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1. Obtain the probability of adding up six points if we toss three distinct dice. 2.

Consider a binomial distribution for a one-dimensional random walk, with , , and

to compare with the previous result. c. Repeat items (a) and (b) for and . Are the

new answers too different?

3. Obtain an expression for the third moment of a binomial distribution. What is the behavior of this

moment for large ? 4. Consider an event of probability . The

probability of occurrences of this event out of trials is given by the binomial distribution

obtain the Poisson distribution,

where is the mean number of events. Check that is normalized. Calculate and

for this Poisson distribution. Formulate a statistical problem to be solved in terms of this

and . Also,we have

outcomes, involving two events and . Let be the number of events in which occurs, but

not ; be the number of events in which occurs, but not ; be the number of events in

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which both and occur; and be the number of events in which neither nor occur. (a)

Check that . (b) Check that

and

where and are the probabilities of occurrence of and , respectively. (c) Calculate

the probability of occurrence of either or . (d) Calculate the probability of

occurrence of both and . (e) Calculate the conditional probability that occurs

given that occurs. (f) Calculate the conditional probability that occurs given that

occurs. (g)Show that

and

for . (a) Find the mean value . (b) Two values and are chosen independently.

Find and . (c) What is the probability distribution of the random variable

? (a) ; (b) and ; (c) Note that

To obtain this result, it is enough to use an ntegral representation of the -function (see Appendix)

and perform the integrations.

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7. Consider a random walk in one dimension. After steps from the origin, the position is given by

, where is a set of independent, identically distributed, random variables, given

where and are positive constants. After steps, what is the average displacement from the

origin? What is the standard deviation of the random variable ? In the large limit, what is the

form of the Gaussian distribution associated with this problem? ; ;

with . Obtain an expression for the probability distribution associated with the random

variable . Is it possible to write a Gaussian approximation for large ? Why? Now we should be

careful, as , but diverges! The Lorentzian form does not obey the conditions of validity

of the central limit theorem.

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap02 Page 1 of 3

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1. Neglect the complexities of classical phase space, and consider a system of distinguishable and

noninteracting particles, which may be found in two states of energy, with and ,

respectively. Given the total energy of this system, obtain an expression for the associated

number of microscopic states.

2. Calculate the number of accessible microscopic states of a system of two localized and

independent quantum oscillators, with fundamental frequencies and , respectively, and total

energy . ; ; .

3. Consider a classical one-dimensional system of two noninteracting particles of the same mass

The motion of the particles is restricted to a region of the axis between and .

Let and be the position coordinates of the particles, and and be the canonically

conjugated momenta. The total energy of the system is between and . Draw the

projection of phase space in a plane defined by position coordinates. Indicate the region of this plane

that is accessible to the system. Draw similar graphs in the plane defined by the momentum

coordinates.

where and are positive constants. Obtain , that is, the probability of finding the

oscillator with position between and . Note that it is enough to calculate , where

is a period of oscillation, and is an interval of time, within a period, in which the amplitude

remains between and . Draw a graph of versus .

5. Now consider the classical phase space of an ensemble of identical one-dimensional oscillators

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with energy between and . Given the energy , we have an ellipse in phase space. So,

the accessible region in phase space is a thin elliptical shell bounded by the ellipses associated with

energies and , respectively. Obtain an expression for the small area of this elliptical

shell between and . Show that the probability may also be given by , where

is the total area of the elliptical shell. This is one of the few examples where we can check the

validity of the ergodic hypothesis and the postulate of equal a priori probabilities. 6. Consider a

classical system of localized and weakly interacting one-dimensional harmonic oscillators, whose

Hamiltonian is written as

where is the mass and is an elastic constant. Obtain the accessible volume of phase space for

, with . This classical model for the elastic vibrations of a solid leads

to a constant specific heat with temperature (law of Dulong and Petit). The solid of Einstein is a

quantum version of this model. The specific heat of Einstein's model decreases with temperature, in

qualitative agreement with experimental data.

where is the volume of a hyperspherical shell (see Appendix) of radius and thickness .

where and the spin variable may assume the values or , for all . This

spin Hamiltonian describes the effects of the electrostatic environment on spin- ions. An ion in

states has energy , and an ion in state 0 has zero energy. Show that the number of

accessible microscopic states of this system with total energy can be written as

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for , with fixed. This last expression is the entropy per particle in units of

Boltzmann's constant, .

