and other stocks. The pre-basic crops must also be carefully examined at various growth stages and thoroughly rogued for off-types and misbehaving plants. At maturity the crop will be harvested carefully and seed packed, labeled and stored as Basic seed for next sowing. The Pre-basic crop will be field inspected by the Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department to assess genetic purity and certify to produce Basic seed.

Year 4
The basic seed shall be sown to produce certified seed for commercial production. It must also be examined and purified like pre-basic crop. The Certified seed produced can be used in consultation with the Federal

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

Seed Certification and Registration Department to produce further generation of Certified II seed. The certified seed can also be used for the production of Approved seed. ALL STAGES OF SELECTION & PRODUCTION MUST BE STRICTLY ACCORDING TO THE SEED CERTIFICATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN. THE BNS SHALL BE ELIGIBLE FOR CERTIFICATION & PRE-BASIC SEED MUST BE 100% PURE & FREE FROM OFF-TYPES

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PEDIGREED SEED INCREASE SYSTEM Diagram
Stage Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

PSS

Year 1

PSS

SEED ORGANIZATION CENTER Seed increase Maintenance andcycle Pre-basic Seed Production Plant Rows Plant Rows Plant Rows Plant Rows Plant Rows BNS

Year 2

PSS PSS PSS PSS

Year 3

BNS BNS BNS

Pre-basic Pre-basic Pre-basic Basic Basic Certi fied

Year 4

Year 5

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

PROCEDURES FOR SEED CROP INSPECTION
The purpose of field inspection is to determine whether or not the crop is suitable for production of seed of required standard. For this purpose, crop inspection is obligatory and field standards are applied to ensure trueness of variety, freedom from contaminants, health and isolation etc.

1. OBJECTIVE
The objective of seed certification is to provide quality seed to the farmers, which is true to variety and meets the minimum standards for varietal purity, analytical purity and germination etc. It is a form of consumer protection where the consumer is assured that the certified seed offered for sale guarantees that:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The variety is correct for the purpose it has been sown. The seed has a high level of varietal purity. The seed is free from objectionable weeds. The seed is free from other crop species. The seed is free from seed-borne diseases. The seed has a good germination capacity and vigor.

2. PRINCIPLES OF SEED CERTIFICATION
Seed certification is a legally sanctioned system for quality control of seed multiplication and production. There are seven basic principles in seed certification:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Eligibility of variety Generation system Minimum Certification Standards Documentation Crop inspection Seed testing Pre- & post -control tests

1 Eligibility of varieties
Only those varieties are accepted in the system which have been registered and notified on the basis of distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) characteristics and have value for cultivation and use (VCU) as briefly given below: i) DISTINCTNESS: The variety must be defined and clearly distinguishable from all other existing commercial varieties of the same crop by one or more recognizable and describable characteristics.

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ii)

UNIFORMITY (HOMOGENEITY): The variety must be reasonably uniform within its stand so that individual plants could be identified. STABILITY: The variety must be stable in its essential characteristics and remain true to its description through repeated multiplication. VALUE FOR CULTIVATION AND USE (VCU): Value for cultivation and use or agronomic value is the most important criteria for which commercial varieties are developed. The variety must have superiority in yield or quality traits as compared to existing commercial varieties of the same crop.

iii)

iv)

2

Generation system

Normally, the more a variety is multiplied, the greater the possibilities of contamination, out-crossing and variability. Therefore, the seed standards become less rigorous in succeeding generations. The generation system is based on the breeder;s nucleus seed (BNS), which essentially is required to be disease free and genetically pure. Based on the generation system there are following four categories of seed, which are monitored for quality by the department: i) PRE-BASIC SEED: This category is of highest genetic purity and is produced by the breeder from carefully maintained variety seed stocks. BASIC SEED: Basic seed is the first progeny of the pre-basic seed and is produced by authorized organizations. CERTIFIED SEED: Certified seed is the progeny of the basics seed and is produced with the registered growers of the seed producing agencies. APPROVED SEED: Approved seed is the progeny of certified seed and not used for further multiplication.

ii) iii)

iv)

3

Certification Standards

Certification standards regarding crop inspection and seed testing have been fixed for each class. Each seed crop and seed lot must comply with the specific minimum standards before it is approved. Standards for crop inspection are set for varietal purity, other crop plants, and other variety plants, objectionable weed plants and seed-borne diseased plants. Standards are highest for earliest generation i.e. pre-basic. It ensures that even if some contamination takes place during multiplication from pre-basic to certified class, the seed will remain of good quality (field and seed standards for

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pulses annexed).

