Cosmology  (ancient  view)  

•  Is  the  branch  of  astronomy  concerned  with  the  study  of  the   origins  and  ul6mate  fate  of  the  Universe   •  Babylonians  (~1400BCE):  
•  kept  careful  records  of  mo6ons          of  planets  and  the  moon   •  Believed  the  Earth  was  the  centre          of  the  Universe  

•  Indians  (~1000BCE):  
•  cyclical  universe  (birth-­‐destruc6on)  

•  Greeks  (~700  BCE):  
•  started  to  develop  theories  based  on          observa6ons  

Cosmology  (ancient  view)  
•  Thales  of  Miletus  (634–546  BCE)  
•  developed  a  simple  model  with  the  the  Earth  as  a  flat              disk  surrounded  by  water  

•  Anaxagoras  (500-­‐428  BCE)  
•  proposed  the  world  was  cylindrically  shaped  and  humans  lived  on   the  flat-­‐topped  surface   •  the  cylinder  rotates  in  space  that  is  why  the  stars  move   •  the  moon  reflects  the  light  from  the  sun   •  eclipses  are  due  to  the  Earth’s  shadow  on  the  Moon  

•  Aristotle  (384-­‐322  BCE)  
•  geocentric  model  

•  Aristarchus  (310-­‐230  BCE)  
•  was  the  first  to  suggest  the  Earth  orbits  the  Sun   •  made  an  es6mate  of  the  distance  between  the  Moon  and  the  Sun  

Copernican  model  
•  Nicolaus  Copernicus  (1473-­‐1543)  
•  proposed  that  the  Earth  was  not  the  centre  of  the  Universe   •  planets  orbit  the  Sun  in  circles  

Kepler  and  Galileo  
•  Johannes  Kepler  (1571–1630)  
•  •  •  •    proposed  that  the  planets  move  in  ellipses   derived  3  laws  of  planetary  mo6on  that  fit  the  data  perfectly   suggested  the  universe  was  infinite  with  infinite  numbers  of  stars   stars  are  extremely  hot  and  bright    

•  Galileo  (1562-­‐1642)  
•  found  evidence  of  heliocentric  mo6on   •  discovered  four  of  the  moons  of  Jupiter   •  discovered  Sunspots  

Modern  Cosmology  
•  The  Universe  is  homogeneous  and  isotropic   •  Sun  is  approximately  26,000  l.y.  from  galac6c  centre   •  Milky  Way  galaxy  has  between  200-­‐400  billion  stars   •  The  diameter  of  the  Milky   Way  galaxy  is  between   100,000-­‐120,000  l.y.   •  The  centre  of  the  galaxy   hosts  a  supermassive   black  hole  (Sagitarrius  A*)  

100,000  light  years  

Nebulae  and  Galaxies  
•  Harlow  Shapley    (1885-­‐1972)  
•  Arrived  at  the  first  es6mate  of  the  size  of  the  Milky  way  galaxy   and  the  posi6on  of  the  Sun  in  it  

•  Vesto  Slipher  (1875-­‐1969)  
•  used  spectroscopy  to  determine  the  rota6on  of  ‘spiral  nebulae’   •  no6ced  that  the  light  coming  from  those  objects  was  redshiced  

•  Albert  Einstein  (1879-­‐1955)  
•  publishes  General  Theory  of  Rela6vity  in  1916   •  assumes  infinite  and  ‘sta6c’  universe  

•  Willem  de  Sieer  (1872-­‐1934)  
•  mathema6cally  proves  the  universe  is  expanding  

•  Alexandr  Friedmann  (1888-­‐1925)  
•  yes,  it  is    

Nebulae  and  Galaxies  
•  Are  these  ‘spiral  nebulae’  just  gas  clouds  inside  the  Milky  way   galaxy  or  are  they  other  galaxies  much  further  away?     •  Edwin  Hubble  (1889-­‐1953)  
•  observed  many    ‘spiral  nebulae’  and  worked  out  their   distances  confirming  the  view  that  they  were  outside   the  Milky  Way  galaxy  
Spirals  (S)   Ellip6cals  (E)  

Barred  Spirals  (SB)   Len6cular  (S0)  

Nebulae  and  Galaxies  
•  Are  these  ‘spiral  nebulae’  just  gas  clouds  inside  the  Milky  way   galaxy  or  are  they  other  galaxies  much  further  away?     •  Edwin  Hubble  (1889-­‐1953)  
•  observed  many    ‘spiral  nebulae’  and  worked  out  their   distances  confirming  the  view  that  they  were  outside   the  Milky  Way  galaxy   •  galaxies  are  moving  away  from  us   •  the  further  they  are,  the  faster  they  are  moving  away   •  Hubble’s  Law:  v = H0 d

Nebulae  and  Galaxies  

1931   data   1934   data   Best  current  es6mate   H0=72±5km  s-­‐1  Mpc-­‐1  

Dynamics  of  the  Universe  
•  Depending  on  how  much  maeer  there  is  in  the  universe,  the   expansion  will  :  
•  a)  eventually  stop  (flat  universe)   •  b)  eventually  reverse  (closed  universe)   •  c)  con6nue  forever  (open  universe)  

 

Ω<1  

Ω=1  

Open  

Flat  

Closed   Ω>1  

Dynamics  of  the  Universe  
If  two  galaxies  are  moving  away  from  each  other  with  a   constant  speed  v,  then  their  distance  with  6me  changes  as   d  =  v  t   t  =  1  /  H0   v  =  H0d     H0  =  72  ±  5  km/s/Mpc   1  Mpc  =  3.086  ×  1022  m   1  second  =  3.169  ×  10-­‐8  years     Es6mated  age  of  the  universe      
t= 1 22 −8 9 years   × 3.086 × 10 × 3.169 × 10 = 13.6 × 10 3 72 × 10

The  “Big  Bang”  

Radia6on  domina6on  

First  stars  and  galaxies  

Recombina6on  epoch   Sun  forms   Now  

Just  another  theory?  
•  Evidence  
•  Expansion  of  the  Universe   •  Cosmic  microwave  background  radia6on   •  Chemical  element  abundance  in  the  universe  
COBE  spacecrac  

A.  Penzias  and  R.  Wilson  

R.  Dicke  

To  Do  
•  Read  sec6on  21  from  the  book  [Astronomy  and  Cosmology]   •  Homework  Assignment  wk11:  (see  blog)   •  Hand  it  in  no  later  than  4:00pm  Wednesday    3rd  Apr-­‐  LATE   WORK  WILL  NOT  BE  ACCEPTED  

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