8. In a simplified model of a gas of particles, the system is divided into cells of unit volume. Find

the number of ways to distribute distinguishable particles (with ) within cells,

such that each cell may be either empty or filled up by only one particle. How would your answer be

modified for indistinguishable particles?

and

9. The atoms of a crystalline solid may occupy either a position of equilibrium, with zero energy, or

a displaced position, with energy . To each equilibrium position, there corresponds a unique

displaced position. Given the number of atoms, and the total energy , calculate the number of

accessible microscopic states of this system.

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap03 Page 1 of 5

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1. The chemical potential of a simple fluid of a single component is given by the expression

where is the temperature, is the pressure, is the Boltzmann constant, and the functions

and are well behaved. Show that this system obeys Boyle's law, .

Obtain an expression for the specific heat at constant pressure. What are the expressions for the

thermal compressibility, the specific heat at constant volume, and the thermal expansion coefficient?

Obtain the density of Helmholtz free energy, . Hint: Note that . Thus

from which we obtain the specific heat at constant pressure. All other expressions are

straightforward. In particular,

Use this result to show that the specific heat of an ideal gas does not depend on volume. Show that

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representation. Obtain an expression for the internal energy as a function of , , and . Obtain

an expression for the Helmholtz free energy of this system. Calculate the thermodynamic derivatives

and as a function of temperature and pressure. From Euler's relation, we have

which is identical to the expression for the chemical potential in exercise 1, if we make and

. Therefore, we have Boyle's law and the usual expressions for and .

4. Obtain an expression for the Helmholtz free energy per particle, , of a pure system

given by the equations of state

and

where is a constant. Note that we can write the following equations of state in the entropy

representation

and

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5. Obtain an expression for the Gibbs free energy per particle, , for a pure system given

by the fundamental equation

and

The Gibbs free energy per particle is given by the Legendre transformation

6. Consider an elastic ribbon of length under a tension . In a quasi-static process, we can write

Suppose that the tension is increased very quickly, from to , keeping the temperature

fixed. Obtain an expression for the change of entropy just after reaching equilibrium. What is the

change of entropy per mole for an elastic ribbon that behaves according to the equation of state

, where is a constant? Using the Gibbs representation, we have the Maxwell relation

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is the applied magnetic field, is the magnetization per particle (with corrections due to

presumed surface effects), and is temperature. In a quasi-static process, we have

where plays the role of an internal energy. For an infinitesimal adiabatic process, show

that we can write

8. From stability arguments, show that the enthalpy of a pure fluid is a convex function of entropy

and a concave function of pressure.

*9. Show that the entropy per mole of a pure fluid, , is a concave function of its

variables. Note that we have to analyze the sign of the quadratic form

The eigenvalues of the matrix are the roots of the quadratic equation

and

exchap03 Page 5 of 5

Now it is straightforward to relate these derivatives of the entropy with positive physical quantities

(as the compressibilities and the specific heats).

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap04 Page 1 of 3

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where the spin variable may assume the values or for all (see exercise 8 of

Chapter 2). Given the total energy , use the expression for the number of accessible microstates,

to obtain the entropy per particle, , where . Obtain an expression for

the specific heat in terms of the temperature . Sketch a graph of versus . Check the

existence of a broad maximum associated with the Schottky effect. Write an expression for the

entropy as a function of temperature. What are the limiting values of the entropy for and

? The entropy per particle is given by

where . The specific heat is given by the derivative of with respect to . For

, ; for , .

2. In the solid of Einstein, we may introduce a volume coordinate if we make the phenomenological

assumption that the fundamental frequency as a function of is given by =

where , and are positive constants. Obtain expressions for the expansion coefficient and

exchap04 Page 2 of 3

the isothermal compressibility of this model system. As , the entropy of Einstein's solid

can be written as a function of energy and volume, . From the equations of state, it is

straightforward to obtain the expansion coefficient and the compressibility.

3. Consider the semiclassical model of particles with two energy levels ( 0 and ). As in the

previous exercise, suppose that the volume of the gas may be introduced by the assumption that the

energy of the excited level depends on ,

where and are positive constants. Obtain an equation of state for the pressure, , and

an expression for the isothermal compressibility (note that the constant plays the role of the

Grüneisen parameter of the solid). Again, as , we can write . From the

equations of state, it is easy to write the isothermal compressibility.

4. The total number of the accessible microscopic states of the Boltzmann gas, with energy and

number of particles , may be written as

and

Except for an additive constant, show that the entropy per particle is given by

where is the set of occupation numbers at equilibrium. Using the continuum limit of the

Boltzmann gas, show that the entropy depends on temperature according to a term of the form

.