4

Documentation

Documentation is a very important part of certification. It is actually an administrative control to monitor the whole process of seed multiplication. It covers all records about registration of growers, application for field inspection, producing agency, categories or classes of seed, varieties grown and amounts of seed, and field history etc. It helps verify seed source from receipts, labels and bags etc. and its suitability for further multiplication. It also compares the results of field inspection and seed testing and makes final decision on acceptance or rejection of seed crops and seed lots for further multiplication.

5

Crop inspection

Crop inspection covers the detailed examination of the seed crop for assessing genetic purity, freedom from objectionable weeds, seed-borne diseased plants and isolation. The procedures for crop inspection must be standardized and uniformly applied. It is necessary for maintaining a uniform standard of quality throughout the country for all seed crops.

6

Seed testing

After harvest, the seed to be certified has to meet certain standards of purity, germination and health. The seed standards vary from crop to crop and category to category.

7

Post control plots

The samples of seed lots certified for different categories are grown in small plots and examined during the growing season. Control plots are mainly a check on the efficiency of the certification department. Seed lots showing more than the permissible impurities are withdrawn for multiplication or downgraded to a lower category.

3. FIELD INSPECTION PROCEDURES
The purpose of the field inspection is to determine whether or not the crop is fit for the production of seed of the category required. It is accomplished as follows:
1. 2. 3. Confirmation of the seed field location and crop entries Authenticity of the seed sown Field history of previous cropping

Pulse varieties of Pakistan 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Identification of the variety Admixture with other crops Admixture with other varieties Admixture with other objectionable weeds Seed-borne diseased plants Isolation distance Lodging

Mung

1. Requirements
The Inspection Officer while proceeding for field inspection must have with him the following items: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) A list of registered growers, with information on variety, seed source, acreage sown and location of farm. A copy of the current certification standards Detailed description of varieties to be inspected Field inspection report forms A hand lens of medium magnification A meter rod A knife or scissors A note book

2. Documentary checks and preliminaries
The Inspection Officer must establish the following preliminaries from the documents, reference vouchers and field conditions etc.:

1. Source: Verification of seed source, lot No., from labels, seals, bags and cash memos etc. 2. Location: Location of seed field and acreage planted. 3. Cropping history: Cropping history of the seed field. Previous crop in case of chickpeas seed field does not mean cotton or rice but the crop grown in the same preceding season i.e. last Rabi season. 4. Development: Check the development and condition of the crop. The crop must be well developed and healthy. The crop must not be poor, weedy, diseased, damaged or lodged severely.

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5. Variety: Identify the variety. In case of doubt examine at least 100 plants at random and determine the varietal identity. 6. Isolation: Check the isolation distance on all sides of the seed field especially for volunteers, which could contaminate the seed crop.
Following to the preliminary checking and documentary verification, the seed crop may be rejected if:
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) The source of seed sown could not be verified. Varietal identity could not be determined or some other variety is sown. Land requirements do not conform to the standard i.e. the previous wheat crop was another variety or uncertified same variety. The crop was severely lodged. If 1/3 or more of the crop is lodged, it makes impossible to count contaminants accurately. The seed crop is distorted due to high weed infestation and severe attack of pests and diseases. Isolation is not sufficient as specified in the field standards. In such cases if possible, isolation must be corrected by asking the farmer to cut an appropriate strip for non-seed purpose.

3. Number of crop inspections
The number of crop inspections varies from 2-3 in different crops. In gram (Cicer arietinum) three crop inspections shall be made whereas in lentils, mash and mung two inspections are recommended from flowering stage to maturity.

4.

Crop inspection

On successful completion of the preliminary investigation and field overview, the inspection officer can proceed to assess the presence of impurities in the seed crop. In gram, the first inspection shall be made before flowering, the second at flowering and the third at edible pod stage. In lentils, mash and mung a total of two crop inspections are recommended from flowering stage to maturity. As a result of the first inspection the crop can be provisionally accepted if impurities do not exceed the standards. In case more impurities are observed but not serious and their elimination is possible, then the grower must be advised to rogue the crop thoroughly and kept the decision pending till the final inspection. At the final inspection the seed field is accepted for certified seed production or rejected.

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5.

Taking Counts

A count or a quadrate is a small area of the seed crop having representative number of plants to assess varietal and other quality attributes. The whole seed field is divided into small areas called ‘Field counts’. A field count must represent total field quality.

6.

Number of Counts

The number of counts depends on the area of the seed crop. The following schedule has been prescribed.

Area (acres) Up to 5 6 to 25 26 and above 7.

Number of Counts 5 in total 5 for the first 5 acres and 1 additional for each additional 5 acres At least 1 in every 10 acres but not less than 10 or more than 20.

Method of Taking Count

The following procedure shall be adopted for taking a count in the seed field. The method may differ slightly from crop to crop:

1. A suitable pattern of travel in the seed field enabling examination of maximum number of crop plants for the length of distance traveled must be selected. The pattern of travel must assure that the remotest parts of the seed field are reached easily. 2. Examine carefully more sensitive parts of the seed field which usually are headlands, field boundaries, vicinity of farm yard building, thrashing floor, water course sides and roads into or through the seed field. In such areas, the seeds of other crops, other varieties may have been dropped in transit etc. 3. To make the inspection practically as representative as possible, the points sampled for taking counts must be randomly selected on the line of travel at pre-fixed distances. The count, in no case must begin from the point an off-type was observed or from any selected bad spot of the seed field or even try to avoid any observed off-type as it will introduce bias to the sample making observations un-reliable. 4. Count number of plants in one meter row to estimate

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the area required to sweep for examining a minimum of 2000 plants. Plants per meter are estimated from five different parts of the seed field and averaged. 5. A count will consist of a minimum of 2000 plants. If there are 50 plants per meter, the area of one count will be 1x40 m. 6. If the crop was sown by broadcast method, then count number of plants in one square meter at five places and calculate average number of plants/meter. Sweep sufficient area to cover 2000 plants. 7. Position of the sun is very important. Taking the count while facing the sun makes spotting of off-types difficult. Avoid using color glasses, as it will make the observations doubtful. 8. Observe the uniformity of occurrence of contaminants. In a seed field sown with a uniform and homogenous seed lot, the off-types must not be in patches. If this happens, make the field map and investigate. The decision may be rejection or rigorous roguing. 9. It is desirable to identify an off-type, but not necessary. However, the deviations from the norm may be described. 10. If roguing is advised (at first inspection) then the identity of the off-types must be established and shown to the roguing crew. 11. Proper method of roguing and handling of the rogued plants must be demonstrated to the roguing crew. Rogues and off-types must be pulled out or cut deep in the ground and taken away from the field. In no case, the rogues should be left broken insitu, especially when there are pods on. The purification must be completed before the date fixed for final inspection. 12. The crop may be rejected outright, where it is more than one third lodged, or so badly grown or severely attacked by pests and diseases as to be distorted, weed infestation or admixture of other crop plants and other varieties so