5. Consider a lattice gas of particles distributed among cells (with ). Suppose that

each cell may be either empty or occupied by a single particle. The number of microscopic states of

this system will be given by

exchap04 Page 3 of 3

Obtain an expression for the entropy per particle, , where . From this

fundamental equation, obtain an expression for the equation of state . Write an expansion of

in terms of the density . Show that the first term of this expansion gives the Boyle law

of the ideal gases. Sketch a graph of , where is the chemical potential, in terms of the density

. What is the behavior of the chemical potential in the limits and ? The entropy

particle is given by

Note that Bolyles's law is already given by the first term is this expansion. To find , we write

, and take the derivative with respect to .

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap05 Page 1 of 5

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field , may be written as

where the parameters , , and are positive, and or , for all sites . Obtain

expressions for the internal energy, the entropy, and the magnetization per site. In zero field (

), sketch graphs of the internal energy, the entropy, and the specific heat versus temperature.

Indicate the behavior of these quantities in the limits and . Calculate the expected

value of the ``quadrupole moment,''

.

exchap05 Page 2 of 5

where the parameters , , and are positive, and for all sites . Assume that is an

even number, and note that the first sum is over odd integers. (a) Obtain an expression for the

canonical partition function and calculate the internal energy per spin, . Sketch a graph

of versus temperature . Obtain an expression for the entropy per spin, .

Sketch a graph of versus . (b) Obtain expressions for the magnetization per particle,

3. Consider a system of classical and noninteracting particles in contact with a thermal reservoir

at temperature . Each particle may have energies 0, , or . Obtain an expression for the

canonical partition function, and calculate the internal energy per particle, . Sketch a

graph of versus (indicate the values of in the limits and ). Calculate the

entropy per particle, , and sketch a graph of versus . Sketch a graph of the specific

heat versus temperature. The canonical partition function is given by

exchap05 Page 3 of 5

reservoir at temperature . The energy levels of each oscillator are given by

with

Note that is an odd integer. (a) Obtain an expression for the internal energy per oscillator as a

function of temperature . What is the form of in the classical limit ( )? (b) Obtain

an expression for the entropy per oscillator as a function of temperature. Sketch a graph of entropy

versus temperature. What is the expression of the entropy in the classical limit? (c) What is the

expression of the specific heat in the classical limit? The answers come from the expression

5. Consider a system of noninteracting classical particles. The single-particle states have energies

, and are times degenerate ( ; ). Calculate the canonical partition

function and the entropy of this system. Obtain expressions for the internal energy and the entropy as

a function of temperature. What are the expressions for the entropy and the specific heat in the limit

of high temperatures? The thermodynamic functions come from canonical partition function, given

by , where

Using the formalism of the canonical ensemble in classical phase space, obtain expressions for the

exchap05 Page 4 of 5

partition function, the energy per oscillator, the entropy per oscillator, and the specific heat. Compare

with the results from the classical limit of the quantum oscillator. Calculate an expression for the

quadratic deviation of the energy as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic functions come

from canonical partition function, given by , where

7. Consider again the preceding problem. The canonical partition function can be written as an

integral form,

where is the number of accessible microscopic states of the system with energy . Note that,

in the expressions for and , we are omitting the dependence on the number of

oscillators. Using the expression for obtained in the last exercise, perform a reverse Laplace

transformation to obtain an asymptotic form (in the thermodynamic limit) for . Compare with

the expression calculated in the framework of the microcanonical ensemble. First, we use an integral

representation of the -function (see Appendix) to see that

where . Using the asymptotic integration techniques of the Appendix, we locate the saddle

point at and write the asymptotic form (for ),

exchap05 Page 5 of 5

which should be compared with the well-known result for the classical one-dimensional harmonic

oscillator in the microcanonical ensemble.

with the Hamiltonian

where

with . (a) Obtain the canonical partition function of this classical system. Calculate the internal

energy per oscillator, . What is the form of in the limits and ? (b)

Consider now the quantum analog of this model in the limit . Obtain an expression for the

canonical partition function. What is the internal energy per oscillator of this quantum analog? The

classical partition function is given by , where

Note that we have for both limits, and . In order to write the quantum

partition function, in the limit, we should consider odd values of only (note that even

values of are associated with wave functions that do not vanish at the origin).

next previous

Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap06 Page 1 of 5

next previous

is given by the Hamiltonian

where is a positive constant. Obtain an expression for the canonical partition function. Calculate

the entropy per particle as a function of temperature and specific volume. What is the expression of

the specific heat at constant volume? All the thermodynamic quantities are easily obtained from the

classical canonical partition function, given by

where is a positive and even integer. Use the canonical formalism to obtain an expression for the

classical specific heat of this system. Note that the canonical partition function may be written as

, where

Thus,

volume , at a given temperature . The Hamiltonian of a single molecule is given by

exchap06 Page 2 of 5

where is an elastic constant. Obtain an expression for the Helmholtz free energy of this

system. Calculate the specific heat at constant volume. Calculate the mean molecular diameter,

where and are positive constants, and . What are the changes in your previous

answers? Taking into account the thermodynamic limit ( ), the first Hamiltonian is

associated with the partition function

from which we obtain the Helmholtz free energy (and the value of ). It interesting to check the

constant value of the molecular specific heat, . The second Hamiltonian represents a

more complicated model of a diatomic molecule. The partition function is given by

where

rigid rotator. The Hamiltonian of the molecule is written as a sum of a translational, , plus a

rotational, , term (that is, ). Consider a system of very weakly

interacting molecules of this kind, in a container of volume , at a given temperature . (a) Obtain

an expression for in spherical coordinates. Show that there is a factorization of the canonical

partition function of this system. Obtain an expression for the specific heat at constant volume. (b)

exchap06 Page 3 of 5

Now suppose that each molecule has a permanent electric dipole moment and that the system is in

the presence of an external electric field (with the dipole along the axis of the rotor). What is

the form of the new rotational part of the Hamiltonian? Obtain an expression for the polarization of

the molecule as a function of field and temperature. Calculate the electric susceptibility of this

system. The Lagrangian of a free rotator (two atoms of mass and a fixed interatomic distance )

is given by

Therefore,

In the presence on an electric field (taken along the direction), and with the magnetic moment

along the axis of the rotator, we have

Thus, we have

exchap06 Page 4 of 5

electric field . Since there is no permanent electric dipole moment, the polarization of this system

comes from the induction by the field. We then suppose that the Hamiltonian of each molecule will

be given by the sum of a standard translational term plus an ``internal term.'' This internal term

involves an isotropic elastic energy, which tends to preserve the shape of the molecule, and a term of

interaction with the electric field. The configurational part of the internal Hamiltonian is be given by

Obtain the polarization per molecule as a function of field and temperature. Obtain the electric

susceptibility. Compare with the results of the last problem. Make some comments about the main

differences between these results. Do you know any physical examples corresponding to these

models? First, we calculate the configurational partition function

so the dielectric susceptibility is just a constant (in sharp contrast to the previous result for permanent

electric dipoles!)

where is a molar volume, is the universal gas constant, and is a function of temperature

only. In the following table we give some experimental data for the second virial coefficient,

, as a function of temperature.

exchap06 Page 5 of 5

Use the experimental data of this table to determine the best values of the parameters , , and .

According to Section 6.4 (although nitrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules), the virial coefficient is

given by

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap07 Page 1 of 5

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1. Show that the entropy in the grand canonical ensemble can be written as

Show that this same form of entropy still holds in the pressure ensemble (with a suitable probability

distribution).

where is a positive constant, inside a container of volume , in contact with a reservoir of heat

and particles (at temperature and chemical potential ). Obtain the grand partition function and

the grand thermodynamic potential. From a Legendre transformation of the grand potential, write an

expression for the Helmholtz free energy of this system. To check your result, use the integral in

[*]

equation ( ) for obtaining an asymptotic form for the canonical partition function. As we have

already calculated in a previous exercise, the canonical partition function is given by

exchap07 Page 2 of 5

where

Now we should note that the same expression comes from the asymptotic form

3. Obtain the grand partition function of a classical system of particles, inside a container of volume

, given by the Hamiltonian

Write the equations of state in the representation of the grand potential. For all reasonable forms of

the single-particle potential , show that the energy and the pressure obey typical equations of an

ideal gas.