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high as to make purification impracticable. 13. Variation in the expression of some plant characteristics like anthocyanin pigmentation may occur on account of geno-type environmental interaction. The characteristics may also show some variation due to early or late development, position on the plant, time of sowing etc. 14. Sometimes, in sensitive varieties, the plants may show patches of variants. It may be due to uneven application of herbicides etc. 15. There may be some variants in the seed crop. The variants must be uniformity occurring, identifiable and describable. 16. The variants are not counted as off-types. 8. Final Inspection
a. The final inspection is very important as it:

i) Enables the late developing off-types to be identified. ii) It is also a check on late lodging etc. iii) It further provides a mean of assessing the efficiency of purification and roguing a marginal seed crops.
b. While making the inspection the following points must be kept in mind:

i) Occasionally much under-sized plants occur in well grown fields which are mainly due to weak seedlings or late germination etc. these plants usually remain fruitless and are to be ignored unless the species they represent is other than the grown. Same principle may be applied to the sterile plants without any flower and pod. ii) Near the water courses, field boundaries or in saline and infertile soil patches, the plants of the same variety or species may appear to be quite different than normal description. It is unlikely to find patches of off-types in a good seed crop.

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

Off-types are expected to occur homogeneously distributed allover the seed field. Make sure that they do not belong to species other than grown and may be due to different soil and water conditions or micro-environmental factors etc. iii) All these pulse crops are self-pollinating but according to estimates cross-pollination may occur up to 10%. This small amount of cross pollination may cause a small amount of variability which is considered necessary for the maintenance of genetic yield potential and wider adaptability. Due to this there may be some plants showing certain differences of plant shape, hairiness, pod size, shape and beak etc. such plants may be examined carefully before declaring them off-types. iv) Absolute uniformity in morphological characteristics is neither desirable nor necessary and may have negative impact on adaptability, insect and disease resistance and yield. The preliminary investigations and crop stand assessment are not repeated on final inspection. It also confirms the observations of the previous inspections.

4

Reporting results

As a result of final inspection, the final field inspection report is prepared on the prescribed form. Add up all the total number of plants of each contaminant in the field count. The crop is finally certified if the number of contaminants in each category is equal to or less than the rejection level. The seed crop is rejected if more off-type plants than the tolerance are found.

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FIELD AND SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS
GRAM (CHICKPEA) (Cicer arietinum) CROP STANDARDS a) Land Requirements

A seed crop of gram shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land on which the same kind of crop was grown in the previous season, unless the crop in the previous season was of the same variety and certified. b) Crop Inspection

A minimum of these crop inspections shall be made, the first inspection before flowering, the second inspection at flowering and third inspection at edible pod stage. c) Crop Purity Standards 1. a) General Requirements Isolation

An isolation distance of 20 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 10 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from other fields having different varieties and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements. 2. Specific Requirements

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FACTOR Maximum permitted (%) 1. 2. II. Off-types Plants affected by diseases SEED STANDARDS Pre-basic None None Basic 0.10 0.50 Certified 0.50 1.00

FACTOR Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None Basic (%) 98.00 0.10 Certified (%) 98.00 0.50

1. 2.

Pure seed Other varieties

(minimum) (maximum)

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Other crop seeds Weed seeds Inert matter Germination Moisture

(maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum)

Pre-basic (%) None None None 75.00 9.00

Basic (%) None None 2.00 75.00 9.00

Certified (%) None None 2.00 75.00 9.00

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LENTILS
(Lens culinarus) I. CROP STANDARDS a) Land Requirements

A crop of lentils shall not be grown on land on which certified crop of the same variety or any other lentil variety was grown in the preceding season.

b)

Crop Inspection

A minimum of two crop inspections shall be made, the first during flowering and the second at crop maturity. c) 1. Crop Purity Standards

General Requirements Isolation

The seed field shall be separated from the fields of other varieties or uncertified fields of the same variety by a distance adequate to prevent mechanical mixtures. 2. Specific Requirements

FACTOR Maximum permitted (%) 1. 2. Off-types Plants affected by diseases Pre-basic None None Basic 0.02 None Certified 0.10 0.01

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II.

SEED STANDARDS

FACTOR Pre-basic (%) 99.50 None None None 0.50 75.00 10.00 8.00 Basic (%) 98.00 0.02 None None 2.00 70.00 10.00 8.00 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.01 0.01 2.00 70.00 10.00 8.00

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pure seed Other varieties (distinguishable) Other crop seeds Weed seeds Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour proof containers

(minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)

MASH MOTH MUNG I. CROP STANDARDS a) Land Requirements

(Vigna mungo) (Phaseolus aconitifolius) (Vigna radiata)

The seed crops of mash, moth and mung shall be eligible for certification if planted on land on which previous crop was of another kind or was planted to a certified crop of the same variety of an equal or higher seed class.

b)

Crop Inspection

The seed crop shall be twice field inspected from the flowering stage to maturity. c) Crop Purity Standards

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1.

General Requirements Isolation

An isolation distance of 5 meters for Pre-basic and Basic and 3 meters for Certified class shall be provided all around a seed field to separate it from fields of other varieties and uncertified fields of the same variety. 2. Specific Requirements FACTOR Maximum permitted (%) 1. 2. II. Off-types Plants affected by diseases SEED STANDARDS Pre-basic None None Basic 0.02 0.01 Certified 0.10 0.01

FACTOR Pre-basic (%) 99.50 None None None 0.50 75.00 10.00 8.00 Basic (%) 98.00 0.02 0.001 None 2.00 70.00 10.00 8.00 Certified (%) 98.00 0.10 0.01 0.10 2.00 70.00 10.00 8.00

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pure seed Other varieties (distinguishable) Other crop seeds Weed seeds Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour proof containers

(minimum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

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COWPEA, LOBIA DOLICHOS BEAN FRENCH BEAN CLUSTER BEAN tetragonoloba) I. CROP STANDARDS a) Land Requirements

(Vigna unquiculata) (Dolichos lablab) (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Cyamopsis

A seed crop shall not be grown on land on which the same kindl of crop was grown in the previous season, unless the preceding crop was of the same variety and certified.

b)

Crop Inspection

A minimum of two inspections shall be made, the first before flowering and the second at flowering and fruiting stage.

c) 1.

Crop Purity Standards

General Requirements Isolation

Distance adequate to prevent mechanical mixture of varieties is necessary. 2. Specific Requirements

FACTOR Maximum permitted (%) Prebasic None None Basic 0.10 0.50 Certified 0.50 1.00

1. 2.

Off-types (at final inspection) Plants affected by seed-borne

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diseases like Ashy stem blight, Anthracnose, Ascochyta blight (for hilly areas only) and Mosaic. II. SEED STANDARDS

FACTOR Pre-basic (%) 99.99 None None None 0.10 75.00 9.00 8.00 Basic (%) 98.00 0.10 None None 2.00 75.00 9.00 8.00 Certified (%) 98.00 0.50 None None 2.00 75.00 9.00 8.00

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pure seed Other varieties (distinguishable) Other crop seeds Weed seeds Inert matter Germination Moisture Moisture for vapour proof containers

(maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (maximum) (minimum) (maximum) (maximum)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Balkassar 2000 Bittal­98 C 44 CM 2000 CM 72 CM 88 CM 98 DG 89

BARI, Chakwal PRI, AARI, Faisalabad PRI, AARI, Faisalabad NIAB, Faisalabad NIAB, Faisalabad NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad RRI, Dokri, Larkana 

Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Sindh

200 0 199 8 198 3 200 0 198 3 199 4 199 8 199 1

1999 1986

1984 1996

1990

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

9. 10 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20 . 21 . 22 . 23 . 24 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 29 .

DG 92 Dasht 98 Hassan­2k Karak 1 Karak 98 Lawaghar 2000 NIFA 88 NIFA 95 Noor 91 Parbat 98 Paidar s91 Pawari Punjab 2000 Punjab91

RRI, Dokri, Larkana 

Sindh

199 3 200 0 199 2 199 8 200 0 199 0 199 6 199 1 199 1 199 6 200 0 199 1 200 0 200 0 199 0 198 5 199 4 200 2 199 6

1996

NIFA, Peshawar ARS, Karak  ARS, Karak ARS Karak NIFA, Peshawar  NIFA, Peshawar PRI, AARI, Faisalabad