4. Show that the average quadratic deviation of the number of particles in the grand canonical

ensemble may be written as

exchap07 Page 3 of 5

and

5. Show that the average quadratic deviation of energy in the grand canonical ensemble may be

written as

where is the thermodynamic internal energy in terms of , , and . Hence, show that

we may also write

(you may use the Jacobian transformations of Appendix A.5). From this last expression, show that

where

is the average quadratic deviation of energy in the canonical ensemble. Finally, show that

exchap07 Page 4 of 5

since

molecules. Suppose that there are no interactions between molecules. Show that the chemical

potential of the adsorbed gas is given by

What is the meaning of the function ? Suppose an adsorbed particle has energy . We then

write the canonical partition function

7. The grand partition function for a simplified statistical model is given by the expression

where is a positive constant. Write parametric forms of the equation of state. Sketch an isotherm

of pressure versus specific volume (draw a graph to eliminate the variable ). Show that this system

displays a (first-order) phase transition. Obtain the specific volumes of the coexisting phases at this

exchap07 Page 5 of 5

transition. Find the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane, and show that there is

a zero at in the limit . Note the structures of zeroes at and

, for Also, note the thermodynamic limit,

for

and

for

and

For , we have

and

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap08 Page 1 of 4

next previous

1. Obtain the explicit forms of the ground state and of the first excited state for a system of two free bosons,

with zero spin, confined to a one-dimensional region of length . Repeat this problem for two fermions of

spin . The single-particle states are given by , where and ,

, where is a normalization constant. The first excited state is given by

is the Fermi-Dirac (Bose-Einstein) distribution. Show that we can still use these equations to obtain the usual

results for the classical ideal gas.

holds for both free bosons and fermions (and also in the classical case). Show that an ideal ultrarelativistic

gas, given by the energy spectrum , still obeys the same equation of state. For fermions, we have

exchap08 Page 2 of 4

from which we prove that . The same manipulations can be carried out for bosons, but we should

pay special attention to the state. For the classical gas, this result is trivial.

4. Consider a quantum ideal gas inside a cubic vessel of side , and suppose that the orbitals of the particles

are associated with wave functions that vanish at the surfaces of the cube. Find the density of states in

space. In the thermodynamic limit, show that we have the same expressions as calculated with periodic

boundary conditions.

Calculate the classical limit of the chemical potential of this gas. Now consider a ``two-dimensional'' gas of

free particles adsorbed on a surface of area . The energy of an adsorbed particle is given by

where is the (two-dimensional) momentum, and is the binding energy that keeps the particle stuck

to the surface. In the classical limit, calculate the chemical potential of the adsorbed gas. The condition of

equilibrium between the adsorbed particles and the particles of the three-dimensional gas can be expressed in

terms of the respective chemical potentials. Use this condition to find the surface density of adsorbed

particles as a function of temperature and pressure of the surrounding gas. In the thermodynamic limit, the

chemical potential of the three-dimensional gas is given by

pressure.

6. Obtain an expression for the entropy per particle, in terms of temperature and density, for a classical ideal

monatomic gas of particles of spin adsorbed on a surface of area . Obtain the expected values of ,

, , where is the Hamiltonian of the system. What are the expressions of the second and third

exchap08 Page 3 of 4

7. Consider a homogeneous mixture of two ideal monatomic gases, at temperature , inside a container of

volume . Suppose that there are particles of gas and particles of gas . Write an expression

for the grand partition function associated with this system (it should depend on , , and the chemical

potentials and ). In the classical limit, obtain expressions for the canonical partition function, the

Helmholtz free energy , and the pressure of the gas. Show that (Dalton's law), where

and are the partial pressures of and , respectively.

8. Under some conditions, the amplitudes of vibration of a diatomic molecule may be very large, with a

certain degree of anharmonicity. In this case, the vibrational energy levels are given by the approximate

expression

where is the parameter of anharmonicity. To first order in , obtain an expression for the vibrational

specific heat of this system. Note that

where

and

9. The potential energy between atoms of a hydrogen molecule may be described by the Morse potential,

exchap08 Page 4 of 4

Calculate the characteristic temperatures of vibration and rotation to compare with experimental data (see

table on Section 8.4). Note that

for

and

which shows the existence of a minimum at . The characteristic temperature of rotation is given by

where is the moment of inertia and is the reduced mass of the hydrogen molecule. From the frequency

of vibrations,

next previous

Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap09 Page 1 of 4

next previous

1. What is the compressibility of a gas of free fermions at zero temperature? Obtain the numerical

value for electrons with the density of conduction electrons in metallic sodium. Compare your results

with experimental data for sodium at room temperature.

2. An ideal gas of fermions, with mass and Fermi energy , is at rest at zero temperature. Find

expressions for the expected values and , where is the velocity of a fermion.

3. Consider a gas of free electrons, in a -dimensional space, within a hypercubic container of side

. Sketch graphs of the density of states versus energy for dimensions and .