NWFP NWFP NWFP NWFP NWFP NWFP Punjab

1990

1990 1997 1992

PRI, AARI, Faisalabad ARI, Tandojam PRI, AARI, Faisalabad PRI, AARI, Faisalabad

Punjab Sindh Punjab Punjab NWFP Punjab

1992 1997

1992

Sheenghar2000 ARS, Karak Wanhar 2000 LENTIL Mansehra 89 Masoor 85 Masoor 93 Niab Lentil 2002 Shiraz 96 BARI, AARI, Chakwal

ARS, Mansehra  PRI, AARI, Faisalabad PRI, AARI, Faisalabad NIAB, Faisalabad. AZRC, Quetta

NWFP Punjab Punjab Punjab Balu

1990 1986 1996

1997

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

30 . 31 . 4 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 . 41 . 42 . 43 . 44 . 45 .

MASH MASH 88 Mash­97 NARC MASH 2 NARC MASH 3 MUNG Chak mung 97 Khalood(AEM96) MUNG 88 NIAB­92 NM 121­25 NM 13­1 NM 19­19 NM 20­21 NM 28 NM 51 NM 54 NM­98

PRI, AARI, Faisalabad PRI, AARI, Faisalabad PARC, Islamabad PARC, Islamabad

Punjab Punjab PARC PARC

199 0 199 7 199 3 199 3

1990 1999 1996 1996

AEARC, Tandojam RARI, Bahawalpur  NIAB., Faisalabad. NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad  NIAB, Faisalabad

Sindh Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab

199 6 199 0 199 6 198 6 198 6 198 6 198 6 198 3 199 0 199 0 199 8

1997 1990 1997 1986

1986 1986 1992 1992 1999

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

REFERENCES
Thomson, J.R. 1979. An Introduction to Seed Technology. Thomson Litho Ltd. East Kilbride, Scotland. UK. Copeland, L.O. 1976. Principles of Seed Science and Technology. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. USA. Feistritzer, W.P. 1975. Cereal Seed Technology. A Manual of Cereal Seed Production, Quality Control, and Distribution. FAO, Rome. Van Gastel, A.J.G. and J. Keley. 1986. Quality Seed Production. Seed Technology Course, Cairo, Egypt, 15-30 March 1986. Ahmad, S.I. 1994. Legume Seed Technology. Proceedings of FSC&RD/ICARDA Train-the-Trainer Course, 5-14 April 1994, Sahiwal. FSC&RD, Islamabad. Van Der Burg, W.J. Aspects of Seed Quality Control. Seed Production Technology, ICARDA, Aleppo. Syria.

References
Abdullah, M. 1972. Taxmony, Morphology & Agronomy of Pulse. Pulse in Pakistan.PCCC, Karachi. Ahmad, S. I. Gilani, M. M. 1993. Minimum Crop Seed Certification Standards. F-Maz printers, Islamabad. Fehr, W. R. 1987. Principles of Cultivar Development. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. Government of Pakistan 1971. Seed Act, 1976. Printing Corporation of Pakistan, Islamabad. KIPPS, M. S. 1971. Production of Field Crops. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, LTD, New Dehli. Poehlman, J. M. 1986 Breeding Field Crops AVI Publishing Van Norstrand Reinhold, New York Purseglove, T. W. 1975. Tropical Crops, Monocotyledons. ELBS, London.

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Sowing rate influences plant establishment, growth, seed yield and the profitability of a crop. A comprehensive study with Tyson over three years in south-western Australia concluded that growers should target a plant density of 50 plants/m2 for sites with a yield potential of about 1.0 t/ha. This equates to a sowing rate of about 80-100 kg/ha depending upon germination and seed size. In regions with a yield potential above 1.0 t/ha (medium to high rainfall regions of the northern wheatbelt), higher plant densities are beneficial.

Farmer and research experience indicates that crop establishment in kabuli chickpea can be poor. Unlike desi chickpeas, the large kabuli seed size and thin seed coat make them vulnerable to mechanical damage during harvest and handling. The kabuli types lack the phenolic compounds in their seed coat that reduces fungal attack in the soil. To follow up experiments conducted over the past two years, trials with sowing rates ranging from 60-320 kg/ha were established with Kaniva at three sites in 1999 (Table 23). Mingenew received heavy rainfall during May, however the kabuli chickpeas at the site were not adversely affected by transient waterlogging. There was a minor incidence of Ascochyta blight at Mingenew. Nutritive Value of Certain Pulses and Other Foods Food Kidney Beans Broad Beans Chick-peas Cow Peas Pigeon Peas Lentils Wheat (flour) Rice (milled) Maize (flour) Cassava Beef Eggs Milk Source: FAO Calories Calcium (mg/ Iron (mg/ Protein (%) (per100g) 100g) 100g) 341 343 358 342 343 346 370 360 360 338 198 163 360 22.1 23.4 20.1 23.4 20.9 24.2 10.9 6.7 9.3 1.5 19.0 12.4 36.0 137 90 149 76 129 56 16 10 6 12 11 50 1235 6.7 3.6 7.2 5.7 5.8 6.1 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.0 2.3 2.5 0.9

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

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The Nutrition Values of Pulses
Protein % Fat % Basmati Rice White Beans Red Lentils Green Lentils Chickpeas Red Beans Boulgour Wheat Fava Beans Brown Rice Carbohy drate % K Mg/kg Na P B1 Energy Fe Ca mg/kg

mg/kg mg/100 mg/100 Kcal/10 Mg/kg g g 0g 8.47 14.65 6.98 16.08 37.99 55.63 3776 37.16 62.39 70.58 372.50 338.16 813.33 292.05 359.68 197.49 314.71 472.23 273.61 0.029 0.673 0.456 0.207 0.366 0.495 0.199 0.316 0.250 0.266 361 340 357 345 368 338 345 354 341 348 34.87

8.03 21.44 27.50 26.50 20.75 22.19 10.26 10.32 27.32 7.38

0.28 1.40 1.00 0.73 5.50 1.30 1.30 1.80 1.20 2.10

78.85 62.49 62.12 60.62 61.47 61.54 78.65 73.80 57.91

765.29 10084 6616 6258 7264 10130 4414 2567 8809

210.50

81.15 1100.86 70.75 95.80 700.69 258.98

59.53 1121.50 145.54 972.37 60.21 142.20

51.36 1186.00 80.34 1012.20 54.24 122.84

74.17 1664.07 78.04

Taken from the report of TUBITAK dated 25.12.1996 # B.02.1 BAK.5.01.44.00/1122 6338

Many pulses in India are decorticated (hulls are removed) and split. Mills process the pulses using a multi-step procedure. First, they are cleaned to remove foreign matter, such as stones. Second, the surfaces are scratched so that they readily absorb moisture. Third, the pulses are soaked in a water-vegetable oil mixture to soften the outer layer. Fourth, decorticating machines remove the hulls, and the pulses may be split. Lastly, some millers polish the pulses to improve their appearance. If the end product is flour, the decorticated pulses (such as desi chickpeas and black matpe) are ground. The milling extraction rate is about

Pulse varieties of Pakistan

Mung

85 percent, but varies by variety. Operating machinery, bagging, and hauling are laborintensive activities in most plants. However, some newer, more automated facilities do exist. Wholesale price differences imply milling costs and margins of about 3-4 rupees/kg. (or $62-83/ton). Milling charges are levied on the amount delivered to the plant. Millers discount their fees if they retain the byproducts, which can be sold as feed. The milling sector in India consists almost entirely of small-scale enterprises, with plant machinery often custom designed and built by the owners or local mechanics. With a few exceptions, the mills are old. However, they are reported to be technically and economically efficient at producing high-quality products. Hence, there is no incentive from either a quality or cost standpoint to import milled pulses. While a surplus of milling capacity was reported by millers, it is not clear whether it exists throughout the year or occurs only in off-peak periods (e.g., just prior to harvest). Mills are typically independently operated. In addition, vertical integration is not evident in the milling industry. In part, industry structure stems from regulations that historically limited pulse processing (and most other agricultural processing activities) to small-scale firms. This industry structure may also be due to frequent weather-induced fluctuations in production, which increase the cost and uncertainty of sourcing raw materials.

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