What is the expression of the Fermi energy in terms of the particle density for and ?

4. Show that the chemical potential of an ideal classical gas of monatomic particles, in a

container of volume , at temperature , may be written as

Sketch a graph of versus . Obtain the first quantum correction to this result. That is, show

that the chemical potential of the ideal quantum gas may be written as the expansion

and obtain explicit expressions for the prefactor for fermions and bosons. Sketch a graph of

versus (that is, versus the temperature in convenient units) for fermions, bosons, and

classical particles.

5. Obtain an asymptotic form, in the limit , for the specific heat of a gas of free

fermions adsorbed on a surface of area , at a given temperature .

6. Consider a gas of free electrons, in a region of volume , in the ultrarelativistic regime. The

energy spectrum is given by

exchap09 Page 2 of 4

where is the linear momentum. (a) Calculate the Fermi energy of this system. (b) What is the total

energy in the ground state? (c) Obtain an asymptotic form for the specific heat at constant volume in

the limit .

7. At low temperatures, the internal energy of a system of free electrons may be written as an

expansion,

Obtain the value of the constant , and indicate the order of magnitude of the terms that have been

discarded.

where and . (a) Calculate the prefactor of the relation . (b) Calculate the

Fermi energy as a function of volume and number of particles . (c) Calculate an asymptotic

expression, in the limit , for the specific heat at constant volume.

9. Consider again the gas of ultrarelativistic free electrons, within a container of volume , at

temperature , in the presence of a magnetic field . If we neglect the effects of orbital

magnetism, the energy spectrum is given by

where is the Bohr magneton and . (a) Show that the Fermi energy of this system may be

written as

Obtain expressions for the prefactors and . (b) Show that the magnetization in the ground state

can be written in the form

exchap09 Page 3 of 4

Obtain an expression for the constant . (c) Calculate the susceptibility of the ground state in zero

field.

10. In the classical paramagnetic theory of Langevin, proposed before the advent of quantum

statistics, we assume a classical Hamiltonian, given by

where is the magnetic moment of a localized ion. (a) Show that the canonical partition function

of this system is given by

where is the elementary solid angle of integration. (b) Show that the magnetization (along the

direction of the field) is given by

where

is the Langevin function. (c) Show that the susceptibility in zero field is given by the Curie law,

11. Obtain an expression for the magnetic susceptibility associated with the orbital motion of free

electrons in the presence of a uniform magnetic field , under conditions of strong degeneracy,

, and very weak fields, . To simplify the expression of , you may use

Euler's sum rule,

exchap09 Page 4 of 4

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

exchap10 Page 1 of 3

next previous

1. Consider a system of ideal bosons of zero spin ( ), within a container of volume . (a)

Show that the entropy above the condensation temperature is given by

where

and

(b) Given and , what is the expression of the entropy below ? What is the entropy

associated with the particles of the condensate? (c) From the expression for the entropy, show that

the specific heat at constant volume above is given by

(d) Below , show that the specific heat at constant volume is given by

(e) Given the specific volume , sketch a graph of versus (that is, in terms of the

temperature in convenient units). Obtain the asymptotic expressions of the specific heat for

and . Obtain the value of the specific heat at .

2. Consider again the same problem for an ideal gas of two-dimensional bosons confined to a surface

of area . What are the changes in the expressions of item (a)? Show that there is no Bose-Einstein

condensation in two dimensions (that is, show that in this case the Bose-Einstein temperature

vanishes).

exchap10 Page 2 of 3

3. Consider an ideal gas of bosons with internal degrees of freedom. Suppose that, besides the

ground state with zero energy ( ), we have to take into account the first excited state, with

internal energy . In other words, assume that the energy spectrum is given by

of the parameter .

where and are constants, and is a wave vector. Calculate the pressure of this gas at zero

chemical potential. What is the pressure of radiation of a gas of photons?

*5. The Hamiltonian of a gas of photons within an empty cavity of volume is given by the

expression

is the velocity of light, and . (a) Use the formalism of the occupation numbers (second

quantization) to obtain the canonical partition function associated with this system. (b) Show that the

internal energy is given by

Obtain the value of the constants and . (c) Consider the Sun as a black body at temperature

. The solar diameter and the distance between the Sun and the Earth are of the order of

and , respectively. Obtain the intensity of the total radiation that reaches the surface of

Earth. What is the value of the pressure of this radiation?

exchap10 Page 3 of 3

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Jairo da Silva 2001-03-12

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